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Sample records for blast furnace hearth

  1. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow in Blast Furnace Hearth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min-ge; SUN Tian-liang; CHENG Su-sen; GAO Zheng-kai

    2005-01-01

    The liquid flow in blast furnace hearth can result in the erosion of hearth. To prolong the campaign life of blast furnace, the effects of coke bed structure, coke porosity and deepness of taphole on liquid flow in hearth were studied by κ-ε model under different conditions. The results show that with the decrease of coke porosity, the peripheral flow is enhanced. Moreover, the existence of narrow coke free zone and the deepness reduction of taphole can increase the flowability on the bottom of hearth.

  2. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  3. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  4. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  5. Coke state determination in the blast furnace hearth using a tuyere probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, P.; Pierret, H.; Steiler, J.M. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)); Lao, D.; Eymond, J.L.; Fauchoit, P. (Sollac, 59 - Dunkerque (France)); Eibes, C.; Blaise, G.; Urvoy, A.; Helleisen, M.; Giroldini, F.; Hartig, M.; Rausch, H.

    1993-04-01

    Coke samplings at blast furnace tuyeres are a powerful mean to study the behaviour of the lower part of the furnace. A tuyere probe has been installed since April 1985 on the BF 2 at Sollac Fos. This probe is 19 m long and 11 tons weight. It uses a 265 mm internal diameter pipe which samples materials until the centre of the BF. Up-to-now, 28 trials have been completed. The results obtained with this probe allow: a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in the blast furnace hearth, to establish several relationships between the internal state of the hearth and the operation conditions, to build and validate a new image of the cohesive zone and the coke state, to measure and understand the influence of coal injection on the BF operation. Since April 1991, a movable tuyere probe has been in operation within Usinor Sacilor Group. This machine is more lighter than the fixed one weighing only 5.5 tons and smaller measuring 5 m long for 1.3 m width. The probe is a 260 mm internal diameter pipe which can be introduced for 4.25 m in the furnace. In 20 months, it is more than 40 coke core borings which have been achieved on 9 different furnaces of 4 different plants. These two probes are complementary. The fixed probe is only used through one tuyere of one BF. In addition, this probe can reach the centre of the furnace and give a complete description of the materials present along the radius. The movable machine cannot reach the centre of the BF, but it authorizes the study of: some very different BF operating conditions, the influence of the feed materials qualities in a large range, the heterogeneity between several tuyeres of one BF, the effect of the BF size. This text presents our approach in coke quality research, relying upon the results of coke core borings. 6 refs., 17 figs.

  6. Coke state determination in the blast furnace hearth using a tuyere probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, P.; Pierret, H.; Steiler, J. [and others] [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1996-11-01

    Coke samplings at blast furnace tuyeres are a powerful means to study the behaviour of the lower part of the furnace. A tuyere probe has been installed since April 1985 on the BF2 at Sollac Fos. This probe is 19 m long and 11 tons in weight. It uses a 265 mm internal diameter pipe which samples materials in the centre of the BF. Up to now, 28 trials have been completed. The results obtained allow: a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in the blast furnace hearth, to establish several relationships between the internal state of the hearth and operation conditions, to build and validate a new image of the cohesive zone and the coke state, to measure and understand the influence of coal injection on the BF operation. Since April 1991, a movable tuyere probe has been in operation within Usinor Sacilor Group. This machine is lighter than the fixed one weighing only 5.5 tons and smaller measuring 5 m long for 1.3 m width. The probe is a 260 mm internal diameter pipe which can be introduced 4.25 m into the furnace. In 20 months, more than 40 coke core borings have been achieved on 9 different furnaces in 4 different plants. These two probes are complementary. The fixed probe is only used through one tuyere of one BF. In addition, this probe can reach the centre of the furnace and give a complete description of the materials present along the radius. The movable machine cannot reach the centre of the BF, but it enables the study of: some very different BF operating conditions, the influence of the feed materials qualities in a large range, the heterogeneity between several tuyeres of one BF, and the effect of the BF size. This paper presents an approach in coke quality research, relying upon the results of coke core borings.

  7. Properties and application of carbon composite brick for blast furnace hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao K.X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of carbon composite brick was produced via the microporous technique using natural flack graphite, α-Al2O3 and high-quality bauxite chamotte (Al2O3≥87 mass% as raw materials with fine silicon powder as additive. The composition and microstructure of the obtained carbon composite were characterized using chemical analysis, XRD and SEM with EDS. The high temperature properties of thermal conductivity, oxidization and corrosion by molten slag and hot metal of the composite were analyzed. Based on these, the type of carbon composite brick worked in a blast furnace hearth for six years was further sampled at different positions. The protective layer was found and its chemical composition and microscopic morphology were investigated. It is found that the carbon composite brick combines the good properties of both the conventional carbon block and ceramic cup refractory. The protective layer near the hot face consists of two separated sublayers, i.e. the slag layer and the carbon layer. A certain amount of slag phase is contained in the carbon layer, which is caused by the reaction of coke ash with the refractory. No obvious change in the chemical composition of the protective layer along the depth of the sidewall is found. This work provides a useful guidance for the extension of the lifetime of blast furnace hearths.

  8. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  9. Maintenance Practice of Hearth at No. 4 Blast Furnace in Tang shan Iron & Steel group%唐钢4号高炉炉缸维护实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士朝; 吕庆; 赵军

    2014-01-01

    高炉长寿一直是国内外炼铁技术发展所追求的目标。高炉炉缸是一座高炉的基础,炉缸对高炉寿命有着决定性的影响。针对唐钢4号高炉炉缸炉底情况,阐述了唐钢4号高炉生产现状,并分析了炉缸侵蚀原因。根据炉缸炉底侵蚀的原因,提出了炉缸维护的措施。为高炉炉底炉缸维护和延长高炉长寿提供技术支持。%The longevity of blast furnace is the goal of iron making technology at home and abroad. As the founda-tion,The hearth of a blast furnace has a decisive influence on the longevity of blast furnace. On account of the hearth bottom of No. 4 blast furnace in Tangshan Iron and Steel,the producing situation has been elaborated and the reasons for hearth erosion have been analyzed. According to the reasons of erosion in the bottom of blast furnace,the thesis has proposed some measures to the maintenance of blast furnace. ,offering technological support to the main-tenance of the blast furnace bottom and longevity of the furnace.

  10. Continual Measuring of Local Stress Values on Shell of the Blast Furnace Hearth and of Total Shell Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bigoš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with installation of strain gauges on the external surface of the blast furnace shell in two rows, whereas there will be defi ned 8 measuring points in every row. The fi nal result is evaluation of data obtained during up to 45 days of the operation. In this papers are commentary and discussions to measured time behaviours. The main purpose of this measuring was investigation of impact of salamander on blast furnace shell expansion after its lay off , cooling and next starting of operation.

  11. The temperature of the boundary pig iron/refractory as variable to determine the corrosion mechanism of the blast furnace hearth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wear of materials in the blast furnace could be carried out under the consideration of abrasion mechanisms or with the prevalence of the components chemistries and erosive resulting as of the circulation of flowing on the refractory. Nevertheless, although in determining situations the abrasion or the components chemistries could result the control mechanism, it is necessary to consider, that all the abrasion, erosion, chemical corrosion, adhesion and thermal waste-thermal shock they cooperate to the degradation of the refractory of blast furnace. For whatever the mechanisms that intervene in the wear of the materials, it results interesting to know the temperature boundary of the refractory with the solids, liquids or present gases in the furnace. In the report, it will be developed from specific form, the importance that has the temperature in the boundary refractory-pig iron on the wear of the materials of the hearth. The different hypothesis of transport (energy, quantity of movement and material) more adequate for the obtaining of the boundary temperatures will be discussed. (Author) 11 refs

  12. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  13. Numerical Study of the Reduction Process in an Oxygen Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    Based on computational fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, principles of transfer in metallurgy, and other principles, a multi-fluid model for a traditional blast furnace was established. The furnace conditions were simulated with this multi-fluid mathematical model, and the model was verified with the comparison of calculation and measurement. Then a multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace in the gasifier-full oxygen blast furnace process was established based on this traditional blast furnace model. With the established multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace, the basic characteristics of iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace were summarized, including the changing process of the iron ore reduction degree and the compositions of the burden, etc. The study found that compared to the traditional blast furnace, the magnetite reserve zone in the furnace shaft under oxygen blast furnace condition was significantly reduced, which is conducive to the efficient operation of blast furnace. In order to optimize the oxygen blast furnace design and operating parameters, the iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace was researched under different shaft tuyere positions, different recycling gas temperatures, and different allocation ratios of recycling gas between the hearth tuyere and the shaft tuyere. The results indicate that these three factors all have a substantial impact on the ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace. Moderate shaft tuyere position, high recycling gas temperature, and high recycling gas allocation ratio between hearth and shaft could significantly promote the reduction of iron ore, reduce the scope of the magnetite reserve zone, and improve the performance of oxygen blast furnace. Based on the above findings, the recommendations for improvement of the oxygen blast furnace design and operation were proposed.

  14. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  15. Blast furnace operation analysis by thermic exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the blast furnace thermic state, the thermic exergy can be used, which considers the temperatures level of the process. The magnitude analysis of thermic exergy for blast furnace operation using pulverized coal, natural gas and oxygen injection by tuyeres, shows that natural gas injection is less effective than pulverized coal and enriched blast with oxygen simultaneous injection. (Author) 6 refs

  16. Technological indicators of operation of the rotating-hearth furnace in conditions of discontinued production

    OpenAIRE

    L. Lazić; M. Kundak; Jelić, P.; Črnko, J.

    2008-01-01

    Quality heating of the steel charge to be rolled into seamless tubes in the rotating-hearth furnace requires continuous operation of the pilger mill. Interruption of the charging schedule leads to impaired charge heating process. Prolonged heating time causes a rise in the charge temperature above the limit values, and that in turn brings to a larger quantity of scale formed on the charge surface. Final result is loss of metal and overheating of the charge accompanied by increased fuel consum...

  17. Practice for Extending Blast Furnace Campaign Life at Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shou-rong

    2006-01-01

    One of the problems encountered in 60's to 80's of 20th century in China's steel industry was short life of blast furnace shaft as well as the excessive erosion of blast furnace hearth. A series of research work was carried out in order to extend blast furnace campaign life. The concept of research and development was integrated in the construction of BF (blast furnace) No.5 at WISCO (Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation), and in October, 1991, the BF No.5 was blown in. The blast furnace has worked smoothly for more than 15 years without any medium repair even guniting. It is expected that the campaign life of BF No.5 would be longer than 16 years with a production over 11 000 t per unit inner volume (m3). A new blast furnace with an inner volume of 3 400 m3 is under construction, and is designed with a campaign life of 20 years without any medium repair. The campaign life of blast furnaces in China has been extended in recent years.

  18. Technological indicators of operation of the rotating-hearth furnace in conditions of discontinued production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić, L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality heating of the steel charge to be rolled into seamless tubes in the rotating-hearth furnace requires continuous operation of the pilger mill. Interruption of the charging schedule leads to impaired charge heating process. Prolonged heating time causes a rise in the charge temperature above the limit values, and that in turn brings to a larger quantity of scale formed on the charge surface. Final result is loss of metal and overheating of the charge accompanied by increased fuel consumption and lower furnace productivity.

  19. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  20. Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

    1997-11-01

    In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

  1. esearch and Application of Burned Microporous High Alumian—Graphite(Al/C) Brick in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANXiaoming; SONGMusen

    1999-01-01

    This paper inroduces the research background,technology,product property and application of burned microporous high alumina-graphite brick (Al2O3-C brick) used in blast furnace,The difference of property between Al2O3-C brick and other blast furnace refractories is discussed .The results of simulative tests show that ,Al2O3-C brick has good alkali resistance,slag resistance,thermal shock resistance,oxidation resistance,high thermal conductivity,low permeability and low solubility in molten iron,The brick with micropores of average radius less than 1μm has been successively applied to fourteen blast furnaces, the lining life of the brick is almost as long as that of Si3N4 bonded SiC brick Al2O3-C brick will be widely used in lower stack ,belly,bosh and hearth in the future.

  2. 沙钢2500m3高炉炉缸侧壁三角形侵蚀的原因分析%ANALYSIS OF TRIANGLE EROSION ON SIDE WALL OF SHASTEEL 2 500m3 BLAST FURNACE HEARTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣; 杜屏; 刘建波; 田口整司

    2013-01-01

    Shasteel Hongfa 1# BF relined in early 2011.Large serious big triangle erosion was found in hearth wall,near the shell inflection area,which was different from " elephant foot erosion".To investigate the cause for such large triangle erosion,thermal stress distribution of hearth was calculated.Vertical normal stress caused for thermal stress concentrated on side wall near bottom was found to enhance the erosion of carbon brick.When the carbon brick came in touched with or touched molten iron,crack formed near the interface of residual ceramic cup and carbon brick.Then the crack propagated develops upwards of carbon brick.After the crack propagation was arrested,cracked pieces of the brick were considered to be washed away with the molten iron flow assisted by Zn erosion to form big triangle erosion in hearth wall.%沙钢宏发1#高炉(2 500m3)在2011年年初大修,发现炉缸侧壁在竖直方向呈现出巨大的三角形侵蚀,侵蚀最大处位于炉壳拐点部位,不同于传统的“象脚型”侵蚀.为了调查炉缸部位三角形侵蚀的原因,对炉缸的热应力分布进行了分析,发现竖直方向的正应力对炉缸的侵蚀影响较大,热应力首先集中在炉缸侧壁靠近底部的地方,侵蚀逐渐向碳砖方向发展,当碳砖完全暴露于铁水中后,在残留陶瓷杯和碳砖交界处产生了一条裂纹,该裂纹逐渐向上发展至炉壳拐点上方,待裂纹停止后,随着铁水的流动和有害元素的破坏,炉缸部位逐渐形成了巨大的三角形侵蚀.

  3. Anhydrous Taphole Mix for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,brand,label,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of anhydrous taphole mix for blast furnace.

  4. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  5. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998

  6. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Václavík, Vojtěch; Dirner, Vojtech; Dvorský, Tomáš; Daxner, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of fi nely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on fi nely ground blast furnace slag were observed. Rad predstavlja rezultate eksperimentalnog istraživanja koja se bave mogućnostima primjene fi nozrnate troske iz visoke peći za Portland cement u jednostavnoj proiz...

  7. Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

  8. Information modeling system for blast furnace control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.

  9. Lowest values of energy balance and CO{sub 2}-emission achieved by operation of a rotary hearth furnace; Positive Energiebilanz und niedrige CO{sub 2}-Emissionswerte durch innovative Drehherdofentechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, F. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    A comparison of the energy balances of gas-heated pusher type furnaces and rotary hearth furnaces with zone separation - used for gas carburisation and hardening of gear- and safety-relevant components - revealed the advantages of the rotary hearth furnace for different processes. The rotary hearth furnace with zone separation is distinguished by a lower specific energy consumption and CO{sub 2}-emission compared to the pusher type furnace. (orig.)

  10. Lowest values of energy balance and CO{sub 2}-emission achieved by operation of a rotary hearth furnace; Positive Energiebilanz und niedrige CO{sub 2}-Emissionswerte durch innovative Drehherdofentechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Friedhelm [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A comparison of the energy balances of gas-heated pusher type furnaces and rotary hearth furnaces with zone separation - used for gas carburisation and hardening of gear- and safety-relevant components - revealed the advantages of the rotary hearth furnace for different processes. The rotary hearth furnace with zone separation is distinguished by a lower specific energy consumption and CO{sub 2}-emission compared to the pusher type furnace. (orig.)

  11. Conceptual design and simulation analysis of thermal behaviors of TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Extensive use of carbon based fuel is the main inducement for global warming and more extreme weather.Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy use is a common subject in steel industry.In the integrated steel plant,decreasing carbon dioxide emission must consider energy balance in the whole iron and steel works,and secondary energy must be actively utilized.As promising blast-furnaces,top gas recovery blast furnace(TGR-BF) and oxygen blast furnace have been investigated.In this paper,conceptual TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace are proposed.Base on the idea of blast furnace gas de-CO2 circulating as reducing agent and the idea of pure oxygen blast decreasing the thermal reserve zone temperature,process modeling is conducted with ASPEN Plus.It is shown that the developed model reasonably describes the energy balance and mass balance feature of the furnace,and provides basic thermodynamic condition for furnaces.The effects of changes in different operation conditions are studied by sensitivity analysis and reference data from simulation.

  12. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  13. Zonal method solution of radiative heat transfer in a one-dimensional long roller-hearth furnace in CSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfei Wu; Yanhui Feng; Xinxin Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A radiative heat transfer mathematical model for a one-dimensional long furnace was set up in a through-type roller-hearth furnace (TTRHF) in compact strip production (CSP). To accurately predict the heat exchange in the furnace, modeling of the complex gas energy-balance equation in volume zones was considered, and the heat transfer model of heating slabs and wall lines was coupled with the radiative heat transfer model to identify the surface zonal temperature. With numerical simulation, the temperature fields of gas, slabs, and wall lines in the furnace under one typical working condition were carefully accounted and analyzed. The fundamental theory for analyzing the thermal process in TTRHF was provided.

  14. Determination of leakage in blast furnaces cooling plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace walls are cooled by the circulation of water through copper plates inserted into the blast furnace refractory lining. Plates are fed by circular pipelines, called distribution rings, installed at different levels of the reactor. Because of normal corrosion, plates wear away and can eventually perforate, allowing the leakage of cooling water inside the blast furnace. A system has been designed and installed in order to confirm the eventual occurrence of leakages in the cooling plates of a blast furnace refractory lining. The system injects a solution of tritium into the feeding pipeline and determines, by means of liquid scintillation counting, the concentration of tritium in the exhausting gases at the top of the blast furnace. The system was tested under different blast furnace operating conditions, and allowed the detection and determination of leakages greater than 0.5 1/min. Following necessary maintenance, the system also confirmed the satisfactory results of the corrective actions. (author). 48 refs., 13 figs., 29 tabs

  15. Effect of Amount of Carbon on the Reduction Efficiency of Iron Ore-Coal Composite Pellets in Multi-layer Bed Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srinibash; Roy, Gour Gopal

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carbon-to-hematite molar ratio has been studied on the reduction efficiency of iron ore-coal composite pellet reduced at 1523 K (1250 °C) for 20 minutes in a laboratory scale multi-layer bed rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Reduced pellets have been characterized through weight loss measurement, estimation of porosity, shrinkage, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis by XRD. Performance parameters such as the degree of reduction, metallization, carbon efficiency, productivity, and compressive strength have been calculated to compare the process efficacy at different carbon levels in the pellets. Pellets with optimum carbon-to-hematite ratio (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) that is much below the stoichiometric carbon required for direct reduction of hematite yielded maximum reduction, better carbon utilization, and productivity for all three layers. Top layer exhibited maximum reduction at comparatively lower carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio 2.33). Correlation between degree of reduction and metallization indicated non-isothermal kinetics influenced by heat and mass transfer in multi-layer bed RHF. Compressive strength of the partially reduced pellet with optimum carbon content (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) showed that they could be potentially used as an alternate feed in a blast furnace or any other smelting reactor.

  16. Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  18. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  20. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Härkki

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs) in a blast furnace (BF) coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N 2 and O 2 . The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallu...

  1. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  2. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  3. Amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the by-products of iron production from a blast furnace is the slag, Generally 250-300 kg of slag is produced per ton of iron. Liquid blast furnace slag can either be cooled quickly by quenching in a granulator or more slowly in air. The air-cooled product is crushed and sized for use as an aggregate in concrete. The granulated slag is ground to form ground granulated slag, which is a cost-effective supplementary cementitious material. Blends of ground granulated slag and Portland cement produce a cementitious paste that is more resistant to chloride penetration than pastes made from the Portland cement alone. In this study neutron diffraction techniques were used to examine samples of air-cooled and granulated slags from Australian Steel Mill Services stock piles at Port Kembla. Sourced from the same blast furnace, the materials should be expected to posses similar elemental chemistry. The mineral compositions would be different due to the rate of cooling each slag was subjected to. Samples, 15 grams in mass, were mounted in a vanadium can and diffraction patterns were measured using the SLAD instrument on the Reactor R-2 at the Studvik Neutron Research Laboratory in Sweden. The diffraction patterns were transformed into radial distribution functions using the reverse Monte Carlo program, MCGR. The granulated slag showed no diffraction peaks while the air cooled slag showed a crystalline product that can be identified by x-ray diffraction. The radial distribution functions showed differences that were consistent with the granulated slag being amorphous and the air-cooled slag crystalline. Both slag samples showed peaks in the radial distribution function at 1.8 Angstroms and 2.8 Angstroms. The greatest anomaly was a feature about 2.5 Angstroms found only in the radial distribution function for the granulated slag. This demonstration showed that there are differences in the short range bonding between the two compounds. We are currently

  4. Refractory Gunning Material for Inner Lining Maintenance of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of refractory gunning material for inner lining maintenance of blast furnace .

  5. Review and evaluation of alternative processes to the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review on the alternative processes to the blast furnace, involving both solid and liquid state reduction is presented. Process comparison allows to identify advantages and disadvantages of each type of processes as well as to highlight the major challenges faced in order to compete with the traditional iron making route: the blast furnace, which today rules the production of iron units worldwide. (Author) 31 refs

  6. Monitoring Method for Blast Furnace Wall With Copper Staves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Su-sen; QIAN Liang; ZHAO Hong-bo

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring method that has been designed for the first time for blast furnace wall with copper staves manufactured in China was introduced. Combining the method of "inverse problem" and the concept "non-inverse problem", the monitoring program for blast furnace wall with copper staves has been realized, which can be used to calculate online the accretion thickness and temperature of hot surface of copper staves after obtaining the values of thermocouples of copper staves. The accretion state obtained in the actual investigation has proved that the result of the program is correct. The monitoring program shows that the accretion would easily fluctuate when the accretion layer is extremely thick or thin, thereby the stable and smooth operation of the blast furnace is hindered. By maintaining appropriate accretion thickness, both long campaigns and high productivity of the blast furnace can be achieved; furthermore, it can also optimize the operation of blast furnace and maximize its production. Approximately 30-50 mm in thickness of accretion layer is maintained on the wall of Shougang blast furnace 2, which can meet the requirement for obtaining both long campaign and high productivity.

  7. Methods of mathematical modeling for evaluation of energy management of blast-furnace plant

    OpenAIRE

    M. Szega; Blacha, L.; W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of energy consumption in the blast furnace is still the subject of investigations using mathematical modelling of a blast furnace plant. Theoretical-empirical hybrid models of a blast furnace and its equipment have been presented. This model is built based on the mass and energy balances of furnace zones and empirical data from the measurement of a blast furnace. The results of a numerical simulation of the injection of auxiliary fuels and the top-gas recirculation after the rem...

  8. Boundary Identification for a Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss an inverse boundary problem for the axisymmetric steady-state heat equation, which arises in monitoring the boundary corrosion for the blast-furnace. Measure temperature at some locations are used to identify the shape of the corrosion boundary.The numerical inversion is complicated and consuming since the wear-line varies during the process and the boundary in the heat problem is not fixed. The authors suggest a method that the unknown boundary can be represented by a given curve plus a small perturbation, then the equation can be solved with fixed boundary, and a lot of computing time will be saved.A method is given to solve the inverse problem by minimizing the sum of the squared residual at the measuring locations, in which the direct problems are solved by axisymmetric fundamental solution method.The numerical results are in good agreement with test model data as well as industrial data, even in severe corrosion case.

  9. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

    2015-02-01

    An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

  10. Applications of Technology of Compound Lining of Semi—gr aphitized Self—baking Carbon Block Ceramic Brickwork in Large—sized Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYung-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the analyses of the lining technologies of the hot press formed carbon brick iu U.S.A., of the ce-ramic cup in France and of the creative self-baking car-bon brick in China,the technology of semi-graphitized car-bon block-ceramic brickwork has been studied and developed ,and has successfully ben used in No.7 blast furnace (2580m3) at Anshan Irom and Steel Company and in No.3 blast furnace (1200m3) at Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company,This paper puts fourward a feasible scheme for realization of long service lives of the bootms and the hearths of large-sized blast furaces in China.

  11. Effect of coke strength on blast furnace performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyshov, V.N.; Emushintsev, V.V.; Minikes, E.E.; Tsymbal, G.L.; Vakulin, V.N.

    1985-09-01

    The authors report on results of a study, conducted from 1979 to 1982, analyzing the effect of the strength of commercially produced coke on furnace performance, for furnaces of different volumes. The effect of coke strength on blast-furnace performance was analyzed in two directions: determination of the dependence of coke loss from fragmentation on coke strength indices; evaluation of the effect of the coke strength on melting indices. It is found that high-strength coke is needed for large-volume furnaces and that reduction in coke strength helps cause tuyere burning.

  12. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    OpenAIRE

    Konstanciak, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  13. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  14. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  15. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G.; Giuli, M.; Davide, A.; Carlesi, C. (Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa (Italy); Deltasider, Piombino (Italy))

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  16. Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind

    OpenAIRE

    J. Terpák; Dorčák, L'.; I. Koštial; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can...

  17. The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

  18. Modernization of USS/KOBE No. 3 blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, D.J.; VanderSluis, F.H.; Yukubo, Y.; Bernarding, T.F.; Emoto, E. (Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States). USS)

    1993-01-01

    The USS/KOBE Steel Company was formed on July 1, 1989 as a joint venture between USS and KOBE Steel of Japan. A major premise of the joint venture was to use generated capital for the modernization of the plant's facilities. The first major project of the new company was the total renovation of No. 3 Blast Furnace. This furnace is to be the mainstay of quality hot metal production for the future of the new company. No. 3 Blast Furnace was last operated in 1982. An original reline was planned in 1981, but was deferred due to economic conditions. Subsequent dismantling and engineering were performed in 1985 but the facility basically laid dormant for ten years until 1991. This paper discusses the various systems installed during the furnace rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild. Modernized USS/KOBE No. 3 Blast Furnace (Blow-in: May 4, 1992) introduced various improvements of equipment and technology, such as a Paul Wurth Top, coke screening, casthouse, gas cleaning, stoves, and automatic stockhouse in order to make it a world class competitor.

