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Sample records for blasted screw-shaped titanium

  1. Surface treatment of screw shaped titanium dental implants by high intensity laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pető, G.; Karacs, A.; Pászti, Z.; Guczi, L.; Divinyi, T.; Joób, A.

    2002-01-01

    Machined and Al 2O 3 blasted surfaces of screw shaped Ti dental implants were irradiated by 30 ns pulses of Nd:glass laser at 1064 nm wavelength with 0.5-3 J pulse energy. The laser treatment increased the temperature of the Ti surface well above the melting temperature. The resulting ablation of some surface layers was followed by a very rapid solidification. These thermal processes strongly modified the original morphology of the surface and removed the contaminations. The new morphology was characterized by features mostly in ten micron and partly in submicron ranges. The surface composition was the same as the bulk titanium without any segregation. Animal experiments demonstrated that this surface treatment seems to be promising for the improvement of the osseointegration of dental implants.

  2. Superficial characterization of titanium league when submitted to abrasive blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially pure titanium and some of its alloys exhibit a good biocompatibility. These characteristics are frequently used in the manufacture of orthopedic and dental implants. It is possible to modify its surface making it the bioactive using various methods, such as deposition of hydroxyapatite by plasma spray and increasing the roughness of the surface by abrasive blasting. This work is to modify the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI (ASTM F136: 02a) for abrasive blasting and study the morphology, crystallographic phases and the mechanical characteristics of the surface obtained. For such purpose, SEM images, diffraction of X-rays and tests of risk produced by nanoindenter. The sandblasting was done using alumina powder and blasting time of 6s. The morphology of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V ELI changed after sandblasting with increased roughness. It is possible to conclude that after sandblasting the titanium surface do not have a ductile behavior. (author)

  3. Comparison of calcium phosphate coatings formed on femtosecond laser-induced and sand-blasted titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C. Y.; Yang, X. J.; Wei, Q.; Cui, Z. D.

    2008-11-01

    High energy femtosecond laser process was employed to create regular surface patterning on titanium while sand blasting treatment made a coarse surface. Both laser-induced titanium and blasted titanium could promote the formation of calcium phosphate compounds after the acid and alkali treatment, but little crystallized hydroxyapatite was grown on the laser-induced titanium in 1.5SBF only for 6 h, whereas Ca 4P 6O 19 was formed on the sand-blasted titanium. The femtosecond laser process together with common acid and alkali treatment might provide potential choice to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium and its alloys.

  4. A Modified Surface on Titanium Deposited by a Blasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline O’Sullivan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA coating of hard tissue implants is widely employed for its biocompatible and osteoconductive properties as well as its improved mechanical properties. Plasma technology is the principal deposition process for coating HA on bioactive metals for this application. However, thermal decomposition of HA can occur during the plasma deposition process, resulting in coating variability in terms of purity, uniformity and crystallinity, which can lead to implant failure caused by aseptic loosening. In this study, CoBlastTM, a novel blasting process has been used to successfully modify a titanium (V substrate with a HA treatment using a dopant/abrasive regime. The impact of a series of apatitic abrasives under the trade name MCD, was investigated to determine the effect of abrasive particle size on the surface properties of both microblast (abrasive only and CoBlast (HA/abrasive treatments. The resultant HA treated substrates were compared to substrates treated with abrasive only (microblasted and an untreated Ti. The HA powder, apatitic abrasives and the treated substrates were characterized for chemical composition, coating coverage, crystallinity and topography including surface roughness. The results show that the surface roughness of the HA blasted modification was affected by the particle size of the apatitic abrasives used. The CoBlast process did not alter the chemistry of the crystalline HA during deposition. Cell proliferation on the HA surface was also assessed, which demonstrated enhanced osteo-viability compared to the microblast and blank Ti. This study demonstrates the ability of the CoBlast process to deposit HA coatings with a range of surface properties onto Ti substrates. The ability of the CoBlast technology to offer diversity in modifying surface topography offers exciting new prospects in tailoring the properties of medical devices for applications ranging from dental to orthopedic settings.

  5. Surface modification of titanium using steel slag ball and shot blasting treatment for biomedical implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifvianto, Budi; Suyitno; Mahardika, Muslim

    2013-08-01

    Surface modification is often performed using grit or shot blasting treatment for improving the performances of biomedical implants. The effects of blasting treatments using steel slag balls and spherical shots on the surface and subsurface of titanium were studied in this paper. The treatments were conducted for 60-300 s using 2-5 mm steel slag balls and 3.18 mm spherical shots. The surface morphology, roughness, and elemental composition of titanium specimens were examined prior to and after the treatments. Irregular and rough titanium surfaces were formed after the treatment with the steel slag balls instead of the spherical shots. The former treatment also introduced some bioactive elements on the titanium surface, but the latter one yielded a harder surface layer. In conclusion, both steel slag ball and shot blasting treatment have their own specialization in modifying the surface of metallic biomaterials. Steel slag ball blasting is potential for improving the osseointegration quality of implants; but the shot blasting is more appropriate for improving the mechanical properties of temporary and load bearing implants, such as osteosynthesis plates.

  6. Electrochemical and morphological analyses on the titanium surface modified by shot blasting and anodic oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, many surface modification processes have been developed in order to induce the osseointegration on titanium surface and thus to improve the implants' biocompatibility. In this work, Ti surface has been modified by shot blasting followed by anodic oxidation process in order to associate the good surface characteristics of both processes to obtain a rough and porous surface able to promote the titanium surface bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium (grade 2) plates were used on the surface treatments that were as follows: Shot blasting (SB) performed using alumina (Al2O3) particles, and anodic oxidation (AO) using NaOH electrolyte. The morphology, structural changes and the open-circuit potentials (OCP) of the surfaces were analyzed. It can be observed that an increase on the roughness of the blasted surface and a rough and porous surface happens after the AO process. The anodic film produced is thin and followed the blasted surface topography. It can be observed that there are small pores with regular shape covering the entire surface. X-ray diffraction results showed the presence of the anatase and rutile phases on the blasted and anodized surface after heat treatment at 600 °C/1 h. Concerning electrochemical measurements, when the different samples were submitted to open-circuit conditions in a physiological electrolyte, the protective effect increases with the oxidation process due to the oxide layer. When the surface was blasted, the OCP was more negative when compared with the Ti surface without surface treatments. - Highlights: ► A combination of shot blasting and anodic oxidation surface treatments is proposed. ► Both processes produced an increase in roughness compared to the polished surface. ► The combination of processes produced a rough and porous surface. ► Open circuit results show that the protective effect increases with oxidation process. ► The combination of processes presents the better results in this work

  7. Histomorphometric and removal torque analysis for TiO2-blasted titanium implants. An experimental study on dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Hjörting-Hansen, E;

    1992-01-01

    bilaterally and 24 commercial pure titanium implants were placed immediately in extraction sockets and covered with mucoperiosteum. Each dog had inserted 4 implants: 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles; 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant with machine......-produced (m.p.) surface (controls). After a healing period of 12 weeks, 16 implants from 4 animals were used for removal torque test, which demonstrated that significantly higher removal torque force was needed to unscrew the implants blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles, than the normal m.p. implants. The......-blasted implants and the control implants. The implants blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles in this study showed a better anchorage than implants with a machine-produced surface. The screw implants showed a better anchorage than the cylindrical implants....

  8. Acid etching and plasma sterilization fail to improve osseointegration of grit blasted titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksø, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Stig S; Saksø, Henrik; Baas, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Thomas; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between implant surface and surrounding bone influences implant fixation. We attempted to improve the bone-implant interaction by 1) adding surface micro scale topography by acid etching, and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents by plasma cleaning. Implant fixation was evaluated by implant osseointegration and biomechanical fixation.The study consisted of two paired animal sub-studies where 10 skeletally mature Labrador dogs were used. Grit blasted titanium alloy implants were inserted press fit in each proximal tibia. In the first study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants. In the second study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants that were further treated with plasma sterilization. Implant performance was evaluated by histomorphometrical investigation (tissue-to-implant contact, peri-implant tissue density) and mechanical push-out testing after four weeks observation time.Neither acid etching nor plasma sterilization of the grit blasted implants enhanced osseointegration or mechanical fixation in this press-fit canine implant model in a statistically significant manner. PMID:22962567

  9. Acid Etching and Plasma Sterilization Fail to Improve Osseointegration of Grit Blasted Titanium Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Saksø, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Stig S; Saksø, Henrik; Baas, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Thomas; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between implant surface and surrounding bone influences implant fixation. We attempted to improve the bone-implant interaction by 1) adding surface micro scale topography by acid etching, and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents by plasma cleaning. Implant fixation was evaluated by implant osseointegration and biomechanical fixation. The study consisted of two paired animal sub-studies where 10 skeletally mature Labrador dogs were used. Grit blasted titanium alloy ...

  10. Novel blast furnace operation process involving charging with low-titanium vanadium-titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chu, Man-sheng; Wang, Hong-tao; Liu, Zheng-gen; Tang, Ya-ting

    2016-05-01

    An innovative process of blast furnace (BF) operation involving charging with low-titanium vanadium-titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette (LVTM-CCB) was proposed for utilizing LVTM and conserving energy. In this study, the effect of LVTM-CCB charging ratio on the softening, melting, and dripping behaviors of the mixed burden was explored systemically, and the migration of valuable elements V and Cr was extensively investigated. The results show that with increasing LVTM-CCB charging ratio, the softening interval T 40 - T 4 increases from 146.1°C to 266.1°C, and the melting interval T D - T S first decreases from 137.2°C to 129.5°C and then increases from 129.5°C to 133.2°C. Moreover, the cohesive zone becomes narrower and then wider, and its location shifts slightly downward. In addition, the recovery ratios of V and Cr in dripped iron first increase and then decrease, reaching maximum values of 14.552% and 28.163%, respectively, when the charging ratio is 25%. A proper LVTM-CCB charging ratio would improve the softening-melting behavior of the mixed burden; however, Ti(C,N) would be generated rapidly in slag when the charging ratio exceeds 25%, which is not favorable for BF operation. When considering the comprehensive softening-melting behavior of the mixed burden and the recovery ratios of V and Cr, the recommended LVTM-CCB charging ratio is 20%.

  11. Morphological and animal study of titanium dental implant surface induced by blasting and high intensity pulsed Nd-glass laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machined dental implants of titanium were blasted with Al2O3 powder of 250 μm particle size. The surface was irradiated in vacuum with a Nd-glass pulsed laser at 1-3 J pulse energies. The morphology of these surfaces was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The low intensity laser treatment resulted in some new irregularities but we can observe the blasted elements and caves from the original blasted surface too. The blasted elements were washed out and a new surface morphology was induced by the high intensity laser treatment. The osseointegration was determined by measuring the removal torque in the rabbit experiments. The results were referred to the as machined surface. The blasting slightly increased the removal torque. The laser irradiation increased the removal torque significantly, more by a factor of 1.5 compared to the reference at high laser intensity. This shows the influence of the surface morphology on the osseointegration. The combination of the blasting with the laser irradiation is considered a method to determine the morphology optimal for the osseointegration because the pulsed laser irradiation caused modifications of the micrometer sized surface elements and decreases possible surface contamination

  12. Morphological and animal study of titanium dental implant surface induced by blasting and high intensity pulsed Nd-glass laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacs, A.; Joob Fancsaly, A.; Divinyi, T.; Peto, G.; Kovach, G

    2003-03-03

    Machined dental implants of titanium were blasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder of 250 {mu}m particle size. The surface was irradiated in vacuum with a Nd-glass pulsed laser at 1-3 J pulse energies. The morphology of these surfaces was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The low intensity laser treatment resulted in some new irregularities but we can observe the blasted elements and caves from the original blasted surface too. The blasted elements were washed out and a new surface morphology was induced by the high intensity laser treatment. The osseointegration was determined by measuring the removal torque in the rabbit experiments. The results were referred to the as machined surface. The blasting slightly increased the removal torque. The laser irradiation increased the removal torque significantly, more by a factor of 1.5 compared to the reference at high laser intensity. This shows the influence of the surface morphology on the osseointegration. The combination of the blasting with the laser irradiation is considered a method to determine the morphology optimal for the osseointegration because the pulsed laser irradiation caused modifications of the micrometer sized surface elements and decreases possible surface contamination.

  13. Superficial characterization of titanium league when submitted to abrasive blasting; Caracterizacao superficial de titanio liga ao ser submetido a tratamento de jateamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, L.Y.; Leite, I.V.; Szesz, E.M.; Siqueira, C.J.M., E-mail: lsuzuki@neoortho.com.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Commercially pure titanium and some of its alloys exhibit a good biocompatibility. These characteristics are frequently used in the manufacture of orthopedic and dental implants. It is possible to modify its surface making it the bioactive using various methods, such as deposition of hydroxyapatite by plasma spray and increasing the roughness of the surface by abrasive blasting. This work is to modify the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI (ASTM F136: 02a) for abrasive blasting and study the morphology, crystallographic phases and the mechanical characteristics of the surface obtained. For such purpose, SEM images, diffraction of X-rays and tests of risk produced by nanoindenter. The sandblasting was done using alumina powder and blasting time of 6s. The morphology of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V ELI changed after sandblasting with increased roughness. It is possible to conclude that after sandblasting the titanium surface do not have a ductile behavior. (author)

  14. Acid etching and plasma sterilization fail to improve osseointegration of grit blasted titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mikkel Saksø; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Saksø, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    compared with acid etched grit blasted implants. In the second study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants that were further treated with plasma sterilization. Implant performance was evaluated by histomorphometrical investigation (tissue-to-implant contact, peri......-implant tissue density) and mechanical push-out testing after four weeks observation time.Neither acid etching nor plasma sterilization of the grit blasted implants enhanced osseointegration or mechanical fixation in this press-fit canine implant model in a statistically significant manner....

  15. Effects of surface topology on titanium release from implants into rabbit bone after 1-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material composition and surface structure of dental and orthopaedic implants have important effects on integration of the implants with the surrounding bone, and at the same time, the release of the constituent elements of the implants into the surrounding tissues. It is the aim of this paper to study the degree of release of Ti in relation to the surface roughness of the implants. For this purpose, screw shaped implants were prepared with two different surface topographies; one group was left as-machined, i.e. as machine-turned surface, and the second group was blasted with 25 μm Al2O3 particles. The surface topography was measured with a confocal laser scanning profilometer and the surface roughness was characterized using height and spatial descriptive parameters. The as-machined surfaces had an average surface roughness (Sa) of 0.96 μm and the blasted surfaces had an Sa value of 1.16 μm. The implants were inserted into rabbit bone for 1 year. Six samples (three of each type) were prepared for PIXE analysis. The PIXE analysis was done using proton beams from a tandem type accelerator, with an energy of 2 MeV. The results show that at distances of about 2 mm from implant surface, titanium release into hard tissues was found at similar amounts for the as-machined and the blasted implants inserted in the tibia. (author)

  16. Influence of B2O3 and Basicity on Viscosity and Structure of Medium Titanium Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of B2O3 and basicity (CaO/SiO2 on the viscous behavior and structure of medium titanium bearing blast furnace slag (MTBBFS were investigated. High temperature viscosimeter was applied to measure the viscosities of CaO-SiO2-MgO-TiO2-Al2O3-B2O3 slag system and X-ray diffraction (XRD, NBO/T ratio, and structure parameter Q were employed to analyze its network structure. The results showed that the viscosity decreased and break point temperature increased with increasing basicity to 1.20. However B2O3 addition gave rise to a decrease in slag viscosity and break point temperature inspite of basicity. The more B2O3 content leads to the more pronounced variation, especially for the slag with larger basicity. The conventional NBO/T formula was revised to predict the structure variation of relatively complicated medium Ti bearing slag based on the work of Yanhong Gao and other researchers. The increase of B2O3 content in slag made parameter Q turn from Q2 to Q1, suggesting that network structure became simpler. It was also noticed that the addition of B2O3 could suppress the formation of perovskite.

  17. PRECIPITATION AND GROWTH OF PEROVSKITE PHASE IN TITANIUM BEARING BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Guo; T.P. Lou; L. Zhang; L.N. Zhang; Z.T. Sui

    2007-01-01

    The effects of transformation of slag composition and additive agents on the morphology, the crystal in the Ti-bearing blast furnace slags were investigated. As the morphology of perovskite is dispersed in molten slags, the crystal growth mechanism of the melting of fine dendrites and the coarsening of large grains exist throughout the solidification of molten slags. With the increase of CaO and Fe2O3 content, VF of perovskite obviously increases. However, high basicity leads to the viscosity of slag, which results in the reduction of the average equivalent diameter (AED). The experimental results showed that the presence of the additives CaF2 and MnO efficiently decreased the viscosity of the slags, and obviously improved the morphology of perovskite and promoted its growth.

  18. Evaluation of CoBlast Coated Titanium Alloy as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atinuke M. Oladoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential of graphite based coatings deposited on titanium V alloy by a low-cost powder based process for bipolar plate application. The coatings which were deposited from a mixture of graphite and alumina powders at ambient temperature, pressure of 90 psi, and speed of 20 mm were characterised and electrochemically polarised in 0.5 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm HF bubbled with air and hydrogen gas to depict the cathode and anode PEM fuel cell environment, respectively. Surface conductivity and water contact angles were also evaluated. Corrosion current in the 1 μA/cm2 range in both cathodic and anodic environment at room temperature and showed negligible influence on the electrochemical behaviour of the bare alloy. Similar performance, which was attributed to the discontinuities in the coatings, was also observed when polarised at 0.6 V and −0.1 V with air and hydrogen bubbling at 70∘C respectively. At 140 N/cm2, the coated alloy exhibited contact resistance of 45.70 mΩ·cm2 which was lower than that of the bare alloy (66.50 mΩ·cm2 but twice that of graphite (21.29 mΩ·cm2. Similarly, the wettability test indicated that the coated layer exhibited higher contact angle of 99.63° than that of the bare alloy (66.32°. Over all, these results indicated need for improvement in the coating process to achieve a continuous layer.

  19. Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV-vis light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO42-/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-vis light irradiation. For the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), the photocatalytic activities of TBBFS catalysts were found to be strongly dependent of the calcination temperature and TBBFS calcined at 700 deg. C showed a higher photocatalytic activity compared to other TBBFS catalysts. In contrast, sulphation of TBBFS improved the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts. At low calcination temperature, the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts were markedly higher than TBBFS prepared under high calcination temperature, suggesting that the presence of surface SO42- favored the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

  20. Regulation of Osteoblast Differentiation by Acid-Etched and/or Grit-Blasted Titanium Substrate Topography Is Enhanced by 1,25(OH)2D3 in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Olivares-Navarrete; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Boyan, Barbara D; Zvi Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed contributions of micron-scale topography on clinically relevant titanium (Ti) to differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts; the interaction of this effect with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3); and if the effects are sex-dependent. Male and female rat bone marrow cells (BMCs) were cultured on acid-etched (A, R a = 0.87 μm), grit-blasted (GB, R a = 3.90 μm), or grit-blasted/acid-etched (SLA, R a = 3.22 μm) Ti. BMCs were sensitive to surface topography...

  1. Improved tribo-mechanical behavior of CaP-containing TiO2 layers produced on titanium by shot blasting and micro-arc oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szesz, Eduardo M; de Souza, Gelson B; de Lima, Gabriel G; da Silva, Bruno A; Kuromoto, Neide K; Lepienski, Carlos M

    2014-10-01

    The combination of shot blasting (SB) and micro-arc oxidation (or anodic oxidation--AO) in titanium surfaces was shown to provide enhanced conditions for cell differentiation and osseointegration than those provided by SB or AO alone. This study associated both methods aiming to attain titania layers on Ti with adequate tribo-mechanical features for bone implants. SB was performed using alumina particles, and titania layers were grown by AO using a CaP-based electrolyte. Mechanical properties and scratch resistance were characterized at nanoscale by instrumented indentation and nanoscratch, and correlated with morphological and microstructural changes (XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM, and profilometry). Analytical methods were employed to correct roughness and substrate effects on the indentation results. CaP-containing TiO2 layers were produced on AO and SB + AO. The latter presented small pore size and inhomogeneous layer thickness and Ca/P ratios, caused by the non-uniform surface straining by SB that affects the oxide growth kinetics in the electrochemical process. Elastic modulus of SB + AO layer (37 GPa) were lower than the AO one (45 GPa); both of them were smaller than bulk Ti (130 GPa) and close to bone values. The hardness profiles of AO and SB + AO were similar to the substrate ones. Because of the improved load bearing capacity and unique layer features, the critical load to remove the SB + AO titania coating in scratch tests was three times as much or higher than in AO. Results indicate improved mechanical biocompatibility and tribological strength of anodic titania layers grown on sand blasted Ti surfaces. PMID:24845307

  2. Effect of bulk microstructure of commercially pure titanium on surface characteristics and fatigue properties after surface modification by sand blasting and acid-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, A E; Ng, H P; Lapovok, R; Estrin, Y; Lowe, T C; Anumalasetty, V N

    2016-04-01

    Surface modification techniques are widely used to enhance the biological response to the implant materials. These techniques generally create a roughened surface, effectively increasing the surface area thus promoting cell adhesion. However, a negative side effect is a higher susceptibility of a roughened surface to failure due to the presence of multiple stress concentrators. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine the effects of surface modification by sand blasting and acid-etching (SLA) on the microstructure and fatigue performance of coarse-grained and ultrafine-grained (UFG) commercially pure titanium. Finer grain sizes, produced by equal channel angular pressing, resulted in lower values of surface roughness in SLA-processed material. This effect was associated with greater resistance of the UFG structure to plastic deformation. The fatigue properties of UFG Ti were found to be superior to those of coarse-grained Ti and conventional Ti-6Al-4V, both before and after SLA-treatment. PMID:26703365

  3. Influence of aluminium nitride as a foaming agent on the preparation of foam glass-ceramics from high-titanium blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huan; Feng, Ke-qin; Wang, Hai-bo; Chen, Chang-hong; Zhou, Hong-ling

    2016-05-01

    To effectively reuse high-titanium blast furnace slag (TS), foam glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by powder sintering at 1000°C. TS and waste glass were used as the main raw materials, aluminium nitride (AlN) as the foaming agent, and borax as the fluxing agent. The influence of the amount of AlN added (1wt%-5wt%) on the crystalline phases, microstructure, and properties of the produced foam glass-ceramics was studied. The results showed that the main crystal phases were perovskite, diopside, and augite. With increasing AlN content, a transformation from diopside to augite occurred and the crystallinity of the pyroxene phases slightly decreased. Initially, the average pore size and porosity of the foam glass-ceramics increased and subsequently decreased; similarly, their bulk density and compressive strength decreased and subsequently increased. The optimal properties were obtained when the foam glass-ceramics were prepared by adding 4wt% AlN.

  4. The Environmental Impact and Cost Analysis of Concrete Mixing Blast Furnace Slag Containing Titanium Gypsum and Sludge in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental effects and cost of the Industrial Waste addictive Blast Furnace Slag (W-BFS using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and compared it to general BFS. The environmental impacts of W-BFS were as follows: 1.12 × 10−1 kg-CO2 eq/kg, 3.18 × 10−5 kg-Ethylene eq/kg, 4.79 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-PO43− eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-CFC11 eq/kg and 3.94 × 10−3 kg-Antimony eq/kg. Among the environmental impact category, GWP and AP were 9.28 × 10−2 kg-CO2 eq/kg and 3.33 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg at a raw material stage, accounting for 80% and 70% of total environmental impact respectively. In EP, POCP and ADP, in addition, raw material stage accounted for a great portion in total environmental impact because of “W” among input materials. In ODP, however, compared to the environmental impact of raw materials, oil, which was used in transporting BFS to the W-BFS manufacturing factory, was more influential. In terms of GWP, POCP and ODP, W-BFS was higher than general BFS. In terms of AP, EP and ADP, in contrast, the former was lower than the latter. In terms of cost, W-BFS (41.7 US$/ton was lower than general BFS by about 17% because of the use of waste additives comprised of industrial wastes instead of natural gypsum ,which has been commonly used in general BFS. In terms of GWP and POCP, the W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 25%. In terms of AP and EP, the former was lower than the latter by 30%. In terms of ADP, furthermore, W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 11%. In aggregate-related ODP, however, almost no change was found. In terms of cost, when W-BFS was added by 10% and 30%, it was able to reduce cost by 3% and 7% respectively, compared to plain concrete. Compared to BFS-mixed concrete as well, cost could be saved by 1% additionally because W-BFS (US$41.7/ton is lower than common cement (US$100.3/ton by about 60% in terms of production costs.

  5. Surface treatment of a titanium implant using low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Tang, Tianyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2015-09-01

    During the last two decades, atmospheric pressure plasmas(APP) are widely used in diverse fields of biomedical applications, reduction of pollutants, and surface treatment of materials. Applications of APP to titanium surface of dental implants is steadily increasing as it renders surfaces wettability and modifies the oxide layer of titanium that hinders the interaction with cells and proteins. In this study, we have treated the titanium surfaces of screw-shaped implant samples using a plasma jet which is composed of a ceramic coaxial tube of dielectrics, a stainless steel inner electrode, and a coper tube outer electrode. The plasma ignition occurred with Ar gas flow between two coaxial metal electrodes and a sinusoidal bias voltage of 3 kV with a frequency of 20 kHz. Titanium materials used in this study are screw-shaped implants of which diameter and length are 5 mm and 13 mm, respectively. Samples were mounted at a distance of 5 mm below the plasma source, and the plasma treatment time was set to 3 min. The wettability of titanium surface was measured by the moving speed of water on its surface, which is enhanced by plasma treatment. The surface roughness was also measured by atomic force microscopy. The optimal condition for wettability change is discussed.

  6. ROUGH SURFACES OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR IMPLANTS AND PROSTHESES

    OpenAIRE

    Conforto, Egle; Aronsson, Bjorn-Owe; Salito, A.; Crestou, Catherine; Caillard, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys for dental implants and hip prostheses were surface-treated and/or covered by metallic or ceramic rough layers after being submitted to sand blasting. The goal of these treatments is to improve the surface roughness and, consequently, the osteointegration, the fixation and the stability of the implant. The microstructure of titanium and titanium alloys submitted to these treatments has been studied and correlated to their mechanical behavior. As treated/ covered a...

  7. Synthesis of Foliar Fertilizer from Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag and Cultivation Experiment of Sweet Corn%由含钛高炉渣制备叶面肥及甜玉米栽培实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 薛向欣

    2016-01-01

    The foliar fertilizer was synthesized with the titanium-bearing blast furnace slag, potassium bisulfate,citric acid,urea and magnesium oxide as raw materials by melting and chelating methods.The field cultivation experiments of sweet corns were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of the foliar fertilizer on the growth,yield,characters and the SPAD value of nitrogen,magnesium,sugar and heavy metal in grains.The results showed that the foliar fertilizer contained nutritional elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, iron, titanium and magnesium.The application of the foliar fertilizer shortened the growing period of the sweet corn by 2 days,and also made the yield,plant heights,diameters of the stem and ears,grain number per panicle,weight of single spike,and the number of efficient panicles per plant,together with the SPAD value of chlorophyll in leaves,nitrogen and magnesium in grains significantly increase. However,there was no difference in the mass fraction of sugar,titanium,vanadium and chromium in the sweet corn.In addition,mass fractions of the heavy metal elements like vanadium and chromium in the sweet corn were below the maximum residue limit set by National Standards of China.%以含钛高炉渣、硫酸氢钾、柠檬酸、尿素和氧化镁为原料,采用熔融和螯合法制备叶面肥,并通过大田栽培实验研究了该叶面肥对甜玉米生长状况、产量、性状及籽粒的氮、镁、糖和重金属质量分数的影响。结果表明,该叶面肥含有植物营养元素氮、硫、钾、镁、铁和钛;该叶面肥的施用使甜玉米生育期缩短2d;产量、株高、茎粗、穗粗、穗粒数、单穗重、单株有效穗数、叶片中叶绿素的 SPAD 值、籽粒中氮和镁的质量分数明显增加,籽粒中糖、钛、钒和铬的质量分数无明显变化,且重金属元素钒和铬的质量分数符合国家标准。

  8. Method for the production of strongly adhesive films on titanium and titanium alloys with a metallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the spray-application of a strongly adhesive, thick antifriction layer on titanium and titanium alloys is proposed. The titanium/titanium alloy component to be coated is first subjected to cleaning in a pickling bath with reducing additives and sand-blasting, then coated with an intermediate layer of nickel, after which the final layer is applied. The formation of TiNi at the interface ensures strong bonding of the antifriction layer.

  9. Comparison of removal torques of SLActive® implant and blasted, laser-treated titanium implant in rabbit tibia bone healed with concentrated growth factor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hun; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the removal torques of a chemically modified SLActive implant and a blasted, laser-treated (BLT) implant, which were soaked in saline for 2 weeks after their surface modifications. The removal torques of the two implants were measured 4 weeks after their implantation into the bone defect area in rabbit tibias with concentrated growth factor (CGF) application. MATERIALS AND METHODS To make artificial bone defects in the cortical layers of both tibias, an 8-mm diameter trephine bur was used. Then, prepared CGF was applied to the bony defect of the left tibia, and the bony defect of the right tibia was left unfilled. Four weeks later, the surgical sites of 16 rabbits were re-exposed. For 8 rabbits, the SLActive implants (Straumann, Switzerland) were inserted in the left tibia, and the BLT implants (CSM implant, Daegu, Korea) were inserted in the right tibia. For other rabbits, the BLT implants were inserted in the left tibia, and the SLActive implants were inserted in the right. Four weeks afger the insertion, torque removal was measured from 4 rabbits exterminated via CO2 inhalation. RESULTS No significant difference was observed between removal torques of the BLT implant and the SLActive implant (P>.05). CONCLUSION It was found that BLT surface modification exhibited excellent osseointegration. In addition, CGF application did not affect the insertion and removal torque of the implants. PMID:27141254

  10. Protein Adsorption to Surface Chemistry and Crystal Structure Modification of Titanium Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ryo Jimbo; Mikael Ivarsson; Anita Koskela; Young-Taeg Sul; Johansson, Carina B.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To observe the early adsorption of extracellular matrix and blood plasma proteins to magnesium-incorporated titanium oxide surfaces, which has shown superior bone response in animal models. Material and Methods Commercially pure titanium discs were blasted with titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (control), and for the test group, TiO2 blasted discs were further processed with a micro-arc oxidation method (test). Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron micro...

  11. Titanium and titanium alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification covers nine grades of annealed titanium and titanium alloy forgings as follows: Grade F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4 unalloyed titanium; Grade F-5 titanium alloy (6% aluminum, 4% vanadium); Grade F-6 titanium alloy (5% aluminum, 2.5% tin); Grade F-7 and F-11 unalloyed titanium plus palladium; Grade F-12 titanium alloy (0.3% molybdenum, 0.8% nickel). The specification includes ordering information, manufacture, chemical requirements, mechanical requirements, nondestructive tests, dimensions and permissible variations, finish, certification, packaging, and marking

  12. Study on Blast Furnace Slag System of Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite Under Neutral Atmosphere%中性气氛下钒钛磁铁矿高炉渣系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储满生; 冯聪; 唐珏; 柳政根

    2015-01-01

    以钒钛磁铁矿现场高炉渣为基础,纯化学试剂调制渣样,在中性气氛条件下研究了炉渣二元碱度及 MgO,Al2 O3,TiO2,V2 O5含量对实验渣系冶金性能的影响.结果表明:增加碱度和 MgO 含量,炉渣熔化性温度(tm )、初始黏度(η0)和高温黏度(ηh )呈先降低后升高趋势;增大 Al2 O3含量,炉渣 tm 升高,η0先降低后升高,ηh 呈上升趋势;增大 TiO2含量,炉渣 tm 升高,η0和ηh 逐渐下降,炉渣黏流活化能升高,热稳定性变差;增大 V2 O5含量,炉渣 tm 先降低后升高,η0和ηh 逐渐增大.高炉冶炼钒钛磁铁矿适宜渣系为:二元碱度1.15,MgO,Al2 O3,TiO2,V2 O5质量分数分别为13%,13%,7%,0.30%.%The components of practical blast furnace (BF)slag of vanadium-titanium magnetite were adjusted by adding pure chemical reagents.The effects of binary basicity,MgO,Al2 O3 , TiO2 and V2 O5 on the metallurgical properties of experimental slag were studied under neutral atmosphere.The results showed that with increasing content of basicity and MgO,the melting temperature (tm ),initial viscosity (η0 )and high-temperature viscosity (ηh )of slag first decrease and then increase.As increasing Al2 O3 content,tm increases,η0 first decreases and then increases,ηh increases.When increasing TiO2 content,tm increases,η0 and ηh decrease.The viscosity flow activation energy of slag increases and the heat stability of slag becomes worse.With increasing V2 O5 content,tm first decreases and then increases,η0 and ηh increase.The suitable BF slag for smelting vanadium-titanium magnetite is:binary basicity 1.15,MgO 13%,Al2 O3 13%,TiO2 7%,V2 O5 0.30%.

  13. Characterization of Micro-arc Oxidized Titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The observation of the sparkling discharges during the micro-arc oxidation process in KOH aqueous electrolyte was achieved. The change of surface morphology was progressively observed and a plausible pore formation mechanism is proposed. Cell proliferation and ALP activity of micro-arc oxidized titanium was evaluated by human body derived osteoblasts and slightly better than those of blasted surface.

  14. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of titanium for high temperature adhesive bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.; Bhowmik, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation surface treatment of titanium is carried out by plasma ion implantation under atmospheric pressure plasma in order to increase the adhesive bond strength. Prior to the plasma treatment, titanium surfaces were mechanically treated by sand blasting. It is observed that the contac

  16. Commercially pure titanium and Ti6A14V implants with and without nitrogen-ion implantation: surface characterization and quantitative studies in rabbit cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-ion implantation is a surface modification of interest for biomedical materials. In this study screw-shaped commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy implants of similar surface topography were nitrogen-ion implanted and analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). AES survey spectra showed an incorporation of nitrogen into the surface of the titanium and Ti6Al4V implants, as judged by the ratio between the intensities of the peaks at 390 and 420 eV. AES depth profiles revealed a similar oxide thickness (7.5 nm) for nitrogen-ion implanted and non-treated samples. In nitrogen-ion implanted screws, nitrogen was detected up to depths of about 150 nm below the surface, with a maximum nitrogen concentration at about 50 nm. Light microscopic examination of the 10 μm-thick ground sections 3 months after the insertion of nitrogen-ion implanted and non-treated commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V screws in the proximal tibial methaphysis of rabbits showed that bone filled a large portion of the area within the threads. A fibrous capsule was not observed. Light microscopic morphometry did not reveal any statistically significant differences in bone-metal contact or bone area within the threads of nitrogen-ion treated and non-treated implants. The mirror-image analysis showed that for all implants examined significantly more bone was present immediately outside than inside the threads. The results from this study indicate that the nitrogen-ion implanted, screw-shaped, implants heal as well in cortical bone as the non-treated samples. (author)

  17. Rough surfaces of titanium and titanium alloys for implants and prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and titanium alloys for dental implants and hip prostheses were surface-treated and/or covered by metallic or ceramic rough layers after being submitted to sand blasting. The goal of these treatments is to improve the surface roughness and consequently the osteointegration, the fixation, and the stability of the implant. The microstructure of titanium and titanium alloys submitted to these treatments has been studied and correlated to their mechanical behavior. As-treated/covered and mechanically tested surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural analyses performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mainly in cross-section, reveal the degree of adherence and cohesion between the surface layer and the substrate (implant). We observed that, although the same convenient surface roughness was obtained with the two types of process, many characteristics as structural properties and mechanical behavior are very different

  18. Surface analysis of titanium dental implants with different topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.H. Prado da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical dental implants made of commercially pure titanium were analysed in four different surface finishes: as-machined, Al2O3 blasted with Al2O3 particles, plasma-sprayed with titanium beads and electrolytically coated with hydroxyapatite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX revealed the topography of the surfaces and provided qualitative results of the chemical composition of the different implants. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS was used to perform chemical analysis on the surface of the implants while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSM produced topographic maps of the analysed surfaces. Optical Profilometry was used to quantitatively characterise the level of roughness of the surfaces. The implant that was plasma-sprayed and the hydroxyapatite coated implant showed the roughest surface, followed by the implant blasted with alumina and the as-machined implant. Some remnant contamination from the processes of blasting, coating and cleaning was detected by XPS.

  19. Bio-activated titanium surface utilizable for mimetic bone implantation in dentistry—Part III: Surface characteristics and bone implant contact formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Jakub; Strnad, Zdeněk; Šesták, Jaroslav; Urban, Karel; Povýšil, Ctibor

    2007-05-01

    This study was carried out to quantify the effect of an alkali-modified surface on the bone implant interface formation during healing using an animal model. A total of 24 screw-shaped, self-tapping, (c.p.) titanium dental implants, divided into test group B—implants with alkali-modified surface (Bio surface) and control group M—implants with turned, machined surface, were inserted without pre-tapping in the tibiae of three beagle dogs. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 5 and 12 weeks and the bone implant contact (BIC%) was evaluated histometrically. The surface characteristics that differed between the implant surfaces, i.e. specific surface area, contact angle, may represent factors that influence the rate of osseointegration and the secondary implant stability. The alkali-treated surface enhances the BIC formation during the first 2 5 weeks of healing compared to the turned, machined surface.

  20. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  1. Blasting in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva, Nikolinka; Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2015-01-01

    The long history of underground facilities gives us a lot of cognitions that we use in the choice of appropriate drilling and blasting parameters to obtain satisfactory results in underground facility constructions. In this paper are represent parts of those cognitions. Selection of an appropriate blast hole pattern, hole cut type, total quantity of explosives, initiation sequence and to the amount of explosive detonated per delay are crucial for successfully blasting in underground facilitie...

  2. Directed Relativistic Blast Wave

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    A spherically symmetrical ultra-relativistic blast wave is not an attractor of a generic asymmetric explosion. Spherical symmetry is reached only by the time the blast wave slows down to non-relativistic velocities, when the Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann attractor solution sets in. We show however, that a directed relativistic explosion, with the explosion momentum close to the explosion energy, produces a blast wave with a universal intermediate asymptotic -- a selfsimilar directed ultra-relativi...

  3. New gunpowder blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces gunpowder blasting, which consists of ten chapters. It deals with conception of gunpowder on the history of gunpowder, difference between gunpowder and general materials and classification of gunpowder, reaction of gunpowder, shock wave and detonation, on properties, material velocity and structure, test method on gunpowder and an article processed with heat, gunpowder such as igniter charge, carlit and slurry gunpowder, propellant and an article processed with heat, blasting on basics and Bench cut, blasting operations and security blasting construction and using of gunpowder.

  4. A novel effect of sandblasting on titanium surface: static charge generation

    OpenAIRE

    Matinlinna, JP; Tang, ATH; Guo, CY

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterials research suggest that electrical charges on a dental implant surface significantly improve its osseointegration to living bone, as a result of selective osteoblast activation and fibroblast inhibition. This study aims at investigating the possibility of using sandblasting to modify the electrical charges on the surface of titanium materials. Our experiments used Al 2O 3 grits to blast on CP2 titanium plates, for durations between 3 and 30s. After sandblasting, ...

  5. Titanium and titanium alloys fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    This handbook is an excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain more knowledge about these engineering materials. Following introductory chapters on the fundamental materials properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy and automotive technology.

  6. Passive blast pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  7. BLAST+: architecture and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bealer Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.

  8. Does Rinsing Following Particle Deposition Methods Have a Negative Effect on Adhesion to Titanium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekkan, Gurel; Khan, Ashkan; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated whether air blasting or rinsing particle remnants with water would impair adhesion of resin composite to metal. Materials and Methods: Commercially pure titanium plates (1 mm x 25 mm x 50 mm) were wet polished down to 1200-grit silicone carbide abrasive and ultrasonical

  9. Titanium condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack an copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection were observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling. (Kako, I.)

  10. Distance safety in blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In blasting performance for any purpose and in any location to implement these safeguards is necessary first to determine (calculated) safety distances in terms of the effect of the explosion from some explosive quantity. Calculation of distance safety in blasting performance are refers to: calculation of safety distances from the influence of air - shock waves, calculation of safety distances (zones) of spraying pieces (fragments action) and calculation of safety distances in action of seis...

  11. Curved characteristics behind blast waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

  12. Superplasticity in titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sieniawski; Motyka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper reports characteristic of superplasticity phenomenon in titanium alloys and possibility of its applications.Design/methodology/approach: The main objective of the paper is to show features of superplastic forming of titanium alloys and current research trends aiming at widespread application of this technology.Findings: In the paper characteristic of selected superplastic titanium alloys was presented. The effect of microstructural parameters on superplasticity was consider...

  13. Protein Adsorption to Surface Chemistry and Crystal Structure Modification of Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Jimbo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To observe the early adsorption of extracellular matrix and blood plasma proteins to magnesium-incorporated titanium oxide surfaces, which has shown superior bone response in animal models.Material and Methods: Commercially pure titanium discs were blasted with titanium dioxide (TiO2 particles (control, and for the test group, TiO2 blasted discs were further processed with a micro-arc oxidation method (test. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface topography by optic interferometry, characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The adsorption of 3 different proteins (fibronectin, albumin, and collagen type I was investigated by an immunoblotting technique.Results: The test surface showed a porous structure, whereas the control surface showed a typical TiO2 blasted structure. XPS data revealed magnesium-incorporation to the anodic oxide film of the surface. There was no difference in surface roughness between the control and test surfaces. For the protein adsorption test, the amount of albumin was significantly higher on the control surface whereas the amount of fibronectin was significantly higher on the test surface. Although there was no significant difference, the test surface had a tendency to adsorb more collagen type I.Conclusions: The magnesium-incorporated anodized surface showed significantly higher fibronectin adsorption and lower albumin adsorption than the blasted surface. These results may be one of the reasons for the excellent bone response previously observed in animal studies.

  14. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO2. The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  15. Titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, and plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification covers annealed titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, and plate as follows: Grade 1 to 4 unalloyed titanium Grade 5, 6, 10, and 12 titanium alloy; and Grade 7 and 11 unalloyed titanium plus palladium. The specification includes basis of purchase, chemical requirements, mechanical properties, permissible variations in dimensions, finish, sampling for chemical analysis, methods of chemical analysis, rejection, reports, marking, and packaging

  16. TITANIUM DAN PADUAN TITANIUM MATERIAL PILIHAN KEDOKTERAN GIGI MASA DEPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, Titanium is used for dental implants, orthodontic wires an denture bases. In Indonesia they have been widely use especially for the orthodontic treatment. Survey conducted by students from University of Indonesia showed that users have little understanding in properties of Titanium. The article describes various matters on characteristic of Titanium. Titanium has low density, low elastic modulus, high tensile strength make attractive for use in dentistry. Titanium forms a very stabl...

  17. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass. Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners. The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

  18. Programmable Grit-Blasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    In programmable grit-blasting system undergoing design, controller moves blasting head to precise positions to shape or remove welding defects from parts. Controller holds head in position for preset dwell time and moves head to new position along predetermined path. Position of articulated head established by pair of servomotors according to programmed signals from controller. Head similar to video borescope. Used to remove welding defects in blind holes. Suited for repetitive production operations in grit-blast box.

  19. Blasting of broken marble zones

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Stojceski, Igor; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    On receipt of marble blocks appear deformed zones with presence of cracks and other deformities and very small cracks with different azimuth in the rocky massif. The fastest and economical way to bring this zone are removed by applying the methods of blasting. Before blasting, these tables - zones are limited by the block, making the cuts with diamond wire because explosive action may cause of surrounding quality marble blocks. Keywords: blasting, crashed zones, cracks, marble ...

  20. Blast effects of external explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    International audience Security considerations for industrial production and storage require characterization of the mechanical effects caused by blast waves resulting from a detonation or deflagration. This paper evaluates current analytical methods to determine the characteristic parameters of a blast wave with respect to the pressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the blast. In the case of a detonation, the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent-based method determines the mas...

  1. Utilization of titanium chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex of equipment is created for realization of developed technology in experimental-inductrial production of secondary titanium alloys with annual efficiency of 50-100 t. The complex includes a section for chips preparation, facility for electride vacuum hot pressins, vacuum arc furnace for melting ingots of <200 kg. The ingots obtained will be reprocessed into bars, forgins, powers and also be used for production of shaped castings. Approbation of the developed technology was carried out by production of three types of secondary titanium lloys. The technical titanium chips were used as blend for production of TV1 alloy, chips of VT5 and PT3V alloys for TV2 and chips of VT6 and VT23 alloys for TV3 alloys. Study of chemical composition, mechanical properties and structure of secondary titanium alloys were performed on forged bars 20 mm in diameter

  2. Electromagnetic emissions during rock blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S. G.; Thiel, D. V.

    1991-05-01

    Radio emissions during quarry blasting have been recorded in the audio frequency band. Three distinct mechanisms are suggested to explain the observed results; rock fracture at the time of the explosion, charged rocks discharging on impact with the pit floor and micro-fracture of the remaining rock wall due to pressure adjustment of the bench behind the blast. The last mechanism was evident by a train of discrete impulses recorded for up to one minute after the blast. It is assumed that during this time the rock behind the blast was subjected to a significant change in pressure. This may be related to ELF observations during earthquakes.

  3. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  4. Anchorage of titanium implants with different surface characteristics: an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    2000-01-01

    ) TiO2-blasted with particles of grain size 10 to 53 microns; (3) TiO2-blasted, grain size 63 to 90 microns; (4) TiO2-blasted, grain size 90 to 125 microns; (5) titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS). The surface topography was determined by the use of an optical instrument. Twelve rabbits, divided into two...... and Sy values, whereas the highest scores were recorded for the TPS implants. The corresponding Sa and Sy values for the TiO2-blasted implants were higher when a larger size of grain particles had been used for blasting. At all four observation intervals, the TPS implants had the highest and the...... turned implants the lowest RMT scores. The differences between the various TiO2-blasted implants were, in general, small, but the screws with the largest Sa value had higher RMT scores at 6, 9, and 12 weeks than implants with lower Sa values. The histologic analysis of the sections representing 6, 9, and...

  5. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  6. Hydrogen content in titanium and a titanium–zirconium alloy after acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Walter, Martin S. [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lyngstadaas, S. Petter [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Wintermantel, Erich [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-01

    Dental implant alloys made from titanium and zirconium are known for their high mechanical strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in the surface chemistry and/or surface topography of titanium and titanium–zirconium surfaces after sand blasting and acid etching. The two surfaces were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The 1.9 times greater surface hydrogen concentration of titanium zirconium compared to titanium was found to be the major difference between the two materials. Zirconium appeared to enhance hydride formation on titanium alloys when etched in acid. Surface topography revealed significant differences on the micro and nanoscale. Surface roughness was increased significantly (p < 0.01) on the titanium–zirconium alloy. High-resolution images showed nanostructures only present on titanium zirconium. - Highlights: ► TiZr alloy showed increased hydrogen levels over Ti. ► The alloying element Zr appeared to catalyze hydrogen absorption in Ti. ► Surface roughness was significantly increased for the TiZr alloy over Ti. ► TiZr alloy revealed nanostructures not observed for Ti.

  7. Performance of blasting caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  8. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General Requirements—Surface and Underground...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 56.6312 Section 56.6312... Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926.912 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  13. LASER GAS NITRIDING OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. DAI; Hou, S. Q.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in many fields due to some of their characteristics such as light density, high strength, and excellent corrosion resistance. However, poor mechanical performances limit their practical applications. Laser gas nitriding is a promising method used to improve the surface properties of components. Recent developments on laser gas nitriding of titanium and titanium alloys are reviewed. The processing parameters have important effects on the resulting c...

  14. Productive Machining of Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Čejka, Libor

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on a productive machining of titanium alloys. At the beginning it deals about titanium and its alloys. It describes chip generation mechanism, tool blunting and surface quality. Further it contains modern strategies of efficient titanium alloys machining. Then it analyzes contemporary manufacturing technology of hinge made of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in Frentech Aerospace s.r.o. company, and at the end finds possibility of savings by inovation of roughing process.

  15. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-01-01

    The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase eq...

  16. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, P.K.; M P Roy; R.K. Paswan; Md. Sarim; Suraj Kumar; Rakesh Ranjan Jha

    2016-01-01

    The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effec...

  17. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  18. Osteoconductivity of hydrophilic microstructured titanium implants with phosphate ion chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Jang, Je-Hee; Lee, Chong Soo; Hanawa, Takao

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and bone response of titanium implants produced by hydrothermal treatment using H(3)PO(4), and compared them with those of implants produced by commercial surface treatment methods - machining, acid etching, grit blasting, grit blasting/acid etching or spark anodization. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and stylus profilometry. The osteoconductivity of experimental implants was evaluated by removal torque testing and histomorphometric analysis after 6 weeks of implantation in rabbit tibiae. Hydrothermal treatment with H(3)PO(4) and subsequent heat treatment produced a crystalline phosphate ion-incorporated oxide (titanium oxide phosphate hydrate, Ti(2)O(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2); TiP) surface approximately 5microm in thickness, which had needle-like surface microstructures and superior wettability compared with the control surfaces. Significant increases in removal torque forces and bone-to-implant contact values were observed for TiP implants compared with those of the control implants (pcleaning of the implants removed during the removal torque testing, a considerable quantity of attached bone was observed on the surfaces of the TiP implants. PMID:19332400

  19. Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes

    OpenAIRE

    Qin-yong Ma; Pu Yuan; Jing-shuang Zhang; Rui-qiu Ma; Bo Han

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results ...

  20. Industrial experience with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author)

  1. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  2. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. Good wall quality is desirable in any excavation. In excavations required for nuclear waste disposal, the objective will be to minimize blast-induced fractures which may complicate the sealing requirements necessary to control subsequent movement of groundwater around a sealed disposal vault. The construction of the URL has provided an opportunity for the development of controlled blasting methods, especially for drilling accuracy and optimization of explosive loads in the perimeter and cushion holes. The work has been assisted by the use of blast simulations with the mathematical model Blaspa. This paper reviews the results of a recent project to develop a controlled method of full-face blasting, and compares the observed field results with the results of a blast simulator called Blaspa. Good agreement is found between the two, and the Blaspa results indicate quantitatively how the blasting may induce damage in the final excavation surface. In particular, the rock in the final wall may be stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes. Bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate. In practice, these findings indicate that quantitative rock stress and rock burst-out velocity criteria can be established to minimize wall damage and bootleg. Thus, blast simulations become an efficient way to design controlled blasting and to optimize quality of the excavation surface

  3. Tensile and creep properties of titanium-vanadium, titanium-molybdenum, and titanium-niobium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of experimental beta-titanium alloys were determined. Titanium-vanadium alloys had substantially greater tensile and creep strength than the titanium-niobium and titanium-molybdenum alloys tested. Specific tensile strengths of several titanium-vanadium-aluminum-silicon alloys were equivalent or superior to those of commercial titanium alloys to temperatures of 650 C. The Ti-50V-3Al-1Si alloy had the best balance of tensile strength, creep strength, and metallurgical stability. Its 500 C creep strength was far superior to that of a widely used commercial titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, and almost equivalent to that of newly developed commercial titanium alloys.

  4. Machining of Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Karásek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this work is the analysis of manufacturing costs for the component of wheel´s blower. Followed by setting up the size of specific cutting force for milling operation of the titanium alloy Ti-Al6-Mo2-Cr2-Fe-Si, the used tool was a milling cutter which is made out of sintered carbide with conical and spherical face. The final values which are at intervals of 1500 to 1800 MPa were compared with the values of the Sandvik Coromant firm kc = 1690 MPa, for titanium alloy with the st...

  5. Titanium alkoxide compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  6. Blast/fire interaction scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypotheses are formulated of the process of interaction between an airblast and fires supported by liquid fuels and wood cribs. A map of blast weakness versus fire strength is conceived on which the regime of fire extinction by the blast can be delineated from the regime where the fire will sustain the blast. The fire strength is described for liquid fuels primarily by the heat of combustion; and for wood, it is mainly described by the preburn time. The concept is substantiated by the SRI shocktube data

  7. Centrifugal shot blast system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997

  8. Sorting Titanium Welding Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, W. D., Jr.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of titanium welding wires identified by their resistance to current flow. Welding-wire tester quickly identifies unknown titaniumalloy wire by touching wire with test probe, and comparing meter response with standard response. Before touching wire, tip of test probe dipped into an electrolyte.

  9. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and burn injury or blast and crush injur y, are common during an explosive event. Knowledge about nature of injuries is essential for medicolegal and postmortem reports.

  10. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  11. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the q...

  12. Design of Blast Resistant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gautam

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A shock blast resistant structure designed, developed and experimentally evaluated by the authors is described. We structure, capable of with standing dynamic loading (12 psi and a static pressure of 1.5 m earth cover due to blast or any other explosion, also gives protection against radiation, chemical and thermal hazards. Some results and details of analysis and experimentation are presented.

  13. Stability of Relativistic Blast Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Jun; Kojima, Yasufumi

    2000-01-01

    A spherical blast wave with relativistic velocity can be described by a similarity solution, that is used for theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts. We consider the linear stability of such a relativistic blast wave propagating into a medium with density gradient. The perturbation can also be expressed by a self-similar form. We show that the shock front is unstable in general, and we evaluate the growth rate.

  14. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents followed by six explanatory notes. Note three (3) states that the...

  15. REINFORCED CONCRETE SILO DEMOLITION BY BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Krsnik; Zvonimir Ester; Marin Petrov

    1993-01-01

    This paper represents the demolition of reinforced concrete silo by blasting. The loadbearing structure was blasted so that the weight of the silo itself done most of the felling (the paper is published in Croatian).

  16. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  17. Evaluation of Bone Healing on Sandblasted and Acid Etched Implants Coated with Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite: An In Vivo Study in Rabbit Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lory Melin Svanborg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating if a coating of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals would enhance bone healing over time in trabecular bone. Sandblasted and acid etched titanium implants with and without a submicron thick coat of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nano-HA were implanted in rabbit femur with healing times of 2, 4, and 9 weeks. Removal torque analyses and histological evaluations were performed. The torque analysis did not show any significant differences between the implants at any healing time. The control implant showed a tendency of more newly formed bone after 4 weeks of healing and significantly higher bone area values after 9 weeks of healing. According to the results from this present study, both control and nano-HA surfaces were biocompatible and osteoconductive. A submicron thick coating of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals deposited onto blasted and acid etched screw shaped titanium implants did not enhance bone healing, as compared to blasted and etched control implants when placed in trabecular bone.

  18. Casting and Mechanized Titanium Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, A.; Lopez, I; Suarez, MJ; Salido, MP.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: New materials and methods for clinical dentistry are continuously being introduced. There is a growing interest in the use of titanium as a restorative material for several reasons: its relatively low cost, favorable physical properties and biocompatibility. However, titanium is technically more difficult to handle than conventional metal alloys. There are two fabrication methods for titanium restorations: casting and mechanized (a combination of machine duplication and spark er...

  19. Titanium production for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius A. R. Henriques

    2009-01-01

    Titanium parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength at both room temperature and moderately elevated temperature, in addition to excellent general corrosion resistance. The objective of this work is to present a review of titanium metallurgy focused on aerospace applications, including developments in the Brazilian production of titanium aimed at aerospace applications. The article includes an account of the evolution ...

  20. Asymmetric propagation of airblast from bench blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Catasús, Pablo; Sanchidrián Blanco, José Angel; López Sánchez, Lina María; Domingo, Jesús Felix

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the propagation of airblast from quarry blasting. Peak overpressure is calculated as a function of blasting parameters (explosive mass per delay and velocity at which the detonation sequence proceeds along the bench) and polar coordinates of the point of interest (distance to the blast and azimuth with respect to the free face of the blast). The model is in the form of the product of a classical scaled distance attenuation law times a directional correction factor. The...

  1. Service robot for hull-blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Zaragoza, Francisco José; Iborra García, Andrés José; Álvarez Torres, María Bárbara; Marín García, Fulgencio; Fernández Meroño, José María

    2001-01-01

    Present grit blasting technology for hull cleaning is very pollutant, environmentally unaffordable, and it is progressively forbidden in the most environmental countries (mainly north of Europe). At the time being, the above methodology has been partially substituted by ultra highpressure water blasting, however they do not show as good performance as the grit blasting systems. This paper describes a service robot for hull blasting. The technology we developed consists of the cleanin...

  2. Microrobotized blasting improves the bone-to-textured implant response. A preclinical in vivo biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paulo G; Gil, Luiz F; Neiva, Rodrigo; Jimbo, Ryo; Tovar, Nick; Lilin, Thomas; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of microrobotized blasting of titanium endosteal implants relative to their manually blasted counterparts. Two different implant systems were utilized presenting two different implant surfaces. Control surfaces (Manual) were fabricated by manually grit blasting the implant surfaces while experimental surfaces (Microblasted) were fabricated through a microrobotized system that provided a one pass grit blasting routine. Both surfaces were created with the same ~50µm average particle size alumina powder at ~310KPa. Surfaces were then etched with 37% HCl for 20min, washed, and packaged through standard industry procedures. The surfaces were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical interferometry, and were then placed in a beagle dog radius model remaining in vivo for 3 and 6 weeks. The implant removal torque was recorded and statistical analysis evaluated implant system and surface type torque levels as a function of time in vivo. Histologic sections were qualitatively evaluated for tissue response. Electron microscopy depicted textured surfaces for both manual and microblasted surfaces. Optical interferometry showed significantly higher Sa, Sq, values for the microblasted surface and no significant difference for Sds and Sdr values between surfaces. In vivo results depicted that statistically significant gains in biomechanical fixation were obtained for both implant systems tested at 6 weeks in vivo, while only one system presented significant biomechanical gain at 3 weeks. Histologic sections showed qualitative higher amounts of new bone forming around microblasted implants relative to the manually blasted group. Microrobotized blasting resulted in higher biomechanical fixation of endosteal dental implants and should be considered as an alternative for impant surface manufacturing. PMID:26703231

  3. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  4. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the con

  5. 30 CFR 57.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 57.6312 Section 57.6312... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting—Surface and Underground...

  6. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 72.610 Section 72.610... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and...

  7. Blast furnace operation analysis by thermic exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the blast furnace thermic state, the thermic exergy can be used, which considers the temperatures level of the process. The magnitude analysis of thermic exergy for blast furnace operation using pulverized coal, natural gas and oxygen injection by tuyeres, shows that natural gas injection is less effective than pulverized coal and enriched blast with oxygen simultaneous injection. (Author) 6 refs

  8. Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

    2005-01-01

    The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

  9. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An underground research laboratory (URL) has been constructed as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in deep crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. This paper reviews the results of the program to develop controlled blasting for the full-face method, comparing the field observed results achieved with the simulated theoretical results. The simulated results indicate how the blasting may damage the excavation surface. Results suggest that the rock around the final wall is stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes and that bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate

  10. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  11. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    Romins Brasca; Luciana Ines Vergara; Mario César Guillermo Passeggi; Julio Ferrón

    2007-01-01

    The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0) oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+) chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+).