  19. Role of mini-blast furnaces in South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V.K.; Pfeifer, H.C. [Tata Korf Engineering Services, Calcutta (India)

    1997-12-31

    Mini blast furnaces (MBFs) are a small, economic, proven iron production technology. They are widely used in mini integrated steel plants and are likely to be yet more widely used. MBFs are described, contrasting them with direct reduction technology and with conventional blast furnaces. Besides their economic advantages they also cause few adverse environmental effects. These features have made MBF plant popular in Brazil and India in recent years, and plants are also planned in Indonesia. MBF-EOF (Energy optimising furnace) plants are also gaining popularity. They are useful where power is scarce and expensive. MBF-EOF plants are under construction in India and Indonesia. The future use of MBF plants in Asia is discussed. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A static approach towards coke collapse modelling in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S.; Basu, S. Yu, A.B.

    2009-10-15

    Burden distribution control in a blast furnace has a close relationship with wind acceptance and gas utilisation. Quantification of radial distribution of ore and coke is important for proper control of blast furnace operation. Charging of metallic burden over a layer of coke causes a portion of the coke layer to get dislodged from its original position, similar to the situation observed when a heavy material is dropped on a bed of lighter particles. This phenomenon, designated 'coke collapse', significantly changes the ore/coke distribution in the radial direction and thus affects the permeability of the furnace shaft. In the present work a mathematical model for quantifying the amount of coke collapse has been proposed on the basis of 'stability of slope theory'. The calculation from this model has been compared with the results from experiments in simplified physical models. Predictions of the mathematical model are in good agreement with experimental results.

  1. Three-dimensional modelling of in-furnace coal/coke combustion in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P.R. Austin; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

    2011-02-15

    A three-dimensional mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate in-furnace phenomena of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates not only pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed but also coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements under different conditions. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are investigated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. The underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are also analysed. The simulation results indicate that it is important to include recirculation region in the raceway and the coke bed reactions for better understanding in-furnace phenomena. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI operation in full-scale blast furnaces. 32 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Optimization for the structure of BF hearth bottom and the arrangement of thermal couples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo Zhao; Shusen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The hearth of "heat transfer method" and the ceramic cup synthetic hearth bottom of "heart isolation method" are two most popular designs for blast furnace (BF). Although there are successful real examples, some disadvantages, for instance large heat loss and high cost, still exist for these designs. According to the theory of heat transfer, based on the calculation of temperature distribution of the hearth bottom, it is elucidated that all brick layers at the hearth bottom may not be considered as the only reason why different structures exhibited different temperature distributions although total heat resistance is the same, and then based on the effect of hot metal and cold water on different temperature distribution ranges, the concepts of "heat resistance" and "cooling enhancement" are put forth. Based on this, the disadvantages and the factors affecting temperature distribution, of the two types of hearth bottoms were illustrated. On the basis of these analyses, a novel structure for BF hearth bottom designing that can easily form "self-protecting" slag layer stably, called "the method of gradient brick layout that has an optimum combination of cooling enhancement and heat resistance"was proposed; it can not only prolong the hearth bottom longevity but also reduce the cost and heat loss. Also, the optimum arrangement of thermal couples in hearth bottom was suggested based on the previous studies on erosion prediction carried out by the author.

  3. Energy balance analysis for Erdemir blast furnace number one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Emre Ertem; Sabit Gurgen [Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc., Zonguldak (Turkey). Energy Management Department

    2006-08-15

    There are two blast furnaces in Erdemir. The blast furnace No. 1, Ayse, started operations in 1965. Having been modernized three times in the years 1971, 1977, and 1986, it has been re-lined (the renewal of refractory bricks) in the year 1998. The diameter of its reservoir is 8.99 m with a working volume of 1505.0 m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 3000 tons amounting to 1,065,000 tons annually tons. The blast furnace No. 2, Zubeyde, started its operations in 1978. It has been modernized twice in the years 1987 and 1995 and has been re-lined in October 2000. It is of top pressure type and has oxygen injection. The diameter of its reservoir is 9.70 m with the working volume being 1707.7 m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 4000 tons with the annual being 1,420,000 tons. The iron production process consumes 50% of the total energy and comprises a significant portion of total costs in the integrated steel works. Iron (Fe) production is made by the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with coke in the blast furnace. This can be analyzed as two separate areas, namely the furnace and stoves. The necessary carbon and high temperature required by the reduction process makes the furnaces an energy balance center. In this study, the limits of the Blast Furnace No. 1 in Erdemir have been chosen as the control volume in which the stoves have not been included. By the identification of the energy sources that move in and out of the control volume, the energy output sources have been fractioned and categorized. For the implementation of the method, also known as the balance analysis has been chosen and the model presented in the 'Japanese Steel Making Handbook' has been taken as a reference.

  4. Energy balance analysis for Erdemir blast furnace number one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre Ertem, M. [Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc., Energy Management Department, 67330 Kdz. Eregli, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guergen, Sabit [Dokuz Eyluel University, Department of Mining Engineering, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir) began its activities on May 15, 1965 with an annual production capacity of 450,000 tons and has made important contributions to the Turkish economy ever since. Today, with a total amount of crude steel production exceeding three million tons, it is the largest integrated iron and steel factory and the sole producer of flat steel in the country. Erdemir produces hot and cold rolled coils, zinc, tin, and chromium plated steel. There are two blast furnaces in Erdemir. The blast furnace No. 1, Ayse, started operations in 1965. Having been modernized three times in the years 1971, 1977, and 1986, it has been re-lined (the renewal of refractory bricks) in the year 1998. The diameter of its reservoir is 8.99m with a working volume of 1505.0m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 3000 tons amounting to 1,065,000 tons annually tons. The blast furnace No. 2, Zubeyde, started its operations in 1978. It has been modernized twice in the years 1987 and 1995 and has been re-lined in October 2000. It is of top pressure type and has oxygen injection. The diameter of its reservoir is 9.70m with the working volume being 1707.7m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 4000 tons with the annual being 1,420,000 tons. The iron production process consumes 50% of the total energy and comprises a significant portion of total costs in the integrated steel works. Iron (Fe) production is made by the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with coke in the blast furnace. This can be analyzed as two separate areas, namely the furnace and stoves. The necessary carbon and high temperature required by the reduction process makes the furnaces an energy balance center. In this study, the limits of the Blast Furnace No. 1 in Erdemir have been chosen as the control volume in which the stoves have not been included. By the identification of the energy sources that move in and out of the control volume, the energy output

  5. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  6. The Advancement in Intensified Smelting Technology of Baosteel Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinChengcheng; ZhangLonglai

    2005-01-01

    Baosteel always aims at becoming one of the most profitable enterprises in the world, enjoying international competence,benchmarking with the world advanced level, pursuing innovation sustainable development. Recent years, Baosteel Iron-making Department has caught the opportunity of increasing steel demand; conquering disadvantages such as changeable up-stream market, fuel and raw material's fight supplies and lower quality, etc. In our department, Major technical problems have been overcome, blast furnace intensified smelting technology improved, the cost of molten iron under control, blast fttmace long-life span control technology made breakthrough, and Baosteel's ironmaking capacity improved further.

  7. Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Terpák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can be done by adding different media into the wind with different results from the operational and economical viewpoints. Essentially, the following types of media are used in blast furnaces: steam, oxygen, substitution fuels, nitrogen, and waste gas.

  8. Thermal Spray Coatings for Blast Furnace Tuyere Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A.; Sivakumar, G.; Prusty, D.; Shalini, J.; Dutta, M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The components in an integrated steel plant are invariably exposed to harsh working environments involving exposure to high temperatures, corrosive gases, and erosion/wear conditions. One such critical component in the blast furnace is the tuyere, which is prone to thermal damage by splashing of molten metal/slag, erosive damage by falling burden material, and corrosion from the ensuing gases. All the above, collectively or independently, accelerate tuyere failure, which presents a potential explosion hazard in a blast furnace. Recently, thermal spray coatings have emerged as an effective solution to mitigate such severe operational challenges. In the present work, five different coatings deposited using detonation spray and air plasma spray techniques were comprehensively characterized. Performance evaluation involving thermal cycling, hot corrosion, and erosion tests was also carried out. Based on the studies, a coating system was suggested for possible tuyere applications and found to yield substantial improvement in service life during actual field trials.

  9. Evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kardas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is the evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department with the use of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and PAMCO method.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation was made for blast furnace department in Polish steel plant. Two methods: OEE and PAMCO was used. The analysis covers the period of 7 years. The analysis was made based on different data: different types of time connected whit work of blast furnaces, inte...

  10. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Pathak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and this material is obtained from the blast furnace of cement plant, which is the byproduct of iron (from ACC plant, sindri. It is generally obtained in three shaped one is air cooled, foamed shaped and another is in granulated shaped. The use of by-product materials for stabilisation has environmental and economic benefits. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS material is used in the current work to stabilise soil (clay. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of GGBS on the engineering property (optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, triaxial and California bearing ratio test of the soil and determine the engineering properties of the stabilised.

  11. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  12. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  13. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  14. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  15. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  16. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    OpenAIRE

    Dorčák, L'.; J. Terpák; I. Podlubný; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the hea...

  17. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 950 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  19. A Blended Cement Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Phosphorous Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Blended cement containing blast furnace slag(BFS) and phosphorous slag(PS) is a new kind of cement.The total content of blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB.The strength of cement with 80% additives could reach the standard of 425-grade slag cement.The tests of strength, pore structure,hydration products,inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction, resistance to sulfate corrosion of BFS-PSC were performed.

  20. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  1. Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces.

  2. Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

  3. Evaluation of Scheme Design of Blast Furnace Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hong; LI Jing-min; YAO Bi-qiang; LIAO Hong-fu; YAO Jin

    2008-01-01

    Blast furnace scheme design is very important, since it directly affects the performance, cost and configuration of the blast furnace. An evaluation approach to furnace scheme design was brought forward based on artificial neural network. Ten independent parameters which determined a scheme design were proposed. The improved threelayer BP network algorithm was used to build the evaluation model in which the 10 independent parameters were taken as input evaluation indexes and the degree to which the scheme design satisfies the requirements of the blast furnace as output. It was trained by the existing samples of the scheme design and the experts' experience, and then tested by the other samples so as to develop the evaluation model. As an example, it is found that a good scheme design of blast furnace can be chosen by using the evaluation model proposed.

  4. Development and Application of Al2O3 - Si3N4 Refractories Used in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianming; LI Yong; KANG Huarong; DONG Shengying; XUE Wendong; SONG Wen

    2008-01-01

    Newly developed Al2O3-Si3N4 composite refracto-ries used for blast furnace is introduced in this work.Al2O3-Si3N4 composite refractories attacked by alkali vapor and blast Jhrnace slag was investigated. High per-formance Al2O3 -Si3N4 composite refractories was pro-duced and used at both 2 560 m3 blast furnaces of Tan-gsteel and No. 5 blast furnace of Shaosteel.

  5. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  6. EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR; EBRAHIM NAJAFI KANI; ALI ALLAHVERDI

    2011-01-01

    A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry...

  7. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Blast Furnace Performance Under Charging Iron-Bearing Burdens With High Reducibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Man-sheng; GUO Xian-zhen; SHEN Feng-man; YAGI Jun-ichiro; NOGAMI Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The reducibility of iron-bearing burdens was emphasized for improving the operation efficiency of blast furnace. The blast furnace operation of charging the burdens with high reducibility has been numerically evaluated using a multi-fluid blast furnace model. The effects of reaction rate constants and diffusion coefficients were investigated separately or simultaneously for clarifying the variations of furnace state. According to the model simulation results, in the upper zone, the indirect reduction of the burdens proceeds at a faster rate and the shaft efficiency is enhanced with the improvement under the conditions of interface reaction and intra-particle diffusion. In the lower zone, direct reduction in molten slag is restrained. As a consequence, CO utilization of top gas is enhanced and the ratio of direct reduction is decreased. It is possible to achieve higher energy efficiency of the blast furnace, and this is represented by the improvement in productivity and the decrease in consumption of reducing agent. The use of high-reducibility burdens contributes to a better performance of blast furnace. More efforts are necessary to develop and apply high-reducibility sinter and carbon composite agglomerates for practical application at a blast furnace.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Innovative Operation of Blast Furnace Based on Multi-Fluid Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Man-sheng; YANG Xue-feng; SHEN Feng-man; YAGI Jun-ichiro; NOGAMI Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    A multi-fluid blast furnace model was simply introduced and was used to simulate several innovative iron-making operations. The simulation results show that injecting hydrogen bearing materials, especially injecting natural gas and plastics, the hydrogen reduction is enhanced, and the furnace performance is improved simultaneously. Total heat input shows obvious decrease due to the decrease of heat consumption in direct reduction, solution loss and silicon transfer reactions. If carbon composite agglomerates are charged into the furnace, the temperature of thermal reserve zone will obviously decrease, and the reduction of iron-bearing burden materials will be retarded. However, the efficiency of blast furnace is improved just due to the decrease in heat requirements for solution loss, sinter reduction, and silicon transfer reactions, and less heat loss through top gas and furnace wall. Finally, the model is used to investigate the performance of blast furnace under the condition of top gas recycling together with plastics injection, cold oxygen blasting and carbon composite agglomerate charging. The lower furnace temperature, extremely accelerated reduction rate, drastically decreased CO2 emission and remarkably enhanced heat efficiency were obtained by using the innovative operations, and the blast furnace operation with superhigh efficiency can be realized.

  10. Electro- or Turbo-Driven?—Analysis of Different Blast Processes of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a dispute about the energy efficiency and energy cost of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast furnace (BF blast processes. In order to find where the problem lies, energy efficiency analysis models and energy cost analysis models of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes were established, and the differences between the two driving processes in terms of theoretical minimum steam consumption, energy efficiency and energy cost were studied. The results showed that the theoretical minimum steam consumption of a blast process depends on steam thermodynamic properties and is unrelated to drive mode and drive process. A certain overlapped interval between electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes in terms of energy efficiency exists. The equation for calculating the standard coal coefficient of steam was proposed, and the relationship to judge strengths and weaknesses of the two driving modes in terms of energy efficiency and energy cost was established. Finally, two companies were selected for case study research. The results led to different conclusions because of the differences between energy media in terms of standard coal coefficient and unit price. To select the best driving mode, plant-running conditions and energy prices of the region of operation in addition to other relevant factors should all be taken into account.

  11. A double-regenerative burner for blast-furnace gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmundson, J.T. (British Steel Corp., Port Talbot (UK)); Jenkins, D.P. (Bristol Polytechnic (GB))

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the operative reliability of a novel regenerative burner system utilising low-calorific-value fuel gas and capable of high-temperature performance at high efficiency. The system is based on the extension of the application of the self-generative principle to both fuel gas and air supplies. Two burners operate in tandem, of which one fires while the other regenerates both the fuel gas and combustion air preheat beds. Blast-furnace gas with a calorific value of 2.9 MJ m{sup -3} was the fuel source. 1500 hours of operative trials were carried out. For the duration of the trials all the planned investigations were completed satisfactorily, and the results successfully indicate the ability of the system to achieve high-temperature performance at high thermal efficiency. (author).

  12. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-05-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO2 emission’ (ECO2e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO2e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement.

  13. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  14. Optimum design and layout of the cooling apparatus for long compaignship blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shusen Cheng; Tianjun Yang; Qingguo Xue; Haibin Zuo; Xiaowu Gao; Weiguo Yang

    2003-01-01

    Generally, the cooler life can determine the blast furnace life. The slag-metal skull frozen on the cooler can separate the cooler from the hot gas flow in blast furnace. The key problem is how to freeze liquid slag-metal on the cooler, and the main measure is to decrease the hot surface temperature of the cooler. The computational technology of heat transfer was practically used for long campaign blast furnace design. The optimum design of the cast iron stave, copper stave, plate-stave combined system and flangestave was given by the computing results. According to the results, the optimum arrangement of different coolers (cast iron or copper stave, flange stave and plate-stave combined system) on different height of blast furnace wall can be found through all these temperature fields.

  15. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  16. Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, M. F.; Bonavetti, V. L.; Irassar, E. F.

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying...

  17. Control of burden distribution in No. 1 blast furnace in WISCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, M.; Zheng, W. (and others) [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wu Han (China)

    2002-07-01

    Relined WISCO No. 1 blast furnace (inner volume 2200 m{sup 3}), which is equipped with a Paul Wurth bell-less top, coke and sinter screening, closed loop soft water system, advanced computer system etc. was blown in on 19 May 2001. Prior to the start-up, various investigations on burden distribution were performed during the charging. No. 1 blast furnace is being operated successfully. 8 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Control of burden distribution using Paul Wurth Top at USS/KOBE No. 3 blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, S.; Gross, D.A.; Long, B.G.; Tada, S. (USS/Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States). USS)

    1993-01-01

    Modernized USS/KOBE No. 3 Blast Furnace (working volume 50,945 cf), which is equipped with a Paul Wurth Top, automated stock house, coke screening, etc. was blown in on May 4, 1992. Prior to the start-up, various investigations on burden distribution were performed during the filing trial. No. 3 Blast Furnace, applying the above results, is being operated successfully. This paper describes the filling trial and operational results.

  19. Radiant Image Simulation of Pulverized Coal Combustion in Blast Furnace Raceway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between two-dimensional radiant image and three-dimensional radiant energy in blast furnace raceway was studied by numerical simulation of combustion process. Taking radiant image as radiant boundary for numerical simulation of combustion process, the uneven radiation parameter can be calculated. A method to examine three-dimensional temperature distribution in blast furnace raceway was put forward by radiant image processing. The numeral temperature field matching the real combustion can be obtained by proposed numeric image processing technique.

  20. New Type Regulating Valve Applied in Cooling System of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-ping; ZOU De-yu; XU Gang; LU De-chang

    2004-01-01

    A new type regulating valve with the cooling mode of constant temperature difference water supply, temperature difference self-operated regulating valve, was introduced into blast furnace cooling system to overcome shortcomings of the cooling mode of constant flow rate water supply. The results show that the temperature difference between inlet and outlet water of cooling wall can be decreased greatly and steadily, and the water supply for blast furnace cooling can be reduced considerably.

  1. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Blast furnace operating conditions manipulation for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, Mohamed; Abdel Halim, Khaled S.; El-Kelesh, Heba Ali; Nasr, Mahmoud I. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    A comparative reduction behavior of wuestite samples prepared from iron ore sinter was investigated to find the optimum way for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission in blast furnace technology. A series of wuestite reduction experiments was carried out using different gas mixtures. A correlation between the experimental results and real data of blast furnaces at Egyptian Iron and Steel Company (EISCO) was demonstrated in order to optimize the coke consumption inside blast furnaces. Different theoretical models were applied on real data of blast furnaces to calculate the effect of operation parameters on the coke consumption. It was found that the wuestite reducibility can be controlled and enhanced using certain ratio of H{sub 2} and CO gases. Such kind of enhancement decreases the remaining quantity of unreduced wuestite which descends to the high temperature region of blast furnace. The theoretical analysis of real data using certain values of H{sub 2} and CO shows that increasing the amount of natural gas injection in blast furnace of EISCO will decrease the degree of direct reduction of iron oxide and consequently will decrease the amount of coke consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'. Dorčák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.

  4. Tuyere development as an effective measure for high PC rate operation of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, T.; Kasai, A.; Nozawa, K.; Shibata, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kakogawa Works, Hyogo (Japan). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-07-01

    Kobe Steel has developed technologies to reduce coke consumption in its blast furnaces by injecting coal at a high rate. This paper described a newly developed tuyere and its contribution to improving permeability under high pulverized coal (PC) rate conditions at the blast furnaces at Kakogawa Works. Reducing the coke rate while increasing the coal injection rate results in higher ore/coke at the center region of the furnace, resulting in excessive peripheral gas and inducing gas channeling. Central coke charging (CCC) helps attain a stable gas flow inside the furnace by forming a vertical gas passage in the coke column. It enables furnace operators to directly control or enhance the central gas flow and improves gas and liquid permeability in the furnace bottom. In a conventional tuyere, the PC is introduced in or before the converged blast flow inside the tuyere where coal fines begin to decompose and interact with hot blasts. This newly developed convergent and divergent (CD) type tuyere was instrumental in safely reducing the pressure drop and its variation to a tolerable level even under ultra-high PCR conditions over 250 kg/thm. This paper described the effects of tuyere structure on raceway shapes using 3 types of tuyeres in a coke packed test furnace. It was concluded that the CD tuyere reduces pressure drop at the tuyere. An increase in PC rate offers benefits in terms of furnace stability. The CD tuyere also reduces coke deterioration in the raceway. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    OpenAIRE

    D. Baricová; A. Pribulová; P. Demeter

    2010-01-01

    In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain sma...

  6. A HYBRID SYSTEM OF EVALUATING IRON WEIGHT ON ITS RELEASE FROM BLAST FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebova, E.S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests a method for evaluating the weight of iron obtained from a specific release from a blast furnace under parallel production in a set of furnaces. The method is based on a hybrid approach using the weighing results of mixer carrier on the scales, a system of operational control of the process of pouring iron out into the mixer and the automated system of rolling stock registration. The proposed method can improve the speed, accuracy and reliability of evaluating the weight of iron obtained from a specific release of the blast furnace.

  7. Blast furnace granular coal injection at Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gregory Hill; Leo I.E. Makovsky; Thomas A. Sarkus; Howard G. McIlvried [Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Chesterton, IN (USA)

    2004-03-01

    The paper discusses the demonstration of the British Steel/CPC-Macawber Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection (BFGCI) technology that was installed on the blast furnaces at Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Plant in Indiana as a highly successful Clean Coal Technology project, cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. In the BFGCI process, granular coal (10%-30% through a 200-mesh screen) is injected into a blast furnace as a fuel supplement to decrease coke requirements, thus reducing costs. Tests run to determine the effect of process variables on furnace operations showed that granular coal works as well as pulverized coal and is easier to handle and cheaper to produce because of reduced grinding costs.

  8. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  9. Blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection at different technological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at two blast furnaces (BFs) in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amounts is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime. (Author) 31 refs

  10. Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emission would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal injection PCI rate and oxygen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC) and enriching blast with oxygen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50% Blast furnace operation with full oxygen blast (100 % of process oxygen with the exception for the hot blast) is possible when HRG is injected. (Author) 54 refs

  11. Evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kardas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the paper is the evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department with the use of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE and PAMCO method.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation was made for blast furnace department in Polish steel plant. Two methods: OEE and PAMCO was used. The analysis covers the period of 7 years. The analysis was made based on different data: different types of time connected whit work of blast furnaces, interruption in blast furnace work, level of pig iron production, unit production time and quantity of non-conformance production.Findings: Performed research made it possible to determine the level of efficiency of blast furnace department. It can be concluded that working time in this department is used efficient. Factors that reduce efficiency are usually not-dependent on the company: mainly are connected with the situation on the steel market.Research limitations/implications: It is necessary to continue the research in order to assess individual blast furnaces. That analysis may enable to show if these units has the same level of efficiency and if they are affected by the same factors in the same way.Practical implications: Optimal utilization of capacity and working time of machines and equipment are important for the reduction of production costs. Use of OEE and PAMCO methods helps to assess the level of efficiency of working time and allow to find factors that has great importance for level of efficiency.Originality/value: Results of this analysis can be taken into consideration by blast furnace department under study. Analysis can help to assess the level of efficiency and find factors that influence on it.

  12. Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

  13. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Maja A., E-mail: maja.larsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Baken, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.baken@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smolders, Erik, E-mail: erik.smolders@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cubadda, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cubadda@iss.it [Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161 (Italy); Gustafsson, Jon Petter, E-mail: jon-petter.gustafsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 28, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg{sup −1}) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  14. Sulfide capacity of high alumina blast furnace slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Amitabh; Görnerup, Märten; Seetharaman, S.; Lahiri, A. K.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined using the gas-slag equilibration technique. Two different slag systems were considered for the current study, namely, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 quinary system. The liquid slag was equilibrated with the Ar-CO-CO2-SO2 gas mixture. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1773 to 1873 K. The effects of temperature, basicity, and the MgO and TiO2 contents of slags on sulfide capacity were studied. As expected, sulfide capacity was found to increase with the increase in temperature and basicity. At the higher experimental temperature, titania decreases the sulfide capacity of slag. However, at the lower temperature, there was no significant effect of titania on the sulfide capacity of slag. Sulfide capacity increases with the increase in MgO content of slag if the MgO content is more than 5 pct.