  12. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  13. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian G. CULLIS; Nikos NIKIFORAKIS; Peter FRANKL; Philip BLAKELY; Paul BENNETT; Paul GREENWOOD

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length-and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  14. Domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyn Grzegorz M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is a commonly-used software package for comparing a query sequence to a database of known sequences; in this study, we focus on protein sequences. Position-specific-iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST iteratively searches a protein sequence database, using the matches in round i to construct a position-specific score matrix (PSSM for searching the database in round i + 1. Biegert and Söding developed Context-sensitive BLAST (CS-BLAST, which combines information from searching the sequence database with information derived from a library of short protein profiles to achieve better homology detection than PSI-BLAST, which builds its PSSMs from scratch. Results We describe a new method, called domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST (DELTA-BLAST, which searches a database of pre-constructed PSSMs before searching a protein-sequence database, to yield better homology detection. For its PSSMs, DELTA-BLAST employs a subset of NCBI’s Conserved Domain Database (CDD. On a test set derived from ASTRAL, with one round of searching, DELTA-BLAST achieves a ROC5000 of 0.270 vs. 0.116 for CS-BLAST. The performance advantage diminishes in iterated searches, but DELTA-BLAST continues to achieve better ROC scores than CS-BLAST. Conclusions DELTA-BLAST is a useful program for the detection of remote protein homologs. It is available under the “Protein BLAST” link at http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Nick V. Grishin, and Frank Eisenhaber.

  15. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  16. Titanium minerals for new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O.; Ozhogina, E.; Ponaryadov, A.; Golubeva, I.

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of titanium minerals of modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island (Australia) and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan (Russia) has been presented. The physical features of titanium minerals and their modification methods were shown. Photocatalysts on the basis of the Pizhma leucoxene were developed for water purification.

  17. Titanium dioxide nanotube films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Ioan, E-mail: roman@metav-cd.ro [S.C. METAV-Research and Development S.R.L., Bucharest, 31C. A. Rosetti, 020011 (Romania); Trusca, Roxana Doina; Soare, Maria-Laura [S.C. METAV-Research and Development S.R.L., Bucharest, 31C. A. Rosetti, 020011 (Romania); Fratila, Corneliu [Research and Development National Institute for Nonferrous and Rare Metals, Pantelimon, 102 Biruintei, 077145 (Romania); Krasicka-Cydzik, Elzbieta [University of Zielona Gora, Department of Biomedical Engineering Division, 9 Licealna, 65-417 (Poland); Stan, Miruna-Silvia; Dinischiotu, Anca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 36-46 Mihail Kogalniceanu, 050107 (Romania)

    2014-04-01

    Titania nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by anodization on different substrates (titanium, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys) in ethylene glycol and glycerol. The influence of the applied potential and processing time on the nanotube diameter and length is analyzed. The as-formed nanotube layers are amorphous but they become crystalline when subjected to subsequent thermal treatment in air at 550 °C; TNT layers grown on titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy substrates consist of anatase and rutile, while those grown on Ti6Al7Nb alloy consist only of anatase. The nanotube layers grown on Ti6Al7Nb alloy are less homogeneous, with supplementary islands of smaller diameter nanotubes, spread across the surface. Better adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts was found for the nanotubes grown on all three substrates by comparison to an unprocessed titanium plate. The sensitivity towards bovine alkaline phosphatase was investigated mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in relation to the crystallinity, the diameter and the nature of the anodization electrolyte of the TNT/Ti samples. The measuring capacity of the annealed nanotubes of 50 nm diameter grown in glycerol was demonstrated and the corresponding calibration curve was built for the concentration range of 0.005–0.1 mg/mL. - Highlights: • Titania nanotubes (TNTs) on Ti, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb substrates were prepared. • Quantitative dependences of anodization conditions on TNT features were established. • Morphology and electrochemical tests revealed inhomogeneity of TNT/Ti6Al7Nb films. • Particular characteristics of TNT films induce electrochemical sensitivity to ALP. • Annealed TNT/Ti impedimetric sensitivity towards ALP was demonstrated and quantified.

  18. Layered titanium diphosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav; Vlček, Milan

    Strasbourg: European Materials Research Society, 2012. P1 6-P1 6. ISBN -. [E- MRS Spring Meeating 2012 – Symposium P Advanced Hybrid Materials II: design and applications. 14.05.2012-18.05.2012, Strasbourg] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : titanium diphosphonate * layered compounds * powder x-ray difraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry http://www.emrs-strasbourg.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&Itemid=132&id=479

  19. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed... methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1326 - Examination after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination after blasting. 75.1326 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1326 Examination after blasting. (a) After blasting, the blasting area shall not be entered until it is clear of...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or any other related blasting device or material shall be stored, transported, carried, handled,...

  2. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  3. Numerical study of rock blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  4. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and du...

  5. Blast waves in rotating media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, L. F.

    1972-01-01

    The model investigated involves a cylindrically symmetric blast wave generated by an infinitely long line explosion in a cold and homogeneous gas rotating rigidly in its self-gravitational field. It is found that within the context of rotation in a gravitational field a blast wave will not adopt the one-zone form familiar from similarity solutions but, rather, a two-zone form. The inner compression zone arises as a response to the presence of the restoring force, which drives a rarefaction wave into the outer compression zone.

  6. An analysis of the heap construction by long hole blasting for in-situ leaching of blasted ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author establishes specific requirements for heap construction by blasting on the basis of the mechanism for in situ leaching of blasted ore, analyses the feasibility of heap construction by long hole blasting, selection of the blast plan and the relevant technological problems, and gives a case of heap construction by long hole blasting in Renhua uranium mine

  7. Biocompatibility of Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namavar, Fereydoon; Sabirianov, Renat; Marton, Denes; Rubinstein, Alexander; Garvin, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Titanium is the material of choice for orthopaedic applications because of its known biocompatibility. In order to enhance osteogenic properties of the Ti implants, it is necessary to understand the origin of its biocompatibility. We addresses the origin of Ti biocompatibility through (1) theoretical modeling, (2) the precise determination of Ti surface chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), (3) and the study of fibronectin adsorption as a function of Ti (near) surface chemistry by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We compare the protein adsorption on Ti with the native oxide layer and the one coated by TiO2 in anatase phase using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). We show that the thin native sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide layer is crucial for biocompatibility of Ti surface. This is due to the enhancement of the non-specific adsorption of proteins which mediate cell adhesion. Improving the surface oxide quality, i.e. fabricating stoichiometric TiO2 (using IBAD) as well as nanoengineering the surface topology that matches its dimensions to that of adhesive proteins, is crucial for increased protein adsorption and, as a result, further increases biocompatibility of Ti implant materials.

  8. Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-yong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results show that the blast-induced damage factor attenuated gradually with the centre of three-circle blastholes as centre. With the threshold value of 0.19 for blast-induced damage factor, blast-induced damage zones for 4 kinds of model tests are described and there is an inverted cone blast-induced damage zone in concrete model. And analyses of cutting effect and blast-induced damage zone indicate that in order to minimize the blast-induced damage effect and ensure the cutting effect the reasonable blasting scheme for three-circle blastholes is the inner two-circle blastholes initiated simultaneously and the outer third circle blastholes initiated in a 25 ms delay.

  9. Antiseptics and microcosm biofilm formation on titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia VERARDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants is a way to restore esthetics and masticatory function in edentulous patients, but bacterial colonization around the implants may lead to mucositis or peri-implantitis and consequent implant loss. Peri-implantitis is the main complication of oral rehabilitation with dental implants and, therefore, it is necessary to take into account the potential effects of antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (CHX, chloramine T (CHT, triclosan (TRI, and essential oils (EO on bacterial adhesion and on biofilm formation. To assess the action of these substances, we used the microcosm technique, in which the oral environment and periodontal conditions are simulated in vitro on titanium discs with different surface treatments (smooth surface - SS, acid-etched smooth surface - AESS, sand-blasted surface - SBS, and sand-blasted and acid-etched surface - SBAES. Roughness measurements yielded the following results: SS: 0.47 µm, AESS: 0.43 µm, SB: 0.79 µm, and SBAES: 0.72 µm. There was statistical difference only between SBS and AESS. There was no statistical difference among antiseptic treatments. However, EO and CHT showed lower bacterial counts compared with the saline solution treatment (control group. Thus, the current gold standard (CHX did not outperform CHT and EO, which were efficient in reducing the biofilm biomass compared with saline solution.

  10. Study on ore stacking after blasting for stope leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geology of ore deposits, technical conditions, mining methods and blasting parameters of in-situ leaching uranium after blasting for an outcrop ore body are introduced. Long hole blast is beneficial technique and can bring better economic benefits

  11. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  12. Beta titanium alloys and their role in the titanium industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Paul J.

    1994-07-01

    The class of titanium alloys generically referred to as the beta alloys is arguably the most versatile in the titanium family. Since these alloys offer the highest strength-to-weight ratios and deepest hardenability of all titanium alloys, one might expect them to compete favorably for a variety of aerospace applications. To the contrary, however, except for one very successful application (Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al on the SR-71), the beta alloys have remained a very small segment of the industry. As a perspective on this situation, this article reviews some past and present applications of titanium alloys. It also descibes some unique new alloys and applications that promise to reverse historical trends.

  13. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P. K.; Patel, B. P.; Harbans Lal

    2016-01-01

    The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one ...

  14. Blast loading of masonry infills: testing and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, João Miguel; Campos, José de; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2015-01-01

    This work intends to present a newly developed test setup for dynamic out-of-plane loading using underWater Blast Wave Generators (WBWG) as loading source. Underwater blasting operations have been, during the last decades, subject of research and development of maritime blasting operations (including torpedo studies), aquarium tests for the measurement of blasting energy of industrial explosives and confined underwater blast wave generators. WBWG allow a wide range for the produced blast impu...

  15. MEASUREMENT IN BLAST HOLE STEM AND INFLUENCE OF STEMING MATERIAL ON BLASTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Dobrilović; Zvonimir Ester; Branimir Janković

    2005-01-01

    Paper presents results of blast hole stem materials, that were conducted to assert best stem materials for surface blasting in quarry of technical / construction stone. Blasting has been performed with equal explosives and test-minefield parameters (length of the stem, volume of the explosive charge, mine-drill depth, and angle) on various sites / quarry. Results are guidelines in materials to be chosen in surface blasting of quarry works, adding to quality of mining works and reduction of co...

  16. Application of blasting vibration measurement to underground deep-hole blasting of a uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed at the potential vibration damage to residents' houses on surface after underground deep-hole blasting of a uranium deposit in stope leaching, two real-time blasting vibration measurements were made. The safe distance and safety criterion of maximum charge weight on millisecond delay explosive in large-scale blasting of the uranium deposit were summed up. These data can provide the design basis for future large scale ore stacking by blasting. (authors)

  17. MEASUREMENT IN BLAST HOLE STEM AND INFLUENCE OF STEMING MATERIAL ON BLASTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Dobrilović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of blast hole stem materials, that were conducted to assert best stem materials for surface blasting in quarry of technical / construction stone. Blasting has been performed with equal explosives and test-minefield parameters (length of the stem, volume of the explosive charge, mine-drill depth, and angle on various sites / quarry. Results are guidelines in materials to be chosen in surface blasting of quarry works, adding to quality of mining works and reduction of costs.

  18. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 5000C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 1500C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement

  19. Discovery of the Titanium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Meierfrankenfeld, D.; Thoennessen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Twentyfive titanium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  20. PROGRESS IN THERMO-ABRASIVE BLASTING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Gorlach

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Quality of surface preparation of components and structures for further painting and/or coating is important in many fields of engineering. One of the most widely used methods of surface preparation is abrasive blasting. In the last few years, a new method for surface preparation has evolved, namely thermo-abrasive blasting. This technique utilises a high enthalpy thermal jet, generated by the thermo-abrasive blasting gun, to propel abrasive particles. Thermo-abrasi...

  1. Disability evaluation in acoustic blast trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan Raju

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acoustic blast trauma is different from Noise induced hearing loss. Blast trauma can damage the tympanic membrane, ossicles and cochlea singly or in combination. It produces immediate severe hearing loss and may be associated with tinnitus and vestibular symptoms. Hearing loss recovers spontaneously in many cases but may be permanent in 30-55% cases. Thirteen patients working in an explosive manufacturing unit in Andhra Pradesh were exposed to blast trauma at work place. All the...

  2. An Abridged Review of Blast Wave Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Manmohan Dass Goel; Vasant A. Matsagar; Gupta, Anil K.; Steffen Marburg

    2012-01-01

    In case of blast loading on structures, analysis is carried out in two stages, first the blast loading on a particular structure is determined and second, an evaluation is made for the response of the structure to this loading. In this paper, a review of the first part is presented which includes various empirical relations available for computation of blast load in the form of pressure-time function resulting from the explosion in the air. Different empirical techniques available in th...

  3. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  4. Low cost titanium--myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

  5. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  6. Comparison of biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells grown on two different titanium implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown on sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the SLA (HA/SLA) surface of titanium dental implants. The HA/SLA surfaces of titanium dental implants were formed by the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. Rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in vitro were seeded onto the surface of SLA and HA/SLA; the growth states of MSCs on the two samples were observed by a scanning electron microscope; the proliferation index, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) content of MSCs and mRNA relative expression level of osteopontin (opn) were compared between two groups. MSCs were found to be easier to adhere to the HA/SLA surface compared to the SLA surface. At the same time, the ALP activity and the OCN content of MSCs grown on the HA/SLA surface were obviously higher, and the relative expression level of opn mRNA was 4.78 times higher than that on the SLA surface. The HA coating formed by the IBAD method on the SLA surface of titanium dental implants significantly improves proliferation and well-differentiated osteoblastic phenotype of MSCs, which indicates a promising method for the surface modification of titanium dental implants

  7. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  8. From blast wave to observation

    OpenAIRE

    Eerten, van, H.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are well described by synchrotron emission originating from the interaction between a relativistic blast wave and the external medium surrounding the GRB progenitor. We introduce a code to reconstruct spectra and light curves from arbitrary fluid configurations, making it especially suited to study the effects of fluid flows beyond those that can be described using analytical approximations. As a check and first application of our code we use it to fit the sca...

  9. Radiation from cosmic blast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of the dynamics of blast waves, of their internal structure and of the Bremsstrahlung radiation from the shocked plasma in conditions when the cooling time is longer than the expansion time. Models appropriate for the interpretation of the X-ray sources associated with supernova remnants and with the explosive activity of the radiogalaxies in clusters of galaxies are computed and discussed; the inverse Compton emission from continuously injected relativistic electrons is included. (orig.)

  10. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid he...

  11. Detonation safety of blasting caps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兴华; 彭小圣

    2002-01-01

    By means of researching into sympathetic detonation of blasting detonators in air, the regular patterns are concluded from blasting detonators interaction with the shock loading. The aerial distribution of initiating ability of detonators looks like a butterfly. The initiating ability mainly consists of shock wave, explosive gases and fliers. But fundamental questions remain. When does shock wave take the leading role? When and how does the explosive gases or the fliers take function? For those questions, there is less quantitative research. Through the theoretic deduction of the overpressure, the energy calculation of fliers and the experiment of sympathetic detonation of detonators, we can learn the sympathetic detonation distances of several kinds of detonators and make an inquiry into the lateral initiating regulations of detonators. So, we can provide the base data for the research into no sympathetic detonation of herd blasting detonators and then control the detonation between them. Then we can make full use of detonators and reduce the frequency of accidents caused by detonators.

  12. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. (topical review)

  13. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  14. Production of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide pigments provide whiteness and opacity to a vast range of everyday products from coatings and plastics to inks and even cosmetics and food. Manufacturing takes place using two different processes - the so called 'sulphate' and 'chloride' routes - to produce more than 4.5 million t per year worldwide. Both routes start from impure TiO2 based feedstocks containing moderately enhanced concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin. Experts from the TiO2 production industry and feedstock suppliers are assisting the IAEA in the development of a Safety Report concerning exposure to NORM within the TiO2 industry. The data assessment shows that, for both process routes, most of the radioactivity reports to the solid process wastes and there are no areas of concern related to products, co-products or liquid or gaseous effluents for production units operating to current environmental standards. Risk assessments for the landfill disposal of solid process waste similarly did not indicate any areas of concern where current waste management practices were followed. Process deposits, typically scale material, can exhibit enhanced activity concentrations of radium. Specific management practices such as controlled vessel entry to restrict worker exposure to these materials may be necessary. With such measures, it is considered unlikely that a worker would receive an annual effective dose exceeding 1 mSv. (author)

  15. The effect of controlled microrobotized blasting on implant surface texturing and early osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luiz F; Marin, Charles; Teixeira, Hellen; Marão, Heloisa F; Tovar, Nick; Khan, Rehan; Bonfante, Estevam A; Janal, Malvin; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-02-01

    Surface topography modifications have become a key strategy for hastening the host-to-implant response to implantable materials. The present study evaluated the effect of three different carefully controlled surface texture patterns achieved through microrobotized blasting (controlled to high, medium and low roughness) relative to a larger scale blasting procedure (control) in early osseointegration in a canine model. Four commercially pure grade 2 titanium alloy implants (one of each surface) were bilaterally placed in the radii of six beagle dogs and allowed end points of 1 and 6 weeks in vivo. Following sacrifice, implants in bone were non-decalcified processed for bone morphologic and histometric (bone-to-implant contact; bone area fraction occupancy) evaluation. Surface topography was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical interferometry. Results showed initial osteogenic tissue interaction at one week and new bone in intimate contact with all implant surfaces at 6 weeks. At 1 and 6 weeks in vivo, higher bone-to-implant and bone area fraction occupancy were observed for the high texture pattern microrobotized blasted surface relative to others. PMID:26508287

  16. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.910 - Inspection after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection after blasting. 1926.910 Section 1926.910 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.910 Inspection after blasting. (a) Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall...

  18. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  19. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 56.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting agents; special provisions. 77.1304... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1304 Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.909 Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... to stop traffic during blasting operations. (d) It shall be the duty of the blaster to fix the...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; general. 77.1910... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power circuits shall be disconnected or removed from the blasting area before charging and blasting. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 56.6306... § 56.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or initiating systems are... persons or vehicles. (g) Work shall not resume in the blast area until a post-blast examination...

  4. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  5. Refractory Pellet for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,specification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of refractory pellet for hot blast stove.This standard is applicable to refractory pellet for hot blast stove.

  6. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  7. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 58.610 Section...

  8. Fiber reinforced titanium alloy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more important titanium matrix composites studied to date are composed of titanium alloy matrices, such as Ti 6Al--4V, reinforced with filaments of boron, silicon carbide, or sapphire, as well as with wires of beryllium or refractory metal alloys. The primary fabrication techniques for these materials involve vacuum hot pressing at 1300 to 16000F, alternate layers of titanium alloy matrix foils, and suitably aligned filament mats. The more ductile reinforcements such as beryllium, have been incorporated into titanium matrix composites by coextrusion. Fabrication of composite gas turbine engine fan blades from both boron (SiC coated) and beryllium reinforced Ti 6Al--4V alloy is described. Feasibility studies have been made in the fabrication of Boron/Ti 6Al--4V composite rings for possible gas turbine engine disc applications. Mechanical properties of various titanium matrix composite systems are presented and demonstrate the attractive elevated temperature properties of some systems to 10000F. (35 fig, 6 tables) (U.S.)

  9. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  10. Lightweight Protective Coatings For Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Karl E.; Taylor, Patrick J.; Clark, Ronald K.

    1992-01-01

    Lightweight coating developed to protect titanium and titanium aluminide alloys and titanium-matrix composite materials from attack by environment when used at high temperatures. Applied by sol-gel methods, and thickness less than 5 micrometers. Reaction-barrier and self-healing diffusion-barrier layers combine to protect titanium alloy against chemical attack by oxygen and nitrogen at high temperatures with very promising results. Can be extended to protection of other environmentally sensitive materials.

  11. Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Fredrik; Carlmark, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with one or more features of the yellow nail syndrome were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Titanium was regularly fou...

  12. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  13. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  14. Photonuclear reactions on titanium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyshev, S. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Dzhilavyan, L. Z. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kapitonov, I. M. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, A. A., E-mail: kuznets@depni.sinp.msu.ru; Orlin, V. N.; Stopani, K. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    The photodisintegration of titanium isotopes in the giant-dipole-resonance energy region is studied by the photon-activation method. Bremsstrahlung photons whose spectrum has the endpoint energy of 55 MeV is used. The yields and integrated cross sections are determined for photoproton reactions on the titanium isotopes {sup 47,48,49,50}Ti. The respective experimental results are compared with their counterparts calculated on the basis of the TALYS code and a combined photonucleon-reaction model. The TALYS code disregards the isospin structure of the giant dipole resonance and is therefore unable to describe the yield of photoproton reactions on the heavy titanium isotopes {sup 49,50}Ti.

  15. Mechanical properties of titanium connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, T K; Chai, J; Gilbert, J L; Wozniak, W T; Engelman, M J

    1996-01-01

    The tensile mechanical properties of welded titanium joints were studied, and intact titanium was used as controls. Welded joints were fabricated with either a stereographic laser-welding technique or a gas tungsten arc welding technique. The effect of heat treatment following a simulated porcelain application was also investigated. Heat-treated laser welds had significantly lower ultimate tensile strengths. Heat treatment had no effect on the modulus of elasticity or elongation, but generally significantly decreased the yield strength of the titanium specimens. The gas tungsten are welding specimens had significantly higher yield strengths and elastic moduli than the other two groups. The elongation of the control specimens was significantly greater than the elongation of the gas tungsten arc welding specimens, which was in turn significantly higher than that of the laser-welded specimens. PMID:8957877

  16. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.575 Section 73.575 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  1. Influence Mechanism of Lamella Joints on Tunnel Blasting Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwei Shen; Lei Nie; Shulin Dai; Yan Xu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the influence mechanism of lamella joints on tunnel blasting effect. During the process of the tunnel blasting construction, primary structural planes make an important role for the effect of smooth blasting. Especially, it is difficult to attain the perfect blasting effect when the lamella joints intersect with the designed contour line. Coupled effect of the explosive stress waves and the explosive gas is deemed to the basic theory, analysis the blasting...

  2. Chemical and topographic analysis of treated surfaces of five different commercial dental titanium implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed investigation of the surface characteristics of five commercial titanium implants with different surface finishing (double acid etching, anodization and incorporation of Ca/P, acid etching and deposition of Ca/P, hydroxyapatite-blasting, acid etching and Ca/P-blasting produced by five different manufacturers. A set of experimental techniques were employed to study the surface chemical composition and morphology: XPS, XRD, SEM, EDS, and AFM. According to the implat manufacturers, the addition of Ca and P at the implant surface is a main feature of these implants (except the double acid etched implant, which was included for comparative purpose. However, the results showed a great discrepancy on the final amount of these elements on the implant surface, which suggests a different effectiveness of the employed surface finishing methods to fix those elements on the implant surface. Our results show that only the method used by the manufacturer of hydroxyapatite-blasting surface finished implants was efficient to produce a hydroxyapatite coating. This group also showed the highest roughness parameters.

  3. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants have increased the use of titanium and titanium alloys in prosthetic applications. Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium is prone to fluoride ion attack. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare Ti-5Ta alloy to cp Ti after toothbrushing with whitening and conventional toothpastes. Ti-5Ta (%wt alloy was melted in an arc melting furnace and compared with cp Ti. Disks and toothbrush heads were embedded in PVC rings to be mounted onto a toothbrushing test apparatus. A total of 260,000 cycles were carried out at 250 cycles/minute under a load of 5 N on samples immersed in toothpaste slurries. Surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were evaluated before and after toothbrushing. One sample of each material/toothpaste was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and compared with a sample that had not been submitted to toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased significantly after toothbrushing, but no differences were noted after toothbrushing with different toothpastes. Toothbrushing did not significantly affect sample microhardness. The results suggest that toothpastes that contain and those that do not contain peroxides in their composition have different effects on cp Ti and Ti-5Ta surfaces. Although no significant difference was noted in the microhardness and roughness of the surfaces brushed with different toothpastes, both toothpastes increased roughness after toothbrushing.

  4. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  5. Positive Biomechanical Effects of Titanium Oxide for Sandblasting Implant Surface as an Alternative to Aluminium Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Coelho, Paulo Guilherme

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and the in vivo host response of a surface sandblasted with particles of titanium oxide (TiO2) followed by acid etching as an alternative to aluminium oxide. Thirty titanium disks manufactured in the same conditions as the implants and 24 conventional cylindrical implants were used. Half of the implants had a machined surface (Gcon) while in the other half; the surface was treated with particles of TiO2 followed by acid etching (Gexp). Surface characterization was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), profilometry, and wettability. For the in vivo test, 12 implants of each group were implanted in the tibia of 6 rabbits, and were reverse torque tested after periods of 30 or 60 days after implantation. Following torque, SEM was utilized to assess residual bone-implant contact. The surface characterization by SEM showed a very homogeneous surface with uniform irregularities for Gexp and a small amount of residues of the blasting procedure, while Gcon presented a surface with minimal irregularities from the machining tools. Wettability test showed decreased contact angle for the Gcon relative to the Gexp. The Gexp removal torque at 30 and 60 days was 28.7%, and 33.2% higher relative to the Gcon, respectively. Blasting the surface with particles of TiO2 represents an adequate option for the surface treatment of dental implants, with minimal risk of contamination by the residual debris from the blasting procedure. PMID:24001048

  6. Relativistic blast waves that accelerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approximate analytical similarity solution is derived for the problem of an ultrarelativistic, adiabatic blast wave which results from a point explosion at the origin of a cold (i.e., nonrelativistic), spherically symmetric gas in which the density decreases fast enough with radius to accelerate the shock wave toward larger radii. This solution includes both the shock propagation law and the details of the postshock flow. It is revelant to models of compact, extragalactic radio sources involving relativistic shock waves, as well as to the supernova shock model for cosmic ray acceleration

  7. Method of making multilayered titanium ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, George T., II; Hansen; Jeffrey S.; Oden; Laurance L.; Turner; Paul C.; Ochs; Thomas L.

    1998-08-25

    A method making a titanium ceramic composite involves forming a hot pressed powder body having a microstructure comprising at least one titanium metal or alloy layer and at least one ceramic particulate reinforced titanium metal or alloy layer and hot forging the hot pressed body follwed by hot rolling to substantially reduce a thickness dimension and substantially increase a lateral dimension thereof to form a composite plate or sheet that retains in the microstructure at least one titanium based layer and at least one ceramic reinforced titanium based layer in the thickness direction of the composite plate or sheet.

  8. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration

  9. Electrical Blast simulator (e-BLAST): design, development and first operational tests

    OpenAIRE

    PERONI MARCO; SOLOMOS George; PEGON Pierre; CAVERZAN ALESSIO

    2015-01-01

    The Electrical Blast Simulator (e-BLAST) activity involves the development of an apparatus capable of reproducing the effects of a blast pressure wave on large-scale structural components (such as columns, walls, etc.) with the objective of improving their strength in such severe loading situations. The work relates to the BUILT-CIP project which deals with the protection and resilience of the built environment (critical buildings, transportation and energy infrastructure etc.) under catastr...

  10. Synthesis and properties of nanoscale titanium boride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, K. A.; Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the scientific and technological grounds for plasma synthesis of titanium diboride, including thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of boride formation when titanium and titanium dioxide are interacting with products resulting from boron gasification in the nitrogen - hydrogen plasma flow, and two variations of its behavior using the powder mixtures: titanium - boron and titanium dioxide - boron. To study these technology variations, the mathematical models were derived, describing the relation between element contents in the synthesized products of titanium and free boron and basic parameters. The probable mechanism proposed for forming titanium diboride according to a "vapour - melt - crystal" pattern was examined, covering condensation of titanium vapour in the form of aerosol, boriding of nanoscale melt droplets by boron hydrides and crystallization of titanium - boron melt. The comprehensive physical - chemical certification of titanium diboride was carried out, including the study of its crystal structure, phase and chemical composition, dispersion, morphology and particle oxidation. Technological application prospects for use of titanium diboride nanoscale powder as constituent element in the wettable coating for carbon cathodes having excellent physical and mechanical performance and protective properties.

  11. Propagation of thermal neutrons in mock-up screw-shaped steel elements with water protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report treats the streaming of thermal neutrons in a cylindrical duct in light water. The duct contains a spiral iron shield. Transmission and reflection matrices are used to describe the probabilities for the thermal neutrons to be absorbed or to be scattered on the surfaces. The neutron paths across the void are represented by geometrical matrices. The numerical resolution is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. (authors)

  12. Advances in cost effective processing of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently an industry expert pointed out that one of the greatest hindrances to the growth of titanium usage has been the low percentage of material usable in the final product. Due to the extensive processing, forming, and machining operations typically performed on titanium, yield losses are high. This is especially true in aerospace applications where most titanium is used. In engine components, the start to finish ratio, known as the buy to fly ratio, is often as high as 7 to 1. This can be illustrated by looking at the use of titanium in Pratt and Whitney engines. In the JT-8D-217 used on Boeing's 737-200, the titanium buyweight is 5,385 pounds, whereas the finished titanium, flyweight is just 758 pounds. This start to finish ratio is 7.1:1, giving titanium 17.0% of total engine weight. (orig.)

  13. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemical-thermal treatment. The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30 - 29 GPa and with declining to 27- 26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm) owing to changes of the layer phase composition where T2B, TiB, TiB2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30 - 110 μm) and transition zone (30 - 190 μm). Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2 - 3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening

  14. Lactobacillusassisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Anal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn eco-friendlylactobacillussp. (microbe assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

  15. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. PMID:26761543

  16. Flyrock risk prevention in open pit blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Slopnicki, Jakub Patryk

    2013-01-01

    Norcem limestone quarry at Bjørntvedt has neighbours and infrastructure close to the quarry. Elimination of the risk of flyrock from blasting is thus of great importance to the operation. For drill hole dimension 3,5? ? as used at Bjørntvedt -the risk zone of flyrock is considered to be between 600 and 700 m from the blast. It is recommended to cover the blast if there are sensitive installations or people inside this radius. If no cover is used, adequate alternative preventive meas...

  17. Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

    1997-11-01

    In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

  18. Swift GRBs and the blast wave model

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, P. A.; Horst, van der, C.M.A.M.; Starling, R.L.C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p, density profile of the circumburst medium, k, and the continued energy injection index, q. We do so by comparing the observed multi-wavelength light curves and X-ray spectra of a Swift sample to the predictions of the blast wave model. We ca...

  19. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one of the critical components of blast valve have been discussed. The merits and demerits of sensing mechanisms viz. remote and direct sensing are discussed. The leakage of blast pressure during finite closing period of the valve (one of the critical problems and the shock tube as a major experimental facility for testing of blast valves are briefly discussed.

  20. Neuro-glial and systemic mechanisms of pathological responses in rat models of primary blast overpressure compared to ‘composite’ blast.

    OpenAIRE

    VictorPrima; StanislavI.Svetlov; DanielKirk; KennethCurley; VictorSerebruany

    2012-01-01

    A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position towards blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate TBI and defined ‘composite’ blast and primary blast...

  1. Ceramic materials based on modified pyrogenic titanium dioxide and titanium-silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic materials based on modified titanium dioxide and titanium-silica are obtained. Method for modification of titanium dioxide and titanium-silica by palladium additions in the process of flame, hydrolysis of titanium, tetrachloride or silicon tetrachloride mixture with titanium tetrachloride is developed. The above method makes it possible to modify already formed particles of the final products in the reactor cooling zone, which does not effect their size and where by the whole palladium is on the surface of the ceramic material. A series of textolite is prepared on the basis of the developed ceramic materials and their metallization is performed

  2. Effect of titanium content and aging temperature on the properties of uranium-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of four uranium-titanium alloys were examined as functions of titanium content and aging temperature. Titanium alloy content was varied from 0.41 to 0.79 weight percent. Aging temperatures from 350 to 4500C (all for six hours) were evaluated for each alloy in addition to tests in the unaged conditions. Titanium and aging temperature were both shown to be strong effects in determining alloy properties. It was determined that the uranium-0.41 weight percent titanium alloy underwent extensive age-hardening even though the alloy did not exhibit a martensitic microstructure characteristic of the alloys richer in titanium

  3. Tribochemical structuring and coating of implant metal surfaces with titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sandblasting process with corundum is used for cleaning, roughening and activating of metal surfaces in dentistry and orthopaedics. The high local energy transfer at the impact point originates the displacement of particles in the surface. In principle, this method can be used for coating surfaces by sandblasting. In this work, we present a newly developed technique, which allows the coating of metal surfaces with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hydroxyapatite (HA) using a sandblasting process. The blasting material is a composite ceramic consisting of an alumina core (carrier material) covered with a porous shell of titanium dioxide or hydroxyapatite. The technique is applied to titanium substrates; the surface roughness, morphology and composition of the samples are analysed. The procedure results in an averaged surface roughness of 10-15 μm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) indicates the formation of a thin layer consisting of coating material on the metal surface. Furthermore, the traces of corundum crystals, which are inevitable by using the common technique, i.e. sandblasting with single-component grains, are clearly decreased. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) indicates mainly the existence of crystalline rutile and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the surface. Therefore, the presented method would be suitable for simultaneously roughening, coating and optimizing the biocompatibility of metal implant surfaces in dentistry and endoprosthetics

  4. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  5. Silica Brick for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the glossary and definition, marking, shape and dimension, technical requirements, test method, quality appraisal procedure, packing, label, transportation, storage and quality certification of silica brick for hot blast stove.

  6. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  7. Anhydrous Taphole Mix for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,brand,label,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of anhydrous taphole mix for blast furnace.

  8. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998

  9. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  10. Interactions of Blast Waves with Perturbed Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities induce hydrodynamic mixing in many important physical systems such as inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. Blast waves interacting with perturbed interfaces are prevelant in such applications and dictate the mixing dynamics. This study increases our understanding of blast-driven hydrodynamic instabilities by providing models for the time-dependent perturbation growth and vorticity production mechanisms. The strength and length of the blast wave determine the different growth regimes and the importance of the Richtmyer-Meshkov or Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Our analysis is based on simulations of a 2D planar blast wave, modeled by a shock (instantaneous acceleration) followed by a rarefaction (time-dependent deceleration), interacting with a sinusoidal perturbation at an interface between two fluids. A high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method is used to solve the multifluid Euler equations.

  11. Detecting Residues On Grit-Blasted Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, H. L.; Zook, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    Addition of fluorescent or iridescent material to plastic grit particles proposed for detection of grit residues after grit-blast cleaning. Residual films visible by observing grit-blasted surfaces under infrared or ultraviolet light. Plastic grit contains fluorescent or iridescent additive in core and coating. Wherever grit material becomes embedded, additive makes it visible under infrared or ultraviolet light. Applicable to other grit materials, for example fluorescent or iridescent materials added to particles of glass, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, or zirconium silicate.

  12. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  13. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Václavík, Vojtěch; Dirner, Vojtech; Dvorský, Tomáš; Daxner, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of fi nely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on fi nely ground blast furnace slag were observed. Rad predstavlja rezultate eksperimentalnog istraživanja koja se bave mogućnostima primjene fi nozrnate troske iz visoke peći za Portland cement u jednostavnoj proiz...

  14. Fabrication of microstructures by powder blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Wensink, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of powder blasting as a micromachining technique to create micro systems. Powder blasting is a technology in which small particles, accelerated by an air jet, are directed towards a brittle target for mechanical material removal. It is especially useful for glass machining due to the limitations of other glass micromachining techniques. Particle jets have been used for many years to test the wear resistance of materials. Chapter 2 gives a literature overview of ...

  15. Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Localized coating removal using plastic media blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Howard L.; Wyckoff, Michael G.; Zook, Lee M.

    1988-01-01

    Steps taken to qualify the use of plastic media blasting for safely and effectively removing paint and other coatings from solid rocket booster aluminum structures are described. As a result of the effort, an improvement was made in the design of surface finishing equipment for processing flight hardware, in addition to a potentially patentable idea on improved plastic media composition. The general arrangement of the blast equipment and the nozzle configuration are presented.

  17. Feasibility of a blast wave attenuation structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Dale Richard

    1997-01-01

    This thesis begins with an overview of bombings in the United States, followed by the introduction of the Rankine Hugoniot equations for blast wave pressure. The subsequent chapters develop the one dimensional and two dimensional Euler equations. These equations are the solved using the MacCormack finite difference algorithm. The basis of the investigation then begins by placing pole, shear plate and wedge obstacles in the path of the blast wave. The results of these simulations are interpret...

  18. Bone apposition to a titanium-zirconium alloy implant, as compared to two other titanium-containing implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Saulacic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Implants made of commercially pure titanium (cpTi are widely and successfully used in dentistry. For certain indications, diameter-reduced Ti alloy implants with improved mechanical strength are highly desirable. The aim was to compare the osseointegration of titanium-zirconium (TiZr and cpTi implants with a modified sandblasted and acid-etched (SLActive surface and with a Ti6Al4V alloy that was sand-blasted and acid-washed. Cylindrical implants with two, 0.75 mm deep, circumferential grooves were placed in the maxilla of miniature pigs and allowed to heal for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Undecalcified toluidine blue-stained ground sections were produced. Surface topography, area fraction of tissue components, and bone-to-implant contact (BIC were determined. All materials showed significantly different surface roughness parameters. The amount of new bone within the implant grooves increased over time, without significant differences between materials. However, BIC values were significantly related to the implant material and the healing period. For TiZr and cpTi implants, the BIC increased over time, reaching values of 59.38 % and 76.15 % after 2 weeks, and 74.50 % and 84.67 % after 8 weeks, respectively. In contrast, the BIC for Ti6Al4V implants peaked with 42.29 % after 2 weeks followed by a decline to 28.60 % at 8 weeks. Significantly more surface was covered by multinucleated giant cells on Ti6Al4V implants after 4 and 8 weeks. In conclusion, TiZr and cpTi implants showed faster osseointegration than Ti6Al4V implants. Both chemistry and surface topography might have influenced the results. The use of diameter-reduced TiZr implants in more challenging clinical situations warrants further documentation in long-term clinical studies.

  19. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to

  20. Underwater blast injury: a review of standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Rachel M; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-09-01

    The first cases of underwater blast injury appeared in the scientific literature in 1917, and thousands of service members and civilians were injured or killed by underwater blast during WWII. The prevalence of underwater blast injuries and occupational blasting needs led to the development of many safety standards to prevent injury or death. Most of these standards were not supported by experimental data or testing. In this review, we describe existing standards, discuss their origins, and we comprehensively compare their prescriptions across standards. Surprisingly, we found that most safety standards had little or no scientific basis, and prescriptions across standards often varied by at least an order of magnitude. Many published standards traced back to a US Navy 500 psi guideline, which was intended to provide a peak pressure at which injuries were likely to occur. This standard itself seems to have been based upon a completely unfounded assertion that has propagated throughout the literature in subsequent years. Based on the limitations of the standards discussed, we outline future directions for underwater blast injury research, such as the compilation of epidemiological data to examine actual injury risk by human beings subjected to underwater blasts. PMID:26415071

  1. An Abridged Review of Blast Wave Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Dass Goel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In case of blast loading on structures, analysis is carried out in two stages, first the blast loading on a particular structure is determined and second, an evaluation is made for the response of the structure to this loading. In this paper, a review of the first part is presented which includes various empirical relations available for computation of blast load in the form of pressure-time function resulting from the explosion in the air. Different empirical techniques available in the form of charts and equations are reviewed first and then the various blast wave parameters are computed using these equations. This paper is providing various blast computation equations, charts, and references in a concise form at a single place and to serve as base for researchers and designers to understand, compare, and then compute the blast wave parameters. Recommendations are presented to choose the best suitable technique from the available methods to compute the pressure-time function for obtaining structural response.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.300-306, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1149

  2. Study for preparation of nanoporous titania on titanium by anodic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently titanium is the most common material used in dental, orthopedic implants and cardiovascular applications. In the mid 1960s, prof. Braenemark and coworkers developed the concept of osseointegration, meaning the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of artificial implant. Thus, studies on the modification of the implant surface are widely distributed among them are the acid attack, blasting with particles of titanium oxide or aluminum oxide, coating with bioactive materials such as hydroxyapatite, and the anodic oxidation. The focus of this work was to investigate the treatment of titanium surface by anodic oxidation. The aim was to develop a nanoporous titanium oxide overlay with controlled properties over titanium substrates. Recent results have shown that such surface treatment improves the biological interaction at the interface bone-implant besides protecting the titanium further oxidation and allow a faster osseointegration. The anodizing process was done in the potentiostatic mode, using an electrolyte composed of 1.0 mol/L H3PO4 and HF 0.5% m/I. The investigated process parameters were the electrical potential (Va) and the process time (T). The electric potential was varied from 10 V to 30 V and the process time was defined as 1.0 h, 1.5 h or 2.0 h. The treated Ti samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed the formation of nanoporous titanium oxide by anodizing with electric potential (Va) in the range of 20 V to 30 V and process time in the range of 1 to 2 hours. The average pore diameter was in the range 94-128 nm. Samples anodized in electric potential lower than 20 V did not show the formation of the nanoporous surface. In the case of Va above 30 V, it was observed the formation of agglomerates of TiO2. The results obtained in this study showed no

  3. Effects of grit blasting on surface properties of steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon steel substrates have been grit blasted using alumina grits of various sizes under varying pressure, time, angle and standoff distances and the corresponding effect on surface roughness and surface residual stress has been studied. The mechanism of material removal in grit blasting has been analyzed. The effect of blasting process parameters on substrate surface residual stress has been studied using a statistically designed experiment. For this purpose the Barkhausen noise analysis (BNA) of the blasted surface has been undertaken. Then the BNA results have been calibrated against and complemented using the residual stress values measured using X-ray diffraction. The correlation between BN signal and the measured residual stress has been studied. The material removal in blasting takes place by microcutting, indentation or by a mixed mode depending on the blasting angle. During blasting the alumina grits themselves also undergo erosion. The analysis of the experimental results shows that the surface roughness increases with grit size, blasting pressure and to an extent with blasting time and blasting angle as well. The compressive residual stress of the surface and subsurface hardness increases with blasting pressure and blasting angle. The Barkhausen noise signal has a strong correlation with the magnitude of the compressive residual stress on the blasted surface.

  4. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  5. Abrasive Blasting Unit (ABU) - 16270

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUKEM Technologies was contracted to supply a dry, automated drum belt (tumbling) Abrasive Blasting Unit (ABU) to the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy. The ABU was installed in the centralised radioactive waste management area of the JRC-Ispra site in Italy. The unit is to be employed for the decontamination to clearance levels of slightly contaminated metal components and, where practical, concrete or heavy concrete (density ∼3200 kg/m3) blocks arising from the dismantling of nuclear facilities. The presentation is based on the successful construction and installation of the ABU at the JRC Ispra site. Among the several possibilities of adapting conventional abrasive units to nuclear applications, an automatic tumbling machine was preferred, due to the larger output and (mainly) for the ease of operation, with minimum direct handling of contaminated material by operators, thus satisfying the ALARA principle. Consideration was also given to Belgoprocess' successful experience with a predecessor, similar unit. After adequate size reduction batches of up to about 800 kg of material to be decontaminated are automatically introduced into the blasting chamber. Pieces between 100 mm and 800 mm long, between 100 mm and 500 mm wide and between 5 mm and 300 mm high can be effectively treated in the unit, the maximum weight of a single piece being limited to 100 kg. Short lengths of pipe may be included; the final dimensions of pipe to be decontaminated will be established during the nuclear commissioning tests. Other components with hard-to-reach surfaces may also be included. The content of the chamber is tumbled by two bladed drums, while sharp steel grit is sprayed onto the contaminated components, thus removing the surface layer including any contamination. From experience, 30 minutes of treatment is sufficient to remove contamination to levels below expected clearance levels for most materials. The decontaminated components are removed

  6. Recycling potential of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines just how long one must contain radioactive titanium before it can be safely reprocessed. It was assumed that the spent first wall and blanket structural material would be completely reprocessed in a standard manufacturing facility capable of both primary and secondary fabrication. It was found that reprocessing could occur when the chemical hazard associated with inhalation was greater than the hazard associated with inhalating the same amount of radioactive species. This conclusion allowed the use of the threshold limiting value (TLV) to set a limit on the airborne concentration of the elements. Then by calculating the time required for that amount of material to decay to the same diluent factor indicated by the biological hazard potential (BHP) in air, the time for reprocessing was determined. Based on these assumptions, it was determined that it is feasible to think of titanium, and some of its alloying elements as being recyclable in a relatively short time period

  7. Carbon nanotube-based coatings on titanium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elzbieta Dlugon; Wojciech Simka; Aneta Fraczek-Szczypta; Wiktor Niemiec; Jaroslaw Markowski; Marzena Szymanska; Marta Blazewicz

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports results of the modification of titanium surface with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The Ti samples were covered with CNTs via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Prior to EPD process, CNTs were functionalized by chemical treatment. Mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of CNT-covered Ti samples were studied and compared to those obtained for unmodified titanium surface. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the surface topography. To determine micromechanical characteristics of CNT-covered metallic samples indentation tests were conducted. Throughout electrochemical studies were performed in order to characterize the impact of the coating on the corrosion of titanium substrate. In vitro experiments were conducted using the human osteoblast NHOst cell line. CNT layers shielded titanium from corrosion gave the surface-enhanced biointegrative properties. Cells proliferated better on the modified surface in comparison to unmodified titanium. The deposited layer enhanced cell adhesion and spreading as compared to titanium sample.

  8. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  9. Titanium Dioxide as Photocatalytic Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, Lucie; Maléterová, Ywetta; Křesinová, Zdena; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Šolcová, Olga

    Prague : Orgit, 2014, s. 39. ISBN 978-80-02-02555-9. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering /21./ - CHISA 2014 and Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction /17./ - PRES 2014. Prague (CZ), 23.08.2014-27.08.2014] Grant ostatní: NATO(US) SPS984398 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptors * titanium dioxide * experiments Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  10. PLASMA ELECTROLYTIC OXIDATION OF TITANIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Aliasghari, Sepideh *

    2014-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation is used to prepare corrosion- and wear-resistant coatings on light metals. The extensive literature reports on coatings formed under a wide range of different electrical regimes and in diverse electrolyte compositions. However, little work is available that investigates systematically PEO of titanium under a range of electrical variables in a particular electrolyte. In the present work, coatings are formed in a silicate electrolyte under a range of current densit...

  11. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - II. Internal blast and ground shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, F. B. A.

    1994-06-01

    Recent studies of the nature and structural effects of confined explosions, contact blast and explosion-induced ground shock are presented. High explosive blast is distinguished from that due to a gaseous deflagration. The effects of confinement and venting are considered in the evaluation of dynamic loads. Maxima for the initial internal blast pressure can be estimated from the scaled blast data or theoretical analyses of normal blast wave reflection from a rigid wall. Semi-empirical relations and prediction methods for gas pressures for many types of internal explosions including high explosives, gas mixtures and dust suspensions are given on the basis of pseudo-static character. The loading of a contact explosion and the associated effects on a concrete target are determined as functions of charge weight, concrete strength and member thickness. In the final part, the evaluation of both airblast-induced ground shock and directly transmitted motion are included in simple form without considering the soil-structure interaction.

  12. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  13. INVESTIGATION OF COMBUSTION IN TITANIUM-FERROSILICON SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Shatokhin, Igor; Bigeev, Vahit; Shaymardanov, Kamil; Manashev, Ildar

    2013-01-01

    Results of self-sustaining combustion process in the titanium-ferrosilicon system investigations are presented. These data were used for experimental-industrial technology developing of production ferro silico titanium with high titanium content for steel alloying.

  14. Design and commissioning of a semi-confined blast chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. SNYMAN; F.J. MOSTERT; W. GRUNDLING

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, test and analysis of a scaled cylindrical blast chamber. The blast chamber is a one-fifth dimensional size replica of the full-scale blast chamber (Emily). The blast chamber is semi-confined as one end is open. The scaled blast chamber is used to test concepts for closing the open end and allows the gas to vent at the same time. ANSYS AUTODYN calculated the pressure time histories for different closure scenarios. Comparing the results suggested a viable scenario, namely a structure consisting of a circular disc and a frame positioned at the open end of the blast chamber. The structure and cylindrical blast chamber were subjected to scaled blast tests and the pressure results are presented and discussed.

  15. Alkahest NuclearBLAST : a user-friendly BLAST management and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Mark

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sequencing of EST and BAC end datasets is no longer limited to large research groups. Drops in per-base pricing have made high throughput sequencing accessible to individual investigators. However, there are few options available which provide a free and user-friendly solution to the BLAST result storage and data mining needs of biologists. Results - Here we describe NuclearBLAST, a batch BLAST analysis, storage and management system designed for the biologist. It is a wrapper for NCBI BLAST which provides a user-friendly web interface which includes a request wizard and the ability to view and mine the results. All BLAST results are stored in a MySQL database which allows for more advanced data-mining through supplied command-line utilities or direct database access. NuclearBLAST can be installed on a single machine or clustered amongst a number of machines to improve analysis throughput. NuclearBLAST provides a platform which eases data-mining of multiple BLAST results. With the supplied scripts, the program can export data into a spreadsheet-friendly format, automatically assign Gene Ontology terms to sequences and provide bi-directional best hits between two datasets. Users with SQL experience can use the database to ask even more complex questions and extract any subset of data they require. Conclusion - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for requesting, viewing and mining of BLAST results which makes the management and data-mining of large sets of BLAST analyses tractable to biologists.

  16. The effects of hydrogen embrittlement of titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Delbert J.

    1989-01-01

    Titanium alloys, by virtue of their attractive strength to density ratio, fatigue, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance are now commonly used in various aerospace and marine applications. The cost, once very expensive, has been reduced, making titanium even more of a competitive material today. Titanium and titanium alloys have a great affinity to several elements. Hydrogen, even in small amounts, can cause embrittlement, which in turn causes a reduction in strength and ductility. The reduction of strength and ductility is the subject of this investigation.

  17. Laser repair hardfacing of titanium alloy turbine

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; D. Janicki; A. Lisiecki; A. Rzeźnikiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: work out repair technology of worn abutments of aircraft jet engine blades forged of titanium alloy WT3-1.Design/methodology/approach: The study were based on the analysis of laser HPDL powder surfacing of titanium alloy plates using wide range chemical composition consumables of titanium alloys and mixtures of pure titanium and spherical powder of WC indicated that very hard and highest quality deposits are provided by powder mixture of 40-50%Ti+60-50%WC.Findings: It ...

  18. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  19. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  20. Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures for perfect absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Guan, Jianguo; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material.Renewable E......We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material...

  1. Appcelerator Titanium patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Pollentine, Boydlee

    2013-01-01

    The book takes a step-by-step approach to help you understand CommonJS and Titanium architecture patterns, with easy to follow samples and plenty of in-depth explanations If you're an existing Titanium developer or perhaps a new developer looking to start off your Titanium applications "the right way", then this book is for you. With easy to follow examples and a full step-by-step account of architecting a sample application using CommonJS and MVC, along with chapters on new features such as ACS, you'll be implementing enterprise grade Titanium solutions in no time. You should have some JavaSc

  2. Methodology of Testing Shot Blasting Machines in Industrial Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wrona; P. Zyzak; E. Ziółkowski; M. Brzeziński

    2012-01-01

    Shot blasting machines are widely used for automated surface treatment and finishing of castings. In shot blasting processes the stream of shots is generated and shaped by blasting turbines, making up a kinetic and dynamic system comprising a separating rotor, an adapting sleeve and a propelling rotor provided with blades. The shot blasting performance- i.e. the quality of shot treated surfaces depends on the actual design and operational parameters of the unit whilst the values of relevant p...

  3. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Abid; Wani Rauf A; Sheikh Tariq; Parray Fazal Q; Wani Imtiaz; Gul Imran; Nazir Mir

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for ...

  4. A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The d...

  5. Artificial induction of blast-resistant mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes studies on the induction of mutations in rice for resistance to blast disease and studies on the induction of changes in pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus. Treatments were done with both radiation and chemical mutagens. Frequencies in blast-resistant mutations and in increase and decrease of pathogenicity of the fungus are reported. (author). 4 refs

  6. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation before blasting. (a)(1) All nonbattery-powered electric equipment, including cables, located within...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting on shift (III mines). 57.22607 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22607 Blasting on shift (III mines). When blasting on shift, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere by a competent person...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 57.6306... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or... blasting operation and the activities of surveying, stemming, sampling of geology, and reopening of...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 56.6300 Section... § 56.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and related activities. (b) Trainees...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 57.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks,...

  12. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall conduct blasting operations at times approved by the regulatory authority and announced in the...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 57.6300 Section... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and...

  14. The vapour phase deposition of boron on titanium by the reaction between gaseous boron trichloride and titanium metal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction, between boron trichloride vapour and titanium has been investigated in the temperature range 200 - 1350 deg. C. It has been found that an initial reaction leads to the formation of titanium tetrachloride and the deposition of boron on titanium, but that except for reactions between 900 and 1000 deg. C, the system is complicated by the formation of lower titanium chlorides due to secondary reactions between the titanium and titanium tetrachloride

  15. Seam-welded titanium tube as well as titanium tubesheet for all-titanium condenser of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the thermal and nuclear power plants in Japan are located on the coast line, and steam turbine condenser and heat exchanger use a great quantity of sea water for cooling. This paper describes about thin wall welded tube for all-titanium condenser, development of technology for manufacturing titanium tubesheet, and the present situation of application

  16. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  17. Conceptual design and simulation analysis of thermal behaviors of TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Extensive use of carbon based fuel is the main inducement for global warming and more extreme weather.Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy use is a common subject in steel industry.In the integrated steel plant,decreasing carbon dioxide emission must consider energy balance in the whole iron and steel works,and secondary energy must be actively utilized.As promising blast-furnaces,top gas recovery blast furnace(TGR-BF) and oxygen blast furnace have been investigated.In this paper,conceptual TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace are proposed.Base on the idea of blast furnace gas de-CO2 circulating as reducing agent and the idea of pure oxygen blast decreasing the thermal reserve zone temperature,process modeling is conducted with ASPEN Plus.It is shown that the developed model reasonably describes the energy balance and mass balance feature of the furnace,and provides basic thermodynamic condition for furnaces.The effects of changes in different operation conditions are studied by sensitivity analysis and reference data from simulation.

  18. Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schultz, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Co. and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN, for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm-diameter welded steel pipes and one 22-cm PVC pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the test pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale, close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blastholes. Analyses found low pipe responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120 to 250 mm/s produced worst case strains that were about 25 pcts of the strains resulting from normal pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10 to 18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength. No pressurization failures or permanent strains occurred even at vibration amplitudes of 600 mm/s.

  19. Blast densification trials for oilsands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Port, A. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Eaton, T. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Shell Canada Muskeg River Mine External Tailings Facility (ETF) is an upstream constructed tailings facility located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Raises have incrementally stepped out over the beach since construction of the starter dam and deposition within standing water has left some parts of the beach in a loose state. In order to assess the effectiveness of blast densification, a blast densification trial program that was conducted in 2006 at the ETF. The primary purpose of the test program was to determine the effectiveness of blast densification in tailings containing layers and zones of bitumen. The paper described the site characterization and explosive compaction trial program, with particular reference to test layout; drilling methodology; and blasting and timing sequence. The paper also described the instrumentation, including the seismographs; high pressure electric piezometers; low pressure electric piezometers; vibrating wire piezometers; inclinometers; settlement gauges; and surveys. Trial observations and post-trial observations were also presented. It was concluded that controlled blasting techniques could be used to safely induce liquefaction in localized areas within the tailings deposit, with a resulting increase in the tailings density. 5 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  20. Neuro-Glial and Systemic Mechanisms of Pathological Responses in Rat Models of Primary Blast Overpressure Compared to “Composite” Blast

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlov, Stanislav I.; Prima, Victor; Glushakova, Olena; Svetlov, Artem; Kirk, Daniel R.; Gutierrez, Hector; Serebruany, Victor L.; Curley, Kenneth C.; Wang, Kevin K. W.; Hayes, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position toward blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate traumatic brain injury and defined “composite” blast and ...

  1. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  2. Titanium plasma produced by a nitrogen laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium plasmas produced in vacuum and in air by radiation from a nitrogen laser focused onto a solid titanium target are studied spectroscopically. The energy deposition is more effective than in other cases since the wavelength of the laser is in the vicinity of Ti resonance lines. (orig.)

  3. Casting of Titanium and its Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Saha; K. T. Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Titaniuni and its alloys have many applications in aerospace, marine and other engineering industries. Titanium requires special melting techniques because of its high reactivity at elevated temperatures and needs special mould materials and methods for castings. This paper reviews the development of titanium casting technology.

  4. Casting of Titanium and its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Saha

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Titaniuni and its alloys have many applications in aerospace, marine and other engineering industries. Titanium requires special melting techniques because of its high reactivity at elevated temperatures and needs special mould materials and methods for castings. This paper reviews the development of titanium casting technology.

  5. Amorphouslike diffraction pattern in solid metallic titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.; Fang, Y.Z.; Kikegawa, T.; Lathe, C.; Saksl, K.; Franz, H.; Schneider, J.R.; Gerward, Leif; Wu, F.M.; Liu, J.F.; Jiang, J.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphouslike diffraction patterns of solid elemental titanium have been detected under high pressure and high temperature using in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction and a multianvil press. The onset pressure and the temperature of formation of amorphous titanium is found to be close to the...