  15. Preparation of calcium silicate absorbent from iron blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnax, L F; Rochelle, G T

    2000-09-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) solids were prepared from hydrated lime and iron blast furnace slag in an aqueous agitated slurry at 92 degrees C. While it was hoped a minimal lime/slag ratio could be used to create near-amorphous CSH, the surface area of the product improved by increasing the lime/slag weight ratio to 2. The addition of gypsum to the lime/slag system dramatically improved the formation of surface area, creating solids with 139 m2/g after 30 hr of reaction when only a minimal amount of lime was present. The SO2 reactivity of solids prepared with gypsum greatly exceeded that of hydrated lime, achieving greater than 70-80% conversion of the alkalinity after 1 hr of reaction with SO2. The use of CaCl2 as an additive to the lime/slag system, in lieu of gypsum, also produced high-surface-area solids, 115 m2/g after 21 hr of reaction. However, the SO2 reactivity of these sorbents was relatively low given the high surface area. This emphasized that the correlation between surface area and SO2 reactivity was highly dependent on the solid phase, which was subsequently dependent on slurry composition. PMID:11055162

  16. Evaluation on chemical stability of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Guyot, François; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-09-15

    The leaching behavior of Pb and Zn from lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags sampled in the North of France was studied as a function of pHs and under two atmospheres (open air and nitrogen). The leaching of major elements from the slags was monitored as a function of pH (4, 5.5, 7, 8.5 and 10) under both atmospheres for different slag-water interaction times (1 day and 9 days). The leaching results were coupled with a geochemical model; Visual MINTEQ version 3.0, and a detailed morphological and mineralogical analysis was performed on the leached slags by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Significant amounts of Ca, Fe and Zn were released under acidic conditions (pH 4) with a decrease towards the neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7 and 10) for both LBF and ISF slags. On the other hand, Fe leachability was limited at neutral to alkaline pH for both slags. The concentrations of all elements increased gradually after 216 h compared to initial 24 h of leaching period. The presence of oxygen under open-air atmosphere not only enhanced oxidative weathering but also encouraged formation of secondary oxide and carbonate phases. Formation of carbonates and clay minerals was suggested by Visual MINTEQ which was further confirmed by SEM & TEM. The hydration and partial dissolution of hardystonite, as well as the destabilization of amorphous glassy matrix mainly contributed to the release of major elements, whereas the spinel related oxides were resistant against pH changes and atmospheres within the time frame concerned for both LBF and ISF slags. The total amount of Pb leached out at pH 7 under both atmospheres suggested that both LBF and ISF slags are prone to weathering even at neutral environmental conditions. PMID:27240207

  17. EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

  18. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  19. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  20. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills

  1. Start-up of the blast furnace number one of the Steel Industry of Paraguay; Colocacao em marcha do alto forno numero 1 da ACEPAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Alencar dos; Silva, Marco Antonio M. [Companhia Siderurgica Belgo Mineira, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil); Cunha, Mario Fernando G.A. [Paul Wurth do Brasil, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Prous, Enrique [Aceros del Paraguay (ACEPAR), Assuncion (Paraguay)

    1987-12-31

    This paper relates some important blast furnaces equipment from the Steel Industry of Paraguay. Furthermore, the training of engineers, technicians and operators from blast furnaces and raw material areas are also discussed. Finally, the preparations for start-up of the blast furnace and its first operational results were analyzed 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. [The industrial environment in the electric-furnace steel smelting, converter and open-hearth furnace methods of manufacturing manganese-alloyed steels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Petrov, G A; Gapon, V A; Poslednichenko, I P; Shmidt, S E

    1992-01-01

    Inspection of the environment in manganese-alloyed steel production showed inadequate hygienic conditions of the technological processes employed. Air was more polluted by manganese oxides during the oxygen-converter process though their highest concentrations, 38 times exceeding the MAS, appeared during the casting of steel. An electric furnace coated by dust-noise-proof material and gas cleaning is preferable from a hygienic point of view. The influence of unfavourable microclimate, intensive infrared irradiation and loud noise on workers necessitates automation and mechanization of the process in order to improve the working conditions.

  3. New mathematical model for blast furnace burden distribution; Nuevo modelo matematico para la distribucion de carga en el horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, B.; Sainz de Ayala, J. [ACERALIA. Gijon. (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    A mathematical model for burden distribution in the blast furnace, has been developed. A set of operational variables related with the charging system (Paul Wurth) plus other parameters related with the burden itself, such as ore and coke repose angles, weights discharged and the effect of the uprising gas, have been taken into account. These data are processed by modern computer tools. As a result, the burden distribution inside the blast furnaces is obtained. Every time that a charge is added to the blast furnace, the model updates the burden distribution. The approach employed is based on considering each burden layer described by a set of interrelated polynomials. It has been tested comparing its results with burden layers obtained in a physical model of the blast furnace (scale 1/10). After installation in Aceralia blast furnace B control computers, the model is currently being employed as a tool for process control. (Author) 3 refs.

  4. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  5. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  6. CFD modeling of multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft with layered burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-current chemical reactor which includes the ascending gas flow and the counter-current descending porous bed (burden). A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft. The gas flow dynamics, burden movement, chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer between the gas phase and burden phase are included in the CFD model. The blast furnace burden consists of alternative layers of iron ore and coke. A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the effects of alternative burden layer structure on gas flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and chemical reactions. Different reactions and heat transfer characteristics are applied for difference types of layer. In addition, the layered CFD model accurately predicts the Cohesive Zone (CZ) shape where the melting of solid burden taking place. The shape and location of the CZ are determined by an iterative method based on the ore temperature distribution. The theoretical formation and the methodology of the CFD model are presented and the model is applied to simulate industry blast furnaces. The proposed method can be applied to investigate the blast furnace shaft process and other moving bed system with periodic burden structure configuration. - Highlights: •A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the blast furnace shaft with layered burden. •The effects of layered burden on flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions are considered in the model. •The shape and location of the cohesive zone is determined by an iterative method

  7. Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bigoš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the blast furnace shell in one concrete metallurgical plant.

  8. Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuán, M.A.; Piñeiro, A.; Rodríguez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the disscusion in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of ...

  9. Leaching of Carbothermic Reduced Titanium-bearing Blast Furnace Slag by Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yulan; ZHANG Guohua; CHOU Kuochih

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company with acid system under atmosphere pressure was studied. The results show that the temperature and concentration have significant influence on leaching of carbothermic reduced titanium-bearing blast furnace slag by ac-id. The experimental data of leaching indicate that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the acid leaching. The apparent activation energy can be estimated to be from 23 to 32 kJ/mol. Fur-thermore, the main products are TiC and SiO2 after leaching.

  10. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  11. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  12. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  13. Practice of promoting pulverized coal injection rate at no.4 blast furnace of China Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.W.; Chang, C.T [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    In 2006, the China Steel Corporation (CSC) upgraded the injection system of its no.4 blast furnace to increase the pulverized coal (PC) rate which averaged 136 to 143 kg/thm. This paper described the scheduled shutdown of the furnace in May 2007 in order to modify it from a dilute phase injection system to a dense phase system using the technology of the Kuettner Company. Through proper burden distribution and operational parameter adjustments, the pulverized coal (PC) rate was increased to 178 kg/thm by November 2007, corresponding to a 65 t/hr injection rate with a productivity of 2.58 t/m{sup 3}/d. This paper described the challenges encountered following commissioning as well as the strategies of process control. The main differences between the existing and new injection system were that nitrogen was used to substitute compressed air as the conveying gas and the coal to gas ratio was increased from about 10 to 30 kg/kg. As a result, the transport method and the operation pressure had to be reassessed. This paper described the coal blend injection; screening facility for coal preparation; location of the distributor; and coal accumulation in the coal flow meter. The blast furnace adjustments included burden thickness control; burden distribution adjustment; improvement of raw material quality; and theoretical flame temperature adjustment. The upgrade project has proven to be very successful and has improved the competitiveness of CSC blast furnace no.4 significantly. Plans to upgrade the no.2 and no.3 blast furnaces are underway. Once completed, the operating cost and coke consumption of the blast furnaces will be reduced considerably. The modification to dense phase conveying system has shown that coal with high Hardgrove Index requires a higher driving force in the pneumatic dense phase transport and that coal mill equipped with a rotating classifier is recommended along with screens at the upstream of the feed tank. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35% on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days, the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20% activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35% sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 díasse alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de

  15. Innovation based on tradition: Blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structures in Norway?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.; De Rooij, M.; Larsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used to build reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. The experience is good and structures with long service lives can be obtained, as has been shown by several field studies. This is caused by

  16. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  17. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  18. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemskov, S.V.; Ahmad, B.; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, whi

  19. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  20. Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Li, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy an

  1. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

    2002-10-14

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere. PMID:12220825

  2. Pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces at ArcelorMittal Tubarao (AMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, C.A.; Fujihara, F.K.; Defendi, G.A.; Tauffer Barros, R.J. [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, Serra (Brazil). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-07-01

    The main factors that influence the performance of coal injected into blast furnaces include coal properties, combustion conditions and the equipment used in the plants for grinding, transportation and injection of coal. This paper focused on coal properties and the main operational control changes in the no.1 blast furnace at ArcelorMittal Tubarao. The furnace was modified from an all coke operation to a pulverized coal injection (pci) operation in order to ensure high productivity, low fuel consumption and longer service life. ArcelorMittal Tubarao has developed a coal buying model based on energy balance and the chemical analysis of ash. In the energy balance, the ratio between the heat supplied by carbon combustion and the heat consumed by the cracking of water and volatiles results in the potential rate of coke replacement by coal. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  3. Study on blast furnace cooling stave for various refractory linings based on numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, T. R.; Sahoo, S. K.; Moharana, M. K.

    2016-02-01

    Cooling technology for refractory lining of blast furnace is very important for the metallurgical industry, because it can substantially increase output and operation life of furnaces. A three dimensional mathematical model for the temperature field of the blast furnace stave cooler with refractory lining has been developed and analyzed. The temperature and heat dissipated by stave cooler is examined by using the finite element method. The cast steel stave is studied and computational analysis is made to know the effect of the cooling water velocity, temperature, and the lining material on the maximum temperature of the stave hot surface. The refractory lining materials, which are used in this experiment, are high alumina bricks with different stave materials (copper, aluminum and cast iron). The obtained numerical calculations are compared with that obtained from experiments performed at Rourkela Steel Plant, Odisha taking a stave in belly zone having maximum heat load shows very good agreement.

  4. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  5. Small scale model experiments on the injection of heavy fuel oil into blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, J.; Paloposki, T.

    1996-12-31

    This study is a part of the research project High oil injection rates in a blast furnace, which is a part of the National Energy Research Program SULA 2 in Finland. The injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace was studied using a small scale model of the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway assembly of a blast furnace. Mixtures of water, glycerol and ethanol were used to simulate heavy fuel oil. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature was used to simulate the hot blast. Dimensional analysis was used in the design of the test rig and in the interpretation of the results. It has to be noted, however, that the surface tension of the test liquids was higher than what would have been desirable and that full similarity between model experiments and the actual blast furnace was therefore not achieved. The experiments were recorded on video tapes for visual observation of the injection process. A Malvern Particle Sizer was used for the measurement of the spray drop size distributions. The results show that the mean size of the drops increases with increasing liquid flow rate and with increasing surface tension of the liquid and that the mean size of the drops decreases with increasing velocity of the blast and with increasing diameter of the injection lances. The mean size of the drops was found to be independent of the viscosity of the liquid. A correlation equation was fitted to the experimental data and good fit was obtained. A correlation equation in dimensionless form was also developed. The results were compared with correlation equations presented in the literature. (18 refs.)

  6. Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, H.; Laaksonen, M.; Waller, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

    1996-12-31

    The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.

  7. Dewetting Process of Blast Furnace Blower%高炉鼓风机前脱湿技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      高炉脱湿鼓风是高炉节能的重要措施,并对高炉的稳定生产具有重要作用。对高炉鼓风机前脱湿的工艺和特点进行说明,并简述其在钢铁企业推广的意义。%Blast furnace dewetting blast is an important measure for energy conservation of blast furnace and it plays an important role in stabilizing production of blast furnace. The dewetting process and features of blast blower are described. The significance to popularize the process in steel enterprises is introduced briefly.

  8. Development of New Co-gasification Technology Based on Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yue-hong; WEN Hao; GUO Zhan-cheng; XU Zhi-hong

    2005-01-01

    A new co-gasification technology was proposed. The core of this co-gasification technology is a gasifier capable of being operated on a wide range of fuels and being reconstructed from blast furnace or shaft furnace.Based on this innovative concept, the lab-scale experiment and modeling study were carried out to demonstrate its technical validity and thermodynamic characteristics. The obtained results indicate that co-gasification process can be undertaken under ideal thermodynamic conditions where quasi-equilibrium could be reached without catalysts and Aspen Plus is a useful tool for this process development. Furthermore, potential applications of co-gasification were discussed.

  9. Productivity and performance of small scale blast furnaces; Produtividade e performance de altos fornos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vamberto Ferreira de; Grandin, Friedrich Hans G.; Lanna, Pitagoras Gomes de; Castello Branco, Marco Antonio S.C. [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-05-01

    This work presents some data concerning the re-start of the blast furnace number 2 of Mannesmann siderurgic company. The main characteristics concerning the operation with 100% coke fuel and the measurements adopted to increase the furnace productivity are described 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  10. The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

  11. Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, M. A.; Pineiro, A.; Rodriguez, O.

    2011-07-01

    Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the discussions in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. Mechanism Research on Melting Loss of Coppery Tuyere Small Sleeve in Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Ning, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Guang-Yun; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The tuyere small sleeve in blast furnace works under poor conditions. The abnormal damage of it will severely affect the performance of the blast furnace, thus it should be replaced during the damping down period. So it is of great significance that we study and reduce the burnout of tuyere small sleeve. Melting loss is one case of its burnout. This paper studied the reasons of tuyere small sleeve's melting loss, through computational simulation and microscopic analysis of the melting section. The research shows that the temperature of coppery tuyere small sleeve is well distributed when there is no limescale in the lumen, and the temperature increases with the thickness of limescale. In addition, the interruption of circulating water does great harm to the tuyere small sleeve. The melting loss of tuyere small sleeve is caused by iron-slag erosion, with the occurrence of the melt metallurgical bonding and diffusion metallurgical combination.

  13. A mathematical model capable of describing the liquid flow mainly in a blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-shan Wang; Xiao-jing Mu

    2009-01-01

    The molten liquid flow inside a packed bed is a familiar momentum transportation phenomenon in a blast furnace. With regard to the reported mathematical models describing the liquid flow within a packed bed, there are some obstacles for their applica-tion in engineering design, or some limitations in the model itself. To overcome these problems, the forces from the packed bed to the liquid flow were divided into appropriate body and surface forces on the basis of three assumptions. Consequently, a new mathematical model was built to present the liquid flow inside the coke bed in a blast furnace. The mathematical model can predict the distribution of liquid flowrate and the liquid flowing range inside the packed bed at any time. The predicted results of this model accord well with the experimental data. The model will be applied considerably better in the simulation on the ironmaking process compared with the existent models.

  14. Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

  15. Heat loss analysis and control optimization of furnace roller for roller hearth furnace%辊底炉炉辊改进前后的热损分析和控制优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 王昭东; 王国栋; 李家栋; 付天亮

    2014-01-01

    To design and control furnace roller better, heat loss law of water-cooled furnace roller which surface coat is composed of heat-resistant alloy or asbestos fibers before and after improvement was studied by mathematical models. After analyzing the problems of traditional roller hearth furnace, the improvement reason and key point were pointed out. Heat transfer models for cooling process of two kinds of rollers were established and solved with iteration planning algorithm based on Newton search. Then, the relation between water flow velocity (uw), inlet water temperature (tw-in) and roller cross section temperatures, outlet water temperature (tw-out), water temperature rise (Δtw), cooling water heat absorption (Qw) was studied. The conclusions and recommendations are mainly as follows: 1) Roller cross section temperatures, tw-out, Δtw decrease with the increase of uw. The water critical velocity (uwcv) of two kinds of furnace rolls is 0�07 m/s and 0�09 m/s respectively, and when uw is larger than uwcv, turbulent flow occurs. Considering less water scale and water treatment system cost, tw-out should be under 45℃ andΔtw should be less than 10℃. So suitable uw should be 0�4~0�8 m/s and 0�2~0�6 m/s, when cooling water is entire turbulent flow, cooling efficiency is high, andΔtw is small, above which energy consumption increase greatly and uselessly, but Qw almost remains unchanged. 2) Qw of asbestos fibers roller is small and 78% of heat-resistant alloy roller when cooling water is entire turbulent flow. Application result indicates that consumption of per ton steel is greatly reduced after the improvement and optimization control of furnace rollers, of which the reason is that production is greatly increased due to not grinding rollers, except for optimal control, fiber furnace roller heat loss is small.%采用数学模型分析辊底炉炉辊改进前后的水冷合金辊、纤维辊的热损规律。分析辊底炉存在的问题,指出炉

  16. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  17. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in

  18. Cement with silica fume and granulated blast-furnace slag: strength behavior and hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavetti, V. L.; Castellano, C.; Donza, H.; Rahhal, V. F.; Irassar, E. F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of portland cement replacement by silica fume (up to 10%) and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 70%) on the hydration cement (XRD, heat of hydration, non evaporable water content and calcium hydroxide content) curing under sealed conditions and their effect on the mechanical strength. The obtained results indicate that binary cements containing silica fume and ternary cements there was a significant increase of hydration rate at early age. At later a...

  19. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. D...

  20. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera, I.; Varga, C.; Palomo, J. G.; Gil-Maroto, A.; Vázquez, T.; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin...

  1. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  2. Towards Early Age Characterisation of Eco-Concrete Containing Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Carette, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that concrete represents 5% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mainly originating from the production of cement, the most essential component of concrete. The recent awareness to the environmental challenges facing our civilization has led the cement industry to consider substituting cement by mineral additions, by-products of existing industries. In this work, a combination of limestone filler and blast furnace slag is used to design an “eco-concrete”, defined as a concrete ...

  3. Solidification of radioactive liquid waste - blast furnace slag as a binding agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the reprocessing of spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel elements from research reactor DIDO a radioactive waste solution is produced. Besides the radiotoxical elements, the waste solution contains aluminium from the cladding material of the spent fuel element and sodium hydroxide which is given to the acidic waste solution to reach a pH value between 12 and 13. After the neutralisation, the waste solution is solidified in a slag rich cement matrix. The final solidified product has to be assessed for a final disposal in a deep geological repository. One aspect of the assessment is related to intrinsic factors inherent to the solidified waste physical properties and the interaction between the binding agent and the waste solution. Another aspect of the safety assessment is related to the hydrolytic behaviour of the final cemented waste product under deep geological disposal conditions. The alkalinity of the waste solution acts as an activator for the hydration of the blast furnace slag. The rate of slag hydration decreases at late ages due to the formation of a denser microstructure of reaction products around the slag particles. The solidification of the waste solution with pure blast furnace slag and slag rich matrices leads to significant compressive strength. The effect is more marked for the waste solution cemented with only blast furnace slag. The solidification with blast furnace slag enables a physical immobilisation of the radiotoxical elements. In presence of MgCl2-rich salt brines, the solid waste matrice has no barrier function: the radiotoxical elements are released from the cement matrix within few months. Cs leaching behaviour shows no interaction with the cement matrix regardless of the pH in the surrounding aqueous phase. In contrast, a chemical interaction of Sr with the cement matrix can be identified for pH-value of leachant above 7. (orig.)

  4. Injection of pulverised coal into the Sidmar blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilius, A. (and others)

    1989-05-01

    The coal preparation equipment supplied by Heurbel and the injection equipment provided by Paul Wurth for two furnaces are described and operating results are reported. An injection rate of 120 kg/t iron has been used so far, with a coke rate of 365 kg/t and an increase in output from 53 to 60 t/m{sup 2}d; production cost savings have meant a payback period of only 1.7 years.

  5. Pulverized coal injection on the blast furnaces at U.S. Steel Kosice, S.R.O.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, P.; McCoy, M.; Szalona, T. [United States Steel Corp., Kosice (Slovakia)

    2008-07-01

    United States Steel Corporation at Kosice built a new modern PCI facility that meets environmental criteria and provides a replacement for financially demanding metallurgical coke with a less expensive pulverized coal. The pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology was applied to blast furnaces no. 2 and 3 in 1993 and has resulted in the following improvements: production has increased an average of 400 to 500 tons/day; pig iron production economics have improved not only because of replacing the metallurgical coke with PCI, but also due to a decrease in the total fuel rate for producing 1 ton of hot metal; blast furnace gas utilization increased with ETA CO values around 48 per cent; and the blast furnace operation is more stable by regular burden descend. The most distinguished change has been in the way raw materials are charged to the furnaces. This paper outlined the coal quality requirements for PCI and presented a basic technological description of PCI preparation. The operational experience of the 2 blast furnaces were presented for the period of 2000 to 2007. Recommendations for PCI rate increase were also presented. It was concluded that using PCI technology in blast furnace no. 1 may bring the greatest economic efficiency for United Steel Corporation at Kosice. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  7. Improvement of Hydraulic System Blast Furnace Clay Gun%高炉泥炮液压系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐辉

    2015-01-01

    高炉泥炮是高炉生产的重点设备之一,本文介绍了高炉泥炮液压系统的构成及存在的问题。通过液压站静压导轨伸缩防护罩改造和位移传感器的定位优化,保证了高炉泥炮液压系统的正常运行,为高炉的稳定顺行创造了良好的条件。%Blast furnace mud gun was one of the key equipment of blast furnace.The paper introduced the composition of hydraulic system for blast furnace mud gun and the existing problems.Hydrostatic guide way telescopic protective cover positioning transformation and the displacement sensor was optimized through the hydraulic station to ensure the normal op-eration of the hydraulic system of blast furnace mud gun and create good conditions for the stable operation of blast furnace.

  8. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  9. Biomass as blast furnace injectant – Considering availability, pretreatment and deployment in the Swedish steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Injection of biofuels was modeled, using real blast furnace data as reference. • For charcoal, torrefied and pelletized biomass; a replacement limit was predicted. • As expected, reduced CO2 emissions are possible, especially when using charcoal. • We also found that substantial energy savings can be made, using any of the biofuels. • Circumstances today and biomass availability tomorrow are encouraging for deployment. - Abstract: We have investigated and modeled the injection of biomass into blast furnaces (BF), in place of pulverized coal (PC) from fossil sources. This is the easiest way to reduce CO2 emissions, beyond efficiency-improvements. The considered biomass is either pelletized, torrefied or pyrolyzed. It gives us three cases where we have calculated the maximum replacement ratio for each. It was found that charcoal from pyrolysis can fully replace PC, while torrefied material and pelletized wood can replace 22.8% and 20.0% respectively, by weight. Our energy and mass balance model (MASMOD), with metallurgical sub-models for each zone, further indicates that (1) more Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) will be generated resulting in reduced fuel consumption in an integrated plant, (2) lower need of limestone can be expected, (3) lower amount of generated slag as well, and (4) reduced fuel consumption for heating the hot blast is anticipated. Overall, substantial energy savings are possible, which is one of the main findings in this paper. Due to the high usage of PC in Sweden, large amounts of biomass is required if full substitution by charcoal is pursued (6.19 TWh/y). But according to our study, it is likely available in the long term for the blast furnace designated M3 (located in Luleå). Finally, over a year with almost fully used production capacity (2008 used as reference), a 28.1% reduction in on-site emissions is possible by using charcoal. Torrefied material and wood pellets can reduce the emissions by 6.4% and 5.7% respectively

  10. The Adhesion and Formation Mechanism of Blast Furnace Gunning Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Basing on the study of the equilibrium relationship of interfacial tension among gunning particles, repaired surface and atmosphere, this test is in a position to draw a conclusion concerning the adhesion mechanism of the gunning refractory and the repaired surface, which illustrates the formation of the bottom gunning layer by moist fine gunning particles on the repaired surface. Also involved within the scope of discussion and probe are the patterns formed under this contacting effect and the formation mechanism of gunning layer. The analytic research regarding the behavior of gunning interface has ascribed the influence upon adhesion intensity to the quality of furnace gunning refractory, the state of the repaired surface and the gunning techniques.

  11. 氧气高炉多流体数值模拟与分析%Multi-fluid numerical simulation and analysis of blast furnace in oxygen blast furnace process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗良; 孟嘉乐; 郭占成

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同氧气高炉操作流程及操作参数对高炉内部过程产生的影响,预测氧气高炉流程各参数的变化规律,基于多流体理论、冶金传输原理、冶金反应动力学与热力学理论以及计算流体力学建立了普通高炉多流体模型,并在此基础上修改边界条件及内部相关参数,建立氧气高炉多流体数学模型。通过建立的模型分别对普通高炉和气化炉氧气高炉(GF-FOBF)流程中的氧气高炉进行了模拟计算,得到两种工艺流程下高炉内温度场、浓度场和速度场等典型参数的分布情况。通过对计算结果的对比,分析了氧气高炉操作条件下炉内状态的主要特征和相对于普通高炉发生的变化,发现氧气高炉内部速度场、温度场均发生变化,特别是气相组分的均匀分布问题明显。本模型可为氧气高炉流程试验及流程开发提供参考。%To study the effects of different oxygen blast furnace operating procedures and their operating parameters on blast furnace process,and to predict the variation of each parameter of oxygen blast furnace process,a multi-fluid blast furnace model is built based on multi-fluid theory,metallurgical transport theory,metallurgical thermodynamics and kinetics,and computational fluid dynamics.By modifying its boundary conditions and internal parameters,the establishment of multi-fluid model of oxygen blast furnace is achieved.Numerical simulation of the normal blast furnace and gasification furnace-oxygen blast furnace (GF-FOBF)is carried out with this model and the fields of typical parameters,such as temperature field,are obtained.By comparing the calculation results,the main features of the furnace under oxygen blast furnace operating conditions and changes relative to the traditional blast furnace are analyzed.It can be found that the oxygen blast furnace internal velocity field and temperature field change,especially the distribution of gas

  12. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority of adsorption was completed in 5~10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically by acid treatment. The relative contribution of adsorption to the total removal of phosphate was 26%~28%. Phosphate adsorption on BFS and SFS follows the Freundlich isotherm, with the related constants ofk 6.372 and 1/n 1.739 for BFS, and ofk 1.705 and 1/n 1.718 for SFS. The pH and Ca2+ concentration were decreased with the addition of phosphate, suggesting the formation of calcium phosphate precipitation. At pH 2.93 and 6.93, phosphate was desorbed by about 36%~43% and 9%~11%, respectively.These results indicate that the P adsorption on the slag is not completely reversible and that the bond between the slag particles and adsorbed phosphate is strong. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of BFS and SFS before and after phosphate adsorption verify SFS is related to the formation of phosphate calcium precipitation and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results show that BFS and SFS removed phosphate nearly 100%, indicating they are promising adsorbents for the phosphate removal in wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  13. A novel model for cost performance evaluation of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace based on effective calorific value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐润生; 张建良; 左海滨; 李克江; 宋腾飞; 邵久刚

    2015-01-01

    The combustion process of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace involves a lot of physical and chemical reactions. Based on the combustion behaviors of pulverized coal, the conception of coal effective calorific value representing the actual thermal energy provided for blast furnace was proposed. A cost performance evaluation model of coal injection was built up for the optimal selection of various kinds of coal based on effective calorific value. The model contains two indicators: coal effective calorific value which has eight sub-indicators and coal injection cost which includes four sub-indicators. In addition, the calculation principle and application of cost performance evaluation model in a Chinese large-scale iron and steel company were comprehensively introduced. The evaluation results finally confirm that this novel model is of great significance to the optimal selection of blast furnace pulverized coal.