  6. Appcelerator Titanium business application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Presented in easy to follow, step by step recipes, this guide is designed to lead you through the most important aspects of application design.Titanium developers who already have a basic knowledge of working with Appcelerator Titanium but want to further develop their knowledge for use with business applications

  7. Effect of grit blasting surface plastic deformation on structure and hardness of near surface layers of VT3-1 and VT-22 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different grit blasting surface plastic deformation (SPD) conditions on structure and hardness of the VT3-1 and VT-22 titanium alloys are studied by means of metallographic, X-ray diffraction, electron-microscopy, and durometric methods. The alloy cold working layer depth is shown to increase both with the growth of a diameter of balls used during the SPD and pressure on the grit blasting unit nozzle. A correlation between a microhardness change and X-ray diffraction line width as a function of ball diameter is established. It is shown that the highest alloy surface hardening takes place after a grit balsting cold working with balls 0.4x10-3 m in diameter at a pressure of 3x105 Pa

  8. Theoretical study of titanium phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to obtain a good understanding of the phase diagram of titanium within density functional theory. This diagram is composed of the alpha phase, the high pressure omega phase and the high temperature beta phase. This requires the differences in total energy to be predicted with a great precision, because these differences are around 50 meV. I find the omega phase to be the most stable one by ab initio calculation at zero temperature and pressure, in contradiction to the experimental results. I find this inversion of the stability also appears in titanium dioxide and zirconium. I have analyzed all the approximations brought into play in the ab initio approach. I have estimated the zero point energy and studied the impact of including the semi-core states as well as the effect of the exchange-correlation functionals. The conclusion is that the usual approximations for the exchange-correlation generate the biggest part of the error. A possible correction is to take into account the electronic self-interaction. I have apply this correction to the semi-core states and find a systematic improvement of the cell parameters, but no improvement on the phase stability. So I can conclude that a better description of the exchange interaction on the localized 3d states is needed. Although the standard functionals of exchange-correlation are not accurate enough to predict the phase diagrams of titanium, they perform well in describing physical properties less demanding in terms of precision, like elastic constants. However, I find important that the predicted equilibrium volume must be precise, as these properties are found strongly dependent on the volume. (author)

  9. Electrolytic hydrogen in beta titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permeation of electrolytic hydrogen through beta titanium foils with palladium coated surfaces was studied using Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn. Ion bombardment etching followed by thin film vapor deposition of palladium were used to produce oxide-free titanium specimens for electrochemical hydrogen permeation and embrittlement studies. A thin metallic foil is cathodically charged with hydrogen on one side while the other side is maintained at a sufficiently anodic potential so that all the diffusing hydrogen is oxidized and turned into an equivalent current. The current is analyzed to determine diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen. X-ray diffraction was also used to determine the effects of hydrogen on the lattice parameter. Permeation experiments conducted with basic cyanide solutions exhibited simple diffusion behavior. The diffusivity at 210C for hydrogen through the beta alloy was 5.60 (+-1.92) x 10-7 cm2/s. Anomalous permeation occurred with hydrogen chemical potentials in acidic and basic solutions without cyanide during the later stages of the approach to steady state in the charging. This behavior is consistent with the trapping model of hydrogen in metals of McNabb and Foster. Plastic deformation and spontaneous cracking at the wetted portion of the specimen were observed under extreme conditions during this anomalous behavior. Part of the deformation is found to be reversible. In the mandrel bend experiments on the embrittlement phenomenon, the transgranular cleavage mode of fracture occurred. Interstitially dissolved hydrogen expanded the bcc lattice of the beta titanium with accompanying diffraction line broadening. The lattice contracted upon removal of the hydrogen. The satisfactory performance of the beta alloy Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn, in moderate electrochemical environments results principally from the protective oxide film

  10. Vibration velocity and frequency of underwater short-hole blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the measuring data of underwater blasting vibrationand the regression analysis results of these data, two formulae usually used of blasting vibration velocity were compared. Factors that canaffect blasting vibration and frequency were summarized and analyzed.It is thought that the effect of the number of freedom face and burden direction on blasting vibration should be considered during blastingdesign. Based on the relevant research results and the regression results of these data, a formula to calculate under water blasting frequency was put forward.

  11. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  12. The present status of dental titanium casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Toru; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Watanabe, Ikuya; Okuno, Osamu; Takada, Yukyo

    1998-09-01

    Experimentation in all aspects of titanium casting at universities and industries throughout the world for the last 20 years has made titanium and titanium-alloy casting nearly feasible for fabricating sound cast dental prostheses, including crowns, inlays, and partial and complete dentures. Titanium casting in dentistry has now almost reached the stage where it can seriously be considered as a new method to compete with dental casting using conventional noble and base-metal alloys. More than anything else, the strength of titanium’s appeal lies in its excellent biocompatibility, coupled with its comparatively low price and abundant supply. Research efforts to overcome some problems associated with this method, including studies on the development of new titanium alloys suitable for dental use, will continue at many research sites internationally.

  13. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, M; Wolf-Brandstetter, C; Zerweck, J; Wenninger, F; Gbureck, U; Groll, J; Moseke, C

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr(2+) ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr(2+) into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr(2+) ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant-bone interface. PMID:27287100

  14. On the description of the fractal nature of microstructured surfaces of titanium implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the fractal dimension is an interesting way for the characterization of rough surfaces. Microstructured titanium surfaces produced by different technologies (polishing, glass and corundum blasting, vacuum plasma spraying) were investigated by a number of physical and electrochemical methods, i.e. surface profiling, scanning electron microscopy, voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The data sets obtained by these very different methods were used for the estimation of the fractal dimension of all structures. The aim of this work is to examine the suitability of this additional parameter for a better characterization of structured surfaces and to compare the various applied methods regarding their feasibility. Accompanying cell biological examinations were used to verify whether there is a relation between the parameter fractal dimension and cell behaviour

  15. Blast Diffusion by Different Shapes of Domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Ranjan Sahu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Domes have been used since ancient times in constructions. These are effective structures in supporting loads for large span. Dome has an added advantage of having good looking in structural applications. Many shapes of domes are being used nowadays for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes. Specific purpose domes are also used for nuclear containment. Main threats to structures are from the bomb blast. Hence, domes too are to be designed to withstand effectively the pressure energy generated by the blast. A comparative theoretical study is proposed on the different shapes of domes having same weight and thickness. Various responses are estimated through numerical method after simulating blast and comparing their intensities.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.77-82, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.6908

  16. Isothermal blast wave model of supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of the ''adiabatic'' assumption in supernova remnant calculations is examined, and the alternative extreme of an isothermal blast wave is explored. It is concluded that, because of thermal conductivity, the large temperature gradients predicted by the adiabatic model probably are not maintained in nature. Self-similar solutions to the hydrodynamic equations for an isothermal blast wave have been found and studied. These solutions are then used to determine the relationship between X-ray observations and inferred parameters of supernova remnants. A comparison of the present results with those for the adiabatic model indicates differences which are less than present observational uncertainties. It is concluded that most parameters of supernova remnants inferred from X-ray measurements are relatively insensitive to the specifics of the blast wave model

  17. Isothermal blast wave model of supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinger, A.; Buff, J.; Rappaport, S.

    1975-01-01

    The validity of the 'adiabatic' assumption in supernova-remnant calculations is examined, and the alternative extreme of an isothermal blast wave is explored. It is concluded that, because of thermal conductivity, the large temperature gradients predicted by the adiabatic model probably are not maintained in nature. Self-similar solutions to the hydrodynamic equations for an isothermal blast wave have been found and studied. These solutions are then used to determine the relationship between X-ray observations and inferred parameters of supernova remnants. A comparison of the present results with those for the adiabatic model indicates differences which are less than present observational uncertainties. It is concluded that most parameters of supernova remnants inferred from X-ray measurements are relatively insensitive to the specifics of the blast-wave model.

  18. Computation of blast wave-obstacle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champney, J. M.; Chaussee, D. S.; Kutler, P.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interaction of a planar blast wave with various obstacles are presented. These obstacles are either ground structures or vehicles flying in the atmosphere. For a structure on the ground, the blast wave encounter is side-on, while for the flying vehicles the encounter is either head-on or oblique. Second-order accurate, finite-difference, and shock-capturing procedures are employed to solve the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations. Results are presented for the flow field consisting of blast wave striking obstacles that are at rest, moving subsonically and moving supersonically. Comparison of the numerical results with experimental data for a configuration at rest substantiates the validity of this approach and its potential as a flow analysis tool.

  19. Blasting practices in a quarry with karstic cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The blasting practices in a limestone quarry with karstic cavities have been presented. The existence of karstic cavities in the quarry has reduced blasting efficiency significantly. In order to improve blasting efficiency different blasting strategies (loading holes with ANFO in plastic bag, recording cavity location along the holes and charging the holes according to this information, and modifying blasting pattern according to karstic cavities) had been implemented and the results were evaluated on per ton cost basis. It was concluded that efficient blasting in such aquarries requires determining the size and shape of karstic cavities and based on this information, to modify the blast pattern and charge the holes. The suggested method is to record the cavity along the drill hole and to generate 3D model of cavities. By doing this, the production cost in the limestone quarry has decreased from 0.407 $/t to 0.354 $/t.

  20. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  1. LTC American's, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise

  2. Study of high Mach number laser driven blast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of blast waves produced by intense lasers in gases is motivated by the desire to explore astrophysically relevant hydrodynamic phenomena in the laboratory. A systematic scan of laser produced blast waves was performed and the structure of blast waves was examined over a wide range of drive laser energy. Lasers with energies ranging from 10-1000 J illuminated a pin target in either xenon or nitrogen gas, creating a spherical blast wave. A strongly radiating blast wave in xenon gas is observed while blast waves in nitrogen more closely approximate a pure Taylor-Sedov wave. It is also found that at all laser energies, blast waves traveling through xenon gas had their hydrodynamic evolution significantly affected by the passage of illumination laser

  3. Radiation exposure of sand blasting operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Queensland Department of Health's, Division of Health and Medical Physics initiated, in July, 1985, an investigation into the radiological health impact which involved detailed analyses of an ilmenite product from a mineral sand processor in South East Queensland. Measurements of respirable dust in air concentrations in the breathing zone of sand blasting operators, dust particle sizing and other environmental radiation measurements at a major sand blasting yard using this ilmenite product were carried out. From the data collected, the radiological health impact was assessed and compared with international and national radiological recommendations

  4. The blast wave of Tycho's supernova remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Cassam-Chenai, Gamil; Hughes, John P.; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We use the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the region in the Tycho supernova remnant between the blast wave and the shocked ejecta interface or contact discontinuity. This zone contains all the history of the shock-heated gas and cosmic-ray acceleration in the remnant. We present for the first time evidence for significant spatial variations of the X-ray synchrotron emission in the form of spectral steepening from a photon index of 2.6 right at the blast wave to a value of 3.0 several arcs...

  5. Adsorption of hydrogen in titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the absorption of hydrogen in titanium plates using a constant volume system has been realized. The changes of temperature and pressure were used to monitor the progress of the absorption. A stainless steel vacuum chamber with volume of 4,333 cm3 was used. A titanium sample of 45 x 5.4 x 0.3 cm was located in the center of the chamber. The sample was heated by an electrical source connected to the system. The sample was preconditioned with a vacuum-thermal treatment at 10-6 mbar and 800 Centigrade degrees for several days. Absorption was observed at room temperature and also at higher temperatures. The room temperature absorption was in the pressure range of 1.0 x 103 to 2.5 x 103 mbar, and other absorptions were from 180 to 630 Centigrade degrees at 3.5 x 10-1 to 1.3 x 103 mbar. It was found that the gas absorbed was function of the vacuum-thermal pre-conditioned treatment, pressure and temperature. When the first absorption was developed, additional absorptions were realized in short time. We measured the electrical resistivity of the sample in the experiments but we could not see important changes due to the absorption. (Author)

  6. Blast From the Past: A Retrospective Analysis of Blast-induced Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kristin E; Murphy, Justin M; Tsao, Jack W

    2016-03-01

    Because of the sharp increase in the number of military personnel exposed to explosive blasts in combat, research has been dedicated toward understanding the impact of explosions on the brain. It is important to consider that potential injuries that military personnel sustain may be both in the form of physical injury as well as "invisible" neuronal and psychological damage. Since the inception of the study of blast science in the Medieval and Renaissance eras, significant improvements have been made in the historical record keeping and biomedical analysis of blast injuries. This editorial comments on the evolution of blast science and the recognition of neurological sequelae from both the historical and scientific perspectives. PMID:26926849

  7. OsGF14b Positively Regulates Panicle Blast Resistance but Negatively Regulates Leaf Blast Resistance in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianyuan; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhao, Junliang; Feng, Aiqing; Yang, Tifeng; Wang, Xiaofei; Mao, Xinxue; Dong, Jingfang; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although 14-3-3 proteins have been reported to be involved in responses to biotic stresses in plants, their functions in rice blast, the most destructive disease in rice, are largely unknown. Only GF14e has been confirmed to negatively regulate leaf blast. We report that GF14b is highly expressed in seedlings and panicles during blast infection. Rice plants overexpressing GF14b show enhanced resistance to panicle blast but are susceptible to leaf blast. In contrast, GF14b-silenced plants show increased susceptibility to panicle blast but enhanced resistance to leaf blast. Yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that WRKY71 binds to the promoter of GF14b and modulates its expression. Overexpression of GF14b induces expression of jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis-related genes but suppresses expression of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis-related genes. In contrast, suppressed GF14b expression causes decreased expression of JA synthesis-related genes but activation of SA synthesis-related genes. These results suggest that GF14b positively regulates panicle blast resistance but negatively regulates leaf blast resistance, and that GF14b-mediated disease resistance is associated with the JA- and SA-dependent pathway. The different functions for 14-3-3 proteins in leaf and panicle blast provide new evidence that leaf and panicle blast resistance are controlled by different mechanisms. PMID:26467468

  8. Masonry infill walls under blast loading using confined underwater blast wave generators (WBWG)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, João M.; Campos, José de; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2015-01-01

    The vulnerability of the masonry envelop under blast loading is considered critical due to the risk of loss of lives. The behaviour of masonry infill walls subjected to dynamic out-of-plane loading was experimentally investigated in this work. Using confined underwater blast wave generators (WBWG), applying the extremely high rate conversion of the explosive detonation energy into the kinetic energy of a thick water confinement, allowed a surface area distribution avoiding also the generation...

  9. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  10. Mechanical properties and fracture of titanium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium hydrides tend to suffer fracture when their thicknesses reach a critical thickness. Morphology and mechanical property of the hydrides are, however, not well known. The study aims to reveal the hydride morphology and fracture types of the hydrides. Chevron shaped plate hydrides were found to be produced on the surface of pure titanium (Grade 1) and Grade 7 titanium absorbing hydrogen. There were tree types of fracture of the hydrides, i.e., crack in hydride layer, exfoliation of the layer and shear-type fracture of the hydride plates, during the growth of the hydrides and deformation. We next estimated the true stress-strain curves of the hydrides on Grade 1 and 7 titanium using the dual Vickers indentation method, and the critical strain causing the Mode-I fine crack by indentation. Fracture strength and strain of the hydrides in Grade 1 titanium were estimated as 566 MPa and 4.5%, respectively. Those of the hydride in Grade 7 titanium were 498 MPa and 16%. Though the fracture strains estimated from the plastic instability of true stress-strain curves were approximately the half of those estimated by finite element method, the titanium hydrides were estimated to possess some extent of toughness or plastic deformation capability. (author)

  11. Titanium Coating of the Boston Keratoprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Culla, Borja; Jeong, Kyung Jae; Kolovou, Paraskevi Evi; Chiang, Homer H.; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the feasibility of using titanium to enhance adhesion of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), ultimately to decrease the risk of implant-associated complications. Methods Cylindrical rods were made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), PMMA coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) over a layer of polydopamine (PMMATiO2), smooth (Ti) and sandblasted (TiSB) titanium, and titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox and TiSBox). Topography and surface chemistry were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adhesion force between rods and porcine corneas was measured ex vivo. Titanium sleeves, smooth and sandblasted, were inserted around the stem of the B-KPro and implanted in rabbits. Tissue adhesion to the stem was assessed and compared to an unmodified B-Kpro after 1 month. Results X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated successful deposition of TiO2 on polydopamine-coated PMMA. Oxygen plasma treatment did not change the XPS spectra of titanium rods (Ti and TiSB), although it increased their hydrophilicity. The materials did not show cell toxicity. After 14 days of incubation, PMMATiO2, smooth titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox), and sandblasted titanium rods (TiSB, TiSBox) showed significantly higher adhesion forces than PMMA ex vivo. In vivo, the use of a TiSB sleeve around the stem of the B-KPro induced a significant increase in tissue adhesion compared to a Ti sleeve or bare PMMA. Conclusions Sandblasted titanium sleeves greatly enhanced adherence of the B-KPro to the rabbit cornea. This approach may improve adhesion with the donor cornea in humans as well. Translational Relevance This approach may improve adhesion with donor corneas in humans. PMID:27152247

  12. Corrosion behaviour and galvanic coupling of titanium and welded titanium in LiBr solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion resistance and galvanic coupling of Grade 2 commercially pure titanium in its welded and non-welded condition were systematically analyzed in LiBr solutions. Galvanic corrosion was evaluated through two different methods: anodic polarization (according to the Mixed Potential Theory) and electrochemical noise (using a zero-resistance ammeter). Samples have been etched to study the microstructure. The action of lithium chromate as corrosion inhibitor has been evaluated. Titanium and welded titanium showed extremely low corrosion current densities and elevated pitting potential values (higher than 1 V). The results of both methods, anodic polarization and electrochemical noise, showed that the welded titanium was always the anodic element of the pair titanium-welded titanium, so that its corrosion resistance decreases due to the galvanic effect

  13. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION RESISTANT TITANIUM ALLOYS BY NIOBIUM ADDITION

    OpenAIRE

    Ackland, Graeme; Siemers, Carsten; Tegner, Bengt E.; Saksl, K.; Brunke, F.; Kohnke, M,

    2014-01-01

    The application of titanium alloys is limited to 550°C due to their poor oxidation resistance. It is known that the addition of niobium improves the oxidation resistance of titanium whereas elements like vanadium do not support titanium’s oxidation behaviour. Hence, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. In the present study, different binary titanium-niobium and titanium-vanadium alloys as well as commercially pure titanium were investigated. Oxidation experiments were carried out at ...

  15. Titanium Oxide: A Bioactive Factor in Osteoblast Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Medina, P.; Sundaram, P.A.; Diffoot-Carlo, N.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are currently accepted as the gold standard in dental applications. Their excellent biocompatibility has been attributed to the inert titanium surface through the formation of a thin native oxide which has been correlated to the excellent corrosion resistance of this material in body fluids. Whether this titanium oxide layer is essential to the outstanding biocompatibility of titanium surfaces in orthopedic biomaterial applications is still a moot point. To study ...

  16. Structure and properties of Titanium for dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    GREGER, Miroslav; Černý, Martin; Kander, Ladislav; Kliber, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes manufacture of nano-structural titanium, its structure and properties. Nano-titanium has higher specific strength properties than ordinary (coarse-grained) titanium. Nano-titanium was produced by the equal-channel angular pressing (ETAP) process. The research it self was focused on physical base of strengthening and softening processes and developments occurring at the grain boundaries during the ECAP process at half-hot temperature. Strength of nano-titanium ...

  17. Titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Muris, Joris; Jakobsen, Stig S;

    2016-01-01

    for detection of type IV hypersensitivity is currently inadequate for Ti. Although several other methods for contact allergy detection have been suggested, including lymphocyte stimulation tests, none has yet been generally accepted, and the diagnosis of Ti allergy is therefore still based primarily on clinical...... evaluation. Reports on clinical allergy and adverse events have rarely been published. Whether this is because of unawareness of possible adverse reactions to this specific metal, difficulties in detection methods, or the metal actually being relatively safe to use, is still unresolved....

  18. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  19. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  20. People Interview: Solar physics blasts into space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    INTERVIEW Solar physics blasts into space Lucie Green's physics and astrophysics degree has taken her to the Crimea to study binary stars and to the Mullard Space Science Laboratory. David Smith talks to her about her career as a solar physicist and her involvement in outreach activities.

  1. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  2. Blast waves with cosmic-ray pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cosmic-ray pressure on the dynamics of self-similar, spherical blast waves and driven waves are investigated on the assumptions that the ratio of relativistic cosmic-ray pressure to total pressure at the shock front is a constant w and the the cosmic rays and thermal gas evolve as independent adiabatic fluids in the postshock flow. For blast waves from a point explosion in a uniform medium, the cosmic rays dominate the pressure near r = 0 if w>0. The solutions show that, if w is small, the ratio of cosmic-ray energy to total energy in the blast wave is several times w. The solutions are used to make specific predictions of the pion-decay γ-ray flux from a blast wave as a function of w. If w is large, the predicted fluxes from supernova remnants are close to the current observational limits. It is also noted that cosmic rays may limit the compression in the radiative shock waves of supernova remnants. The addition of cosmic pressure does not change the geneal nature of the driven wave self-similar solutions. The solutions are used to predict the pion-decay γ-ray flux from a young Type II supernova interacting with circumstellar material. Observations these γ-rays from extragalactic supernovae are not promising, but a galactic supernova could be very bright in γ-rays

  3. Japonica genome blast search result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us KOME Japonica ... genome ... blast search result Data detail Data name Japonica ... genome ... blast search result Description of data contents R ...

  4. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  5. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GregoryAElder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI. The β-amyloid (Aβ peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in experimental animal models of nbTBI. We examined levels of brain Aβ following experimental blast injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Aβ 40 and 42. In both rat and mouse models of blast injury, rather than being increased, endogenous rodent brain Aβ levels were decreased acutely following injury. Levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP were increased following blast exposure although there was no evidence of axonal pathology based on APP immunohistochemical staining. Unlike the findings in nbTBI animal models, levels of the β-secretase, BACE-1, and the γ-secretase component presenilin-1 were unchanged following blast exposure. These studies have implications for understanding the nature of blast injury to the brain. They also suggest that strategies aimed at lowering Aβ production may not be effective for treating acute blast injury to the brain.

  6. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanocrystals with Controlled Crystal- and Micro-structures from Titanium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Kobayashi; Hideki Kato; Masato Kakihana

    2013-01-01

    Selective synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) polymorphs including anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) by solvothermal treatment of water-soluble titanium complexes is described with a special focus on their morphological control. The utilization of water-soluble titanium complexes as a raw material allowed us to employ various additives in the synthesis of TiO2. As a result, the selective synthesis of the polymorphs, as well as diverse morphological control, was achieved.

  7. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  8. Neutron scattering and models: Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental titanium were measured from 4.5 {r_arrow} 10.0 MeV in incident energy increments of {approx} 0.5 MeV. At each energy the measurements were made at forty or more scattering angles distributed between {approx} 17 and 160{degree}. Concurrently, differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured for observed excitations of 0.975 {+-} 0.034, 1.497 {+-} 0.033, 2.322 {+-} 0.058, 3.252 {+-} 0.043, 3.700 {+-} 0.093, 4.317 {+-} 0.075 and 4.795 {+-} 0.100 MeV. All of the observed inelastically-scattered neutron groups were composites of contributions from several isotopes and/or levels. The experimental results were used to develop energy-average optical, statistical and coupled-channels models.

  9. Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Alman, D.E.

    2002-09-22

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increased with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.

  10. Gas cloud explosions and resulting blast effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of nuclear power plant structures to resist blast effects due to chemical explosions requires the determination of load-time functions of possible blast waves. Results of recent investigations show that in a free cloud with deflagrative ignition (flame,heat wire, sparks) the occurrence of a gas detonation can practically be excluded. Apparently, free gas clouds can only be induced to detonate by a sufficiently strong detonative initiation. Independently of the initiating event in the practice of damage analysis, it has become customary to describe the consequences of an explosion by means of the so-called TNT equivalent. Therefore, it is attempted to specify this equivalent for hydrocarbons by means of energetic considerations including the propagation functions for the case of spherically symmetric detonations. Analogous to the safety distances required in the handling and storage of high explosives, a mass-distance relation of the form R = k(L)sup(1/3) could be considered where L is the mass of spontaneously released hydrocarbon and k varies only with the structural shape of the blast loaded buildings. With the inclusion of an empirical relation which relates the quasi-static design pressure for a building with the normally reflected blast pressure of a blast wave, it is further attempted to establish a relation between the structural capacity of a building - i.e. the pressure resistance of a building structure for detonative dynamic loading and for quasi-static loading - and the unit-mass distance R/L 1/3. (Auth.)

  11. Development of Virulence Test Methods for Neck and Panicle Blast Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Myoung-Hwan Chi; Sook-Young Park

    2015-01-01

    Isolates of the rice blast fungus show a range of tissue-specificities infecting leaves, nodes, neck and panicles. Although neck and panicle blast cause significantly greater yield losses than the leaf blast, virulence tests of the blast isolates have been performed only rice leaves instead of neck and panicles. In this study, we have developed a virulence test method for neck and panicle blast. We selected three representative isolates from each of leaf, neck, and panicle blast. We observed ...

  12. Analysis of the blasting effect on the electric shove loading efficiency of the open pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Tian-guang; SUN Ying

    2008-01-01

    The connection between blasting cost and comprehensive cost is the main concern. Some blasting effect factors (such as unit explosive consumption, uniformity of blockness, shape and porosity of blasting heap), which had an influence on electric shove loading efficiency, were analyzed. In the end a project to properly increase in blasting cost to decrease the comprehensive cost was put forward. At the same time, the hole-by-hole blasting is effective technology to improve blasting effect.

  13. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  14. Advanced Surface Engineering of Titanium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Dong

    2000-01-01

    Despite their outstanding combination of properties, titanium and its alloys are very susceptible to severe adhesive wear in rubbing with most engineering surfaces and can exhibit poorcorrosion resistance in some aggressive environments. Surface engineering research centred at the University of Birmingham has been focused on creating designer surfaces for titanium components via surface engineering.Great progress has been made recently through the development of such advanced surface engineering techniques as thermal oxidation, palladium-treated thermal oxidation, oxygen boost diffusion and duplex systems.Such advances thus provide scope for designing titanium components for a diversified range of engineering application, usually as direct replacements for steel components. By way of example, some of the successful steps towards titanium designer surfaces are demonstrated. To data, the potential of these advanced technologies has been realised first in auto-sport and off-shore industrials.

  15. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of...

  16. Titanium nitride nanoparticles for therapeutic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2014-01-01

    Titanium nitride nanoparticles exhibit plasmonic resonances in the biological transparency window where high absorption efficiencies can be obtained with small dimensions. Both lithographic and colloidal samples are examined from the perspective of nanoparticle thermal therapy. © 2014 OSA....

  17. Corrosion resistance of titanium alloys for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and its alloys belong to biomaterials which the application scope in medicine increases. Some properties of the alloys, such as high mechanical strength, low density, low Young's modulus, high corrosion resistance and good biotolerance decide about it. The main areas of the application of titanium and its alloys are: orthopedics and traumatology, cardiosurgery, faciomaxillary surgery and dentistry. The results of investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of the technical titanium and Ti6Al14V alloy and comparatively a cobalt alloy of the Vitallium type in the artificial saliva is presented in the work. Significantly better corrosion resistance of titanium and the Ti6Al14V than the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was found. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  19. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Occupational exposure limits

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska; Sławomir Czerczak

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titaniu...

  20. Functional studies of calcium enriched titanium surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Mihoc, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    There exists a clinical requirement for dental implants which will enhance the speed of achievement of osseointegration, its maintenance, and biological and physical properties. Whilst commercially pure titanium remains the material of choice for implant fabrication, a promising approach to enhancing its performance is the surface incorporation of metallic ions, or alkali modification of titanium. Osteoblast behaviour adjacent to the implant is a key factor in osseointegration and it is known...

  1. Microstructure and Slip Character in Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, D.; Williams, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of microstructures in titanium alloys on the basic parameters of deformation behaviour such as slip character, slip length and slip intensity have been explored. Commercial titanium alloys contain the hexagonal close packed (alpha) and body centred cubic (bita) phases. Slip in these individual phases is shown to be dependent on the nature of alloying elements through their effect on phase stability as related to decomposition into ordered or w structures. When alpha and bita coexist...

  2. TEFLON VS TITANIUM PROSTHESES IN STAPES SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Vishwakarma; Simple Patadia; Pratibha Goswami; Kalpesh Patel; Dipesh Darji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otosclerosis is one of the most leading causes of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane in adults. Stapes prostheses have seen many changes in its shape, design and material. Both Teflon and Titanium prostheses used in this study having different method of application are reviewed in detail. OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of use of Teflon and Titanium prostheses in stapedotomy surgery in patients with conductive hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective ...

  3. Backscatter radiation at tissue-titanium interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induced secondary electrons from a metal surface by diagnostic X-rays are thought to contribute to cell damage near the tissue-metal boundaries of metal implants. Titanium implants are becoming increasingly more popular for tissue reconstructions and it is rather often desirable to take radiographs of the operated area. In this study we compared the biological effects of radiation on cultured mammalian test cells grown on titanium plates with the radiation effects on cells that were grown on plastic control plates. In order to study the acute radiation effects on cell growth it was necessary to work with rather high radiation doses (0.7-5 Gy). Photon energies, suitable for diagnostic radiography in odontology, 65 kV, were applied. We found that the cells grown on titanium plates were, in terms of the applied dose in the surrounding culture medium, more sensitive to the irradiations than the cells growing on plastic plates. The survival curve for the cells on titanium had a steeper slope, showed no shoulder in the low-dose region and looked like curves normally obtained for high LET radiation. It was not possible to resolve to what degree the titanium-dependent changes were due to an increased dose near the titanium surface or to a change in the radiobiological effectiveness. Although there was a significant decrease in cellular survival near the metal, postoperative intraoral radiography after titanium implantations need not be excluded. The maximal doses given in odontological X-ray examinations are less than 1 mGy and, if the results in this study are applied, the biological effects near the titanium implant will correspond to biological effects in soft tissue of doses less than 20 mGy which is lower than the doses that give acute effects. The risk of acute healing disturbances are significant only at much higher radiation doses. (orig.)