  14. Analysis on Leakage Reason of Cooling Staves Used in Blast Furnace%高炉冷却壁破损因为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏波; 童静; 陈先利

    2011-01-01

    根据安钢8号高炉破损调查的结果,对冷却壁破损的因为进行了分析,认为冷却壁破损不但与铸造质量有关,而且与高炉设计缺陷、炉况难行以及操作制度也有关系,并提出了相应技术措施.%Based on the investigation of 8# blast furnace damage in Angang, the reasons of cooling stave damage have been analyzed, resulting in that blast furnace damage was not only related to the quality of casting metals, but also had something to do with design limitation of blast furnace and the difficulties of blast furnace condition and operation system of blast furnace hence interrelated technological measures put forward.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  16. Industrial Experiment on Coke Spraying With ZBS Additive in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-zong; ZHANG Zhu-ming; TANG Qi-yong; YANG Xue-feng; ZHANG Kun-hua; ZHAO Xian-sheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the thermal properties of coke, an industrial experiment on the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution was carried out at coking plant and No.6 blast furnace (2 000 m3) of Kunming Iron and Steel Co Ltd. The coke reaction index (CRI) of the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution decreases by 10.56%, and the coke strength after reaction (CSR) increases by 7.80% in comparison with those of the un-sprayed coke. During the experiment, the average iron output increases by 66.69 t/d, and the coke rate is reduced by 5.21 kg per ton iron, while the fluctuation of furnace temperture is small, and sulphur content in hot metal and 100% of hot metal are acceptable.

  17. Development and Application of Mullite—Composite Brick for Baths Pool of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULei; LIXian-ming; 等

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the development and production of mullite-composite bricks for baths pool of balst furnace,Fused corundum,synthetic mullite ,special grade bauxite and a certain amount of additives were used as raw materials to produce corundum-mullite brick and yellow-corundum brick,All of their physical and chemical properties surpass the designed values.Good results have been obtained from the applic-cation in the baths pool of No.7 blast furnace of Anshan I & S Co.(Angang).The silicon content in pig iron decreases by 0.1%-0.2% while the temperature of the hot metal increases by 20℃,The mineral composition and structure have been studied by means of XRD and SEM.

  18. Modeling of Internal State and Performance of an Ironmaking Blast Furnace: Slot vs Sector Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical modeling is a cost-effective method to understand internal state and predict performance of ironmaking blast furnace (BF) for improving productivity and maintaining stability. In the past studies, both slot and sector geometries were used for BF modeling. In this paper, a mathematical model is described for simulating the complex behaviors of solid, gas and liquid multiphase flow, heat and mass transfers, and chemical reactions in a BF. Then the model is used to compare different model configurations, viz. slot and sector geometries by investigating their effects on predicted behaviors, in terms of two aspects: (i) internal state including cohesive zone, velocity, temperature, components concentration, reduction degree, gas utilization, and (ii) performance indicators including liquid output at the bottom and gas utilization rate at the furnace top. The comparisons show that on one hand, predictions of internal state of the furnace such as fluid flow and thermo-chemical phenomena using the slot and sector geometries are qualitatively comparable but quantitatively different. Both sector and slot geometries give a similar cohesive zone shape but the sector geometry gives a higher cohesive zone near the wall and faster reduction. On the other hand, the two geometries can produce similar performance indicators including gas utilization at the furnace top and liquid output at the bottom. Such a study is useful in selecting geometry for numerically examining BF operation with respect to different needs.

  19. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  20. Early and late hydration of supersulphated cements of blast furnace slag with fluorgypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Bazaldúa-Medellín, M. E.; Fuentes, A. F.; Gorokhovsky, A.; Escalante-García, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    The hydration, strength development and composition of hydration products of supersulphated cements were characterized from the first 48 hours up to 360 days. Two compositions of 80% Blast furnace slag, 10–15% Fluorgypsum and 10–5% Portland cement were cured in dry and wet conditions. The main hydration products were ettringite and C-S-H since the first hours and up to 360 days as evidenced by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The strength was favored by higher fluo...

  1. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Jiménez, A.; Puertas, F.; Fernández-Carrasco, L.

    1996-01-01

    Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa) have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution), Ca(OH)2 (3,5∙10-3N), NaOH (1N), Na2CO3 (2N), CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N) at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation...

  2. Natural pozzolan-and granulated blast furnace slag-based binary geopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Robayo, R. A.; Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.; Gordillo, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis at ambient temperature (25±3 °C) of binary geopolymer systems based on natural volcanic pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag. Na2SiO3 and NaOH were used as alkaline activators. The effects of the SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/Al2O3 ratio and the amount of slag added (from 0 to 30%) on the reaction kinetics, compressive strength and microstructure of the final product were studied. To characterise the geopolymer pastes, techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), in...

  3. Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  4. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  5. Measures of Decreasing Blast Furnace Fuel Consumption and Improving Sinter Performance in Guofeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yuan-hao; FENG Gen-sheng; SU Dong-xue

    2008-01-01

    To further decrease the fuel consumption of blast furnace in Tangshan Guofcng Iron and Steel Co Ltd,measures of improving the quality of sinter and pellet and the performances of raw materials were put forward through phase analysis and physical and chemical performance testing.The measures of increasing the grade of sinter,decreasing the sinter reduction degradation index at low temperature,and increasing the sinter soft melt performance at elevated temperature,as well as the reasonable process parameters of sintering were described in detail.

  6. The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Awang H.; Aljoumaily Z. S.; Noordin N.; Al-Mulali M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS) on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a si...

  7. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential. PMID:26444147

  8. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

    2014-07-15

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings.

  9. Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A. I.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

    La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno

  10. Distribution of the blast furnace gas in V and M of Brazil during the reduction of production; Distribuicao de GAF na V e M do Brasil durante a reducao de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lana, Camila Soares; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira; Soares, Lis Nunes; Valentim, Rodrigo Freitas [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    V e M do Brasil is an integrated steel mill with the production of seamless steel pipe. The manufacture process comprises two charcoal blast furnaces that have blast furnace gas as a by-product. The use of natural gas is complementary to the blast furnace gas in the mills. The appropriate planning of these intakes during the crisis had as premise the best use of blast furnace gas and minimizing the use of natural gas. With this planning, it was possible to optimize the use of blast furnace gas reducing 8% of natural gas cost. (author)

  11. Sulphate removal over barium-modified blast-furnace-slag geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hanna; Luukkonen, Tero; Niskanen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Sari; Kangas, Teija; Tynjälä, Pekka; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-11-01

    Blast-furnace slag and metakaolin were geopolymerised, modified with barium or treated with a combination of these methods in order to obtain an efficient SO4(2-) sorbent for mine water treatment. Of prepared materials, barium-modified blast-furnace slag geopolymer (Ba-BFS-GP) exhibited the highest SO4(2-) maximum sorption capacity (up to 119mgg(-1)) and it compared also favourably to materials reported in the literature. Therefore, Ba-BFS-GP was selected for further studies and the factors affecting to the sorption efficiency were assessed. Several isotherms were applied to describe the experimental results of Ba-BFS-GP and the Sips model showed the best fit. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In the dynamic removal experiments with columns, total SO4(2-) removal was observed initially when treating mine effluent. The novel modification method of geopolymer material proved to be technically suitable in achieving extremely low concentrations of SO4(2-) (<2mgL(-1)) in mine effluents.

  12. Exergo-Ecological Assessment Of Auxiliary Fuel Injection Into Blast-Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents complex technological chain supplied with different kinds of primary resources. Iron metallurgy based on blast-furnace process, dominates in world steel production. Metallurgical coke is the basic fuel in this case. Its production is connected with several environmental disadvantageous impacts. One of them is the extended production chain from primary energy to final energy. The reduction of coke consumption in the process can be achieved e.g. by injection of auxiliary fuels or increasing the thermal parameters in the process. In present injection of pulverised coal dominates while recirculation of top-gas seems to be future technology. However, the latter one requires the CO2 removal that additionally extended the production chain. The evaluation of resources management in complex energy-technological systems required application of advanced method based on thermodynamics. In the paper the system exergo-ecological assessment of pulverised coal injection into blast-furnace and top-gas recirculation has been applied. As a comparative criterion the thermo-ecological cost has been proposed.

  13. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  14. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

  15. Optimising blends of blast furnace slag for the immobilisation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred route for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste in the UK is the immobilisation in a cementitious matrix. One cement system that is used by nuclear industry is a blend of blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The material now used for the BFS is a blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and calumite, a coarser fraction of GGBS with the same composition. The aim of this project was to optimize the performance properties of this blend by analysing the rheology of the system. A series of 5 BFS blends were considered in this study to analyse the effect of particle size distribution (PSD) on the reactivity and performance of the cement powder. 3 different water/solid (w/s) ratios have been used: 0.33, 0.35 and 0.37. The isothermal calorimetry results show that the w/s ratio has minimal effect on the heat of hydration whereas the change in PSD consistently causes a chemical change. The total heat evolution conforms to UK grout formulation regulations. The semi-adiabatic calorimetry analysis suggests the PSD has an effect on the physical properties of the grouts produced. Changes in phase formation is observed within all the 5 blends at 28 days, confirming that PSD influences phase composition. This document is a poster

  16. Blast furnace slag-cement grout blends for the immobilization of technetium-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed low-level radioactive and chemically toxic process treatment wastes from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are stabilized by solidification in cement-based grouts. Conventional portland cement and fly ash grouts are shown to be very effective for retention of hydrolyzable heavy metals (including lead, cadmium, uranium, and nickel), but are marginally acceptable for retention of radioactive 99Tc (which is present in the waste as the highly mobile pertechnate anion). Addition of ground blast furnace slag to the grout is shown to reduce the effective diffusivity of technetium by several orders of magnitude; retention of technetium is improved by decreasing the waste loading in the grout or by increasing the proportion of blast furnace slag in the grout dry mix. The selective effect of slag is believed to be due to its ability to reduce Tc(VIII) to the less soluble Tc(IV) species. The addition of other reductive grout admixtures (e.g., sodium sulfide, ferrous ion, and powdered iron metal) also appear to improve the retention of technetium in grout. 31 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs

  17. Kinetics of the leaching of TiO2 from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-hua; GAI Guo-sheng; YANG Yu-fen; SUI Zhi-tong; LI Li; FU Jian-xia

    2008-01-01

    Ti-bearing blast furnace slag is a valuable secondary resource containing about 24 percent of TiO2. In this paper a process of leaching Ti-bearing blast furnace slag with sulfuric acid to recover TiO2, and the kinetics of that reaction, are described. Under laboratory conditions the rate is controlled by a chemical reaction. The leaching reaction is in accord with a shrinking un-reacted-core model. The apparent reaction order of the leaching reaction was 1.222 and the apparent activation energy was 87.01 kJ/mol. The model fits the observed data well until 90% of the TiO2 has be leached from the particles. The model disagrees with observations during later periods of the reaction because the solution becomes supersaturated with Ti ions, which precipitate as H2TiO4. The assumptions of constant reactant concentration and that there is no effect from the product layer on diffusion, also cause the model to deviate from the actual values.

  18. Sulphate removal over barium-modified blast-furnace-slag geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hanna; Luukkonen, Tero; Niskanen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Sari; Kangas, Teija; Tynjälä, Pekka; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-11-01

    Blast-furnace slag and metakaolin were geopolymerised, modified with barium or treated with a combination of these methods in order to obtain an efficient SO4(2-) sorbent for mine water treatment. Of prepared materials, barium-modified blast-furnace slag geopolymer (Ba-BFS-GP) exhibited the highest SO4(2-) maximum sorption capacity (up to 119mgg(-1)) and it compared also favourably to materials reported in the literature. Therefore, Ba-BFS-GP was selected for further studies and the factors affecting to the sorption efficiency were assessed. Several isotherms were applied to describe the experimental results of Ba-BFS-GP and the Sips model showed the best fit. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In the dynamic removal experiments with columns, total SO4(2-) removal was observed initially when treating mine effluent. The novel modification method of geopolymer material proved to be technically suitable in achieving extremely low concentrations of SO4(2-) (<2mgL(-1)) in mine effluents. PMID:27318734

  19. Application of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in Cement Composites Exposed to Biogenic Acid Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalcikova, M.; Estokova, A.; Luptakova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The deterioration of cement-based materials used for the civil infrastructure has led to the realization that cement-based materials, such as concrete, must be improved in terms of their properties and durability. Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement- based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing corrosion of concrete. The use supplementary cementing composite materials have been reported to improve the resistance of concrete to deterioration by aggressive chemicals. The paper is focused on the investigation of the influence of biogenic acid attack on the cement composites affected by bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The concrete specimens with 65 wt. % addition of antimicrobial activated granulated blast furnace slag as durability increasing factor as well as without any addition were studied. The experiments proceeded during 150 days under model laboratory conditions. The pH values and chemical composition of leachates were measured after each 30- day cycle. The calcium and silicon contents in leachates were evaluated using X - ray fluorescence method (XRF). Summarizing the results, the 65% wt. addition of antimicrobial activated granulated blast furnace slag was not confirmed to be more resistant.

  20. Evaluation of Burden Descent Model for Burden Distribution in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHOU; Peng-yu SHI; Yan-po SONG; Kai-le TANG; Dong FU; Chenn QZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models for burden descending process have been applied to obtain whole burden structures in blast furnace,whereas the accuracy of those burden descent models has not been sufficiently investigated.Special evaluation method based on timeline burden profiles was established to quantitatively evaluate the error between ex-perimental and modeled burden structures.Four existing burden descent models were utilized to describe the burden structure of a 1/20 scaled warm blast furnace.Input modeling conditions including initial burden profile,descending volumes in each time interval,and normalized descending velocity distribution were determined via special image pro-cessing technology.Modeled burden structures were evaluated combined with the published experimental data.It is found that all the models caught the main profile of the burden structure.Furthermore,the improved nonuniform de-scent model (Model IV)shows the highest level of precision especially when burden descends with unstable velocity distribution tendency.Meanwhile,the traditional nonuniform descent model (Model III)may also be desirable to model the burden descending process when the burden descending velocity presents a linear tendency.Finally,the uni-form descent model (Model I)might be the first option for roughly predicting burden structure.

  1. A new concept of auxiliary fuel injection through tuyeres in blast furnaces developed by numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Injection of powdered materials in blast furnaces is a great option for reducing costs, increasing productivity and satisfy the environmental norms. Thus, this paper presents a study on the use of a flame stabilization system with rotation, designed to promote greater coal injection in the combustion zone, reducing losses and increasing the efficiency of the equipment. A physical model was used to evaluate scattering of pulverized fuel and is compared with numerical results in the same scale. In the second step, a combustion model was added to the numerical simulation, using dimensions of a real blast furnace. Fields like temperature, velocity and behavior of chemical reactions were analyzed. The results showed that double lances promote better particle injection when compared with simple lance for reduced material injection. The new injection system proposed, with swirl numbers of 0.12 and 0.24, promoted a better injection of both reduced material and temperature in the raceway zone. The swirl 0.24 showed superior performance when compared to other injection systems.

  2. Multi-parameter measurements in a blast furnace using interactions of neutrons and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the possibility of multi-parameter measurements to meet the requirements for more precise and stable control of a blast furnace. A basic concept of such measurements is to make use of multi-radiations of neutrons and γ-rays, and to obtain multi-types of information on conditions of materials (iron ore and coke) inside the blast furnace. A prototype gauge was assembled and examined which consisted of a radiation source of 252Cf, a neutron moderator, a lead shield, a bismuth germanate detector, a stainless casing and a control unit. Laboratory experiments showed that the gauge could measure the quantities to be essential to estimate material conditions. In practice, it clearly distinguished between iron ore and coke layers, and at the same time measured bulk density of iron contained in iron ore by counting thermal neutron capture γ-rays from iron. It also gave the information on material bulk density by detecting Compton scattered γ-rays from material, i.e. iron ore and coke. Finally, reducibility of iron ore was calculated by using both bulk densities. Relative accuracy of measurements was reasonable in practical use. The possibility of realization of the gauge has been proved and the on-line trial will be expected in the near future. (author)

  3. Failure Mechanism and Material Requirements for Coal Lance in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wei; JIA Juan; CHEN Jia-chao; SHANG He-ming

    2012-01-01

    Pulverized coal injection(PCI) is a key technology in modern ironmaking by blast furnace(BF) and the life of injection lance has a great influence on PCI operation and on normal running of blast furnace.It is found that the main reasons for the failure of the lances are their outer surface oxidation and the inner surface erosion through monitoring some lances used in BF.The outer surface oxidation of the lances made of lCr18Ni9Ti is inevitable under high hot blast temperature condition through thermodynamics analysis.A mathematical model for calculating the temperature of common monocular coal lance had been developed according to the principles of mass and energy balance.Increasing temperature and flow velocity of the hot blast would cause a rise in the lance temperature.The influence of hot blast temperature is more obvious.The lance temperature would decline when compressed air flux increases.Conveying technology of dense phase pulverized coal is beneficial to extending lance’s life because decreasing solid-gas ratio would intensify erosion and burning loss.The anti-oxidation temperature of lance materials needs to be over 1000 ℃ for BF intensified smelting.In order to increase the resistance to oxidation of the coal lance’s outer surface,oxidation-resistant steel or Al coating stainless steel is the appropriate material for BF use.Employing the metal surface treatment technology to enhance the hardness of the coal lance’s internal surface could prolong the service life of coal lance

  4. Multi-Class Classification Methods of Cost-Conscious LS-SVM for Fault Diagnosis of Blast Furnace%Multi-Class Classification Methods of Cost-Conscious LS-SVM for Fault Diagnosis of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-mei; WANG An-na; SHA Mo; ZHAO Feng-yun

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the limitations of rapid fault diagnosis of blast furnace, a novel strategy based on cost-conscious least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is proposed to solve this problem. Firstly, modified discrete particle swarm optimization is applied to optimize the feature selection and the LS-SVM parameters. Secondly, cost-con- scious formula is presented for fitness function and it contains in detail training time, recognition accuracy and the feature selection. The CLS-SVM algorithm is presented to increase the performance of the LS-SVM classifier. The new method can select the best fault features in much shorter time and have fewer support vectbrs and better general- ization performance in the application of fault diagnosis of the blast furnace. Thirdly, a gradual change binary tree is established for blast furnace faults diagnosis. It is a multi-class classification method based on center-of-gravity formula distance of cluster. A gradual change classification percentage ia used to select sample randomly. The proposed new metbod raises the sped of diagnosis, optimizes the classifieation scraraey and has good generalization ability for fault diagnosis of the application of blast furnace.

  5. CFD study of ejector flow behavior in a blast furnace gas galvanizing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Inzoli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest toward Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as a low-grade energy source for industrial furnaces. This paper considers the revamping of a galvanic plant furnace converted to BFG from natural gas. In the design of the new system, the ejector on the exhaust line is a critical component. This paper studies the flow behavior of the ejector using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD model is based on a 3D representation of the ejector, using air and exhaust gases as working fluids. This paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, the galvanic plant used as case study is presented and discussed, in the second part the CFD approach is outlined, and in the third part the CFD approach is validated using experimental data and the numerical results are presented and discussed. Different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models ( k-ω SST and k-ɛ Realizable) are evaluated in terms of convergence capability and accuracy in predicting the pressure drop along the ejector. Suggestions for future optimization of the system are also provided.

  6. Analysis of the Rheological Behaviour of Selected Semi-Solid Slag Systems in Blast Furnace Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migas P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid systems of slag and hot metal in a blast furnace are extremely important from the perspective of their dripping in the unit. The rheological nature and the values of the dynamic viscosity coefficient of liquid and semi-solid phases - slag and hot metal - determine the permeability of the zones in which those systems exist. The modelling of dripping processes and e.g. static and dynamic holding/retention of liquid in the bed, requires an accurate description of the rheological behaviour of slag and iron systems. Determining the liquid flow through the lump bed of the blast furnace is based on the assumption that liquids in the unit in the whole range of their occurrence are similar to a Newtonian ideal liquid. This study presents an analysis of the findings of high-temperature rheometric measurements of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO systems, liquid, semi-solid slags of the blast furnace type doped with TiO2 and solids in the form of TiN. The tests were performed within a temperature range of 1310-1490°C. Also measurement results for glycerol solutions with concentrations of 86% and 100% at the ambient temperature, simulating blast furnace slags with various contents of solids - PC, anthracite - are presented.

  7. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  8. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-06-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

  9. The influence of blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume on corrosion of reinforced concrete in marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Chloride penetration from sea water may cause corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures. Adding reactive inorganic materials such as blast furnace slag, fly ash or silica fume to the cement matrix improves the resistance against chloride penetration as compared to Portland cement concrete. A

  10. Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique

  11. Latest technologies for process control and automation in blast furnace; Korosogyo wo sasaeru saishin no purosesu seigyo to jidoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Y. [Kawasaki Steel Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Inayama, A. [Kawasaki Steel Corporation, Tokyo (Japan).Chiba Works; Ino, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1999-12-01

    Kawasaki Steel has modernized blast furnace control systems featuring an integrated instrumentation and electrical system for each sub-process, a human-machine interface through a single window, and a distributed process computer system. A furnace diagnosis system, which has been known as 'GO-STOP system', has been developed to a knowledge-based system that enables to provide appropriate action guidance. For the burden distribution control, controllability and flexibility have been improved by the use of a bell-less-top charging device. For hot stove control, the automatic setting of a combustion gas flow rate and improved efficiency have been achieved by a fuzzy control system. Furthermore, the remote operation of cast house equipment has been realized and contributed to improve the working environment and the efficient operation at Chiba Works No. 6 blast furnace. (author)

  12. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi, E-mail: kazi.mohiuddin@students.mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F. [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Stelcer, Eduard [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Evans, Tim [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  13. Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco, M. F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying shrinkage are not so well described. Analysis of drying shrinkage is relevant because this property influences the possibility of cracking occurrence and, hence, the deterioration of mechanical and durable properties of concrete structures. This paper evaluates the influence on the drying shrinkage of mortars of variable contents of limestone filler and/or blast-furnace slag in Portland cement. Additionally, flexion strength and non evaporable water content were evaluated. Test results show that the inclusion of these mineral admixtures, Joint or separately, increments drying shrinkage of mortars at early ages. Despite this fact, mortars made with limestone filler cement are less susceptible to cracking than mortars made with cements incorporating blast-furnace slag or both admixtures.

    Durante los años 90 el uso de cementos fabricados con clínker Portland y dos adiciones suplementarias (cementos ternarios o compuestos se ha incrementado en forma considerable. En la práctica, es cada vez más común el empleo de estos cementos conteniendo combinaciones de ceniza volante y humo de sílice, escoria y humo de sílice o escoria y filler calcáreo. En la actualidad existen numerosos estudios sobre la influencia de los cementos compuestos en las características en estado fresco y las propiedades mecánicas de morteros y hormigones, pero las deformaciones que estos materiales sufren debido a la retracción por secado no son tan conocidas. El análisis de

  14. Heavy metals adsorption on blast furnace sludges; Adsorcion de metales pesados sobre lodos de horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Delgado, A.; Perez, C.; Lopez, F.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    Most of industrial liquid effluents have high contents of heavy metals. The recovery of these metals is environmental and economically interesting. In this work we study the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents. The adsorption of Pb``2+, Zn``2+, Cd``2+, Cu``2+ and Cr``3+ on the sludge was investigated by determination of adsorption isotherms. The effect of time, equilibrium temperature and concentration of metal solution on sludge adsorption efficiency was evaluated. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langumuir and the thermodynamic values {Delta}G, {Delta}H and {Delta}S corresponding to each adsorption process were calculated. Blast furnace sludge was found to be an effective sorbent for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr-ions within the range of ion concentrations employed. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Effect of phase separation structure on cementitious reactivity of blast furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; SUN HengHu; LIU XiaoMing; CUI ZengDi

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag samples with phase separation structure were prepared by re-melting and then water quenching process. By use of XRD, DTA and SEM technologies in combination with mechanical prop-erty experiment, the structure characteristics of samples were determined and their effects on cemen-titious reactivity were investigated. The results show that the samples with phase separation have better cementitious reactivity than sample with homogenous glass and sample with crystalline phases, which mainly contributes to its grass structure with coexistence of Ca-O rich phase and Si-O rich phase. Moreover, the amorphous samples possess hydrability which is affected by their formation process, since phase separation extends the range of possible Ca-rich crystalline phases.

  16. Fe-Si droplets associated with graphite on blast furnace coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.; Kerkkonen, Olavi; Härkki, Jouko J.