  4. Device for Underwater Laboratory Simulation of Unconfined Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  5. Determination of leakage in blast furnaces cooling plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace walls are cooled by the circulation of water through copper plates inserted into the blast furnace refractory lining. Plates are fed by circular pipelines, called distribution rings, installed at different levels of the reactor. Because of normal corrosion, plates wear away and can eventually perforate, allowing the leakage of cooling water inside the blast furnace. A system has been designed and installed in order to confirm the eventual occurrence of leakages in the cooling plates of a blast furnace refractory lining. The system injects a solution of tritium into the feeding pipeline and determines, by means of liquid scintillation counting, the concentration of tritium in the exhausting gases at the top of the blast furnace. The system was tested under different blast furnace operating conditions, and allowed the detection and determination of leakages greater than 0.5 1/min. Following necessary maintenance, the system also confirmed the satisfactory results of the corrective actions. (author). 48 refs., 13 figs., 29 tabs

  6. Dynamics of adiabatic blast waves in media of finite mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic formulation is developed to describe the mass motion for nonrelativistic, spherically symmetric blast waves. The formulation is quite general in the sense that it applies to blast waves generated by either a strong explosion or a continuous energy injection, and in that it applies to an arbitrary density distribution. A simple method is developed to describe the motion of the shock by modifying the Kompaneets approximation. The formulation is applied to blast waves in specific density distributions, including an exponential medium, a Gaussian medium, and a medium with density distribution which asymptotically approaches a power law. Comparisons with numerical results for spherically symmetric blast waves are made. The one-dimensional formulation is generalized to nonspherically symmetric blast waves by making the assumption that the blast wave expands radially. Comparisons are made with numerical results for an adiabatic supershell in a plane-parallel medium. 32 refs

  7. Initial cytotoxicity of novel titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M; Lockwood, P E; Wataha, J C; Okabe, T

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the biological response to several novel titanium alloys that have promising physical properties for biomedical applications. Four commercial titanium alloys [Super-TIX(R) 800, Super-TIX(R) 51AF, TIMETAL(R) 21SRx, and Ti-6Al-4V (ASTM grade 5)] and three experimental titanium alloys [Ti-13Cr-3Cu, Ti-1.5Si and Ti-1.5Si-5Cu] were tested. Specimens (n = 6; 5.0 x 5.0 x 3.0 mm(3)) were cast in a centrifugal casting machine using a MgO-based investment and polished to 600 grit, removing 250 mum from each surface. Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti: ASTM grade 2) and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) were used as positive controls. The specimens were cleaned and disinfected, and then each cleaned specimen was placed in direct contact with Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts for 72 h. The cytotoxicity [succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity] of the extracts was assessed using the MTT method. Cytotoxicity of the metals tested was not statistically different compared to the CP Ti and Teflon controls (p > 0.05). These novel titanium alloys pose cytotoxic risks no greater than many other commonly used alloys, including commercially pure titanium. The promising short-term biocompatibility of these Ti alloys is probably due to their excellent corrosion resistance under static conditions, even in biological environments. PMID:17385227

  8. TEFLON VS TITANIUM PROSTHESES IN STAPES SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vishwakarma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Otosclerosis is one of the most leading causes of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane in adults. Stapes prostheses have seen many changes in its shape, design and material. Both Teflon and Titanium prostheses used in this study having different method of application are reviewed in detail. OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of use of Teflon and Titanium prostheses in stapedotomy surgery in patients with conductive hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study SETTING: Tertiary referral centre METHODS: A prospective study of 50 patients of otosclerosis, who underwent stapedotomy at B.J.Medical College, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, with Teflon/Titanium prostheses, from June 2009-February 2012 was done. Follow up was done for a minimum period of 6 months. Revision cases were excluded. A comparison of prostheses was concluded by differences in AB (Air Bone Gap. RESULT: Postoperative ABG of 20db or less was seen in 96% in both groups. The mean postoperative ABGap was 8.2 dB and 11.5 dB for Teflon and Titanium group respectively. There was no statistically significance difference noted in ABGap between Teflon and Titanium pistons at 95% confidence limit at P<0.05. There was significant improvement of AC thresholds at each frequency except for above 4 kHz, in postoperative period. CONCLUSION: Both prostheses provide equal benefit to patients and there is no statistically significant difference between the uses of Teflon/Titanium prostheses. Long term results are still to be analyzed.

  9. A $55 Shock Tube for Simulated Blast Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes are commonly employed to test candidate armor materials, validate numerical models, and conduct simulated blast experiments in animal models. As DoD interests desire to field wearable sensors as blast dosimeters, shock tubes may also serve for calibration and testing of these devices. The high blast pressures needed for experimental testing of candidate armors are unnecessary to test these sensors. An inexpensive, efficient, and easily available way of testing these pressure senso...

  10. Seismic effects on the environmental related to blasting series

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Dambov, Ilija; Nikolic, Miroslav; Cacarov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Blasted series performed on surface and underground mines, cause different effects on the environment in terms of intensity of the shocks, air shocks and pieces of blasted rock mass. These negative effects can cause harmful effects on humans and buildings. For protection from the harmful effects introduced standards, criteria and restrictions on the intensity of these effects, especially the allowable intensity of tremors on the ground to some distance from the blasting series. ...

  11. Non-Linear Behavior of Blasting Noticed on Seismic Signals

    OpenAIRE

    aldas, gulsev uyar

    2010-01-01

    In mining operations, it is necessary to remove the overburden in order to uncover the mineral deposits. When the overburden consists of highly consolidated materials, blasting should be performed to fragment the rocks. Blasting introduces extensive impulsive energy into the  surrounding earth. It is expected that most of the explosive energy is used for rock fragmentation. However, part of this energy is transmitted away from the blasting point as ground vibrations. Mitigation of ground...

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF MITIGATION MATERIALS FOR BLAST INDUCED TBI

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Laurence Retman; Goel, Rahul; Christou, George Alexander; Son, S F; Alley, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the given material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are known or expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. The theory applied to this research is that the greatest energy transfer withi...

  13. Investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Paul A.; Ludwigsen, John S.; Ford, Corey C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan have sustained blast-related, closed-head injuries from being within non-lethal distance of detonated explosive devices. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study attempts to identify the precise conditions of focused stress wave energy within the brain, resulting from blast exposure, which will correlate with a threshold for persistent brain in...

  14. Prediction of blast wave effects on a developed site

    OpenAIRE

    Benselama, Adel M.; William-Louis, Mame J.-P.; Monnoyer, François

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The guidelines for protecting against and mitigating explosion hazards require knowledge and either the experimental or theoretical evaluation of blast wave parameters. To this end, this article proposes a numerical method for simulating blast wave propagation in complex geometries. This method permits an on-the-ground TNT-like explosion and the subsequent blast wave to be simulated, with the possibility of modifying the ground topology by adding a number of obstacles. The...

  15. Neuro-glial and systemic mechanisms of pathological responses in rat models of primary blast overpressure compared to ‘composite’ blast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VictorPrima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position towards blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate TBI and defined ‘composite’ blast and primary blast exposure set-ups. Schlieren optics visualized interaction between the head and a shock wave generated by external shock tube, revealing strong head acceleration upon positioning the rat on-axis with the shock tube (composite blast, but negligible skull movement upon peak overpressure exposure off-axis (primary blast. Brain injury signatures of a primary blast hitting the frontal head were assessed and compared to damage produced by composite blast. Low to negligible levels of neurodegeneration were found following primary blast compared to composite blast by silver staining. However, persistent gliosis in hippocampus and accumulation of GFAP/CNPase in circulation was detected after both primary and composite blast. Also, markers of vascular/endothelial inflammation integrin alpha/beta, sICAM, and L-selectin along with neurotrophic factor NGF-beta were increased in serum within 6 hours post-blasts and persisted for 7 days thereafter. In contrast, systemic IL-1, IL-10, fractalkine, neuroendocrine peptide Orexin A, and VEGF receptor Neuropilin-2 (NRP-2 were raised predominantly after primary blast exposure. In conclusion, biomarkers of major pathological pathways were elevated at all blast setups. The most significant and persistent changes in neuro-glial markers were found after composite blast, while primary blast instigated prominent systemic cytokine/chemokine, Orexin A, and Neuropilin-2 release, particularly when primary blast impacted rats with

  16. Electro- or Turbo-Driven?—Analysis of Different Blast Processes of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a dispute about the energy efficiency and energy cost of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast furnace (BF blast processes. In order to find where the problem lies, energy efficiency analysis models and energy cost analysis models of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes were established, and the differences between the two driving processes in terms of theoretical minimum steam consumption, energy efficiency and energy cost were studied. The results showed that the theoretical minimum steam consumption of a blast process depends on steam thermodynamic properties and is unrelated to drive mode and drive process. A certain overlapped interval between electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes in terms of energy efficiency exists. The equation for calculating the standard coal coefficient of steam was proposed, and the relationship to judge strengths and weaknesses of the two driving modes in terms of energy efficiency and energy cost was established. Finally, two companies were selected for case study research. The results led to different conclusions because of the differences between energy media in terms of standard coal coefficient and unit price. To select the best driving mode, plant-running conditions and energy prices of the region of operation in addition to other relevant factors should all be taken into account.

  17. Mitigation of blast loadings on structures by an anti-blast plastic water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 陈力; 方秦; 张亚栋

    2016-01-01

    Seven in-situ tests were carried out in far field to study the blast mitigation effect of a kind of water filled plastic wall. Test results show that the mitigation effect of water filled plastic wall is remarkable. The maximum reduction of peak reflected overpressure reaches up to 94.53%, as well as 36.3% of the minimum peak reflected overpressure reduction in the scaled distance ranging from 1.71 m/kg1/3 to 3.42 m/kg1/3. Parametric studies were also carried out. The effects of the scaled gauge height, water/charge scaled distance (the distance between the explosive charge and the water wall), water wall scaled height and water/structure scaled distance (the distance between the water wall and the structure) were systematically investigated and compared with the usual rigid anti-blast wall. It is concluded that these parameters affect the mitigation effects of plastic water wall on blast loadings significantly, which is basically consistent to the trend of usual rigid anti-blast wall. Some formulae are also derived based on the numerical and test results, providing a simple but reliable prediction model to evaluate the peak overpressure of mitigated blast loadings on the structures.

  18. Behavior of blast wave in nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on some recent explosion accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the blast wave propagation in complex path and interactions between blast wave and complex media are ones of the important research topics of the safety. Then, in order to investigate the blast wave propagation in nuclear facility, optical experiment using the micro explosives and pressure measurements are conducted. And, numerical calculation is performed to compare with the experimental results. This paper describes how to conduct the experiments and results are summarized. Finally, behavior of blast wave in complex path will be discussed. (author)

  19. WU-Blast2 server at the European Bioinformatics Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Silventoinen, Ville; Robinson, Stephen; Kibria, Asif; Gish, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the WU-BLAST programs (http://blast.wustl.edu) have provided a fast, flexible and reliable method for similarity searching of biological sequence databases. The software is in use at many locales and web sites. The European Bioinformatics Institute's WU-Blast2 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/blast2/) server has been providing free access to these search services since 1997 and today supports many features that both enhance the usability and expand on the scope of the software.

  20. Low Level Primary Blast Injury in Rodent Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Pun, Pamela B. L.; Kan, Enci Mary; Salim, Agus; Li, Zhaohui; Ng, Kian Chye; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Ling, Eng-Ang; Tan, Mui Hong; Lu, Jia

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of blast attacks and resulting traumatic brain injuries has been on the rise in recent years. Primary blast is one of the mechanisms in which the blast wave can cause injury to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single sub-lethal blast over pressure (BOP) exposure of either 48.9 kPa (7.1 psi) or 77.3 kPa (11.3 psi) to rodents in an open-field setting. Brain tissue from these rats was harvested for microarray and histopathological analyses. Gross...

  1. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species

    OpenAIRE

    GregoryAElder; MiguelA.Gama Sosa; RitaDe Gasperi; MichaelCShaughness; StevenTDeKosky; SamGandy; MadhusoodanaPNambiar; JohnWSteele

    2012-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI). The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in ...

  2. On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

  3. Low level primary blast injury in rodent brain

    OpenAIRE

    Enci MaryKan; AgusSalim; Zhao HuiLi; Eng-AngLing

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of blast attacks and resulting traumatic brain injuries has been on the rise in recent years. Primary blast is one of the mechanisms in which the blast wave can cause injury to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single sub-lethal blast over pressure exposure of either 48.9 kPa (7.1 psi) or 77.3 kPa (11.3 psi) to rodents in an open-field setting. Brain tissue from these rats was harvested for microarray and histopathological analyses. Gross histo...

  4. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species

    OpenAIRE

    De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Kim, Soong Ho; Steele, John W.; Shaughness, Michael C; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A.; DeKosky, Steven T.; McCarron, Richard M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gandy, Sam; Ahlers, Stephen T.; Elder, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI). The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in exper...

  5. Oxidation resistant coating for titanium alloys and titanium alloy matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Rouge, Carl J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating for titanium alloys and titanium alloy matrix composites comprises an MCrAlX material. M is a metal selected from nickel, cobalt, and iron. X is an active element selected from Y, Yb, Zr, and Hf.

  6. Dissolution of surface oxide layers on titanium and titanium subhydride between 250 and 7000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface-sensitive, spectroscopic techniques of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been applied to the study of oxide dissolution on titanium and titanium subhydride. In an earlier study it was shown, using AES, that the rate of oxygen dissolution into titanium increased sharply at about 3500C. These data correlated well with physical property measurements that indicated that at these temperatures an exothermic reaction, corresponding to the reaction of free titanium with atmospheric oxygen, was occurring. In the present study the work has been expanded to include studies of TiH/sub x/ (x = 1.15, 1.62). It has been found that dissolution of the native oxide on titanium subhydride occurs at a substantially higher temperature (about 5000C) than for titanium. It appears that the outward diffusion of hydrogen is inhibiting the inward diffusion of oxygen on the subhydride samples at temperatures below 5000C. Further studies of the dissolution of oxides on titanium at fixed temperatures in the range of 300 to 3500C have shown that there is a semi-logarithmic relationship between the surface oxygen level and the time at temperature. This is in agreement with earlier gravimetric studies on titanium oxidation in this temperature range

  7. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  8. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  9. Blast Dynamics in a Dissipative Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, M; Villamaina, D; Trizac, E

    2015-11-20

    The blast caused by an intense explosion has been extensively studied in conservative fluids, where the Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov hydrodynamic solution is a prototypical example of self-similarity driven by conservation laws. In dissipative media, however, energy conservation is violated, yet a distinctive self-similar solution appears. It hinges on the decoupling of random and coherent motion permitted by a broad class of dissipative mechanisms. This enforces a peculiar layered structure in the shock, for which we derive the full hydrodynamic solution, validated by a microscopic approach based on molecular dynamics simulations. We predict and evidence a succession of temporal regimes, as well as a long-time corrugation instability, also self-similar, which disrupts the blast boundary. These generic results may apply from astrophysical systems to granular gases, and invite further cross-fertilization between microscopic and hydrodynamic approaches of shock waves. PMID:26636851

  10. Blast Dynamics in a Dissipative Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, M.; Villamaina, D.; Trizac, E.

    2015-11-01

    The blast caused by an intense explosion has been extensively studied in conservative fluids, where the Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov hydrodynamic solution is a prototypical example of self-similarity driven by conservation laws. In dissipative media, however, energy conservation is violated, yet a distinctive self-similar solution appears. It hinges on the decoupling of random and coherent motion permitted by a broad class of dissipative mechanisms. This enforces a peculiar layered structure in the shock, for which we derive the full hydrodynamic solution, validated by a microscopic approach based on molecular dynamics simulations. We predict and evidence a succession of temporal regimes, as well as a long-time corrugation instability, also self-similar, which disrupts the blast boundary. These generic results may apply from astrophysical systems to granular gases, and invite further cross-fertilization between microscopic and hydrodynamic approaches of shock waves.

  11. Concerning isothermal self-similar blast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-dimensional self-similar flow behind a blast wave from a line explosion in a medium whose density varies with distance as rsup(-ω) is investigated with the assumption that the flow is isothermal. If ω ω > 0, no critical points exist and a continuous solution passing through both the origin and the shock is shown to exist. If 16/9 = 2 no physically acceptable solution exists since the mass behind the shock is infinite. The dependence of the solutions which have zero flow velocity at the origin on the parameter ω is analytic for ω > 0 so that interpolation between neighboring values of ω is permitted. The stability of these isothermal blast waves is investigated to two-dimensional but non-self-similar perturbations. (Auth.)

  12. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  13. Titanium template for scaphoid reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Schaefer, D J; Schumacher, R; Müller-Gerbl, M; Honigmann, P

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of a non-united scaphoid with a humpback deformity involves resection of the non-union followed by bone grafting and fixation of the fragments. Intraoperative control of the reconstruction is difficult owing to the complex three-dimensional shape of the scaphoid and the other carpal bones overlying the scaphoid on lateral radiographs. We developed a titanium template that fits exactly to the surfaces of the proximal and distal scaphoid poles to define their position relative to each other after resection of the non-union. The templates were designed on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and manufactured using selective laser melting technology. Ten conserved human wrists were used to simulate the reconstruction. The achieved precision measured as the deviation of the surface of the reconstructed scaphoid from its virtual counterpart was good in five cases (maximal difference 1.5 mm), moderate in one case (maximal difference 3 mm) and inadequate in four cases (difference more than 3 mm). The main problems were attributed to the template design and can be avoided by improved pre-operative planning, as shown in a clinical case. PMID:25167978

  14. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer

  15. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  16. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. For a given wall configuration and peak blast wave pressure the spall thickness scales directly with the cube root of the charge weight. The spall velocities on the other hand, which are proportional to the impulse trapped in the spall layer, vary only slightly with charge weight due to minor differences of shock attenuation in the wall. For a given charge weight, the spall thickness increases with stand-off distance from the wall and the spall velocity decreases. For fixed charge stand-off distance the spall thicknesses decrease as the charge weight is increased, at the same time spall velocities increase. This is caused by the steeper pressure decay associated with higher blast wave pressures. Fixing the charge parameters, spall thicknesses increase slightly as the wall thickness is increased. The opposite holds for the spalling velocities. As the angle of incidence for the blast wave increases the spall thicknesses increase also. Again the corresponding spall velocities decrease. Assuming elastic concrete behavior, no spalling will occur for angles of shock wave incidence greater than 450. A phase reversal of the reflection coefficient occurs at this point, thus the longitudinal wave reflected at the free surface becomes a compression wave

  17. Seismic effect of destress rock blasting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníček, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří; Przeczek, A.

    Vol. 4/2. Katowice: Glowny Instytut Górnictwa, 2009 - (Lipowcan, A.), s. 110-119. (Prace naukowe GIG. Górnictwo i Śródowisko). ISSN 1643-7608. [Górnicze zagrozenia naturalne 2009. And rzychów (PL), 03.11.2009-06.11.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : underground coal mining * rock burst * destress rock blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  18. Dynamics of a spark produced blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expansion of a spark produced plasma was studied with a simple model and compared to experiments. The model and experiments were performed using a 11.2 nF capacitor bank charged up to 10kV corresponding to a total energy of 0.6 J. The nanosecond shadow pictures revealed detail structure of the shock waves, giving trajectory, speed and blast wave pressure ratios. Conversions of energy into motion and light wave were estimated

  19. Boundary-layer theory for blast waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. B.; Berger, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Korobeinikov, V. P.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    It is profitable to consider the blast wave as a flow field consisting of two regions: the outer, which retains the properties of the inviscid solution, and the inner, which is governed by flow equations including terms expressing the effects of heat transfer and, concomitantly, viscosity. The latter region thus plays the role of a boundary layer. Reported here is an analytical method developed for the study of such layers, based on the matched asymptotic expansion technique combined with patched solutions.

  20. Studies on induction of blast-resistant mutation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutation frequency of blast resistance in rice and that of increased pathogenicity of blast fungi were examined, using the rice variety, Norin 8, which is susceptible to all races of blast fungi in Japan, and a fungus strain, Ina 168, which carries 6 virulent genes, respectively. Four different inoculation methods were employed for screening blast resistant mutants, i.e., spraying spore suspensions in growth chambers, in a greenhouse and in a field nursery, and injecting spore suspensions into newly developed tillers. The number of lesions and their types were used as the criteria of blast resistance. For screening the fungus mutants with increased pathogenicity, the spore suspensions of the fungi to be tested were sprayed on the seedlings of the blast resistant varieties, and when susceptible-type lesions were formed, single spores were isolated from these lesions, and the change in its pathogenicity was confirmed. When seeds were irradiated with gamma ray and treated with chemicals (EMS or EI), the frequency of the mutants with high resistance to blast was 5/4,575 and 4/5,851 respectively, in the M2 generation. The frequency of dominant blast resistant mutations following gamma-ray irradiation at the pre-embryo stage of growing plants was 3/60,101 in the M1 generation. When the spore suspensions of blast fungi were treated with X-ray, the frequency of the mutants with increased pathogenicity was about 0.5%. Thus, the mutants highly resistant against blast of rice induced by radiation or chemicals would eventually become susceptible varieties because blast fungus mutants occurred more frequently with increased pathogenicity. (Kaihara, S.)

  1. Air-Decking Technique in Bench Blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; LU Wen-bo; WU Liang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism and the design parameters of blasting with air-decking are studied. The theory of detonation waves is used to investigate the processes of the one-dimensional plane detonation wave within a borehole. The interaction of the rarefaction wave with an interface and reflection on a rigid wall is also analyzed. The same courses of the shock wave are also investigated. This decides the distribution of the pressure of the explosion products changing with time along the borehole. Based on the above theoretical analysis, two conditions should be met for a reasonable range of values of the air-decking ratio in blasting rock. First, the rarefaction wave from the contact interface between detonation products and air reaches the bottom earlier than that of the reflected shock wave from the end of the stemming. Second,the reflected shock wave reaches the contact interface between the detonation products and air earlier than that of the reflected rarefaction wave from the bottom of the borehole. Finally, the reasonable value of the air-decking ratio must be decided theoretically in air-decking blasting. For different explosives, the reasonable range of air-decking ratio varies from 0.15 to 0.4. This result is well consistent with what was obtained by previous researchers.

  2. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  3. D-BLAST OFDM with Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jianxuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO systems formed by multiple transmit and receive antennas can improve performance and increase capacity of wireless communication systems. Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST structure offers a low-complexity solution for realizing the attractive capacity of MIMO systems. However, for broadband wireless communications, channel is frequency-selective and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has to be used with MIMO techniques to reduce system complexity. In this paper, we investigate D-BLAST for MIMO-OFDM systems. We develop a layerwise channel estimation algorithm which is robust to channel variation by exploiting the characteristic of the D-BLAST structure. Further improvement is made by subspace tracking to considerably reduce the error floor. Simulation results show that the layerwise estimators require 1 dB less signal-to-noise ratio (SNR than the traditional blockwise estimator for a word error rate (WER of when Doppler frequency is 40 Hz. Among the layerwise estimators, the subspace-tracking estimator provides a 0.8 dB gain for WER with 200 Hz Doppler frequency compared with the DFT-based estimator.

  4. Self-similar Ultrarelativistic Jetted Blast Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Uri; Kogan, Dani

    2015-12-01

    Following a suggestion that a directed relativistic explosion may have a universal intermediate asymptotic, we derive a self-similar solution for an ultrarelativistic jetted blast wave. The solution involves three distinct regions: an approximately paraboloid head where the Lorentz factor γ exceeds ˜ 1/2 of its maximal, nose value; a geometrically self-similar, expanding envelope slightly narrower than a paraboloid; and an axial core in which the (cylindrically, henceforth) radial flow {{u}} converges inward toward the axis. Most (˜80%) of the energy lies well beyond the leading, head region. Here, a radial cross section shows a maximal γ (separating the core and the envelope), a sign reversal in {{u}}, and a minimal γ, at respectively ˜1/6, ˜1/4, and ˜3/4 of the shock radius. The solution is apparently unique, and approximately agrees with previous simulations, of different initial conditions, that resolved the head. This suggests that unlike a spherical relativistic blast wave, our solution is an attractor, and may thus describe directed blast waves such as in the external shock phase of a γ-ray burst.

  5. Polarization of modified titanium and titanium–zirconium creates nano-structures while hydride formation is modulated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Walter, Martin S. [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bucko, Miroslaw M. [Department of Ceramics and Refractory Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pamula, Elzbieta [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Lyngstadaas, S. Petter [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1109 Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The majority of titanium based bone-level dental implants available on the market today feature a sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBAE) surface that contains comparably high hydrogen levels. Cathodic polarization of titanium in acidic solutions is known to further increase titanium hydride on the surface. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of cathodic reduction on titanium (Ti) and titanium–zirconium (TiZr) with a SBAE surface in order to investigate the potential of such a process for further improving surfaces for bone anchored dental implants. Samples of both materials were cathodically polarized in acidic solution at different current densities and for different process times. Chemical analysis of the hydrogen levels by SIMS showed that cathodic reduction re-arranged the hydride already present on the surfaces from the etching process but could not significantly increase hydride levels. The hydrogen layer created by the preceding hot acid etching appeared to modulate further hydride creation. Analysis of the surface topography by SEM showed changes to the nano-topography of both materials after polarization. TiZr showed homogeneously distributed nano-spheres as they were already observed for TiZr SBAE at increased size of 80–100 nm on the whole surface. By contrast, polarization of Ti created nano-nodules and nano-spheres of 150–200 nm on the surface. These spheres were interconnected to form flower-like structures along the ridges and peaks of the surface. Moreover the flanks were covered by a rippled structure of isotropically distributed small-diameter (10–20 nm) nano-nodules.

  6. Polarization of modified titanium and titanium–zirconium creates nano-structures while hydride formation is modulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of titanium based bone-level dental implants available on the market today feature a sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBAE) surface that contains comparably high hydrogen levels. Cathodic polarization of titanium in acidic solutions is known to further increase titanium hydride on the surface. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of cathodic reduction on titanium (Ti) and titanium–zirconium (TiZr) with a SBAE surface in order to investigate the potential of such a process for further improving surfaces for bone anchored dental implants. Samples of both materials were cathodically polarized in acidic solution at different current densities and for different process times. Chemical analysis of the hydrogen levels by SIMS showed that cathodic reduction re-arranged the hydride already present on the surfaces from the etching process but could not significantly increase hydride levels. The hydrogen layer created by the preceding hot acid etching appeared to modulate further hydride creation. Analysis of the surface topography by SEM showed changes to the nano-topography of both materials after polarization. TiZr showed homogeneously distributed nano-spheres as they were already observed for TiZr SBAE at increased size of 80–100 nm on the whole surface. By contrast, polarization of Ti created nano-nodules and nano-spheres of 150–200 nm on the surface. These spheres were interconnected to form flower-like structures along the ridges and peaks of the surface. Moreover the flanks were covered by a rippled structure of isotropically distributed small-diameter (10–20 nm) nano-nodules.

  7. Quantitative Risk Assessment in Titanium Sponge Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun K. Roy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This pap& presents the quantitative risk assessment for the storage of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl,.It is the major reactant used for the production of titanium in the titanium spongeplant. Titanium tetrachloride readily reacts with moisture, leading to the release of toxic hydrogen chloride (HCI.F ire explosive and toxicity index analysis, and hazard and operability(HAZOP studies for the entire titanium sponge plant were carried out. Based on these studies, the TiCl, storage section was found to be one of the most hazardous sections in the titaniumsponge plant. Fault tree analysis technique has been used to identify the basic events responsible for the top event occurrence, ie, release of HCl due to the hydrolysis of TiCl, upon contactwith moisture in the environment during spillagelleakage of TiCl, from the storage tanks and to calculate its probability. Consequence analysis of the probable scenarios has been carriedout. The risk has been estimated in terms of fatality.and injuries. Based on these results, basic input in the form of recommendations for possible changes in the design and operation of thetitanium sponge plant have been made for the risk management.

  8. Oriented single crystalline titanium dioxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the synthesis of oriented single crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays on titanium foil. The synthesis method relies on the ability to grow single crystal sodium titanate (Na2Ti2O5·H2O) nanowires on titanium foil through a novel alkali hydrothermal growth process. Following growth, the Na2Ti2O5·H2O nanowires are converted to protonated bititanate (H2Ti2O5·H2O) nanowires through an ion-exchange reaction without changing their morphology or crystal structure. Finally, the protonated bititanate nanowires are converted to single crystalline anatase TiO2 nanowires through a topotactic transformation by calcination. These three sequential steps yield a carpet of 2-50 μm long single crystalline nanowires oriented in the [100] direction and primarily normal to the titanium foil. Even longer nanowires can be grown. The single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays on flexible titanium substrate may be used in photocatalytic and photovoltaic devices such as dye-sensitized solar cells and may enhance their performance by providing fast electron transport. The nanowires can also be used as templates for producing hierarchical nanostructures such as nanowires decorated with nanoparticles on their periphery or nanotubes with walls made of nanoparticles.

  9. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa KINANI; Abdelilah CHTAINI

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa KINANI; Rachida NAJIH; Abdelilah CHTAINI

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

  11. Advances of Titanium Alloys and Its Biological Surface Modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-wei; HUANG Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the past, present and future of surface modification of titanium alloy from the point of view of preparation of hard tissue replacement implants. The development of titanium alloy is also described.

  12. Speciation of titanium in solvent refined coal using SESC - INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preasphaltenes (Pa) separated from solvent refined coal (SRC-I) were fractionated by sequential elution solvent chromatography (SESC) on silica column into 10 fractions. Titanium was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and was found to be concentrated in fractions 7-10. The preasphaltenes form stable complexes with bis (cyclopentadienyl) titanium(IV) dichloride (BTD), cyclopentadienyl titanium(IV) trichloride (CTT) and titanium(IV) oxide bis (acetylacetone) (TOBA). Preasphaltene titanium complexes (Pa-BTD, Pa-CTT, and Pa-TOBA) were fractionated using the SESC scheme, and the concentration of titanium in each fraction was determined. The mechanism for the reaction between titanium complexes (BTD, CTT or TOBA) and Pa was studied, and the existence of titanium phenoxide type complexes in SRC-I was proposed

  13. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  14. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall—...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall...

  16. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator...

  17. Development of ringed-blast-cutter and its application in decommission of nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic of blast-cut technique is presented, and the summary of the development and testing of ringed-blast-cutter is given. The application foreground of ringed-blast-cutter in decommissions of nuclear installation, and some researches for improving blast-cut technique in the future are also described

  18. 77 FR 58173 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Materials and Blasting Units (Pertains to Metal and Nonmetal Underground Mines Deemed To Be Gassy AGENCY... materials and blasting units as permissible for use in the mining industry. However, since there are no permissible explosives or blasting units available that have adequate blasting capacity for some metal...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall be locked in the open position...

  20. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including...