    2012-06-01

    Fe-Si droplets on the surface of blast furnace (BF) coke from 25 to 50 cm at the tuyere level are mostly composed of Fe3Si, which has various shapes (round, elongated, and irregular) and penetration degrees into the BF coke matrix. The shapes and penetration degrees may depend on the saturation of molten iron by silicon during interaction with the coke matrix. The droplets are covered by a tiny shell of carbon. Graphite observed inside the droplets can be divided into two categories: well-formed tabular crystals with relatively large size and flakes with structures similar as those in cast iron. The textures of the droplets reflect composition, interaction with the coke matrix, and cooling conditions.

  17. Effect of phase separation structure on cementitious reactivity of blast furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag samples with phase separation structure were prepared by re-melting and then water quenching process. By use of XRD,DTA and SEM technologies in combination with mechanical property experiment,the structure characteristics of samples were determined and their effects on cementitious reactivity were investigated. The results show that the samples with phase separation have better cementitious reactivity than sample with homogenous glass and sample with crystalline phases,which mainly contributes to its glass structure with coexistence of Ca-O rich phase and Si-O rich phase. Moreover,the amorphous samples possess hydrability which is affected by their formation process,since phase separation extends the range of possible Ca-rich crystalline phases.

  18. PRECIPITATION AND GROWTH OF PEROVSKITE PHASE IN TITANIUM BEARING BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Guo; T.P. Lou; L. Zhang; L.N. Zhang; Z.T. Sui

    2007-01-01

    The effects of transformation of slag composition and additive agents on the morphology, the crystal in the Ti-bearing blast furnace slags were investigated. As the morphology of perovskite is dispersed in molten slags, the crystal growth mechanism of the melting of fine dendrites and the coarsening of large grains exist throughout the solidification of molten slags. With the increase of CaO and Fe2O3 content, VF of perovskite obviously increases. However, high basicity leads to the viscosity of slag, which results in the reduction of the average equivalent diameter (AED). The experimental results showed that the presence of the additives CaF2 and MnO efficiently decreased the viscosity of the slags, and obviously improved the morphology of perovskite and promoted its growth.

  19. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtun, Maxim, E-mail: max.kovtun@up.ac.za; Kearsley, Elsabe P., E-mail: elsabe.kearsley@up.ac.za; Shekhovtsova, Julia, E-mail: j.shekhovtsova@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator.

  20. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator

  1. Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results. The model simulates also sinter and pellets manufacture as well as operation of hot stove. The teacher and learners can interact with each other using software interface which allows to monitor the activity of the learners, answer their questions, and analyse the learning results. The model is an ingredient of the "Virtual Lab Ironmaking".

    Se desarrollan y presentan tecnologías avanzadas de educación, como los Laboratorios Virtuales, para suministrar a los clientes de las instituciones de educación superior, investigación e industria, en apoyo de su trabajo, nuevos y eficientes métodos de operación y técnicas especiales de adiestramiento. Se ha desarrollado el Modelo Visual de "Horno Alto" basado en un modelo matemático del balance del proceso del horno alto, para fines de educación a distancia. Procesa los parámetros de entrada y salida en operación y los resultados de la enseñanza. El modelo también simula la fabricación de sinter y pelets, además de la operación de las estufas. El profesor y alumnos pueden interactuar entre sí usando un software que permite seguir la marcha de la actividad de los alumnos, responder a sus preguntas y analizar los resultados del aprendizaje. El modelo es parte del "Laboratorio Virtual de Fabricación de Arrabio".

  2. Quantificational indexes for design and evaluation of copper staves for blast furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Qian; Susen Cheng; Hongbo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    The quantificational and normative design is the precondition of improving the design of copper staves for blast furnaces.Based on a 3-dimensional temperature field calculation model, from the view point of heat transfer and long campaigns note with the core of forming accretion, the forming-accretion-ability (FAA) and the rib hot surface maximum temperature difference (△Tmax) as quantificational indexes to direct and evaluate the design of copper staves for blast furnaces were presented. The application of the two indexes in design essentially embodies the new long campaigns in the stage of design. With the application of the two indexes,good results can be obtained. Firstly, it was suggested that the rib height of a copper stave can be reduced to 15 mm, which is a new method and theory for the reduction of copper staves. Secondly, the influence of insert on FAA and △Tmax is decided by the volume of insert. According to this, the principle of design for the hot surface geometry of copper staves was put forward that the ratio of the rib hot surface to the copper stave hot surface (abbreviated as the ratio of rib to stave) must be maintained in the range of 45% to 55%;for the present copper stave with a 35-40 mm thick rib, the ratio of rib to stave in the range of 50% to 55% can optimize the design of copper staves; for the copper stave with a smaller rib thickness, for example 15 mm, the ratio of rib to stave in the range of 45% to 50% can optimize the design of copper staves. It can be summarized that the thicker the rib thickness, the larger is the ratio of rib to stave.

  3. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  4. C 高炉低硅冶炼理论和实践%C blast furnace smelting theory and practice with low silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子林

    2014-01-01

    这次通过对C高炉生产指标分析,在现有条件下减少入炉焦炭灰分、从而减少SiO2入炉量、合理配备炉料结构、调整操作制度等措施,实现C高炉低硅冶炼的生产实践。%By analysis of production targets of C blast furnace , coke ash in blast furnace would be re-duced under the current conditions , thereby reducing the amount of SiO 2 in the blast furnace , making the charge struture reasonable , adjusting the operating system , so that the production practices of low silicon smelting in C blast furnace could be achieve .

  5. The Accuracy Control of Blast Furnace Burden Distribation System%高炉布料系统的精确控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖实

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace distribution material system's control precision is the blast furnace regular production important link, guaranteed that prompt, the accurate distribution is guarantees the blast-furnace output and the product quality premise. This article mainly introduced based on Shinaide Quantum series PLC is the method which control system's blast furnace material distribution system's application and the material distribution precision enhance.%  高炉布料系统的控制精度是高炉正常生产的重要一环,保证及时、准确的布料是保证高炉产量和产品质量的前提。本文主要介绍了基于施耐德Quantum系列PLC为控制系统的高炉布料系统的应用及布料精度提高的措施。

  6. 八钢A高炉长寿管理与生产实践%Longevity Management and ProductionPractice of Bagang’s A Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪超; 何玉娟

    2015-01-01

    In this paper , the longevity management was analyzed , aiming at the furnace condition of Banging’s A furnace blast furnace in so far , and combined with the present conditions of A furnace blast , do a brief analysis was given for the measures taken on the longevity of blast furnace in the pro-duction process of the longevity management .%本文针对八钢A高炉开炉至今的炉况,进行了长寿的管理分析,并结合A高炉高炉现有条件,对高炉在生产过程中的长寿管理采取的各项措施做了简要分析。

  7. Study on Leaching High Zn-Pb Dust from Rotary Hearth Furnace by Sulfuric Acid Solution%硫酸浸出转底炉高锌铅粉尘的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸荣孙; 吴争; 伊廷锋; 夏征宇

    2012-01-01

    研究了硫酸浸出转底炉高锌铅粉尘提取锌的工艺条件和参数.最佳浸出工艺条件为:搅拌速度400 r/min,硫酸浓度为1.0mol/L,浸出温度为25℃,固液比为1∶8,浸出时间为0.5h.在此条件下,锌的浸出率可达96%以上.采用针铁矿-氧化水解法除铁、过硫酸铵深度除铁锰、锌粉置换除杂的方法对浸出液净化处理,得到高纯度硫酸锌溶液,该溶液可直接电解制取锌或制取碱式碳酸锌和氧化锌.%The technological conditions and parameters of leaching high Zn-Pb dust to extract Zn from rotary hearth furnace by sulfuric acid solution were studied. The optimum leaching conditions were obtained as follows; the stirring rate was 400 r/min, sulfuric acid concentration was 1.0 mol/L, the leaching temperature was 25 ℃ , the solid-liquid ratio was 1:8 and leaching time was 0. 5 h. Under these conditions, the leching rate of zinc can reach above 96%. Purification treatment was conducted for the leaching liquid, including using geothite and oxidation-hydrolysis process to remove iron, using ammonium persulphate to remove iron and manganese, using zinc powder to replace and remove impurities, thus high purity zinc sulfate solution was obtained, which can be used to prepare zinc or basic zinc carbonate and zinc oxide by direct electrolysis.

  8. Influence of nut coke on iron ore sinter reducibility under simulated blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, E.A.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W.

    2010-04-15

    One of the most important factors to increase the economic efficiency of the blast furnace process is to reduced coke losses (undersieve product known as nut coke). In recent years there has been increased interest in mixing nut coke in the sinter layers. In order to clarify the influence of nut coke on sinter reducibility, sinter and sinter-nut coke mixtures were isothermally reduced with 30%CO-70%N{sub 2} at 1173-1523 K using a muffle furnace supported by an on-line gas analyser. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray technique were used to characterise the microstructure and the different phases developed in the original and reduced sinter. Sinter reduced without nut coke participation exhibited reduction retardation at elevated temperatures (>1373 K) while the presence of nut coke prevented such phenomena. The rate controlling mechanism of sinter and sinter-nut coke mixture was predicted from the correlation between apparent activation energy calculations, mathematical modelling derived from gas-solid reaction model and microstructure examination.

  9. A Simulation Study of TRT Control System of the Blast Furnace%高炉TRT控制系统模型仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    The author of this paper constructs a mathematical model of blast furnace top pressure TRT system based on the blast furnace process,the factors affecting the stability of the top pres-sure of the blast furnace and the pipeline analysis of the blast furnace TRT system.Matlab is em-ployed to carry out simulation to test the mathematical model of the adj ustment system of blast furnace top pressure with a static blade,constituting a theoretical basis for further improve the stability of the blast furnace top pressure.%根据高炉TRT工艺和影响高炉顶压稳定的因素,以及对高炉 TRT系统的管路分析,建立高炉顶压TRT系统数学模型。应用Matlab 对静叶单独调节高炉顶压时系统的数学模型进行仿真验证,为进一步改善高炉顶压的稳定提供理论依据。

  10. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients in Portland cements mixed with silica fume, blast furnace slag and natural zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1 keV to 2 MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume and blast furnace slag, lead to significant variations in total mass attenuation coefficients. The elemental compositions of samples were analyzed using a wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometer. The calculated values of total mass attenuation coefficients were discussed on the basis of different percentages of constituents of cement and cement mixed with different additives

  11. Numerical investigation of gas flow through blast furnace shaft with designed layered structure of ore and coke burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing, G.L.; Ma, L.; Zhang, X.S.; Zhou, J.L.; Kuwabara, M.

    2010-10-15

    Detailed comments on governing equations and boundary conditions on which numerical results of gas flow in porous media should rely are presented. Numerical results are shown for the gas flow through a large blast furnace with designed layered structure of burdens. Not only the effects of radial and vertical distributions of resistance to flow but also the effects of different top profiles of burden, such as V-, M-shapes and V-shape with a side terrace, on the resultant gas flow are discussed in relation to the properties of burden, such as repose angle, particle size, voidage and different charging sequence. For the gas flow in a coaxial annulus bed, which is expected to appear in the lower part of blast furnace during a start-up or a blow-out operation, numerical predictions are compared with analytical ones based on a simple yet convenient gas flow model.

  12. Effect of Na3PO4 on the Hydration Process of Alkali-Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the utilization of different non-traditional cements and composites has been increasing. Alkali-activated cementitious materials, especially those based on the alkali activation of blast furnace slag, have considerable potential for utilization in the building industry. However, alkali-slag cements exhibit very rapid setting times, which are too short in some circumstances, and these materials cannot be used for some applications. Therefore, it is necessary to find a suitable retarding admixture. It was shown that the sodium phosphate additive has a strong effect on the heat evolution during alkali activation and effectively retards the hydration reaction of alkali-activated blast furnace slag. The aim of the work is the suggestion of a reaction mechanism of retardation mainly based on Raman and X‑ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  13. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, M.; Bowen, P.; Kappl, M.; Butt, H. J.; Stuer, M; Pecharromán, C.; Aschauer, U.; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomi...

  14. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía, J. M.; Puertas, F.

    2014-01-01

    [EN]This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA) from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised ...

  15. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, M.; Kappl, M.; Stuer, M; Aschauer, U.; Bowen, P.; Butt, H. J.; Pecharromán, Carlos; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    [EN]The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag...

  16. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  17. Design of a 100 MW blast furnace gas power station under consideration of fuel specific and application specific basic conditions; Auslegung eines 100 MW - Hochofengaskraftwerkes unter Beruecksichtigung der brennstoff- und anwendungsspezifischen Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bies, Dietmar; Mueller, Robert [Evonik New Energies GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Blast furnace gas develops with the pig iron production. Due to the increasing energy prices and due to the discussions on the climate the energetic utilization of blast furnace gas as a non-standard fuel increasingly gains in importance. The ROGESA Roheisengesellschaft Saar mbH (Dillingen, Federal Republic of Germany) initiated a project for the construction of a blast furnace gas power station and a project company. With its most modern equipment technology, the blast furnace gas power station contributes to the efficient power supply of the steel-plant site Dillingen. The contribution under consideration describes the realized plant concept and considerations which led to this plant concept.

  18. A search system for optimum energy use: using the Nelder-Mead method to find the optimum operating conditions for a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S.; Kawabe, H.; Wada, K.; Kihara, H.; Takahashi, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The Nelder-Mead method was used to search for optimum operating conditions (such that energy use is minimized) of a blast furnace for given production and fuel conditions. The search system is explained and its use illustrated for the case of all-coke production with zero N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ injection. Furnace restrictions are obtained and the blast temperature and humidity for minimum cost operation are derived on the basis of gas flow, tuyere nose temperature and furnace core temperature. (1 ref.)

  19. Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value in concrete. Applications and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjuán, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the disscusion in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience.

    Recientemente se ha incorporado un valor del coeficiente de eficacia K para la escoria de horno alto en la norma europea EN 206-1:2000. Los valores propuestos en los grupos de trabajo eran muy diversos ya que en algunos casos sólo consideraban la resistencia mecánica para su determinación mientras que en otros se remarcaba la importancia de tener en cuenta, además, aspectos relativos a la durabilidad del hormigón con dicha adición. En el presente artículo se discuten las ventajas y desventajas de proponer unos valores del coeficiente de eficacia K más o menos conservadores. La conclusión final se resume con la propuesta de una recomendación lógica que consiste en trasladar a cada país la elección del coeficiente K para que pueda aplicarse a los hormigones empleados en su territorio; tales valores de K deberán ser seleccionados de acuerdo con la experiencia de cada uno de los países.

  20. CONTACT STRENGTH OF MECHANOACTIVATED FINE CONCRETES FROM GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolshakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Strengthening of fine concrete contact zone by mechanical processing of all components of the concrete mix in a mixer-activator and aggregate application with rough surface. Methodology. Rotary activator PC-06, developed by Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Technology, was used as a mixer-activator to achieve this purpose. Granulated blast furnace slag, having a more developed rough surface than sand, was used as fine aggregate. This apparatus provides intensive homogeneous mixing of concrete mix components, processing of raw materials (purification of their particles from contaminants, and mechanical destruction of granulated blast furnace slag surface layers and other components of the mix. Findings. During the preparation work, experimental research of new formations composition of fine concretes, using differential thermal and x-ray phase analysis methods, and physical-mechanical properties of fine concretes in accordance with the applicable standards of Ukraine, were carried out. It is established that the phase composition of new formations of fine concretes made from activated and non-activated mixes, is not changed. Their main difference is the size of generated effects and temperature intervals of occurrence of these peaks. Thus, in fine concretes made on the basis of the activated mixes, magnitude of effects is less, indicating a higher hydration degree of its components. Besides, TG curves of concrete specimens show that weight loss of gel calcium hydrosilicate of concrete from a mechanically activated mix is 0.5...0.7 % more than of concrete from a non-activated mix, which indicates a larger number of these formations in concrete from activated mixes. In general, concretes of different composition, made from a mix, processed in the mixer-activator, have higher mechanical strength. Originality. Ideas about the influence of mechanical activation of components of fine concrete mixes with forming humidity in a

  1. Characterisation of magnesium potassium phosphate cements blended with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPCs), blended with 50 wt.% fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to reduce heat evolution, water demand and cost, were assessed using compressive strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on 25Mg, 27Al, 29Si, 31P and 39K nuclei. We present the first definitive evidence that dissolution of the glassy aluminosilicate phases of both FA and GBFS occurred under the pH conditions of MKPC. In addition to the main binder phase, struvite-K, an amorphous orthophosphate phase was detected in FA/MKPC and GBFS/MKPC systems. It was postulated that an aluminium phosphate phase was formed, however, no significant Al–O–P interactions were identified. High-field NMR analysis of the GBFS/MKPC system indicated the potential formation of a potassium-aluminosilicate phase. This study demonstrates the need for further research on these binders, as both FA and GBFS are generally regarded as inert fillers within MKPC

  2. Cement with silica fume and granulated blast-furnace slag: strength behavior and hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonavetti, V. L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of portland cement replacement by silica fume (up to 10% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 70% on the hydration cement (XRD, heat of hydration, non evaporable water content and calcium hydroxide content curing under sealed conditions and their effect on the mechanical strength. The obtained results indicate that binary cements containing silica fume and ternary cements there was a significant increase of hydration rate at early age. At later ages, most of studied cements have an equivalent or greater strength that those obtained in the plain portland cement.En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento portland de humo de sílice (hasta 10% y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 70% sobre la hidratación (DRX, calor de hidratación, contenido de agua no evaporable y de hidróxido de calcio, bajo condiciones de curado sellado y su incidencia sobre la resistencia mecánica. Los resultados obtenidos indican que en los cementos binarios con humo de sílice y en los cementos ternarios se produce un importante aumento de la velocidad de hidratación en las primeras edades, mientras que a edades más avanzadas la mayor parte del dominio estudiado alcanza o supera la resistencia obtenida por el cemento portland sin adición.

  3. Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.s [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A.; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman,; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 {+-} 0.011 and 0.038 {+-} 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

  4. Firing blast furnace gas without support fuel in steel mill boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, S.S.; Chen, C.H.; Chang, C.Y.; Wu, C.W.; Ou, J.J.; Lin, T.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-15

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of firing blast furnace gas (BFG) individually or in combination with coke oven gas (COG) were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results showed that at the same heat release rate under the operating conditions of stoichiometry, firing BFG individually had a greater amount of fuel gas volume flow rate, a smaller amount of air volume flow rate, and a lower adiabatic flame temperature than firing BFG with support fuel without preheating. Meanwhile, the volume flow rate of flue gas for the former was greater than the latter. The experimental results obtained from a co-firing of BFG and COG fueled-boiler in a steel company showed that whether at a higher or lower boiler load, with gradually decreasing the amount of COG supply, flame instability (lift-off and blow-out) did not occur and the rate of CO emission was very low. In addition, a decrease in the amount of COG supply brought about a great benefit to the reductions of both CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions.

  5. Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haoliang, E-mail: haoliang.huang@tudelft.nl [Microlab, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Ye, Guang [Microlab, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Damidot, Denis [Université Lille Nord de France (France); EM Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, Douai (France)

    2014-06-01

    The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH)₂ solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO₄⁻² ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation.

  6. Characterisation of magnesium potassium phosphate cements blended with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Laura J.; Bernal, Susan A.; Walling, Samuel A.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Provis, John L.; Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPCs), blended with 50 wt.% fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to reduce heat evolution, water demand and cost, were assessed using compressive strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on {sup 25}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 29}Si, {sup 31}P and {sup 39}K nuclei. We present the first definitive evidence that dissolution of the glassy aluminosilicate phases of both FA and GBFS occurred under the pH conditions of MKPC. In addition to the main binder phase, struvite-K, an amorphous orthophosphate phase was detected in FA/MKPC and GBFS/MKPC systems. It was postulated that an aluminium phosphate phase was formed, however, no significant Al–O–P interactions were identified. High-field NMR analysis of the GBFS/MKPC system indicated the potential formation of a potassium-aluminosilicate phase. This study demonstrates the need for further research on these binders, as both FA and GBFS are generally regarded as inert fillers within MKPC.

  7. Ultra low and negative expansion glass–ceramic materials produced from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mandal; S Chakrabarti; S Ghatak; S K Das

    2005-08-01

    Ultra low and negative expansion glass–ceramic materials have been obtained from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag. The batch composition was modified with the addition of lithium carbonate, hydrated alumina, boric acid and nucleating agent (titania). The batch was melted at 1400°C followed by casting in the form of bars and annealed at 510°C for 4 h. The annealed specimens were subjected to heat treatment at predetermined temperatures selected from DTA study of the parent glass. Thermal expansion measurement and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the specimen nucleated at 545°C for 4 h and crystallized at 720°C for 2 h which resulted in negative coefficient of thermal expansion [(–) 9 to (–) 2 × 10$^{-7}/{}^\\circ $C] over the temperature range (30–600°C) due to the formation of -eucryptite while other heating schedule showed the formation of spodumene and lithium aluminium silicates. The samples showed excellent flexural strength value and varied in the range 120–200 MPa depending upon the phases present.

  8. The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a similar mix ratio (1:2:0.45 and a dry density of 1300 kg/m3 is generated. Taking into consideration, from the total weight of the cementation material, 1% of super- plasticizer (PS-1 is added to the mixes with slag content. Test results revealed that the most favourable (optimum replacement level of un-processed slag in foam concrete is 30%. This represents a commercial advantage as the cement requirement is reduced from 414 Kg/m3 to 290 Kg/m3. On the 28th day, the optimum mix showed higher values than the control mix by 32% for compressive strength, 46.5% for splitting tensile strength and 61% for flexural strength.

  9. Characteristics and settling behaviour of particles from blast furnace flue gas washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiventerä, Jenni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Keski-Ruismäki, Kirsi; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-05-01

    A lot of particles from iron-making are removed with blast furnace off-gas and routed to the gas cleaning system. As water is used for cleaning the gas, the produced wash water contains a large amount of particles such as valuable Fe and C. However, the presence of zinc prevents recycling. In addition, the high amount of calcium results in uncontrolled scaling. Therefore, the properties of the wash water from scrubber and sludge, from the Finnish metal industry (SSAB Raahe), were evaluated in this study. Size fractionation of wash water revealed that Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, V, Cr and Cd appeared mainly in the larger fractions (>1.2 μm) and Na, Mg, Si, Ni, K, Cu and As appeared mainly in the smaller fractions (water were included in the 1.2-10 μm particle size and were settled effectively. However, a clear benefit was observed when using a chemical to enhance particle settling. In comparison to 2.5 h of settling without chemical, the turbidity was further decreased by about 94%, iron 85% and zinc 50%. Coagulation-flocculation experiments indicated that both low and high molecular weight cationic polymers could provide excellent purification results in terms of turbidity. Calcium should be removed by other methods. The particles in sludge were mostly in the 2-4 μm or 10-20 μm fractions. Further sludge settling resulted in high solids removal. PMID:26945188

  10. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  11. Reactivation of a Retarded Suspension of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An effective retarded suspension of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS needs a strong activator to reactivate the hydration. In this research study, sodium hydroxide (NaOH as an alkali activator in two different concentrations (30 and 50 wt.% was used to overcome the retardation and give the hardened GGBFS the reasonable strength. The study was carried out with a mixture of GGBFS, a solution of 1.0 wt.% d-gluconic acid (C6H12O7 as a retarder in the mixing water and a methyl cellulose as a stabilizer. The reactivation was executed after seven different periods (up to 28 days after the system was retarded. The following investigations were performed: slump test, measurement of ultrasonic (US velocity, compressive strength and gross density, thermogravimetry (TG and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analyses of the hardened samples were carried out seven, 28 and 90 days after the reactivation. The result of the study is an effective reactivation of a retarded suspension. In this case, the activator with 50 wt.% NaOH shows a very high performance. The setting time of the reactivated binders is much longer compared to the reference, but, in the longer term, the compressive strength and the progress of the hydration exceed the performance of the reference.

  12. Characterization and activation of the slag of El Hadjar's blast furnaces by clinkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetteche, M.N.; Houari, H. [Constantine Univ. (France)

    2001-07-01

    The El Hadjar steel plant in Algeria produces about 430,000 tons of slag annually. This paper presents a study in which the granular slag of El Hadjar's blast furnace was characterized using a variety of analytical methods that made it possible to calculate hydraulic indices. El Hadjar slag is being promoted in the construction industry in an effort to address environmental concerns regarding the production of portland cement which is very energy intensive and which contributes to major greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The use of slag as an addition to portland cement or the manufacturing of clinker free binder would make this waste into a valuable product. Chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transformer infrared spectrometry and conductimetry were used to better understand the vitreous structure of the slag and its hydraulic reactivity. Prismatic test tubes were used for the mechanical tests which involved clinkers of various grinding rates of slag. The results showed that slag is reactive and that the evolution of mechanical resistance to grinding is very sensitive. It was also shown that long term mechanical performance of the slag based ingredients are of significant interest to the cement and concrete industry. 9 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Development of Semi—Graphite Carbon—Silicon Carbide Brick and Its Application in Slag Forming Zone of Large—sized Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYun-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the damage mechanism of the lining at the slag forming zone of the blast furnace and the charactieristics of various refractory ma-terials,the methods to increase the service life of the lining at the slag forming zone have been found:(1) to improve the capacity of the blast furnace brick lining subjet to heat impact;(2) to reduce the working side temperature of the brick lining.On this basis,the semi-graphitized ,high temperature electrically calcined anthracite and silicon carbide etc ,were used as the main raw materials,Through a lot of experiments the proper raw material mix and grain size compo-sition were determined,In addition ,a suitable amount of additives and binders was added.After high pressur forming,high temperature firing and grinding ,the semi-graphitic carbon-silicon carbide bricks with close dimension tler-ances and ideal physical and chemical properties have been made.They have been applied in some blast furnaces,such as No.11(2580 m3) and No.6(1050 m3) blast furnaces etc.at Anshan Iron and Steel Company,and the problem of short service life at slag forming zone of blast furnace has been solved.

  14. Study on the Slag after Blast Furnace to KR of Chuanwei Steel Works%川威KR脱硫前渣研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁勇; 何运顺; 肖建华; 容水

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the characteristics of hot metal and blast furnace slag of Chuanwei steel works and compares the deferent components of slag after blast furnace and right before KR desulfurization process.The changing characteristics and the changing reasons of the slag components from the blast furnace to KR process of Chuanwei steel works are analyzed.%通过对川威高炉铁水和高炉下渣的特性研究,比较铁水带渣和KR脱硫前渣的组成不同,分析从高炉下渣到川威KR前渣各组分的变化特征以及KR前渣各组分发生变化的原因。

  15. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel.

  16. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. PMID:26684056

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of the partial oxidation of coke oven gas for indirect reduction of iron oxides in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partial oxidation of a COG (coke oven gas) in a blast furnace is examined in this work using thermodynamic analysis. LTIR and HTIR (Low-temperature and high-temperature indirect reduction) of iron oxides in a blast furnace are also studied. The influences of the reaction temperature, M/H (methane-to-hematite) ratio, and O/F (oxygen-to-fuel) ratio on CH4 conversion and iron oxide reduction are examined. Within the investigated ranges of the parameters, a higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH4 conversion, while at least 97.64% of Fe2O3 is reduced. In LTIR, Fe3O4 is the prime product, with a high level of solid carbon formation. The entire LTIR reaction is characterized by exothermic behavior, so that no additional heat is required to trigger COG partial oxidation and IR. In HTIR, increasing the reaction temperature facilitates CO-based IR and suppresses H2-based IR. A higher temperature produces more Fe, so as to enhance the iron oxide reduction reactions; meanwhile, the FeO reduction is governed by H2 and CH4. When the reaction temperature is higher than 800 °C and the M/H ratio is lower than unity, a heat supply is required to drive HTIR. The O/F ratio in LTIR and HTIR should be controlled below 2 to retard carbon formation and drive iron oxide reduction. - Highlights: • Direct partial oxidation of coke oven gas in blast furnace is analyzed thermodynamically. • A higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH4 conversion and syngas production. • At least 97.64% of Fe2O3 is converted. • The low-temperature indirect reduction is characterized by exothermic behavior. • The oxygen-to-fuel molar ratio in indirect reduction should be controlled below 2

  18. Simultaneous utilization of neutrons and γ-rays from 252Cf for condition measurement inside a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the possibility of the realization of a multi-function radiation gauge to meet the requirement for more precise and stable control of a blast furnace. A basic concept of the gauge is to measure some quantities with simultaneous use of multi-radiations of neutrons and γ-rays, and to obtain multi-types of information on material flow and gas flow representing the conditions inside the blast furnace. The prototype gauge was assembled and examined which consisted of a radiation source of 252Cf (3.7 MBq), neutron moderator, lead shield, a bismuth germanate detector, stainless casing and a control unit. Laboratory experiments showed that the gauge could measure the quantities to be essential to estimate the blast furnace conditions. In practice, it clearly distinguished between iron ore and coke layers, and at the same time measured bulk density (1.0-1.5 g/cm3) of iron contained in iron ore by counting thermal neutron capture γ-rays (6.5-8.5 MeV) from iron. It also gave the information on material bulk density (0.5-2.5 g/cm3) by detecting Compton scattered γ-rays (1.0-1.5 MeV) from material, i.e. iron ore and coke. The relative accuracies in the measurement of iron bulk density and material bulk density were estimated to be within 1 and 4% in 300 s counting time, respectively. The possibility of the gauge has been proved and the on-line trial will be expected in the near future. (author)

  19. The effect of blast furnace slag on the self-compactability of pumice aggregate lightweight concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Murat Kurt; Türkay Kotan; Muhammed Said Gül; Rüstem Gül; Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydin

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effects of blast furnace slag, different water/(cement+mineral additive) ratios and pumice aggregates on some physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete. In this study, pumice was used as lightweight aggregate. Several properties of self-compacting pumice aggregate lightweight concretes, such as unit weight, flow diameter, T50 time, flow diameter after an hour, V-funnel time, and L-box tests, 7, 28, 90 and 180-day compressive strength, 28-day splitting tensile strength, dry unit weight, water absorption, thermal conductivity and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests, were conducted. For this purpose, 18 series of concrete samples were prepared in two groups. In the first group, pumice aggregate at 100% replacement of natural aggregate was used in the production of self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete with constant w/(c+m) ratios as 0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 by weight. Furthermore, as a second group, pumice aggregate was used as a replacement of natural aggregate, at the levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% by volume. Flow diameters, T50 times, paste volumes, 28-day compressive strengths, dry unit weights, thermal conductivities and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete were obtained over the range of 600–770 mm, 3–9 s, 435–540 l/m3, 10.6–65.0 MPa, 845–2278 kg/m3, 0.363–1.694 W/mK and 2617–4770 m/s respectively, which satisfies not only the strength requirement of semistructural lightweight concrete but also the flowing ability requirements and thermal conductivity requirements of self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete.

  20. Charcoal injection in blast furnaces (Bio-PCI: CO2 reduction potential and economic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Feliciano-Bruzual

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is under pressure to reduce its CO2 emissions, which arise from the use of coal. In the long-term, the injection of pulverized particles of charcoal from biomass through blast furnace tuyeres, in this case called Bio-PCI, is an attractive method from both an environmental and metallurgical viewpoint. The potential of Bio-PCI has been assessed in terms of its CO2 abatement potential and economic viewpoint. A cost objective function has been used to measure the impact of biochar substitution in highly fuel-efficient BF among the top nine hot metal producers; estimations are based on the relevant cost determinants of ironmaking. This contribution aims to shed light on two strategic questions: Under what conditions is the implementation of Bio-PCI economically attractive? Additionally, where is such a techno-economic innovation likely to be taken up the earliest? The results indicate the potential for an 18–40% mitigation of CO2. Findings from the economic assessment show that biochar cannot compete with fossil coal on price alone; therefore, a lower cost of biochar or the introduction of carbon taxes will be necessary to increase the competitiveness of Bio-PCI. Based on the current prices of raw materials, electricity and carbon taxes, biochar should be between 130.1 and 236.4 USD/t and carbon taxes should be between 47.1 and 198.7 USD/t CO2 to facilitate the substitution of Bio-PCI in the examined countries. In regard to implementation, Brazil, followed by India, China and the USA appeared to be in a better position to deploy Bio-PCI.

  1. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

  2. Early and late hydration of supersulphated cements of blast furnace slag with fluorgypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaldúa-Medellín, M. E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydration, strength development and composition of hydration products of supersulphated cements were characterized from the first 48 hours up to 360 days. Two compositions of 80% Blast furnace slag, 10–15% Fluorgypsum and 10–5% Portland cement were cured in dry and wet conditions. The main hydration products were ettringite and C-S-H since the first hours and up to 360 days as evidenced by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The strength was favored by higher fluorgypsum contents and lower Portland cement contents. These cements generated heats of hydration of 40–57 KJ/Kg after 28 hours, which are lower than portland cement.Se realizó la caracterización de la hidratación, desarrollo de resistencia y la composición de los productos de hidratación de los cementos supersulfatados durante las primeras 48 horas y hasta 360 días. Se estudiaron dos composiciones de 80% de Escoria de alto horno, 10–15% de Fluoryeso y 10–5% de Cemento portland, se curaron en condiciones secas y húmedas. Los principales productos de hidratación fueron etringita y C-S-H desde las primeras horas y hasta 360 días, como se evidenció por difracción de rayos X, análisis térmico y microscopía electrónica de barrido. La resistencia se favoreció con mayor contenido de fluoryeso y bajos contenidos de cemento portland. Estos cementos generaron calores de hidratación de 40–57 KJ/Kg después de 28 horas, los cuales resultan más bajos que los generados por el cemento portland.

  3. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Puertas, F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O) and NaOH solution (of variable concentration). Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α) was determined from hydration hea...

  4. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía, J. M.; Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.; Puertas, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA) from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and...

  5. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    B. Safi; A. Benmounah; Saidi, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC). When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and t...

  6. Influence of Gas Composition on the Resisting Ability of Gunning Material for Blast Furnace to Carbon Monoxide Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lihong; LIU Liu; GUO Yanling; CAO Feng; MENG Qingmin; LONG Shigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the resisting ability of gunning material for blast furnace to carbon monoxide corrosion under the mixed gas condition through inletting hydrogen into pure CO.A standard for testing the resisting ability of refractory to Co corrosion with mixed gas instead of pure CO has also been discussed. The results show:the addition of hydrogen accelerates the CO corrosion on gunning material;the same results has been reached with the CO,200 hours to test the resisting ability of refractory to carbon monoxide corrosion.

  7. Basicity for blast furnace-type slag containing B2O3 and high MgO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振奇; 蔡亚旻; 朱文非; 杨祖磐

    2003-01-01

    There is quite abundant resource of ludwigite ore in Liaoning Province of China. Content of MgO in the slag of pyrometallurgical separation of boron from iron is much higher than that in the ordinary slags. Through the equilibrium partition ratio of sulfur LS between the metal and the slag in an atmosphere of CO-N2, the acidic coefficients for B2O3 and the basic coefficients for MgO were estimated. The basic formulae were given for the blast furnace-type slag containing B2O3 and high MgO.

  8. Study of mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2016-05-01

    Five samples of Bismuth-Ground granulated blast furnace slag (Bi-GGBFS) concretes were prepared using composition (0.6 cement + x Bi2O3 + (0.4-x) GGBFS, x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) by keeping constant water (W) cement (C) ratio. Mass attenuation coefficients (μm) of these prepared samples were calculated using a computer program winXCOM at different gamma ray energies, whereas effective atomic numbers (Zeff) is calculated using mathematical formulas. The radiation shielding properties of Bi-GGBFS concrete has been compared with standard radiation shielding concretes.

  9. Study of Online Detection Blast Furnace Temperature Sensor Based on Lining Thickness%基于炉衬厚度的高炉炉温在线检测传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月明; 孙采鹰; 董大明; 贾华

    2015-01-01

    This paper described the background of the blast furnace temperature online measurement applications and analyzed the study progress of existing blast furnace temperature measurements, then proposed two blast furnace temperature online meas-urement sensor models based on the thickness of lining, which provided a new solution for the blast furnace temperature measure-ments.The sensor model of blast furnace temperature online detection enriched blast furnace expert system database, correctly ad-justed control parameters of blast furnace, maintained blast furnace temperature in the best condition, ensured anterograde smooth working of blast furnace conditions, and increased the life of the blast furnace.%介绍了高炉测温的应用背景,分析现有高炉炉温测量研究情况,提出了两种基于炉衬厚度的高炉炉温在线检测传感器模型,为高炉炉内温度测量提供一种新的解决方案。基于炉衬厚度的高炉炉温在线检测传感器模型能够充实和丰富高炉专家系统数据库规则制定中的参数,可以指导高炉工长及时正确地调节高炉控制参数,把炉温保持在最佳状态,保证炉况平稳顺行,以延长高炉寿命。

  10. Development of Self—flowing Al2O3—SiC—C Castable and Its Application to Troughs of Large Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWenzhong; CHENGBenjun; 等

    1999-01-01

    The developed self-flowing Al2O3-SiC-C castable for troughs of blast furnace(BF) can self-flow under its own gravity,leveling,degassing,compacting and setting without vibration by aplication of external energy,The self-flwoing castable with high strength,improved thermal shock resistance and good resistance to molten slag and hot metal,has been used to troughs of large blast furnace,resulting in molten iron throughput of more than 100000 tons.

  11. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  12. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera, I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

    El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relaci

  14. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Jiménez, A.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.

    Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa. Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

  15. Natural pozzolan-and granulated blast furnace slag-based binary geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robayo, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the synthesis at ambient temperature (25±3 °C of binary geopolymer systems based on natural volcanic pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag. Na2SiO3 and NaOH were used as alkaline activators. The effects of the SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/Al2O3 ratio and the amount of slag added (from 0 to 30% on the reaction kinetics, compressive strength and microstructure of the final product were studied. To characterise the geopolymer pastes, techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used. The results indicate the possibility of obtaining a geopolymer cement with a compressive strength of up to 48.11 MPa after 28 days of curing at ambient temperature whose characteristics are comparable to those of commercial portland cement.Este trabajo describe la síntesis a temperatura ambiente (25±3 °C de sistemas geopoliméricos de tipo binario basados en una puzolana natural de origen volcánico y escoria siderúrgica de alto horno usando activadores alcalinos basados en la combinación de Na2SiO3 y NaOH. Se estudió el efecto de la relación SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/Al2O3 y la cantidad de escoria adicionada en niveles entre el 0 y 30% sobre la cinética de reacción, la resistencia a la compresión y la microestructura del producto final. Para la caracterización de las pastas geopoliméricas se utilizaron técnicas como difracción de rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia infrarroja (FTIR y microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB. Los resultados conseguidos revelan la posibilidad de obtener un cementante geopolimérico con una resistencia a la compresión de hasta 48,11 MPa a los 28 días de curado a temperatura ambiente cuyas características son comparables a las de un cemento portland comercial.

  16. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  17. Improvements on Calculation Model of Theoretical Combustion Temperature in a Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng-li; LIU Cheng-song; FU Chang-liang; XU Jian; KOU Ming-yin

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the existing originally modified calculation models of theoretical combustion temperature(TCT),some factors,such as the combustion ratio of pulverized coal injection(PCI),the decomposition heat of PCI and the heat consumption of SiO2 in ash reduced in high temperature environment,were amended and improved to put forward a more comprehensive model for calculating TCT.The influences of each improvement on TCT were studied and the results were analyzed compared with those of traditional model and originally modified model,which showed that the present model could reflect the thermal state of a hearth more effectively.

  18. Application of High Top Pressure Technology in Laigang 1000 m3 Blast Furnace%高顶压技术在莱钢1000m3高炉的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丰巧

    2015-01-01

    High pressure operation is an important measure to strengthen the blast furnace smelting of blast furnace, can be conducive to the stable operation and the exploitation rate of gas.By improving raw material management, increasing the en-ergy of blast furnace, strengthening management measures to strengthen blast furnace top pressure, remarkable economic benefits has been achieved for Laigang 1000 m3 furnace.%高压操作是强化高炉冶炼的一项重要措施,利于高炉炉况稳定顺行、提高煤气利用率,莱钢1000 m3高炉通过加强原料管理、增加鼓风动能、加强炉前管理等措施提高炉顶压力,取得了显著的经济效益。

  19. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  20. Integration of the blast furnace route and the FINEX {sup registered} -Process for low CO{sub 2} hot metal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Christoph; Schenk, Johannes L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Chair of Metallurgy, Leoben (Austria); Tappeiner, Tamara; Kepplinger, Werner L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Institute of Process Engineering and Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria); Plaul, Jan Friedemann [Siemens VAI Metals Technologies GmbH, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Stefan [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    The blast furnace is the most important process for the production of hot metal. An integral part of this process route is the coking of coal and sintering of fine ore. The FINEX {sup registered} -process is a new technology for hot metal production which uses untreated fine ores and coal instead of sinter and coke. This paper deals with the investigation of integration concepts of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered}. Low reduced iron (LRI) and/or reducing gas are/is produced in FINEX {sup registered} and are/is considered as substitute/s of burden and fuel in the blast furnace, respectively. In the article the overall fuel demand and CO{sub 2} emissions for the integration of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered} are shown. For that reason two case studies for the integration are carried out and compared with the base case, that is, the two-independent processes. The CO{sub 2} emissions are calculated considering the fuel and electric power consumption of the different cases. (Copyright copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. The interaction of pH, pore solution composition and solid phase composition of carbonated blast furnace slag cement paste activated with aqueous sodium monofluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempl, J.; Copuroglu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) is a waste product of industrial steel production and a common additive in the cement industry in Northern European countries. However, cementitious materials made from slag-rich cement, particularly CEM III /B, are very susceptible to carbonation. Recent investigations have

  2. Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace; Prediccion mediante redes neuronales de la temperatura de arrabio de un horno alto. Temperatura subyacente de arrabio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantera, C.; Jimenez, J.; Varela, I.; Formoso, A.

    2002-07-01

    Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

  3. Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace tuyeres three of the Usiminas, Ipatinga Plant; Injecao de gas natural nas ventaneiras do alto-forno 3 da Usiminas, Usina de Ipatinga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de; Hostt, Helton [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Gerencia Geral de Reducao

    2011-12-21

    The reduction in production costs is a major strategic objectives of Usiminas and the use of natural gas in the Blast Furnace 3 (BF 3) contribute to achieve this goal. The use of natural gas as fuel in the BF 3 to reduce the use of metallurgical coke (main fuel) and reduces production losses during periods of maintenance in the pulverized coal injection system and improving operational control of the Blast Furnace. The work presents the deployment of the natural gas injection and the performance obtained by the BF 3 from the start of injection, with a focus on reducing consumption of metallurgical coke and stable operation of blast furnace (author)

  4. Practice of Optimal Operation of Energy Medium Pipe Network in Blast Furnace Area%宣钢高炉区域能源介质管网优化运行的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      主要针对高炉能源介质管网存在的不足进行详细的阐述,并进行了完善与改造,使高炉节能收到了较好的效果并保证了高炉的高效稳定运行。%The shortcomings in the energy medium pipe network of blast furnace of Xuanhua Iron & Steel Co are described in detail. The energy medium pipe network is recon-structed, which has achieved better energy saving effect of blast furnace and ensured efficient and stable operation of blast furnace.

  5. The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nanoparticles in concrete. → Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. → Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  6. Influence of Young's Modulus on Motion and Stress Distribution of Burden in Blast Furnace%炉料弹性模量对高炉内炉料运动行为与应力分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建良; 范正赟; 杨天钧; 有山达郎; 林祥海; 孔德文

    2011-01-01

    采用三维离散元法对不同弹性模量条件下,5000m3高炉内的炉料的运动行为进行了研究.发现,当弹性模量取0.06GPa时,炉料颗粒的变形量超过了自身半径的1/2,炉身处发生严重的混料现象,炉缸内焦炭颗粒发生堆积,无焦空间减小,而且计算在100步以后自动终止.而当弹性模量在10~0.6GPa范围内变化时,炉身段料层倾角随弹性模量的减小而增大,高炉下部的焦炭速度过渡区随弹性模量的减小而缩小,死料柱有所增高,但下部炉料颗粒间的法向应力会随着弹性模量的减小而增大.此外,弹性模量的减小导致了炉料颗粒间的瞬态滑动行为减少.但弹性模量的变化并没有改变高炉内炉料的运动特征,其运动仍然是由稳态下降运动与瞬态运动组成.%The solid flow in 5000m3 blast furnace was simulated by 3D-discrete element method under the condition of different Young's modulus. It is found that when Young's modulus is 0. 06GPa, the magnitude of particle deformation is greater than the half of the radius of particle. Moreover, the burdens in shaft are mixed and cokes in hearth are stacked along the wall, which result in the decrease of free space. After 100 time steps, the calculation would terminate naturally. When Young's modulus is in the range of 10GPa and 0. 6GPa, the angle of layer in shaft would increase with the decrease in the Young's modulus. In the lower part of blast furnace, the transition zone of velocity between melting zone and deadman would decrease, and the height of deadman increase, however, the normal and shear stress between particles would increase with the decrease of the Young's modulus. In addition, the decrease of Young's modulus results in the decrease of the relative slip behavior between particles. But, the variation of Young's modulus would not change the characteristics of motion of burden in blast furnace that is composed of the steady motion and the transient motion of

  7. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la

  8. Physical Properties of Crushed Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag and Numerical Representation of Its Morphology Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aiguo; DENG Min; SUN Daosheng; LI Bing; TANG Mingshu

    2012-01-01

    Physical properties and geometrical morphologies of crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) were comparatively investigated.The shape,angularity,surface texture and internal pore structure of aggregate particles for different size and gradation were numerically represented by sphericity (ψ) and shape index (SI),angularity number (AN),index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST),porosity and pore size,respectively.The results show that SCR is a porous and rough aggregate.Apparent density,void,water absorption and smashing index of SCR are obviously higher than those of LCR with the same gradation,respectively.However,bulk density of SCR is lower than that of LCR with the same gradation.SI,AN,IAPST and porosity of SCR are obviously higher than those of LCR with the same gradation,respectively.The smaller particle size of SCR,the larger of its AN,IAPST and porosity.

  9. Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

    2006-11-16

    The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

  10. Use of Artificial Neural Network for the Simulation of Radon Emission Concentration of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hong-Seok; Xing, Shuli; Lee, Malrey; Lee, Young-Keun; So, Seung-Young

    2016-05-01

    In this study, an artificial neural networks study was carried out to predict the quantity of radon of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) cement mortar. A data set of a laboratory work, in which a total of 3 mortars were produced, was utilized in the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) study. The mortar mixture parameters were three different GBFS ratios (0%, 20%, 40%). Measurement radon of moist cured specimens was measured at 3, 10, 30, 100, 365 days by sensing technology for continuous monitoring of indoor air quality (IAQ). ANN model is constructed, trained and tested using these data. The data used in the ANN model are arranged in a format of two input parameters that cover the cement, GBFS and age of samples and, an output parameter which is concentrations of radon emission of mortar. The results showed that ANN can be an alternative approach for the predicting the radon concentration of GBFS mortar using mortar ingredients as input parameters.

  11. Model of Hot Metal Silicon Content in Blast Furnace Based on Principal Component Analysis Application and Partial Least Square

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lin; LI Zhi-ling; YU Tao; LI Jiang-peng

    2011-01-01

    In blast furnace (BF) iron-making process, the hot metal silicon content was usually used to measure the quality of hot metal and to reflect the thermal state of BF. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least- square (PLS) regression methods were used to predict the hot metal silicon content. Under the conditions of BF rela- tively stable situation, PCA and PLS regression models of hot metal silicon content utilizing data from Baotou Steel No. 6 BF were established, which provided the accuracy of 88.4% and 89.2%. PLS model used less variables and time than principal component analysis model, and it was simple to calculate. It is shown that the model gives good results and is helpful for practical production.

  12. A New Kind of Eco-Cement Made of Cement Kiln Dust and Granular Blast Furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A research project was conducted to manufacture eco-cement for sustainable development using cement kiln dust( CKD ) and granular blast furnace slag( GBFS ).In the project, the burning process and mineral compositions of CKD clinker were investigated.Dife rent mineralizers such as CaSO4 and CaF2 , sulfur and alkali content were considered.The strength of CKD and GBFS eco-cement were evaluated.The results indicate the CKD clinker can not only form ordinary cement clinker minerals such as C3 S, C2 S and C4 AF, but also form strength to the Portland cement grade 32.5 when blend proportion is properly applied.

  13. [Evaluation of the migration of contaminants from building materials produced on the base of blast-furnace slags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, K G; Vaysman, Ya I

    2014-01-01

    There is experimentally established the change of the migratory activity of pollutants from building materials produced from blast furnace slag throughout their life cycle in the form of a nonlinear wave-like nature as there are appeared newly opened surfaces of a contact with aggressive waters in the process of gradual crushing of materials as a result of destructive mechanical effects on him and corrosive waters with varying pH values. There are established regularities of the migration activity ofpollutants (on the example of heavy metals) as directly dependent on the newly opening surface of the contact of the material with water having a various pH value. There is shown an expediency of introduction of alterations in the procedure for sanitary hygienic assessment of building materials with the addition of industrial waste (Methodical Instructions 2.1.674-97), allowing to take into account the migration of contaminants from them throughout the life cycle. PMID:25842493

  14. Use of Artificial Neural Network for the Simulation of Radon Emission Concentration of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hong-Seok; Xing, Shuli; Lee, Malrey; Lee, Young-Keun; So, Seung-Young

    2016-05-01

    In this study, an artificial neural networks study was carried out to predict the quantity of radon of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) cement mortar. A data set of a laboratory work, in which a total of 3 mortars were produced, was utilized in the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) study. The mortar mixture parameters were three different GBFS ratios (0%, 20%, 40%). Measurement radon of moist cured specimens was measured at 3, 10, 30, 100, 365 days by sensing technology for continuous monitoring of indoor air quality (IAQ). ANN model is constructed, trained and tested using these data. The data used in the ANN model are arranged in a format of two input parameters that cover the cement, GBFS and age of samples and, an output parameter which is concentrations of radon emission of mortar. The results showed that ANN can be an alternative approach for the predicting the radon concentration of GBFS mortar using mortar ingredients as input parameters. PMID:27483913

  15. Influence of Carbonation on Fatigue of Concrete with High Volume of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Lushen; JIANG Linhua; CHU Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of carbonation on fatigue performance of ground granulated blast-furnace slag concrete was investigated. Based on the static compression tests of carbonated GGBS-concrete, the correlation between carbonation depth and compressive strength was analyzed and an equation between carbonation depth and compressive strength was put forward. Meanwhile, fatigue S-N curves of various carbonation depths were fitted, and the influence of carbonation on fatigue life and strength was studied. Carbonation has a dual effect on the fatigue behavior of GGBS-concrete. A fatigue equation based on the depth of carbonation was established. Also, the probabilistic distribution of fatigue life of carbonated concrete at a given stress level was modeled by the two-parameter Weibull distribution.