  1. Silicon nitride coating on titanium to enable titanium-ceramic bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R R; Welsch, G E; Monteiro, O

    1999-08-01

    Failures that occur in titanium-ceramic restorations are of concern to clinicians. The formation of poorly adhering oxide on titanium at dental porcelain sintering temperatures causes adherence problems between titanium and porcelain, which is the main limiting factor in the fabrication of titanium-ceramic restorations. To overcome this problem a 1-microm thick Si3N4 coating was applied to a titanium surface using a plasma-immersion implantation and deposition method. Such a coating serves as an oxygen diffusion barrier on titanium during the porcelain firings. The protective coating was characterized in the as-deposited condition and after thermal cycling. Cross sections of Ti/Si3N4-porcelain interface regions were examined by various electron microscopy methods and by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays to study the Si3N4 film's effectiveness in preventing titanium oxidation and in forming a bond with porcelain. The experiments have shown that this Si3N4 coating enables significant improvement in Ti-ceramic bonding. PMID:10380005

  2. Current advances on genetic resistance to rice blast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most threatening fungal diseases resulting in significant annual crop losses worldwide. Blast disease has been effectively managed by a combination of resistant (R) gene deployment, application of fungicides, and suita...

  3. Selection for blast-resistant mutants in irradiated rice populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly released rice variety, Tongil, has many desirable agronomic characters and a particularly high resistance to blast disease. However, it may become susceptible in the future, since a resistant variety released for field planting often encounters the creation of new races of blast fungus. This study was undertaken to identify potential blast-resistant mutants from the population of the irradiated variety, Tongil, by inoculating these materials with induced mutant races of blast fungus which are likely to occur in the future. Blast conidia were irradiated with X-rays and the virulent mutants were identified according to their ability to infect Tongil. Seven blast-resistant mutant lines from the Pungkwang variety, selected through the uplands blast nursery test, were likewise outstanding in resistance in the field compared with the parent. Ten resistant lines from the variety Tongil, identified by artificial inoculation with the mutant race IA-67, were also selected. The results in the study of resistance inheritance showed that blast resistance was conditioned by a single dominant gene and the Tongil variety has three or more resistant genes. (author)

  4. Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  6. Methodology of Testing Shot Blasting Machines in Industrial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shot blasting machines are widely used for automated surface treatment and finishing of castings. In shot blasting processes the stream of shots is generated and shaped by blasting turbines, making up a kinetic and dynamic system comprising a separating rotor, an adapting sleeve and a propelling rotor provided with blades. The shot blasting performance- i.e. the quality of shot treated surfaces depends on the actual design and operational parameters of the unit whilst the values of relevant parameters are associated with the geometry of turbine components and the level of its integration with the separator system. The circulation of the blasting medium becomes the integrating factor of the process line, starting from the hopper, through the propeller turbine, casting treatment, separation of contaminated abrasive mixture, to its recycling and reuse.Inferior quality of the abrasive agent (shot and insufficient purity of the abrasive mixture are responsible for low effectiveness of shot blasting. However, most practitioners fail to fully recognise the importance of proper diagnostics of the shot blasting process in industrial conditions. The wearing of major machine components and of the blasting agent and quality of shot treated surfaces are often misinterpreted, hence the need to take into account all factors involved in the process within the frame of a comprehensive methodology.This paper is an attempt to formulate and apply the available testing methods to the engineering practice in industrial conditions.

  7. Structural Analysis Of Offshore Structures Exposed To Blast Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Jakup; Thygesen, Ulf; Kristensen, Anders;

    2002-01-01

    Numerical methods for simulations of blast loads and resulting structural response are investigated and compared to results obtained from tests. The CFD code EXSIM is used for the simulation of the blast load. This code provides a load profile wich is entered in the FEM analysis model....

  8. Self-similar solutions of laser produced blast waves

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, KPJ

    1996-01-01

    The aerodynamics of the blast wave produced by laser ablation is studied using the piston analogy. The unsteady one-dimensional gasdynamic equations governing the flow an solved under assumption of self-similarity. The solutions are utilized to obtain analytical expressions for the velocity, density, pressure and temperature distributions. The results predict. all the experimentally observed features of the laser produced blast waves.

  9. Plasma Induced Grafting of PSt onto Titanium Dioxide Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of grafting of polymer of styrene (PSt) onto titanium dioxide powder is reported in this paper. The graft polymerization reaction was induced by N2 plasma treatment on the surface of titanium dioxide. Infrared (IR) spectra and X-ray photospectrum (XPS) results showed that PSt was grafted onto the titanium dioxide powder. An observation by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated that the crystal structure of the titanium dioxide powder was unchanged after the plasma treatment

  10. Plasma Induced Grafting of PMMA onto Titanium Dioxide Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Shaofeng; Meng Yuedong; Ou Qiongrong; Xu Xu

    2005-01-01

    Grafting of polymer of methyl methacrylate (PMMA) onto titanium dioxide powder is investigated in this paper. The graft polymerization reaction is induced by dielectric-barrierdischarge produced N2 plasma treatment of titanium dioxide surfaces. IR, XPS and TGA results show that PMMA is grafted onto the surfaces of titanium dioxide powder. And crystal structure of the titanium dioxide powder observed with XRD spectra is unchanged after plasma graft polymerization.

  11. The Progress on Laser Surface Modification Techniques of Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Cheng; PAN Lin; Al Ding-fei; TAO Xi-qi; XIA Chun-huai; SONG Yan

    2004-01-01

    Titanium alloy is widely used in aviation, national defence, automobile, medicine and other fields because of their advantages in lower density, corrosion resistance, and fatigue resistance etc. As titanium alloy is higher friction coefficients, weak wear resistance, bad high temperature oxidation resistance and lower biocompatibility, its applications are restricted. Using laser surface modification techniques can significantly improve the surface properties of titanium alloy. a review is given for progress on laser surface modification techniques of titanium alloy in this paper.

  12. ALLOYING OF TITANIUM BY OXYGEN DURING CHAMBER ELECTROSLAG REMELTING

    OpenAIRE

    RYABTSEV ANATOLIY D.; TROYANSKYY OLEKSANDR A.; PASHYNSKYI VOLODYMYR V.; SNIZHKO OLGA A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of alloying titanium by oxygen in the process of chamber electroslag remelting. As an oxygen-containing ligature, we used the electrodes-satellite from the reaction mass residues mixture from the retort lid for magnesium thermal reduction of a titanium sponge, a specially prepared gaseous argon oxygen mixture containing 30% oxygen applied directly to the melting space, micro-size (10-15 mm) powder particles of titanium oxide and titanium oxide nanopowder with a ...

  13. Wet blasting in conjunction with decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -crystallization and through ion exchange. It may also be integrated into the oxide by filling vacancies present in the oxide. Activity is lower on cold system surfaces than on the hot surfaces because of the slower corrosion rate. The oxide layer is not as thick as on the hot system surfaces and the contamination has looser bonds to the oxide surface which makes it easier to decontaminate. One effective method to decontaminate components is wet blasting with glass beads or alumina oxide for a more effective peeling i.e., when decommissioning. When compared with the other main options available, high pressure cleaning, electro polishing and chemical bating, wet blasting provides comparable or better decontamination factors leaving a derived waste easier to handle and store. Wet blasting is compared to other methods a fast way to decontaminate components. When wet blasting the beads are surrounded with a film of water, so at the moment of impact against the components works like a pressure-absorbing cushion. This prevents the beads from being in direct contact with the metal surface. The oxides on the metal surface blows away by the pressure shock by the water-cushions around the beads. And in the aspect when it's time to decommission a plant where a huge systematic operation is needed, safety is important i.e. time exposed to active components. Wet blasting providing outer operator's position with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment results in a lesser dose taken by the operator. As mentioned oxides on cold system parts is easier to strip with wet blasting, while on hot system parts it's tougher and it could be profitable to first put the decontaminated parts in a electrolyte bath with i.e. Sodium sulfate solution (5% Na2SO4), to crack the oxide layer to easier remove it with wet blasting afterwards. Possible savings through wet blasting if equipment is used systematically in order to ensure that goods being sent for melting have an

  14. Precipitation of Calcium Phosphates in the Presence of Collagen Type I on Four Different Bioactive Titanium Surfaces: an in Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Julia; Kjellin, Per; Currie, Fredrik; Sul, Young-Taeg; Anna, Arvidsson

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To compare the properties of calcium phosphate precipitation on four different bioactive surface preparations and one control surface in the simulated body fluid model with added collagen type I. Material and Methods Blasted titanium discs were treated with four different surface modifications, alkali and heat, sodium fluoride, anodic oxidation and hydroxyapatite coating. The discs were divided into five groups where one group, the blasted, served as control. The discs were immersed in simulated body fluid and collagen for 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks and then analysed by optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results All surfaces show small precipitates after 3 days which with longer immersion times increase. After 2 weeks the surfaces were completely covered with precipitates, and Ca/P ratios were approximately 1.3, independently on surface preparation. The fluoridated discs showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher degree of CaP after one week of immersion as compared to the other surface preparations. The collagen type I content increased with time, as reflected by increased nitrogen content. Conclusions The results from this study indicate that a fluoridated titanium surface may favour precipitation of calcium phosphate in the presence of collagen type I, as compared to the other surface treatments of the present study. PMID:26904178

  15. Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, <100 nm are increasingly being used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics due to the unique properties derived from their small sizes. However, their large surface-area to mass ratio and high redox potential may negatively impact human health and the environment. TiO2-NPs can cause inflammation, pulmonary damage, fibrosis, and lung tumors and they are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Because cancer is a disease involving mutation, there are a large number of studies on the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs. In this article, we review the results that have been reported in the literature, with a focus on data generated from the standard genotoxicity assays. The data include genotoxicity results from the Ames test, in vitro and in vivo Comet assay, in vitro and in vivo micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchange assay, mammalian cell hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene assay, the wing somatic mutation and recombination assay, and the mouse phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene assay. Inconsistent results have been found in these assays, with both positive and negative responses being reported. The in vitro systems for assessing the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs have generated a greater number of positive results than the in vivo systems, and tests for DNA and chromosome damage have produced more positive results than the assays measuring gene mutation. Nearly all tests for measuring the mutagenicity of TiO2-NPs were negative. The current data indicate that the genotoxicity of TiO2-NPs is mediated mainly through the generation of oxidative stress in cells.

  16. Assessing Neuro-Systemic & Behavioral Components in the Pathophysiology of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kobeissy, Firas; Mondello, Stefania; Tümer, Nihal; Toklu, Hale Z.; Whidden, Melissa A; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Zhang, Zhiqun; Prima, Victor; Yassin, Walid; Anagli, John; Chandra, Namas; Svetlov, Stan; Wang, Kevin K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Among the U.S. military personnel, blast injury is among the leading causes of brain injury. During the past decade, it has become apparent that even blast injury as a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms and long-term cognitive disability. Blast injury is characterized by blast overpressure, blast duration, and blast impulse. While the blast injuries of a victim close to the explosion will be severe, maj...

  17. Assessing Neuro-Systemic & Behavioral Components in the Pathophysiology of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Firas H Kobeissy; Stefania eMondello; Nihal eTumer; Toklu, Hale Z.; Whidden, Melissa A; Nataliya eKirichenko; Zhiqun eZhang; Victor ePrima; Walid eYassin; Chandra eNamas; John eAnagli; Stanislav eSvetlov; Wang, Kevin K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Among the U.S. military personnel, blast injury is among the leading causes of brain injury. During the past decade, it has become apparent that even blast injury as a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms and long-term cognitive disability. Blast injury is characterized by blast overpressure (BOP), blast duration, and blast impulse. While the blast injuries of a victim close to the explosion will be sever...

  18. Solvolysis of titanium tetrachloride in non-aqueous media as a method for producing titanium dioxide particles of different morphology

    OpenAIRE

    A. M Nemeryuk; M. M Lylina

    2015-01-01

    The processes of solvolysis of titanium tetrachloride in nonaqueous media were studied. The influence of the conditions of solvolysis on the size and morphology of the particles of titanium dioxide produced have been described.

  19. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  20. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Hai; XIE Cheng-mu; ZHAO Jia-qi

    2005-01-01

    The development and research of titanium cast alloy and its casting technology, especially its application inaeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of molding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problems and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  1. Industrial applications of titanium and zirconium: Fourth volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents industrial applications of titanium and zirconium. This book also contains information on other reactive and refractory metals, including niobium, tantalum, and hafnium. There are fourteen (14) peer-reviewed papers which target these subjects: the applications of titanium; the applications of zirconium and other reactive metals and the technology of titanium and zirconium

  2. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; XiaoMing

    2001-01-01

    Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.  ……

  3. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.

  4. Enhancing osseointegration using surface-modified titanium implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Oh, N.; Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Oh, S.; Appleford, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Bumgardner, J.; Haggard, W.; Ong, J.

    2006-07-01

    Osseointegrated dental implants are used to replace missing teeth. The success of implants is due to osseointegration or the direct contact of the implant surface and bone without a fibrous connective tissue interface. This review discusses the enhancement of osseointegration by means of anodized microporous titanium surfaces, functionally macroporous graded titanium coatings, nanoscale titanium surfaces, and different bioactive factors.

  5. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  6. Applications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ohama, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysis is based on the semiconducting nature of its anatase crystal type. Construction materials with titanium photocatalyst show performances of air purification, self-cleaning, water purification, antibacterial action. This book describes principles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, its applications to cementitious and noncementitious materials, as well as an overview of standardization of testing methods.

  7. Numerical Calculation of Concrete Slab Response to Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoqing; HAO Hong; KUZNETSOV Valerian A; WASCHL John

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper,a dynamic plastic damage model for concrete has been employed to estimate responses of a reinforced concrete slab subjected to blast loading.The interaction between the blast wave and the concrete slab is considered in 3D simulation.In the first stage,the initial detonation and blast wave propagation is modelled in 2D simulation before the blast wave reaches the concrete slab,then the results obtained from 2D calculation are remapped to a 3D model.The calculated blast load is compared with that obtained from TM5-1300.Numerical results of the concrete slab response are compared with the explosive test carried out in the Weapons System Division,Defence Science and Technology Organisation,Department of Defence,Australia.

  8. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  9. Fracture analysis for controlled blasting demolition of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward establishing a design method for controlled blasting demolition used for the designed dismantling of large reinforced concrete (RC) structures, this study is intended to prove the overall suitability and efficiency of this method. The previous paper (Controlled Blasting for Demolition of Biological Shield Concrete Wall: Part 2) described an application of controlled blasting demolition to an inner part of the radioactive RC biological shield in the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). Through this experience, it was confirmed that the partial demolition of the structure was carried out safely and rationally using this method. In order to clarify the characteristics of blasting effect, an RC cylinder blasting test was performed and the results of this test were compared with analytical simulation of this test using the discrete element method (DEM) and the finite element method (FEM). This paper outlines the test, the analyses and the comparison. (author)

  10. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO2), as shown in a front view is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO2 xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. The cryogenesis subsystem performs the actual decontamination work and consists of the dry ice supply unit, the blasting nozzle, the remotely controlled electric and pneumatic valves, and the vacuum work-head. The COYOTEE subsystem positions the blasting work-head within a planar work space and the vacuum subsystem provides filtration and containment of the debris generated by the CO2 blasting. It employs a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration unit to separate contaminants for disposal. All of the above systems are attached to the vehicle subsystem via the support structure

  11. Influence of maximum decking charge on intensity of blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the character of short-time non-stationary random signal, the relationship between the maximum decking charge and energy distribution of blasting vibration signals was investigated by means of the wavelet packet method. Firstly, the characteristics of wavelet transform and wavelet packet analysis were described. Secondly, the blasting vibration signals were analyzed by wavelet packet based on software MATLAB, and the change of energy distribution curve at different frequency bands were obtained. Finally, the law of energy distribution of blasting vibration signals changing with the maximum decking charge was analyzed. The results show that with the increase of decking charge, the ratio of the energy of high frequency to total energy decreases, the dominant frequency bands of blasting vibration signals tend towards low frequency and blasting vibration does not depend on the maximum decking charge.

  12. A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1063/1.3518970

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer which explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  13. The analysis of ground vibrations induced by bench blasting at Akyol quarry and practical blasting charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Umit; Kahriman, Ali; Aksoy, Mehmet; Adiguzel, Deniz; Karadogan, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    Ground vibrations arising from excavation with blasting is one of the fundamental problems in the mining industry. Therefore, the prediction of ground vibration components plays an important role in the minimization of environmental complaints. In this study, 582 events were recorded during limestone production at a quarry (Akyol Quarry) during a period of time. The blasting parameters of these shots were also carefully recorded. During the statistical analysis of the collected data, three predictor equations proposed by the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM), Ambraseys Hendron and Langefors Kihlstrom were used to establish a relationship between peak particle velocity and scaled distance described by these prediction equations. As a result of this analysis, the most powerful relationship was determined and proposed to be used in this site. And also, this equation was used in the derivation of the practical blasting charts specific to this site as a practical way of predicting the peak particle velocity and maximum charge amount per delay for future blasting.

  14. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles – Biological effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska; Sławomir Czerczak

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide occurs as particles of various sizes. Particles of up to 100 nm, corresponding to nanoparticles, and in the size range of 0.1–3 mm are the most frequently used. Titanium dioxide in a bulk form is not classified as dangerous substance, nevertheless nanoparticles may cause adverse health effects. Inhalation exposure to nano-TiO2 causes pulmonary inflammation that may lead to fibrotic and proliferative changes in the lungs. Many studies confirm the genotoxic effect of TiO2, espe...

  15. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III

    1989-01-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  16. Local heating with titanium nitride nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Ndukaife, Justus C.; Naik, Gururaj V.;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible.......We investigate the feasibility of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles as local heat sources in the near infrared region, focusing on biological window. Experiments and simulations provide promising results for TiN, which is known to be bio-compatible....

  17. Powder injection molding of pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shibo; DUAN Bohua; HE Xinbo; QU Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    An improved wax-based binder was developed for powder injection molding of pure titanium. A critical powder loading of 69 vol.% and a pseudo-plastic flow behavior were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. The injection molding, debinding, and sintering process were studied. An ideal control of carbon and oxygen contents was achieved by thermal debinding in vacuum atmosphere (10-3 Pa). The mechanical properties of as-sintered specimens were less than those of titanium made by the conventional press-sintering process. Good shape retention and ±0.04 mm dimension deviation were achieved.

  18. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, K. A.; Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Orshanskaya, E. G.

    2015-09-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density.

  19. On Silicides in High Temperature Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra, C.; Vakil Singh; P. Rama Rao

    1986-01-01

    High temperature titanium alloys like IMI 685 contain small amounts of silicon (~ 0.25 wt. per cent) to improve creep resistance. Different types of silicides, namely Ti5Si3 (TiZr)5Si3(S1) and (TiZr)6 Si3 (S2), have been observed to precipitate in various silicon-bearing titanium alloys depending upon their composition and heat treatment. The precipitation of silicides, their orientation relationship with the matrix in different alloys, and the beneficial influence of thermo-mechanical treatm...

  20. Magnetically controlled recrystallization texture in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molodov, D.A. [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Sheikh-Ali, A.D. [National High Magnetic Field Lab. and FAMU-FSU Coll. of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The annealing of cold rolled (82%) titanium sheet at 750 C in a magnetic field of 19.4 Tesla results in a distinct difference between texture peaks when the sample is tilted by +30 or -30 to the field direction around the rolling direction, i.e. c (<0001>)-axis of grains corresponding to one texture component is aligned normal to the field direction. This result is attributed to grain growth affected by an additional driving force arising in a magnetic field by the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of titanium. (orig.)

  1. Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO2 on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO2 by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration

  2. Creating mobile apps with Appcelerator Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    Brousseau, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium provides a hands-on approach and working examples on creating apps and games as well as embedding them onto a social networking website. Developers can then move on from there to develop their own applications based on the ones they have developed throughout the course of this book.""Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium"" is for developers who have experience with modern languages and development environments. Also, if you are familiar with the concepts of Object-oriented Programming (OOP), reusable components, AJAX closures, and so on

  3. Quantitative trait locus analysis of resistance to panicle blast in the rice cultivar Miyazakimochi

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, Takeaki; Hayano-Saito, Yuriko; Oide, Shinichi; Ebana, Kaworu; La, Nghia Tuan; Hayashi, Keiko; Ashizawa, Taketo; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Koizumi, Shinzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice blast is a destructive disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, and it has a large impact on rice production worldwide. Compared with leaf blast resistance, our understanding of panicle blast resistance is limited, with only one panicle blast resistance gene, Pb1, isolated so far. The japonica cultivar Miyazakimochi shows resistance to panicle blast, yet the genetic components accounting for this resistance remain to be determined. Results In this study, we evaluated the panicle ...

  4. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Deqiang; Chi Enan; Ji Yucheng; Liu Jia; Wang Xuguang; Zhao Mingsheng; Tao Tiejun; Wang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration wh...

  5. Review of Methods for Calculating Pressure Profiles of Explosive Air Blast and its Sample Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chock, Jeffrey Mun Kong

    1999-01-01

    Blast profiles and two primary methods of determining them were reviewed for use in the creation of a computer program for calculating blast pressures which serves as a design tool to aid engineers or analysts in the study of structures subjected to explosive air blast. These methods were integrated into a computer program, BLAST.F, to generate air blast pressure profiles by one of these two differing methods. These two methods were compared after the creation of the program and can conserv...

  6. Teknologi Pembuatan Material Shot Blast untuk Mendukung Industri Pengecoran Logam Nasional

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar Nurjaman

    2009-01-01

    Shot blast material is a supporting material in foundry which is used at surface finishing process of metal casting. Recently, there is no one of national industry that produce shot blast material, in consequence, the purpose of this research is to lessen the dependence of using shot blast material import by making a shot blast material which improve its hardness exceed the shot blast material import. This research use the raw material from scrap iron with the following composition: C (3.2%),...

  7. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  8. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  9. A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating b...

  10. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Yang; Chang Qi

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes...

  11. IR and Near IR Laser Ablative Deposition of Amorphous Titanium Coats Containing Nanocrystalline Grains of Titanium and Titanium Suboxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Markéta; Pokorná, Dana; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Medlín, R.; Křenek, T.; Pola, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, NOV 2014 (2014), s. 237-244. ISSN 1350-4495 Grant ostatní: GA MŠMT(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0088 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laser ablation * laser deposition * amorphous titanium coats Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2014

  12. Low level primary blast injury in rodent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enci MaryKan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of blast attacks and resulting traumatic brain injuries has been on the rise in recent years. Primary blast is one of the mechanisms in which the blast wave can cause injury to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single sub-lethal blast over pressure exposure of either 48.9 kPa (7.1 psi or 77.3 kPa (11.3 psi to rodents in an open-field setting. Brain tissue from these rats was harvested for microarray and histopathological analyses. Gross histopathology of the brains showed that cortical neurons were ‘darkened’ and shrunken with narrowed vasculature in the cerebral cortex day 1 after blast with signs of recovery at day 4 and day 7 after blast. TUNEL-positive cells were predominant in the white matter of the brain at day 1 after blast and double-labeling of brain tissue showed that these DNA-damaged cells were both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes but were mainly not apoptotic due to the low caspase-3 immunopositivity. There was also an increase in amyloid precursor protein immunoreactive cells in the white matter which suggests acute axonal damage. In contrast, Iba-1 staining for macrophages or microglia was not different from control post-blast. Blast exposure altered the expression of over 5786 genes in the brain which occurred mostly at day 1 and day 4 post-blast. These genes were narrowed down to 10 overlapping genes after time-course evaluation and functional analyses. These genes pointed towards signs of repair at day 4 and 7 post-blast. Our findings suggest that the blast over pressure levels in the study resulted in mild cellular injury to the brain as evidenced by acute neuronal, cerebrovascular and white matter perturbations that showed signs of resolution. It is unclear whether these perturbations exist at a milder level or normalize completely and will need more investigation. Specific changes in gene expression may be further evaluated to understand the mechanism of blast

  13. The formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticles during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrpouya, Fahimeh; Tavanai, Hossein, E-mail: tavanai@cc.iut.ac.ir; Morshed, Mohammad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Center of Excellence in Applied Nanotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiaci, Mehran [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Activated carbon (AC) can act as an important carrier for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle can be fabricated by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxides like titanium isopropoxide. This study showed that the formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticle during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide leads to the formation of mainly anatase crystal TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle in AC nanofibers, with a good dispersion in both the longitude and cross section of nanofibers. The TiO{sub 2} crystallite size lies in the range of 7.3-11.3 nm. The dispersion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the matrix of AC nanofibers is far superior to the direct mixing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the original electrospinning solution.

  14. Hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and its alloys - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen embrittlement data of titanium and its alloys is reviewed. Especially the results obtained in spent nuclear fuel repository conditions with commercially pure titanium and TiCode-12 alloy are examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of titanium are not much affected by hydrogen when tested by smooth specimens. Much greater effects can be expected with notched fracture mechanics specimens. However, only limeted data is available. Hydrogen distribution in titanium is affected by stress, alloy composition and temperature gradients. In order to model the hydrogen-induced crack growth in titanium much more mechanistic work is needed especially to understand the behaviour of hydrogen in crack tip stress field. (author)

  15. Structure and properties of Titanium for dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greger

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes manufacture of nano-structural titanium, its structure and properties. Nano-titanium has higher specific strength properties than ordinary (coarse-grained titanium. Nano-titanium was produced by the equal-channel angular pressing (ETAP process. The research it self was focused on physical base of strengthening and softening processes and developments occurring at the grain boundaries during the ECAP process at half-hot temperature. Strength of nano-titanium varies around 960 MPa, grain size around 300 nm.

  16. Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.

    Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.

  17. Gas cloud explosions and resulting blast effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of nuclear power plant structures to resist blast effects due to chemical explosions requires the determination of load-time functions of possible blast waves. Whether the explosion of a hydrocarbon gas in the atmosphere will occur in the form of a deflagration or a detonation is largely depending on the type of the flame acceleration process which is closely related to the rate of energy release. Flame propagations at normal flame velocities in a free explosible gas cloud will certainly not lead to a detonation. With sufficiently large clouds, however, the flame acceleration could become so high that an initial deflagration changes into a detonative process. Results of recent investigations, which will be discussed in detail, show that in a free cloud with deflagrative ignition (flame, heated wire, sparks) the occurrence of a gas detonation can practically be excluded. Apparently, free gas clouds can only be induced to detonate by a sufficiently strong detonative initiation. Independently from the initiating event (deflagration, detonation) in the practice of damage analysis it has become customary to describe the consequences of an explosion event by means of the so-called TNT-equivalent. Therefore, it is attempted to specify this equivalent for hydrocarbons by means of energetic considerations including the propagation functions for the case of spherically symmetric detonations. In correspondence with U.S. recommendations it follows that with regard to the effects, 1 kg of hydrocarbon could be equated to about 1 kg TNT. In analogous manner to the safety distances required in the handling and storage of high-explosives a mass-distance relation of the form R = k x Lsup(1/3) could be considered, where L is the mass of spontaneously released hydrocarbon and k varies only with the structural shape of the blast loaded buildings. (orig./HP)

  18. Comparative analysis of weld properties of titanium-niobium, titanium molybdenum and stainless steel archwires

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Pattabiraman; V Shashikala Kumari; Sarala Upadhya; Nausheer Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Ability to achieve sound weld joints is a desirable characteristic for orthodontic archwires. Titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) has been the only truly weldable orthodontic archwire alloy until now. Titanium-niobium (Ti-Nb) alloy archwires exhibit similar mechanical properties as TMA. Whether sound weld joints can be produced in these wires has not been evaluated thus far. In this study Ti-Nb alloy archwires were compared with TMA and stainless steel (SS) for weld quality, with SS wi...

  19. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  20. NASA TEERM Project: Corn Based Blast Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Coatings removal is a necessary part of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul activities at many NASA centers and contractor support sites. Sensitive substrates, such as composites and thin aluminum alloys require special handling such as the use of chemical stripping, pneumatic hand sanding, or softer blast media. Type V, acrylic based PMB is commonly used to de-coat, strip, or de-paint the delicate substrates of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) currently used in support of the Shuttle and slated to be used in support of CxP.

  1. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Härkki

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs) in a blast furnace (BF) coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N 2 and O 2 . The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallu...

  2. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  3. Aluminum structures exposed to blast loading

    OpenAIRE

    Hustad, Tore Andre; Lindland, Andreas Lyngtveit

    2014-01-01

    Design of blast resistance in structures is an important aspect in modern society. Plated structures are used in a lot of constructions that can be especially vulnerable to explosions. This includes e.g. protective, offshore or automotive structures. The main objective in this study was to investigate the response of thin plates made of the aluminum alloy 1050A-H14, as well as to evaluate the available computational methods.Material tensile tests were performed in order to determine a materia...

  4. Significance of blast wave studies to propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    Brief survey of experimental methods currently used for the study of blast wave phenomena with emphasis on high rate exothermic processes. The experimental techniques have used such devices as divergent test sections in shock or detonation tubes, employment of proper test gases, as in marginal detonations, and a variety of explosion systems from finite source explosion apparatus to devices where virtually point explosions are obtained by local breakdown initiated by means of focused laser irradiation. Other methods used are detonation tubes where pressure waves are generated by accelerating flames or by exothermic reactions developed behind reflected shocks, as well as a variety of converging shock and implosion vessels.

  5. Blast-wave snapshots from RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasik, Boris

    2003-01-01

    I present fits with the so-called blast-wave model to single-particle spectra and HBT correlations from Au+Au collisions at a CMS energy of 130 AGeV. There is only little choice of freeze-out temperature and transverse flow velocity for which the model fits both the identified spectra and the correlation radii just well enough not to be excluded. The observed steep M_t dependence of R_side leads to a temperature which it is problematic to interpret. The applicability of the model for the free...