  16. The Pulse Control Strategies of non-oxidation Low Temperature Roller Hearth Heat Treatment Furnace for Treating Medium and Heavy Plate%中厚板无氧化低温辊底式热处理炉的脉冲控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永彬; 冯永生

    2011-01-01

    针对国内某钢铁企业新建中厚板无氧化辊底式热处理炉工程,对辐射管加热系统在低温下的脉冲控制策略进行组合、优化,使无氧化热处理炉在低温下获得了很好的温度均匀性,扩大了该热处理炉产品种类范围,取得很好的效果.%In the light of non-oxidation roller hearth heat treatment furnace used for treating medium and heavy plate in a domestic iron and steel enterprise, the impulse control strategies of radiation tube heating system under low tempera ture condition have been made up and optimized, it lead to the non-oxidation heat treatment furnace to obtain very good temprature uniformity and to expand the scope of product specifications and to get very good effect.

  17. 攀钢干热高炉煤气直送利用技术的探索与应用%The Exploration and Application of the Technology of Direct Supply of Hot Blast Furnace Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇; 李苹

    2015-01-01

    通过对高炉煤气利用现状及性能分析,明确高炉煤气潜在利用价值,实施了干热高炉煤气直送利用技术,降低了高炉焦比,提高了煤气利用效率.%Through analysis of the present situation and performance of utilization of blast furnace gas, the potential utilization value of blast furnace gas was clarified. The tech-nology of direct delivery and utilization of dry hot blast furnace gas was implemented, which has lowered the coke rate of blast furnace and increased gas utilization efficiency.

  18. Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei Zhao; Zuotai Zhang; Xulong Tang; Lili Liu; Xidong Wang

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF) slag modified by coal ash (CA). The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The ...

  19. 河南鲁山望城岗汉代冶铁遗址一号炉发掘简报%Excavation of Furnace No. 1 on the Iron-smelting Site of the Han Period at Wangchenggang in Lushan, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    河南省文物考古研究所; 鲁山县文物管理委员会

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of 2001, the remains of a large oval - shaped blast furnace which is the earliest and whose volume is guessed to be the biggest one of the ancient blast furnaces in oval shape unearthed in China by now and which is in a good state of preservation with clear structure, had been excavated at the Wangchenggang iron - smelting site of Han Dynasty in Lushan, Henan Province. The furnace whose inner diameter is about 4m long axis and 2. 8m short axis had been ever reconstructed into a smaller hearth. The rammed earth base of the furnace and the refractory bed of the hearth had been worked well and solidly. The discharging- slag ditch which is clear and definite is the first discovery. The back system and the side systems which could be used to set up the blowing apparatuses or the instruments of filling the furnace with charge is very special. There is a big salamander in oval shape unearthed with about 30 tons weight in the front pit. All these will provide the new and very precious information for the study of the technical level of iron smelting in Han Dynasty.

  20. Operation of the blast furnace gas distribution in V and M of Brazil; Operacao do sistema de distribuicao de GAF na V e M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira; Lana, Camila Soares; Valentim, Rodrigo Freitas; Lupp, Adilson Geraldo [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    V and M do Brasil is an integrated steel mill with the production of seamless steel pipe. The manufacture process comprises two charcoal blast furnaces which an average generation of blast furnace gas (BFG) of 120.000 Nm{sup 3}/h. Due to the presence of carbon monoxide in its composition it is considered as a fuel and used in 14 equipment of heating process in Barreiro mill. It is a considerable heating source corresponding to 60% of the total thermal energy used in these equipment where the natural gas (NG) is used to fulfill the energetic needs. The operation of the BFG distribution among the consumers happens in an instantaneous way according to the blast furnace generation and consumers demand recognizing a complexity in this process. The optimization in BFG consumption assures a reduction in the NG consumption and consequently in the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the optimization of the byproduct consumption considering a new approach of the distribution operation of this fuel among the consumers without cost including the operational process awareness by the operation people, patterning the operation and planning. (author)

  1. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III), and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent with metakaolin and blast-furnace-slag geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Tero; Runtti, Hanna; Niskanen, Mikko; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-01-15

    The mining industry is a major contributor of various toxic metals and metalloids to the aquatic environment. Efficient and economical water treatment methods are therefore of paramount importance. The application of natural or low-cost sorbents has attracted a great deal of interest due to the simplicity of its process and its potential effectiveness. Geopolymers represent an emerging group of sorbents. In this study, blast-furnace-slag and metakaolin geopolymers and their raw materials were tested for simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III) and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent. Blast-furnace-slag geopolymer proved to be the most efficient of the studied materials: the experimental maximum sorption capacities for Ni, As and, Sb were 3.74 mg/g, 0.52 mg/g, and 0.34 mg/g, respectively. Although the capacities were relatively low due to the difficult water matrix, 90-100% removal of Ni, As, and Sb was achieved when the dose of sorbent was increased appropriately. Removal kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Our results indicate that geopolymer technology could offer a simple and effective way to turn blast-furnace slag to an effective sorbent with a specific utilization prospect in the mining industry.

  2. 高炉渣处理技术的现状及发展趋势%Present Situation and Development Tendency of Blast Furnace Slag Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯会玲; 孙宸; 贾利军

    2012-01-01

    The current domestic and overseas situation of the blast furnace slag treatment technology is elaborated. The water quenching slag treatment technology is known as having problems such as the large consumption of the fresh water, the low utilization of sensible heat, and the pollutant emission of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, et al. It is proposed that the blast furnace slag dry granulation technology is expected to solve the problems such as the slag granulation and the heat recovery at the same time. It is the development tendency of ihe blast furnace slag treatment graft.%阐述了当前国内外高炉渣处理技术使用现状,认为水淬法渣处理技术存在新水消耗大、炉渣显热利用率低和二氧化硫、硫化氢等污染物排放的问题,提出开发高炉渣干式粒化技术有望同时解决其渣粒化及热量回收的问题,是高炉渣处理工艺的发展趋势.

  3. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III), and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent with metakaolin and blast-furnace-slag geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Tero; Runtti, Hanna; Niskanen, Mikko; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-01-15

    The mining industry is a major contributor of various toxic metals and metalloids to the aquatic environment. Efficient and economical water treatment methods are therefore of paramount importance. The application of natural or low-cost sorbents has attracted a great deal of interest due to the simplicity of its process and its potential effectiveness. Geopolymers represent an emerging group of sorbents. In this study, blast-furnace-slag and metakaolin geopolymers and their raw materials were tested for simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III) and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent. Blast-furnace-slag geopolymer proved to be the most efficient of the studied materials: the experimental maximum sorption capacities for Ni, As and, Sb were 3.74 mg/g, 0.52 mg/g, and 0.34 mg/g, respectively. Although the capacities were relatively low due to the difficult water matrix, 90-100% removal of Ni, As, and Sb was achieved when the dose of sorbent was increased appropriately. Removal kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Our results indicate that geopolymer technology could offer a simple and effective way to turn blast-furnace slag to an effective sorbent with a specific utilization prospect in the mining industry. PMID:26598283

  4. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  5. Blast furnace infrared camera monitoring system%高炉摄像头温度监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海豹; 李耀辉; 马春芽

    2011-01-01

    介绍1种基于nRF905的高炉摄像头温度监测系统,系统选用DS18B20采集温度并传输给ATMEGA 16L处理,然后利用SPI接口与nRF905无线发送模块通信,实现温度的无线传输.在接收端,对数据进行并行的2种处理方法,一是由ATMFEGA16L经MAX232转化为串口数据发送给上位机以供集中监控使用;另一种方法是通过ATMEGA16L发送给液晶RT12864M实时显示,以进行便携式温度监控.主要优点是实现了多点温度的实时测量和显示.该系统用于高炉红外摄像监控系统中摄像头的温度监控,现场工作人员根据温度数据调节循环水的流速从而延长了摄像头的寿命.%Blast furnace infrared camera monitoring system based on the nRF905 is introduced, which can realize the wireless temperature transmission. The system uses DS18B20 to collect the temperature data and transmit the data to ATMEGA16L and uses the SPI interface to corresponde with the wireless transceiver module of the nRF905. In the receiver,there are two methods to deal with the data. One is that the data which is changed to serial data by MAX232 is sent to the PC by ATMEGA16L for centralized monitoring. The other is that the data is sent to the LCD RT1286M to display the real-time temperature by the ATMEGA16L for portable temperature monitoring. The main advantage of this system is that it can realize the multi-spot temperature to measure and display . This system is used in blast furnace infrared camera monitoring system to monitor the camera's temperature. According to temperature data, the working staff adjusts the circulating water velocity in order to extend the camera's life.

  6. Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesoğlu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerdaş, Kasım

    2012-10-15

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. PMID:22951223

  7. Analysis on the Oversize Blast Furnace Desulfurization and a Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model Based on Congregated Electron Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyang, Wang; Jianliang, Zhang; Gang, An; Zhengjian, Liu; Zhengming, Cheng; Junjie, Huang; Jingwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Through analyzed and regressed the actual productive desulfurization data from the oversize blast furnace (5500 m3) in north China, the relationship between the sulfur distribution parameters and the slag composition in actual production situation was investigated. As the slag and hot metal phases have their own balance sulfur content or sulfur partial pressure in gas phase, respectively, the non-equilibrium of sulfur among gas, slag, and metal phases leads to the transmission and distribution of sulfur. Combined with sulfur transmission reactions between gas, slag and metal phases, C/CO pairs equilibrium, and Wagner model, the measured sulfide capacity can be acquired using sulfur distribution ratio, sulfur activity coefficient, and oxygen activity in hot metal. Based on the theory of congregated electron phase, a new sulfide capacity prediction model (CEPM) has been developed, which has a good liner relationship with the measured sulfide capacity. Thus, using the burden structure for BF, the ironmaking slag composition can be obtained simply and can be used to reliably predict the ironmaking slag desulfurization ability a few hours later after charging under a certain temperature by CEPM.

  8. Exergoeconomic analysis of the power generation system using blast furnace and coke oven gas in a Brazilian steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Modesto; S.A. Nebra [Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil). Center of Engineering

    2009-08-15

    The rational use of energy has become a priority for all industries in Brazil, mainly after the energy rationing in 2001. Methodologies to quantify and improve the performance of plants that consume and generate electricity and thermal energy are being used to reach this goal. Exergoeconomic analysis provides a complete diagnosis of a plant, both in exergetic and in monetary values. This study shows the methodology used to assess the power generation system of the Companhia Siderurgica Tubarao (CST). The current system is based on a regenerative Rankine cycle using two gases from steel production - blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) - to generate electric power and occasionally steam for the process. Use of the Theory of Exergetic Cost allowed determination of monetary and exergetic costs. Moreover, indicators such as cost variation, relative cost variation, and exergoeconomic factors were calculated to determine the influence of each component in the make-up of plant costs and to find the best way of decreasing generation costs of energy and process steam.

  9. Multiscale and Fractal Analysis of Silicon Content Time Series Observed in Blast Furnace Hot Metal Using Hurst Exponent Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shihua; Guo, Fan; Lai, Dejian; Yan, Fang; Tang, Feilai

    2015-09-01

    Hurst exponent is an important measure of nonlinearity of dynamical time series. In this paper, using rescaled-range (R/S) analysis, multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, the multiscale Hurst exponent (MHE) and the multiscale generalized Hurst exponent (MGHE) of coarse-grained silicon content ([Si]) time series in blast furnace (BF) hot metal were calculated. First, we collected these [Si] time series from No. 1 BF of Nanchang Iron and Steel Co. and No. 10 BF of Xinyu Iron and Steel Co. in Jiangxi Province, China. Then, we analyzed and compared the estimated Hurst exponents and the generalized Hurst exponent of these observed time series with some simulated time series. Our results show that the observed time series from these BFs have negative correlation with the Hurst exponent less than 0.5, the generalized Hurst exponent H(q) is a nonlinear function of q, and such negative correlation and local various structure persist in their moving averages of the observed time series up to lag 5 or 10.

  10. Properties of Concrete Incorporating Bed Ash from Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion and Ground Granulates Blast-furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG An; HSU Hui-Mi; CHAO Sao-Jeng

    2011-01-01

    The properties of concrete incorporating circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) bed ash and ground granulates blast-furnace slag (GGBS) were studied. Compressive strength,drying shrinkage, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of concrete samples containing CFBC bed ash and GGBS were used. This work used initial surface absorption test (ISAT) and rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) on concrete to measure the absorption and the ability of concrete to resist chloride ion characteristics for different concrete samples containing CFBC bed ash and GGBS. Open circuit potential (OCP), direct current polarization resistance were obtained to evaluate rebar corrosion. The CFBC bed ash was X-ray amorphous and consist of SiO2, A12O3 and CaO compounds. As the replacement of CFBC for sand increases, the rate of initial surface absorption (ISA) increases but compressive strength decreases.When the content of CFBC bed ash replacement for sand maintains constant, the replacement of GGBS for cement increases, compressive strength increases but the rate of ISA decreases. Chloride and corrosion resistance of rebar significantly improve by utilizing a proper amount of CFBC bed ash and GGBS in concrete.

  11. On the Comprehensive Utilization of Blast Furnace Slag%浅析高炉矿渣的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国忠; 李广军; 司有宝; 郑秀梅; 冯砚; 刘继梅

    2014-01-01

    Blast furnace slag is the solid waste produced in the steelmaking process, and it has a high value in use. It is mainly used in building construction, in which the slag cement, slag concrete, slag and refractory brick road, railway projects are more common. But now, the study of slag is not deep enough, so this paper proposes to increase research efforts, so that it can be better used in more areas.%高炉矿渣是炼钢过程中产生的固体废弃物,具有很高的利用价值。主要应用于建筑工程中,其中在矿渣水泥、矿渣混凝土、矿渣耐火砖及道路、铁道工程中比较常见。但目前,对矿渣的研究不够深入,建议加大研究力度,使其能更好的应用于更多领域。

  12. Shrinkage and Cracking Sensitivity of Cement Mortar Containing Fly Ash, Granulated Blast-furnace Slag and Silica Fume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to investigate drying shrinkage and cracking sensitivity subjected to restrained shrinkage of mortar containing fly ash (FA), granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) and silica fume (SF). Six mortar mixtures including control Portland cement (PC) and FA,GBFS and SF mortar mixtures were prepared. FA replaced the cement on mass basis at the replacement ratios of 20% and 35%, GBFS replaced the cement at the replacement ratios of 40%, SF replaced the cement at the replacement ratios of 8% and the blended mixtures with 20% FA, 20% GBFS and 8% SF. Water-cementitious materials ratio and sand-cementitious materials ratio were 0.4 and 2.0 for all mixtures, respectively. The mixtures were cured at 65% relative humidity and 20℃. The drying shrinkage value, initial cracking time and cracking width of the mortar samples were measured. The results show that all the mortar mixture containing FA exhibited the decrease of drying shrinkage.Moreover, initial cracking time was markedly delayed, and the crack width of the initial crack was reduced. However, the incorporations of various ratios of GBFS and SF led to an increase of drying shrinkage, initial cracking time and cracking width as compared to control mixture.

  13. Influence of B2O3 and Basicity on Viscosity and Structure of Medium Titanium Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of B2O3 and basicity (CaO/SiO2 on the viscous behavior and structure of medium titanium bearing blast furnace slag (MTBBFS were investigated. High temperature viscosimeter was applied to measure the viscosities of CaO-SiO2-MgO-TiO2-Al2O3-B2O3 slag system and X-ray diffraction (XRD, NBO/T ratio, and structure parameter Q were employed to analyze its network structure. The results showed that the viscosity decreased and break point temperature increased with increasing basicity to 1.20. However B2O3 addition gave rise to a decrease in slag viscosity and break point temperature inspite of basicity. The more B2O3 content leads to the more pronounced variation, especially for the slag with larger basicity. The conventional NBO/T formula was revised to predict the structure variation of relatively complicated medium Ti bearing slag based on the work of Yanhong Gao and other researchers. The increase of B2O3 content in slag made parameter Q turn from Q2 to Q1, suggesting that network structure became simpler. It was also noticed that the addition of B2O3 could suppress the formation of perovskite.

  14. Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

    2009-07-30

    The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

  15. Effect of γ-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass

  16. Development of aluminium free castable for blast furnace trough materials. Koro toiyo Al mutenka nagashikomizai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaoi, H.; Tsutsui, N.; Suzuki, T. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Yoshino, H.; Sugiyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Ninomiya, H.; Itose, S. (Harima Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1992-09-10

    In recent years a densification of castable materials is being developed in order to elongate a life of the blast furnace trough. As a risk of dry expansion in the drying process becomes to be higher due to it, the castable materials added the metallic Al are being used as a countermeasure against it. Since the metallic Al generates the hydrogen gas by a reaction with the water and forms the vent holes, it is superior in an explosion resistance. When the hydrogen gas generated by a reaction of this metallic Al retains during a period from the execution to the curing, there is a danger to generate an explosion by catching a fire. Accordingly in this repost, the organic foaming agent was added as the castable materials free from the metallic Al. As a result, an explosion resistance could be raised substantially. This is thought due to generation of N2 gas because the hydrolysis occurs in an alumina cement-water system. The microporess caused by a generation of N2 gas are a size of about 10[mu]m, or many of them are bigger than it. Although the effect of the added organic foaming agent on the various material property values is a little, an appropriate quantity is thought to be within 0.2%. 1 ref., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Feasibility and economic analysis of solid desiccant wheel used for dehumidification and preheating in blast furnace: A case study of steel plant, Nanjing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To overcome the shortcomings of huge energy consumption from conventional dehumidification using lithium bromide adsorption refrigerating (LBARD) system, a novel desiccant wheel dehumidification and preheating (DWDP) system using two-stage desiccant wheel for blast furnace is brought forward. The DWDP system was designed for dehumidification and preheating in blast furnace of steel plant. It takes waste heat in the slag flushing water as desiccant regeneration and preheating energy. To validate the feasibility of the new DWDP system, experimental studies were conducted based on a steel plant in Nanjing, China. The experiment was designed to use DWDP system in humid outdoor climates e.g. summer seasons. The experimental results indicate that the moisture removal capacity of DWDP system can reach 8.7 g/kg which will lead to the improvement of steel production by 0.9% and the coal is saved of about 2100 tons per year. With the DWDP system, the energy consumed by cooling tower of slag flushing water can decrease 7.3%. All of these energy saved equates to 10.3 million CNY annually. A comparison of initial investment and operating cost between DWDP system and LBRAD system was then carried out. The results show that the initial investment and operating cost of DWDP system is 37% and 57% of present LBARD system, and the payback period is shortened 66%. - Highlights: • A novel two-stage desiccant wheel dehumidification system for blast furnace is proposed. • Average moisture removal of 8.7 g/kg is achieved and dehumidification efficiency is 47%. • Outlet humidity ratio is less than 10 g/kg that satisfies the requirement of blast air. • Waste heat in slag flushing water is utilized and 61.4 million kJ is saved annually. • The investment and operating cost is 37% and 57% of former dehumidification system

  18. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosaj, Vishu D.; May, James B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  19. Injection of pulverized coal into the tuyeres of a blast furnace using a static distributor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulveling, L. [Paul Wurth, S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents the developments of Paul Wurth in the field of Pulverized Coal Injection Systems. Systems with individual (tuyere) flow rate control as well as the development of the static distributor process are discussed. The basic process features of the static distributor are presented. These include dense phase pneumatic conveying and the splitting-up of the pulverized coal main flow into the individual flows to the hot blast tuyeres by the means of the critical speed tuyeres. The main equipment components of a static distributor injection system are presented. The special features of installed plants installed are described. A discussion of operating experience, capability and limits of the process closes the paper with an outlook to the extension towards individual control and oxygen injection.

  20. Carbonation Characteristics of Alkali-Activated Blast-Furnace Slag Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Il Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated ground granulated blast-slag (AAS is the most obvious alternative material for ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, to use it as a structural material requires the assessment and verification of its durability. The most important factor for a durability evaluation is the degree of carbonation resistance, and AAS is known to show lower performance than OPC. A series of experiments was conducted with a view to investigate the carbonation characteristics of AAS binder. As a consequence, it was found that the major hydration product of AAS was calcium silicate hydrate (CSH, with almost no portlandite, unlike the products of OPC. After carbonation, the CSH of AAS turned into amorphous silica gel which was most likely why the compressive strength of AAS became weaker after carbonation. An increase of the activator dosage leads AAS to react more quickly and produce more CSH, increasing the compaction, compressive strength, and carbonation resistance of the microstructure.

  1. 高炉故障诊断本体构建方法实证分析%Empirical analysis on blast furnace fault diagnosis method based on ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国荣; 鄢萍; 陈燕华; 施金良; 邓菊丽

    2012-01-01

    高炉维修记录中包含很多有用的信息,可为诊断解决类似故障提供参考。针对故障记录提取和利用过程中存在的结构化表示、知识构建及推理难题,提出了一种基于本体的高炉故障知识构建及表示方法。对高炉故障诊断知识本体的特性进行分析,得出故障诊断本体构建的故障部位、故障原因、故障现象、解决方案四要素;定义了高炉本体的故障诊断类、属性、实例、关系、域等本体描述的规范框架和说明;在本体建模工具protfigfi中研究了该高炉本体的具体定义、描述和推理过程。实例研究表明,该方法简单、表述直观、效率高,可为高炉故障诊断提供一种新的思路和解决方案。%Blast furnaces' maintenance records of mechanical fault contain great amount of information which is useful to identify the similar fault, but the structural representation and the knowledge reasoning problem prevent us to use the records effectively. Aiming at the problem,a blast furnace fault knowledge representation based on ontology is proposed. Blast furnaces' knowledge characteristics, ontology building significance and principle of fault are analyzed,and the four factors of BF-cause,BF-phenomenon,BF-ways, Blast-furnace in blast furnaces' mechanical fault diagnosis are brought out. The fault ontology frame of BFClass,BFProperties,BFIndividuals,BFRelationships,BFDomain are defined and described in detail. The applications of fault diagnosis ontology are studied in protege. The case study shows that the fault knowledge representation based on ontology is very intuitive and efficient,and it provides a novel way to deal with the blast furnace fault diagnosis problem.

  2. Model of Forming-Accretion on Blast Furnace Copper Stave and Industrial Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tong; CHENG Su-sen

    2012-01-01

    Copper staves have been equipped on nearly all of BF (blast furnaces) with volume over than 1000 m3 in China since their introduction from abroad about more than 10 years ago. Because of short application and lack of experience, phenomena of thickened or naked of copper stave happen occasionally which influence production severely. So it is important to study the model of forming-accretion on BF copper stave and realize real-time monitoring of forming-accretion on different copper staves. Therefore, mathematic model of calculating accretion thickness by heat flow of BF is proposed, and the calculated results indicate that accretion thickness could be kept at a reasonable range of around 50 mm by controlling heat flux around 22.0 kW/mz. The monitoring program based on the model was applied to a certain BF in China successfully, and it is found that slip of BF near the inner wall is one of most important reasons that cause fluctuation of accretion thickness. During the period of scheduled maintenance of the certain BF, the thickness of accretion measured through the static pressure holes is in good accordance with the value calculated by the monitoring program, so the results calculated by the monitoring program can be used to guide industrial production

  3. 瓦斯泥浮选提碳正交试验研究%Orthogonal test analysis of carbon flotation blast furnace sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 聂轶苗; 张晋霞; 戴奇卉; 赵靖雯

    2015-01-01

    瓦斯泥中碳的提取一般采用浮选,柴油或煤油为捕收剂,2#油作起泡剂,然而对于不同性质的瓦斯泥,浮选效果却大不相同。为了详细研究各种因素对瓦斯泥高效浮选提碳的影响,本文针对某地瓦斯泥提碳浮选设计了正交试验,并对试验结果进行了极差分析。研究表明,对于固定碳含量和精矿回收率而言,矿浆浓度和高效浮选药剂的用量对其影响最大。该试验研究结果为类似性质的瓦斯泥浮选提碳具有一定的参考价值。%The main method of carbon retract from blast furnace sludge was got by flotation with diesel or coal oil as collector and 2 # oil as foaming agent.But different flotation result was got for the different properties of blast furnace sludge.In this paper,orthogonal test was designed to research the effect of the main factors on the basis of the analysis of range.The results showed that pulp concentration and dosage of efficient flotation reagents have the maxium effect on the carbon content of concentrate and recovery.This research provides basis data for the application of similar blast furnace sludge to some extent.

  4. Effect of TiO2 Content on the Crystallization Behavior of Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meilong; Wei, Ruirui; Yin, Fangqing; Liu, Lu; Deng, Qingyu

    2016-09-01

    The content of TiO2 has an important influence on both the basic structure and the crystallization behavior of titanium-bearing blast furnace (BF) slag. The results of thermodynamic calculations show that, when the mass content of TiO2 is smaller than 25%, CaTiO3 increases as the content of TiO2 increases. However, when the TiO2 content is more than 25%, the CaTiO3 content decreases and TiO2 gradually increases. The results of a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) experiment show that, when the TiO2 mass content is 10%, Ca2MgSi2O7 and Ca2Al2SiO7 are the main crystallized phases resulting from the molten slag. Furthermore, when the TiO2 mass content is 20%, CaMgSi2O6, Ca(Ti,Mg,Al)(Si,Al)2O7 and dendrite CaTiO3 are the crystallized phases, while when the TiO2 mass content increases to 30%, CaTiO3 is the sole phase. The discrepancy between the CLSM results and the thermodynamic calculations occurs mainly due to the high melting point of the titanium-bearing BF slag. During the cooling process for the molten slag, CaTiO3 is crystallized first, due to its high crystallization temperature. Furthermore, the molten slag is solidified in its entirety before the other phases crystallize.