  6. Cosmic Ray Origins in Supernova Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, A R

    2014-01-01

    We extend the self-similar solution derived by Chevalier for a Sedov blast wave accelerating cosmic rays (CR) to show that the Galactic CR population can be divided into: (A) CR with energies above ~200GeV released upstream during CR acceleration by supernova remnants (SNR), (B) CR advected into the interior of the SNR during expansion and then released from the SNR at the end of its life to provide the Galactic CR component below ~200GeV. The intersection between the two populations may correspond to a measured change in the Galactic CR spectral index at this energy.

  7. Non-equilibrium ionized blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of a cylindrical blast wave with ionization at non-LTE conditions was calculated using equations previously developed by Wu and Fu (1970). The degree of ionization was predicted by a modified Saha equation. Temperature profiles show that the temperature at non-LTE conditions is lower than at LTE near the shock front. This corresponds to a higher degree of ionization for the non-LTE limit, which indicates that the neutral gas absorption is much more efficient at non-LTE than at the LTE limit. The decaying velocity under non-LTE is approximately 15% less than under LTE.

  8. In situ analysis of multispecies biofilm formation on customized titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjd, V; Chávez de Paz, L; Andersson, M; Wennerberg, A; Davies, J R; Svensäter, G

    2011-08-01

    Many studies to identify surfaces that enhance the incorporation of dental implants into bone and soft-tissue have been undertaken previously. However, to succeed in the clinical situation, an implant surface must not support development of microbial biofilms with a pathogenic potential. As a first step in investigating this, we used two-species and three-species biofilm models with 16S ribosomal RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the effect of surface characteristics on biofilm formation by species that can colonize titanium implants in vivo: Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii and Lactobacillus salivarius. Surfaces blasted with Al(2) O(3) (S(a) = 1.0-2.0 μm) showed a seven-fold higher bacterial adhesion after 2 h than turned surfaces (S(a) = 0.18 μm) whereas porous surfaces, generated by anodic oxidation (S(a) = 0.4 μm), showed four-fold greater adhesion than turned surfaces. Hence, increased roughness promoted adhesion, most likely through protection of bacteria from shear forces. Chemical modification of the blasted and oxidized surfaces by incorporation of Ca(2+) ions reduced adhesion compared with the corresponding non-modified surfaces. After 14 h, biofilm growth occurred in the three-species model but not in the two-species consortium (containing S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii only). The biofilm biovolume on all surfaces was similar, suggesting that the influence of surface characteristics on adhesion was compensated for by biofilm development. PMID:21729245

  9. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Occupational exposure limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC. It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC for particles < 100 nm and nano-TiO2 cannot be established. In the world there are 2 proposals of occupational exposure levels for titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO. The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted. Med Pr 2014;65(3:407–418

  10. Titanium impregnated borosilicate zeolites for epoxidation catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přech, Jan; Vitvarová, Dana; Lupínková, Lenka; Kubů, Martin; Čejka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, AUG 2015 (2015), s. 28-34. ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/0819 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : borosilicate * titanium impregnation * epoxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.453, year: 2014

  11. Composites of titanium carbide with scandium matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Pala, Zdeněk; Vilémová, Monika; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Mušálek, Radek; Nevrlá, Barbara; Mastný, L.

    Ostrava: Tanger Ltd, 2014, s. 1181-1186. ISBN 978-80-87294-54-3. [METAL 2014,International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials/23./. Brno (CZ), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : hard compounds * titanium carbide * scandium oxycarbide * spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry www.metal.2014.com

  12. Dynamic Fatigue of a Titanium Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Cagle, Holly A.; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Titanium Silicate Glass in order to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for optical elements made from this material. The material has reasonably good resistance (N=23 to stress corrosion in ambient conditions).

  13. New layered functionalized titanium (IV) phenylphosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melánová, Klára; Klevcov, J.; Beneš, L.; Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav

    Pardubice : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2011. s. 173. ISBN 978-80-85009-66-8. [16th International Symposium on Intercalation Compounds. 23.05.2011-26.05.2011, Seč] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : titanium * phenylphosphonate * layered compounds Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  14. Laser repair hardfacing of titanium alloy turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Klimpel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: work out repair technology of worn abutments of aircraft jet engine blades forged of titanium alloy WT3-1.Design/methodology/approach: The study were based on the analysis of laser HPDL powder surfacing of titanium alloy plates using wide range chemical composition consumables of titanium alloys and mixtures of pure titanium and spherical powder of WC indicated that very hard and highest quality deposits are provided by powder mixture of 40-50%Ti+60-50%WC.Findings: It was found that it is possible to achieve high quality deposits, free of any defects. HPDL technology can be used to repair worn turbine blade.Research limitations/implications: It was found that it is possible to repair the worn areas abutments of blades of zero compression stage of aircraft engine turbine by HPDL laser surfacing with using composite powder mixture of 50%Ti+50%WC as an additional material.Practical implications: The technology can be applied for repair worn abutments of aircraft jet engine blades.Originality/value: Repairing worn abutments of aircraft jet engine blades.

  15. Diffusion welding of commercial titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weldability is studied of several industrial titanium alloys variously combined one to another in vacuum diffusion welding. Experimental results have been analyzed with reference to a model of electron localization. It is shown that the weldability is best in pairs, in which the electron exchange is conducive to electron localization, whereas the optimum temperatures of welding are those which enhance electron localization

  16. Passivation of alloys on titanium base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of passivation studies on Ti-base alloys show that the inhibition of anodic processes on these alloys is determined not by the total thickness of passive film, but by its barrier layer. The protective properties of the barrier layer increase if the passive film is formed at anodic potentials more positive than +1.4V. They were determined not by chemical stability of barrier layer, but by an inhibition which is produced by this layer for ionic current along the anodic direction. The protective properties are related to character defectiveness and semiconductor properties of the barrier layer. Additions of Al, V, Mo, Zr, and Nb to titanium increase the anodic current in the passive state. Additions of Cr and Mn decrease this current, and Sn does not influence it. The direct electrochemical transition of titanium ions into solution (as TiO2+) is a main anodic process of titanium dissolution and its low alloyed alloys in the passive state. Double phase titanium alloys (after tempering) have a lower corrosion resistance than those in the homogeneous single phase state (after hardening). The less passive phase of double phase alloys dissolves perferentially. The less passive phases are: in the active state, α-phase; in transpassive state for Ti--Mo alloys, β-phase, containing in a high Mo percentage; and for Ti--Cr alloys, γ-phase, having more chromium. (U.S.)

  17. Study on Crystallization of Titanium Silicalite (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Min; Zhu Bin; Shu Xingtian; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the rules on preparation of titanium silicalite (TS-1) the 1H→13C CP/MAS NMR spectrometers were applied to track the function of template TPAOH in the process of crystal lization of titanium silicalite.The research results revealed that at the initial stage of crystallization the TPA+ ions acting as the template could predominantly absorb the polymers of negatively charged silicatitania sol and the interactions between silica sol and titania sol could gradually lead to the formation of tiny crystal nuclei that could slowly grow up to form molecular sieves.Upon investigating the course of crystallization of titanium silicalite the 1H→13C CP/MAS NMR spectrometers were applied to effectively enhance the resolution of 29Si signals in the titanium silicalite.Study results have shown that during the formation of tiny crystal nuclei upon interaction between titania sol and silica sol the influence of titania sol on the silica sol was insignificant.However,when tiny crystal nuclei broke out into molecular sieves the titania sol could enter the zeolite framework that could apparently impose an enhanced effect on the silica sol.

  18. Safety of engineered structures against blast vibrations: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Tripathy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blasting used for rock excavation is associated with ground vibrations having potential damage to surrounding structures. The extent of damage produced in a structure depends largely on ground motion characteristics, dynamic characteristics of structure and the type of geological strata on which it is founded. The safety of surrounding structures against blast vibrations is a cause of concern. However, use of a systematic approach to rock blasting helps to complete the excavation safely in time without endangering the safety of surrounding structures. Various steps are commonly adopted at construction sites to ensure safety of engineered structures against blast vibrations, e.g. adopting a suitable safe vibration level, developing site-specific attenuation relation, estimating safe charges for different distances, designing blasting pattern, and monitoring vibrations during actual blasting. The paper describes the details of studies conducted for ensuring safety of an 85 years old masonry dam and green concrete of varying ages during excavation of about 30,000 m3 of hard rock in Maharashtra, India. The studies helped to complete the rock excavation safely in time and the safety of the dam was ensured by monitoring blast vibrations during actual rock excavation.

  19. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs

  20. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  1. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1% followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06% had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%. Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%. Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24% whereas 3 (1.94% had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%. Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis.

  2. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

    2014-05-13

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg(-1/3), 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

  3. Bioactive macroporous titanium implants highly interconnected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparrós, Cristina; Ortiz-Hernandez, Mónica; Molmeneu, Meritxell; Punset, Miguel; Calero, José Antonio; Aparicio, Conrado; Fernández-Fairén, Mariano; Perez, Román; Gil, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-01

    Intervertebral implants should be designed with low load requirements, high friction coefficient and low elastic modulus in order to avoid the stress shielding effect on bone. Furthermore, the presence of a highly interconnected porous structure allows stimulating bone in-growth and enhancing implant-bone fixation. The aim of this study was to obtain bioactive porous titanium implants with highly interconnected pores with a total porosity of approximately 57 %. Porous Titanium implants were produced by powder sintering route using the space holder technique with a binder phase and were then evaluated in an in vivo study. The size of the interconnection diameter between the macropores was about 210 μm in order to guarantee bone in-growth through osteblastic cell penetration. Surface roughness and mechanical properties were analyzed. Stiffness was reduced as a result of the powder sintering technique which allowed the formation of a porous network. Compression and fatigue tests exhibited suitable properties in order to guarantee a proper compromise between mechanical properties and pore interconnectivity. Bioactivity treatment effect in novel sintered porous titanium materials was studied by thermo-chemical treatments and were compared with the same material that had undergone different bioactive treatments. Bioactive thermo-chemical treatment was confirmed by the presence of sodium titanates on the surface of the implants as well as inside the porous network. Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the identified titanate structures would enhance in vivo apatite formation by promoting ion exchange for the apatite formation process. In vivo results demonstrated that the bioactive titanium achieved over 75 % tissue colonization compared to the 40 % value for the untreated titanium. PMID:27582071

  4. Machined Titanium Heat-Pipe Wick Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Minnerly, Kenneth G.; Gernert, Nelson J.

    2009-01-01

    Wick structures fabricated by machining of titanium porous material are essential components of lightweight titanium/ water heat pipes of a type now being developed for operation at temperatures up to 530 K in high-radiation environments. In the fabrication of some prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by extruding axial grooves into aluminum unfortunately, titanium cannot be extruded. In the fabrication of some other prior heat pipes, wicks have been made by in-situ sintering of metal powders shaped by the use of forming mandrels that are subsequently removed, but in the specific application that gave rise to the present fabrication method, the required dimensions and shapes of the heat-pipe structures would make it very difficult if not impossible to remove the mandrels due to the length and the small diameter. In the present method, a wick is made from one or more sections that are fabricated separately and assembled outside the tube that constitutes the outer heat pipe wall. The starting wick material is a slab of porous titanium material. This material is machined in its original flat configuration to form axial grooves. In addition, interlocking features are machined at the mating ends of short wick sections that are to be assembled to make a full-length continuous wick structure. Once the sections have been thus assembled, the resulting full-length flat wick structure is rolled into a cylindrical shape and inserted in the heatpipe tube (see figure). This wick-structure fabrication method is not limited to titanium/water heat pipes: It could be extended to other heat pipe materials and working fluids in which the wicks could be made from materials that could be pre-formed into porous slabs.

  5. Hydrogen induced cracking of Grade-2 titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium is one of the container material options in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. This material has very good corrosion resistance under the anticipated disposal conditions. The two most likely corrosion failure mechanisms are crevice corrosion and hydrogen assisted cracking. Crevice corrosion is a possibility in the warm saline environment proposed for a nuclear disposal vault, and its propagation will lead to a local production of hydrogen in the crevice. Many high-strength titanium alloys can absorb hydrogen into the metal and, when subjected to low but long-term sustained loads, become susceptible to delayed hydrogen cracking at low hydrogen concentrations. In this work, the slow strain rate technique was used to accelerate the cracking process in Grade-2 titanium in order to establish the relative conditions where delayed hydrogen cracking might be possible. The results indicate that at low hydrogen concentrations, slow crack growth occurs by a ductile tearing process. No fast crack growth is observed at these low hydrogen concentrations, presumably because the ductile collapse relaxes the stresses and prevents the attainment of a sufficiently high stress intensity for fast crack growth. Fast crack growth was observed only at hydrogen concentrations above a critical value that ranged from 310-1380 wppm hydrogen depending upon the plate material studied and the orientation of the crack relative to the manufactured microstructure. An empirical relationship suggests that the higher the strength of the titanium material the lower the critical hydrogen concentration. The report describes the effects of microstructure on the cracking behaviour of Grade-2 titanium and shows that the crack propagation tends to follow the directionality of the microstructure introduced by rolling during its manufacture. Increasing the temperature to 100 deg C increased the critical hydrogen concentration to >2000 wppm hydrogen, suggesting that the slow crack

  6. Computation of Blast Pressures foam Propellant for Compaction of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Agarwal

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of blast pressure characteristics is a pre-requisite for a suitable application of foam propellant to emergency military construction such as compacting of the soil from an aircraft using the foam propellant. The foam propellant considered here is a combination of hydrazine and ammonium perchlorate. The blast pressure is found to be a function of the quantity of foam propellant used and the distance of the observation point. This paper attempts to compute the blast pressure versus time characteristics of a foam propellant strip.

  7. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  8. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed

  9. Evidence for a blast wave from compressed nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central collisions of heavy nuclei at c.m. kinetic energies of a few hundred MeV per nucleon produce fireballs of hot, dense nuclear matter. Each fireball explodes, producing a blast wave of nucleons and pions. Several features of the observed cross sections for pions and protons from Ne on Na F at 0.8 GeV/nucleon (lab) are explained by the blast wave, but contradict earlier, purely thermal models. The available energy is equally divided between translational energy of the blast, and thermal motion of the particles in the exploding matter

  10. Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.

  11. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Daviscourt, Joshua; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast p...

  12. Measurement of Blast Waves from Bursting Pressureized Frangible Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Small-scale experiments were conducted to obtain data on incident overpressure at various distances from bursting pressurized spheres. Complete time histories of blast overpressure generated by rupturing glass spheres under high internal pressure were obtained using eight side-on pressure transducers. A scaling law is presented, and its nondimensional parameters are used to compare peak overpressures, arrival times, impulses, and durations for different initial conditions and sizes of blast source. The nondimensional data are also compared, whenever possible, with results of theoretical calculations and compiled data for Pentolite high explosive. The scaled data are repeatable and show significant differences from blast waves generated by condensed high-explosives.

  13. Experimental Investigation of a Novel Blast Wave Mitigation Device

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhenbi; Peng, Wen; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Gogos, George; Skaggs, Reed; Cheeseman, Bryan; Yen, Chian Fong

    2009-01-01

    A novel blast wave mitigation device was investigated experimentally in this paper. The device consists of a piston-cylinder assembly. A shock wave is induced within the cylinder when a blast wave impacts on the piston. The shock wave propagates inside the device and is reflected repeatedly. The shock wave propagation process inside the device lengthens the duration of the force on the base of the device to several orders of magnitude of the duration of the blast wave, while it decreases the ...

  14. Radiative shell thinning in intense laser-driven blast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural evolution of blast waves launched by intense laser pulses in gases is investigated. These blast waves exhibit significant energy loss through radiation while propagating in xenon as evidenced by interferometric imaging revealing radiative precursors and deceleration parameters well below those of an energy-conserving wave. Thinning of the blast wave shell from radiative cooling is observed through comparison of shocks launched in gases of differing atomic number. Shell thinning is also measured when the gas density is altered, indicating the influence of conditions within the preshock medium. These results are compared with radiative-hydrodynamic simulations.

  15. Features of energy distribution for blast vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Tong-hua; LI Xi-bing; DAI Ta-gen; PENG Zhen-bin

    2005-01-01

    Blast vibration analysis constitutes the foundation for studying the control of blasting vibration damage and provides the precondition of controlling blasting vibration. Based on the characteristics of short-time nonstationary random signal, the laws of energy distribution are investigated for blasting vibration signals in different blasting conditions by means of the wavelet packet analysis technique. The characteristics of wavelet transform and wavelet packet analysis are introduced. Then, blasting vibration signals of different blasting conditions are analysed by the wavelet packet analysis technique using MATLAB; energy distribution for different frequency bands is obtained. It is concluded that the energy distribution of blasting vibration signals varies with maximum decking charge,millisecond delay time and distances between explosion and the measuring point. The results show that the wavelet packet analysis method is an effective means for studying blasting seismic effect in its entirety, especially for constituting velocity-frequency criteria.

  16. Tests of gas-blast burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of the most sold small gas-blast burners on the Danish market was carried out with regard to carbon monoxide emission contra the content of oxygen in the flue gas in relation to the burners' combustion stability at varying fire box pressures. The burners tested were Weishaupt WG 1: DG no. 2506, Riello 40 GS3: DG no. 2722, Bentone BEG 15: DG no. 2153 and Box 1 G: no. 1104. This covers 90% of the Danish market for gas burners. It was concluded that all the burners had a broader area of adjustment possibilities without carbon monoxide emission than previously tested box burners. This with the exception of when surplus oxygen is low, where large of amounts of carbon monoxide are generated at an oxygen content in flue gas of ca. 2% (10.8% CO2). Burners in which the total pressure in the blower was high were the most stable with regard to air supply and varying fire-box pressure. It is pointed out that other conditions of design have also influence in this respect. In the cases of Weishaupt, Bentone and Riello burners there is a significant relation between blast pressure and oxygen content in the flue gas, whereas in the case of the Box burner, the percentage of oxygen in the flue gas rises in relation to increased pressure in the smoke outlet. The results of the tests are presented in great detail. (AB)

  17. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  18. Effects of scale on internal blast measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, R.; Sandusky, H.; Lee, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between large and small-scale internal blast experiments with the goal of using the small-scale analog for energetic performance evaluation. In the small-scale experiment, highly confined explosive samples detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 23 kg were unconfined and released in a chamber with a factor of 60,000 increase in volume. The comparative metric in these experiments is peak quasi-static overpressure, with the explosive sample expressed as sample energy/chamber volume, which normalizes measured pressures across scale. Small-scale measured pressures were always lower than the large-scale measurements, because of heat-loss to the high confinement inherent in the small-scale apparatus. This heat-loss can be quantified and used to correct the small-scale pressure measurements. In some cases the heat-loss was large enough to quench reaction of lower energy samples. These results suggest that small-scale internal blast tests do correlate with their large-scale counterparts, provided that heat-loss to confinement can be measured, and that less reactive or lower energy samples are not quenched by heat-loss.

  19. Effects of scale on internal blast measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparative study between large and small-scale internal blast experiments with the goal of using the small-scale analog for energetic performance evaluation. In the small-scale experiment, highly confined explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 23 kg were unconfined and released in a chamber with a factor of 60,000 increase in volume. The comparative metric in these experiments is peak quasi-static overpressure, with the explosive sample expressed as sample energy/chamber volume, which normalizes measured pressures across scale. Small-scale measured pressures were always lower than the large-scale measurements, because of heat-loss to the high confinement inherent in the small-scale apparatus. This heat-loss can be quantified and used to correct the small-scale pressure measurements. In some cases the heat-loss was large enough to quench reaction of lower energy samples. These results suggest that small-scale internal blast tests do correlate with their large-scale counterparts, provided that heat-loss to confinement can be measured, and that less reactive or lower energy samples are not quenched by heat-loss.

  20. BLAST: Resolving the Cosmic Submillimeter Background

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Gaelen; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Mauskopf, Philip; Magnelli, Benjamin; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Ngo, Henry; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has made one square-degree, deep, confusion-limited maps at three different bands, centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. By calculating the covariance of these maps with catalogs of 24 micron sources from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (FIDEL), we have determined that the total submillimeter intensities are 8.60 +/- 0.59, 4.93 +/- 0.34, and 2.27 +/- 0.20 nW m^-2 sr^-1 at 250, 350, and 500 microns, respectively. These numbers are more precise than previous estimates of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and are consistent with 24 micron-selected galaxies generating the full intensity of the CIB. We find that more than half of the CIB originates from sources at z >= 1.2. At all BLAST wavelengths, the relative intensity of high-z sources is higher for 24 micron-faint sources than it is for 24 micron-bright sources. Galaxies identified very broadly as AGN by their Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRA...

  1. Modeling of aqueous foam blast wave attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domergue L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aqueous foams enables the mitigation of blast waves induced by the explosion of energetic materials. The two-phase confinement gives rise to interphase interactions between the gaseous and liquid phases, which role have been emphasized in shock-tube studies with solid foams [1, 2]. Multifluid formalism enables the thermo-mechanical disequilibria between phases to be taken into account. The flow model ensures the correct estimation of the acoustic impedance of the two-phase media. As for the numerical scheme, Riemann solvers are used to describe the microscopic fluid interactions, the summation of which provides the multiphase flux. The role of the different transfer mechanisms is evaluated in the case where the liquid ligaments of the foam matrix have been shattered into droplets by the shock impingement. Characteristics of blast waves in heterogeneous media leads to a decrease of overpressure. The numerical results have been compared favorably to experimental data [3, 4].

  2. Computation of viscous blast wave flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    A method to determine unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations was developed and applied. The structural finite-volume, approximately factored implicit scheme uses Newton subiterations to obtain the spatially and temporally second-order accurate time history of the interaction of blast-waves with stationary targets. The inviscid flux is evaluated using MacCormack's modified Steger-Warming flux or Roe flux difference splittings with total variation diminishing limiters, while the viscous flux is computed using central differences. The use of implicit boundary conditions in conjunction with a telescoping in time and space method permitted solutions to this strongly unsteady class of problems. Comparisons of numerical, analytical, and experimental results were made in two and three dimensions. These comparisons revealed accurate wave speed resolution with nonoscillatory discontinuity capturing. The purpose of this effort was to address the three-dimensional, viscous blast-wave problem. Test cases were undertaken to reveal these methods' weaknesses in three regimes: (1) viscous-dominated flow; (2) complex unsteady flow; and (3) three-dimensional flow. Comparisons of these computations to analytic and experimental results provided initial validation of the resultant code. Addition details on the numerical method and on the validation can be found in the appendix. Presently, the code is capable of single zone computations with selection of any permutation of solid wall or flow-through boundaries.

  3. Role of Titanium Surface Topography and Surface Wettability on Focal Adhesion Kinase Mediated Signaling in Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas W. Hamilton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes of titanium surface roughness and surface free energy may influence protein absorption that increases cell differentiation through activation of focal adhesion kinase related pathways. However, the influence of titanium surface roughness and hydrophilicity on fibroblast behavior is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of topography and hydrophilicity on fibroblast attachment, spreading, morphology, intracellular signaling, proliferation, and collagen I mRNA levels. Using a cellular FAK knockout (FAK−/− model and wild-type (WT controls, we also investigated the contribution of adhesion in fibroblasts cultured on smooth (PT, sand-blasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA and hydrophilic SLA topographies. Loss of FAK did not significantly affect fibroblast attachment to any surface, but SLA and hydrophilic SLA surface attenuated spreading of WT cells significantly more than FAK−/− fibroblasts. Both FAK−/− and WT cells formed numerous focal adhesions on PT surfaces, but significantly less on SLA and hydrophilic SLA surfaces. In WT cells, phosphorylation levels of FAK were lower on SLA and hydrophilic SLA in comparison with PT 24 h post seeding. Labeling of cells with antibodies to cortactin showed that FAK−/−cells contained significantly more cortactin-rich focal adhesion in comparison with WT cells on PT surfaces, but not on SLA or hydrophilic SLA. ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was highest in WT cells on all surfaces which correlated with collagen I expression levels. We conclude that fibroblasts are sensitive to changes in surface roughness and hydrophilicity, with adhesive interactions mediated through FAK, an important modulator of fibroblast response.

  4. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  5. A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part II: Methodology for Inducing Blast Injury to in vitro Models

    OpenAIRE

    Effgen, Gwen B.; Hue, Christopher D.; Vogel, Edward; Panzer, Matthew B.; Meaney, David F.; Bass, Cameron R.; Morrison, Barclay

    2012-01-01

    Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would fac...

  6. Validation of semi-empirical blast pressure predictions for far field explosions - is there inherent variability in blast wave parameters?

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, S.E.; Tyas, A; Fay, S.D.; Clarke, S.D.; Warren, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of scientific effort has been expended over many decades on developing means of predicting the loading generated when a blast wave impinges on a structure. Semi-empirical ‘look-up’ predictive methods, such as those incorporated in the UFC-3-340-02 manual, the ConWep code or the *LOAD_BLAST module of LS-DYNA, offer a simple means for predicting the blast loading generated in geometrically simple scenarios. However, reported test data frequently show considerable spread an...

  7. Rapid prototyped porous nickel-titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Waldemar; Bormann, Therese; Rossi, Antonella; Müller, Bert; Schumacher, Ralf; Martin, Ivan; de Wild, Michael; Wendt, David

    2014-01-01

    While calcium phosphate-based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel-titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel-titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel-titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel-titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel-titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel-titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold's pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel-titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used titanium. PMID:25383165

  8. Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind

    OpenAIRE

    J. Terpák; Dorčák, L'.; I. Koštial; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can...

  9. Analysis of the blasting effect on the electric shove loading efficiency of the open pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Tian-guang; SUN Ying

    2008-01-01

    The connection between blasting cost and comprehensive cost is the main concern.Some blasting effect factors (such as unit explosive consumption,uniformity of blockness,shape and porosity of blasting heap),which had an influence on electric shove loading efficiency,were analyzed.In the end a project to properly increase in blasting cost to decrease the comprehensive cost was put forward.At the same time,the hole-by-hole blasting is effective technology to improve blasting effect.

  10. Application of zirconia particle to abrasive blast decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In blasting decontamination, alumina or steel grit has been used as conventional blast material. The problem with such existing materials is the decreasing of blasting performance during the repeated use due to their diminishing hardness. Consequently, a lot of waste grit is generated as secondary waste. In order to solve this problem, zirconia has been selected because of its high strength and spherical shape. A repeating test in which blasting is executed 300 times and a decontamination test were performed using actual waste materials to confirm the applicability of zirconia grit. More than 90% of zirconia grit kept the initial performance after being used 300 times. Zirconia exhibited durability superior to that of alumina which was broken in the course pf several repetitions of use. Moreover, the decontamination performance of zirconia grit has been confirmed to be equivalent to that of alumina grit. From the results, zirconia grit is expected to be applied to the decontamination of metal wastes. (author)

  11. Decontamination of DWPF canisters by glass frit blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant will be incorporated in borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The waste glass will be encapsulated in a 304L stainless steel canister. During the filling operation the outside of the canister will become contaminated. This contamination must be reduced to an accepable level before the canister leaves the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Tests with contaminated coupons have demonstrated that this decontamination can be accomplished by blasting the surface with glass frit. The contaminated glass frit byproduct of this operation is used as a feedstock for the waste glass process, so no secondary waste is created. Three blasting techniques, using glass frit as the blasting medium, were evaluated. Air-injected slurry blasting was the most promising and was chosen for further development. The optimum parametric values for this process were determined in tests using coupon weight loss as the output parameter. 1 reference, 13 figures, 3 tables

  12. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  14. Refractory Gunning Material for Inner Lining Maintenance of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of refractory gunning material for inner lining maintenance of blast furnace .

  15. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  16. Investigation of Ultrafast Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the evolution of cylindrically symmetric blast waves produced by the deposition of femtosecond laser pulses in gas jets. In high-Z gases radiative effects become important. We observe the production of an ionization precursor ahead of the shock front and deceleration parameters below the adiabatic value of 1/2 (for a cylinder), an effect expected when the blast wave loses energy by radiative cooling. Despite significant radiative cooling, the blast waves do not appear to develop thin shell instabilities expected for strongly radiative waves. This is believed to be due to the stabilizing effect of a relatively thick blast wave shell resulting in part from electron thermal conduction effects

  17. Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model

  18. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  19. Vibration Superposition in Tunnel Blasting with Millisecond Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming; LUO De-pi

    2009-01-01

    According to explosion dynamics and elastic wave theory,the models of particle vibration velocity for simultaneous blasting and millisecond blasting are built.In the models,influential factors such as delay interval and charge quantity,are considered.The calculated vibration velocity is compared with the field test results,which shows that the theoretical values are close to the experimental ones.Meanwhile,the particle vibration velocity decreases quickly with time due to the damping of rock mass and has a harmonic motion,and the particle vibration velocity of millisecond blasting has short interval.The superposition of particle vibration velocities may reduce vibration because of wave interference,or magnify the surrounding rock response to the blasting-induced vibration.

  20. ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS OF BLAST EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, building structures are mainly analyzed through the application of simplified methods of structural dynamics. Towards this end, analysis of an equivalent static load which causes the same effects in respect of structural elements as the dynamic load, is performed. However blast effects represent galloping and extremely nonlinear processes. In this regard, analysis of a blast load is to be performed through the application of methods of nonlinear dynamics to take account of physical, geometrical and structural nonlinearities. The problem is to be solved by motion equations in the pre-set time domain. The authors propose deterministic methods of analysis of parameters of blast effects and results of simulations generated through the employment of LS-DYNA software. Gas dynamics equations employed to solve the aforementioned problems are provided in the most convenient Eulerian formulation. The modeling of blast effects is performed in the Lagrangian - Eulerian formulation.