  5. Preparation of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass from molten blast furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xu; Yong-zang Zhang; Lin-yan Hou; Xiang Lu

    2014-01-01

    To use the potential heat of molten blast furnace slag completely, a CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass (MSG) was prepared from the molten industrial slag. The corresponding method proposed in this study utilized both slag and its potential heat, improving the production rate and avoiding the environmental pollution. Using appropriate techniques, an MSG with uniform color and superior performances was produced. Based on the experimental results and phase diagram, the chemical composition of MSG by mass is obtained as follows:CaO 27%-33%, SiO2 42%-51%, Al2O3 11%-14%, MgO 6%-8%, and Na2O+K2O 1%-4%. Thermodynamic processes of MSG preparation were analyzed, and the phases and microstructures of MSG were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that alkali metal oxides serve as the fluxes, calcium oxide serves as the stabilizer, and alumina reinforces the Si-O network. XRD and SEM analyses show that, the prepared MSG displays the glass-feature patterns, the melting process is more complete, and the melt viscosity is lowered with an increase in calcium oxide content;however, a continuous increase in slag content induces the crystalli-zation of glass, leading to the formation of glass subphase. The optimum content of molten slag in MSG is 67.37wt%. With respect to bend-ing strength and acid/alkali resistance, the performance of MSG is better than that of ordinary marble.

  6. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

    2012-07-01

    A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

  7. Novel blast furnace operation process involving charging with low-titanium vanadium-titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chu, Man-sheng; Wang, Hong-tao; Liu, Zheng-gen; Tang, Ya-ting

    2016-05-01

    An innovative process of blast furnace (BF) operation involving charging with low-titanium vanadium-titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette (LVTM-CCB) was proposed for utilizing LVTM and conserving energy. In this study, the effect of LVTM-CCB charging ratio on the softening, melting, and dripping behaviors of the mixed burden was explored systemically, and the migration of valuable elements V and Cr was extensively investigated. The results show that with increasing LVTM-CCB charging ratio, the softening interval T 40 - T 4 increases from 146.1°C to 266.1°C, and the melting interval T D - T S first decreases from 137.2°C to 129.5°C and then increases from 129.5°C to 133.2°C. Moreover, the cohesive zone becomes narrower and then wider, and its location shifts slightly downward. In addition, the recovery ratios of V and Cr in dripped iron first increase and then decrease, reaching maximum values of 14.552% and 28.163%, respectively, when the charging ratio is 25%. A proper LVTM-CCB charging ratio would improve the softening-melting behavior of the mixed burden; however, Ti(C,N) would be generated rapidly in slag when the charging ratio exceeds 25%, which is not favorable for BF operation. When considering the comprehensive softening-melting behavior of the mixed burden and the recovery ratios of V and Cr, the recommended LVTM-CCB charging ratio is 20%.

  8. Effect of Al2O3 Addition on the Precipitated Phase Transformation in Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Li, Jinfu; Sun, Yongqi; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to provide a fundamental understanding on phase change of Ti-enriched crystalline phase induced by Al2O3 addition in Ti-bearing blast furnace slags with different basicities using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique and X-ray Diffraction. The results showed that an increase in the Al2O3 content led to phase change from rutile or perovskite to Mg3Al4Ti8O25 and prompted crystallization of the slags with basicity of 0.60 and 0.75, whereas only CaTiO3 was precipitated at a basicity of 0.95. Both thermodynamic and kinetic analyses were conducted to study the slag crystallization, which would throw light on phase change and enhanced crystallization. To further reveal the relationship with Al2O3 addition on slag structure and crystallization, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance were adopted, with AlO4 tetrahedra and AlO6 octahedra observed in the slag. For slags with the basicity of 0.60 and 0.75, AlO6 octahedron, which was suggested to induce the phase change from TiO2 or CaTiO3 to Mg3Al4Ti8O25, was detected at high Al2O3 content. On the other hand, in slags with the basicity of 0.95, abundant Ca2+ may be connected to TiO6 octahedra, resulting in CaTiO3 formation.

  9. Characterisation of Ba(OH)(2)-Na2SO4-blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Mobasher, N.; Bernal, S. A.; Hussain, O.H.; Apperley, D.C.; Kinoshita, H.; Provis, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH)2–Na2SO4–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO4 and BaCO3, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrat...

  10. Self reaction behavior of wood flour added coal composite iron ore hot briquettes under a blast furnace simulated heat and load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanabe, K. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    The coal composite iron ore hot briquette made by utilizing thermal plasticity of coal is recently developed as agglomerates without binder, which has several advantages to retain high density and strength during reaction at high temperatures. The charge of this briquette to a blast furnace is expected to enable more effectively higher reaction rates at lower temperatures than usual operation. Moreover, utilization of biomass as carbon neutral is essential to construct a sustainable society permitting to conserve global environment and save resources and energies. In this work, influence of substituting biomass (Cedar wood flour) for one tenth amounts of coal in hot briquettes was examined by carrying out self reaction tests of the briquettes in a N2 gas steam under heat and load in a laboratory scale blast furnace simulator. It was proved that both briquettes with or without biomass could retain an industrial allowable strength beyond 50 kgf/cm2 after reaction, while the addition of biomass enhanced a little more the shrinkage of briquettes in the higher temperatures above 1000{sup o}C. Both gasification of biomass added coal and reduction of iron ore during their reaction were evaluated and it was found that the former rates were a little smaller than the latter as a whole, irrespective of the addition of biomass. Carburization to metallic iron began at nearly 1200 {sup o}C and both briquettes have been melted down at 1400{sup o}C due to nearly carbon saturation in metallic iron with a graphite crucible.

  11. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production

  12. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production

  13. Design Study on BSK Dome Combustion Hot Blast Stove for 5500 m~3 Blast Furnace%首钢京唐5500m3高炉BSK顶燃式热风炉设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福明; 梅丛华; 银光宇; 毛庆武; 钱世崇; 胡祖瑞

    2012-01-01

    介绍了首钢京唐钢铁厂5 500m3高炉BSK顶燃式热风炉的设计创新。优化集成了特大型顶燃式热风炉工艺;研究开发了助燃空气两级高温预热技术和顶燃式热风炉高效陶瓷燃烧器。根据顶燃式热风炉特性设计了合理的拱顶和陶瓷燃烧器结构;采用高效格子砖,优化了蓄热室的热工参数与结构,确定了合理的热风炉蓄热面积。优化热风炉炉体内衬设计;采用了有效防止热风炉炉壳晶间应力腐蚀的技术措施。根据蓄热室传热计算,合理配置了热风炉炉体耐火材料,提高了耐火材料技术性能。优化热风管道系统耐火材料结构设计,使热风管道系统合理化并满足1 300℃高风温的要求。高炉投产后热风温达到设计水平,实现月平均风温1 300℃。%This paper introduces the technical innovation of BSK dome combustion hot stove for 5 500 m3 blast furnace at Shougang Jingtang Steel Plant.Ultra large dome combustion hot blast stove optimum technical process is integrated;high temperature 2 stage preheating technology of combustion air and dome combustion hot stove high-efficiency ceramic burner are developed;according to the characteristics of dome combustion hot blast stove,the rational structure of dome and ceramic burner are designed;high efficiency checker brick is adopted,the thermal specification and structure of regenerator are optimized;reasonable hot blast stove checker heating surface is determined.Hot blast stove proper lining design is optimized;the effective technical measures for hot blast stove shell inter-crystalline stress corrosion prevention is applied.According to the thermal conduction calculation of regenerator suitable hot blast stove refractory is configured;the refractory technical performance is improved additionally.Refractory structure design of hot blast pipe system is improved in order to meet the requirement of 1 300 ℃ blast temperature.Blast temperature of design level is

  14. Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Additionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

  15. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA, de escoria de alto horno (GBFS y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

  16. Variations in phosphorus speciation in Pilot scale subsurface flow wetlands constructed with blast furnace slag and gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Baoqing; Hu, Chunming; Tang, Wenzhong; Cheng, Yajing [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-10-15

    Variations in phosphorus (P) speciation were compared for two types of pilot scale wetlands: a blast furnace slag-based constructed wetland (SCW), and a gravel-based constructed wetland (GCW). Synthetic secondary effluent was used as the influent of the wetlands, which contained 1.1 mg/L P with more than 95% present as soluble reactive P (SRP). However, dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) emerged in the water along both wetlands. The levels of these three P species varied between the two wetlands. The GCW was more efficient than SCW at removing SRP, but showed a different trend. SRP decreased continually in the SCW, while it increased at the end of the GCW due to biological release. DOP was constant in SCW and GCW, and the mean value was 0.023 and 0.020 mg/L, respectively. The mean values of PP in the GCW ranged between 0.093 and 0.216 mg/L; much higher than the 0.05 {+-} 0.01 mg/L measured in the SCW. Sequential extractions showed that iron bound PP (Fe-PP), aluminum bound PP (Al-PP), organic PP (Org-PP) and occluded PP (Oc-PP) were the major components of PP at most locations of the GCW. Fe-PP decreased from 0.53 to 0.14 mg/L in the upper layer, with DO steady at about 0.15 mg/L at the bottom. Oc-PP increased at each layer. Al-PP and Org-PP were steady in the first 140 cm of the GCW, but decreased sharply at the end. Considering the variation of SRP, DOP and PP fractionations, it can be seen that PP exchanged intensively with SRP in the GCW, and might act as an intermediate in the P removal process. Part of the SRP was first transformed into PP, and then absorbed by substrates or deposited in the wetlands. P removal was mainly via Ca precipitation in the SCW, but involved multiple mechanisms in the GCW, such as precipitation, adsorption and biological interactions. The multiple P removal mechanisms might be the reason for the low proportion of SRP, and the better P removal efficiency observed in the GCW. (Abstract Copyright [2009

  17. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes

  18. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  19. The Environmental Impact and Cost Analysis of Concrete Mixing Blast Furnace Slag Containing Titanium Gypsum and Sludge in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental effects and cost of the Industrial Waste addictive Blast Furnace Slag (W-BFS using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and compared it to general BFS. The environmental impacts of W-BFS were as follows: 1.12 × 10−1 kg-CO2 eq/kg, 3.18 × 10−5 kg-Ethylene eq/kg, 4.79 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-PO43− eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-CFC11 eq/kg and 3.94 × 10−3 kg-Antimony eq/kg. Among the environmental impact category, GWP and AP were 9.28 × 10−2 kg-CO2 eq/kg and 3.33 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg at a raw material stage, accounting for 80% and 70% of total environmental impact respectively. In EP, POCP and ADP, in addition, raw material stage accounted for a great portion in total environmental impact because of “W” among input materials. In ODP, however, compared to the environmental impact of raw materials, oil, which was used in transporting BFS to the W-BFS manufacturing factory, was more influential. In terms of GWP, POCP and ODP, W-BFS was higher than general BFS. In terms of AP, EP and ADP, in contrast, the former was lower than the latter. In terms of cost, W-BFS (41.7 US$/ton was lower than general BFS by about 17% because of the use of waste additives comprised of industrial wastes instead of natural gypsum ,which has been commonly used in general BFS. In terms of GWP and POCP, the W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 25%. In terms of AP and EP, the former was lower than the latter by 30%. In terms of ADP, furthermore, W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 11%. In aggregate-related ODP, however, almost no change was found. In terms of cost, when W-BFS was added by 10% and 30%, it was able to reduce cost by 3% and 7% respectively, compared to plain concrete. Compared to BFS-mixed concrete as well, cost could be saved by 1% additionally because W-BFS (US$41.7/ton is lower than common cement (US$100.3/ton by about 60% in terms of production costs.

  20. PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

    2010-04-15

    The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

  1. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O and NaOH solution (of variable concentration. Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α was determined from hydration heat values obtained through isothermal conduction calorimetry. From the results obtained it is deduced that a treshold value of 4 % Na2O wt. exists. For those concentrations and at test temperatures (except for 25ºC and 3 % Na2O wt., the mechanism controlling hydration reaction for a values higher than 0.5, is a diffusion process. This process is described by .Jander equation [D3=(1-(1-α1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. The activation energy obtained for that process is of approximately 50-58 Kj/mol.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de la disolución activante en la cinética de hidratación de una escoria granulada de alto horno, activada alcalinamente a distintas temperaturas. El activador alcalino utilizado fue una mezcla de water glass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O con una disolución de NaOH (de concentración variable. Las concentraciones finales del activador alcalino fueron: 3, 4 y 5 % en peso de Na2O respecto a la masa total de escoria. El grado de reacción (α se determinó a partir de valores de calor de hidratación obtenidos por calorimetría de conducción isotérmica. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que existe un valor umbral de concentraciones en torno al 4 % en peso de Na2O. También para dichas concentraciones y a las temperaturas de ensayo (excepto a 25ºC con un 3 % en peso de Na2O, el mecanismo que controla la reacción de hidrataci

  2. Operation of blast furnace gas (BFG) gas holder with ld gas (LDG); Operacao do gasometro de gas de alto forno com gas de aciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, William Genelhu; Valentino, Waldir Smith [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Intendente Camara plant, one of USIMINAS steel works, located in Ipatinga - MG, operates its network of process gases with two Coke-Oven Gas (COG) oil-seal gas holders, one Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) oil-seal gas holder and a LD gas (LDG) telescope type gas holder. During the repair of LDG gas holder, this gas would be completely burned in the flares for a period of five months. Due to this loss, the cost of additional fuel and interventions in the production rhythm of the Hot Strip Mill, its biggest consumer, would be high. This paper presents the philosophy and pillars that mitigated these losses, highlighting how it was possible to operate the BFG gas holder with LDG, the achieved economy and lessons learned from the process. (author)

  3. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  4. A pilot plant study for CO{sub 2} capture by aqueous ammonia applied to blast furnace gas in iron and steel making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Kim, J.; Han, K.; Dong Chun, H. [CO2 Project, Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was captured from a demonstration iron and steel plant using low concentration aqueous ammonia as the absorbent chemical. The pilot plant was designed to process 50 Nm{sup 3}/h of blast furnace gas (BFG). The feed gas contained more than 20 per cent CO{sub 2} at 35 to 60 degrees C. Test runs revealed that the absorption efficiency of CO{sub 2} exceeded 80 per cent with a CO{sub 2} purity of more than 90 per cent in the product stream. The process parameters are currently being studied along with the various salts needed to prevent salt precipitation. It was determined that the use of waste heat recovery technology in the iron and steel-making process can render ammonia-based CO{sub 2} capture technology more economically feasible for the reduction of CO{sub 2}.

  5. The Influence of Allocation on the Carbon Footprint of Electricity Production from Waste Gas, a Case Study for Blast Furnace Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Producing electricity from waste gas is an after treatment for waste gas while recovering the energy content. This paper addresses the methodology to calculate the effect that waste gas energy recovery has on lowering the impact of climate change. Greenhouse gases are emitted while burning the waste gas. However, a thorough study should include the production of the feedstock as well as the production of the infrastructure. A framework is developed to calculate the environmental impact of electricity production from waste gas with a life cycle approach. The present paper has a twofold purpose: to assess the climate change impact of generating electricity with blast furnace gas (BFG as a waste gas from the steel industry; and to establish a sensitivity assessment of the environmental implications of different allocation rules.

  6. Rotary hearth furnace technologies for iron ore and recycling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H.; Kopfle, J.; McClelland, J.; Ripke, J.

    2008-07-01

    Midrex Technologies and Kobe Steel offer the FASTMET, FASTMELT, and ITmk3 Technologies for processing iron ore and iron-containing by-products to produce DRI and pig iron products. These processes offer steelmakers methods for economically producing high quality iron products and recovering valuable mineral resources using fine ores, by-products, and coal. Several commercial FASTMET Plants have been operating successfully for a number of years, confirming the basic process concept. A number of new projects are under development worldwide for the three technologies. This paper provides technical details of the processes, reviews promising applications, and discusses current commercial developments.

  7. Practices of Energy Conservation of the Waste Heat Recovery Device in Baosteel N(o)4 Blast Furnace%宝钢4号高炉余热回收系统节能实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱勇军; 杨俊; 王训富; 李有庆

    2012-01-01

    To lower energy consumption,the heat energy was recovered by using separate-type heat pipe heat exchanger from the waste heat of hot blast stove in Baosteel N04 Blast fumace.It played an important role in raising the blast air temperature,saving energy and decreasing emission since the waste heat recovery device for hot blast stove of Baosteel N04 blast furnace Was put into operation more than 5 years ago.The effect of the waste heat recovery of Baosteel No4 blast furnace on the blast air temperature and energy consumption Was quantified.The effect of the waste heat recovery device before and after remoulding WaS analyzed and the failure reason of the waste heat recovery Was discussed and improvement measures were proposed.%为了节能降耗,宝钢4号高炉热风炉余热采用分离热管式换热器回收热能.宝钢4号高炉热风炉余热回收装置投入运行5年多来,对提高高炉风温、节能减排起到重要作用.量化了宝钢4号高炉余热回收对高炉风温和高炉能耗的影响,对余热回收改造前后的效果进行了分析,同时对余热回收失效原因和改进措施进行了探讨.

  8. Automatically Charging Blast Furnace by SIEMENS S7-400PLC Via Pointer Programming%西门子S7-400PLC指针编程实现高炉自动装料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁戎; 洪志祥

    2015-01-01

    介绍了当前比较通用的一种有料车高炉的自动装料方式,并详细解释了如何通过西门子S7-400PLC指针编程的形式,使用一个关联的数据区,一个动态的巡检字,三套并联的程序结构,实现高炉自动装料的方法。%This paper introduces a common kind of blast furnace with skip car that can automatic charging, and explain how to use the SIEMENS S7-400PLC with pointer program-ming, using a relational data area, a dynamic inspection of words, three sets of parallel pro-gram structure,to achieve automatic charging of blast furnace automatically.

  9. Upgrading of the Control Program for Anti-surge System of Blast Furnace Blower%高炉鼓风机防喘系统控制程序优化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伦俊

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Yingqian No.1 generator unit of Laiwu Steel’s power plant did not match the operation conditions of the blast furnaces. In order to ensure normal and stable production of the blast furnaces, through optimizing transformation of the control program for the anti-surge system the performance of No.1 generator unit was improved and production cost reduced.%莱钢能源动力厂银前1#机组性能与高炉冶炼工况不匹配,为确保高炉正常稳定生产,通过对防喘系统控制程序优化改造,提高1#机组性能同时节约了生产成本。

  10. Effect of incorporation of fly ash and granulated blast furnace in the electrochemical behavior of concretes of commercial cement; Efecto de la incorporacion de ceniza volante y escoria de horno alto en el comportamiento electroquimico de concretos de cemento comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Junco, O. J.; Pineda-Triana, Y.; Vera-Lopez, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the findings of the research properties evaluation pastes of commercial cement (CPC), mixed with fly ash (FA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS). Initially, the sample of 30 combinations were evaluated in terms of compressive strength to establish the optimal proportions from raw material. After that, four optimized blends were characterized during the setting and hardening process. Electrochemical tests were performed on concrete cylinders samples prepared with cementitious materials and a structural steel rod placed in the center of the specimen. With the objective to evaluate the performance before corrosion, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects were taken into consideration. The findings showed that commercial cements blended with fly ash and blast furnace slag as the ones used in this research presents a decreased behavior in mechanical and corrosion strength regarding to CPC. (Author)

  11. Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

  12. Phase Equilibrium Studies of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 System with Binary Basicity of 1.5 Related to Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Mingyin; Wu, Shengli; Ma, Xiaodong; Wang, Laixin; Chen, Mao; Cai, Qingwu; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-04-01

    Slags play an important role in blast furnace operation, and their compositions are based on the CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary system in many steel companies. The binary basicity (CaO/SiO2 weight ratio) of blast furnace slags, especially primary slag and bosh slag, can be as high as 1.5 or higher. Phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 system with binary basicity of 1.50 are experimentally determined for temperatures in the range 1723 K to 1823 K (1450 °C to 1550 °C). High temperature equilibration, quenching, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques have been used in the present study. The isotherms are obtained in the primary phase fields of Ca2SiO4, melilite, spinel, periclase, and merwinite related to blast furnace slags. Effects of Al2O3, MgO, and binary basicity on liquidus temperatures have been discussed. In addition, extensive solid solutions have been measured for different primary phases and will be used for development and optimization of the thermodynamic database.

  13. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  14. Coke deterioration mechanism in lump zone of blast furnace%高炉块状带焦炭劣化机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕青青; 杜屏; 周俊兰

    2016-01-01

    The condition of gas flow condition and temperature condition in lump zone of blast furnace is simulated. The impacts of particle size,coke quenching way and coke types affecting coke deterioration in lump zone of blast furnace were studied. In addition,the catalyze mechanism of K2CO3 and Na2CO3 catalyzing CO2 and coke reaction were also stud-ied. The results show that:small size coke and wet quenching coke have higher loss mass and generate more powder than large size coke and dry quenching coke;Stamping coke deterioration degree is less than top charging coke in the initial re-action,as reacting time increases,stamping coke deterioration increases obviously and is higher than that of the top charg-ing coke;Alkali metal and coke ash formed in a kind of catalyst complex. The complex causes that the initial reaction tem-perature decrease,and destroys the crystal structure,causing loss mass increased and coke getting powdery heavily;The catalytic effect of K2CO3 is higher than Na2CO3.%模拟高炉块状带气流和温度条件,研究了粒度、熄焦方式和焦炭类型对焦炭劣化影响,以及高炉上部碱金属K2CO3和Na2CO3催化焦炭与CO2的反应机理.结果表明:小粒度焦炭和湿熄焦炭失碳率较高,产生的粉末量多;捣固焦炭在反应开始时劣化程度低于顶装焦炭,随着反应时间增加,劣化程度高于顶装焦炭;碱金属会与焦炭中的灰分形成催化复合物,导致焦炭与CO2反应的起始温度降低,破坏焦炭的微晶结构,失碳率增加,粉化加重;K2CO3的催化作用高于Na2CO3的催化作用.

  15. 高炉喷吹废塑料的先进技术%Establishment of Advanced Recycling Technology for Waste Plastics in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2012-01-01

    废塑料循环利用技术对于全球环境保护和社会发展都是一个非常重要的课题。JFE制钢公司为了将废塑料作为高炉的还原剂,通过热模燃烧实验;研究了废塑料的燃烧气化率。经过研究,为了改善粗粒废塑料的燃烧性,开发了同时喷吹煤粉或/和天然气的技术,为了提高废塑料的燃烧和气化率及炉内透气性,JFE开发出将废塑料与碳酸钙(CaC03)复合造粒技术。另外,JFE还研究了废塑料精细粉碎技术。此技术已经应用在实际生产中。%The establishment of technology for recycling waste plastics is a highly important issue for global environmental conservation and the society. JFE Steel has pursued the effective use of waste plastics as a reducing agent for injection into blast furnaces, and conducted hot model experiments to study the combustion and gasification behaviour of waste plastics. On the basis of this basic investigation, advanced technologies that can further improve the combustion and gasification efficiency of waste plastics even with low strength has been developed; i.e. in order to improve combustibility of fine waste plastics, technology for simultaneous injection of such plastics with pulverized coal and/or natural gas has been developed. For improved the strength of plastics, technology for combined agglomeration of waste plastics with CaC03 has been developed. In addition, technology for fine crushing of waste plastics has been studied on the basis of new ideas, and this technology has been applied in actual plant operation. These technologies have been successfully applied in actual blast furnaces, contributing to lowering the reducing agent rate.

  16. Proceedings of the 36. McMaster University symposium on iron and steel making : the challenges of coal injection in today's blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irons, G.A. (ed.) [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering, Steel Research Centre; Donaldson, B. (comp.) [ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Ricketts, J. (comp.) [ArcelorMittal Steel USA, Chicago, IL (United States); Hutchinson, S.; Entwistle, J. (comps.) [US Steel Canada, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Steel Research Centre (SRC) at McMaster University develops exploitable technologies that benefit the steel industry. There are 3 components to the SRC's mission, notably to conduct research leading to commercially relevant new approaches to ironmaking, steelmaking process control, waste processing, steel product design and metal forming technologies; provide training of highly qualified personnel as a the means of transferring new technology to the steel industry; and provide continuing education for steel industry engineers. This conference was attended by the world's major steel producers, as well as suppliers and engineering consultants to the industry. The conference was a discussion-oriented forum in which manufacturers and technical personnel discussed major aspects of blast furnace ironmaking, such as energy balance; current operations and optimization; opportunities to use excess energy; utilities management; purchased energy; and derivative gases. The symposium featured 14 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. The discussions following each presentation were also included in the proceedings. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE THIXOTROPY OF OIL-WELL CEMENTS USED FOR CEMENTING LOST CIRCULATION ZONES: EFFECT OF PLASTER AND BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouziani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cementing of oil and gas wells can be a very delicate operation. Among the concerns of service companies, during this operation are the nature and conditions of the formations in well. This is the case of cementing operations in southern Algeria, specifically on the fields of In-Amen, where the formations in lost zones are naturally weak and highly permeable. In these areas, drilling fluids (muds and cements pumped will be, completely or partially lost, what we call "lost circulation". Thixotropic cements are useful to overcome lost circulation problems. They are characterized by a special rheological behavior, allowing it to plug lost zones when they are pumped.Our work aims to assess the thixotropy of cements perapred with two types of cement (class G Asland cement and CEM I 42.5 portland cement with the plaster, using a viscometer with coaxial cylinder (couette type. Moreover, the effect of blast furnace slag (LHF on the properties and thixotropic mixtures prepared was also studied. The results show that portland cement (available locally can produce mixes with higher and more stable thixotropy than the class G cement (from importation, which is a practical and economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster.

  18. Influence of aluminium nitride as a foaming agent on the preparation of foam glass-ceramics from high-titanium blast furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Shi; Ke-qin Feng; Hai-bo Wang; Chang-hong Chen; Hong-ling Zhou

    2016-01-01

    To effectively reuse high-titanium blast furnace slag (TS), foam glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by powder sintering at 1000°C. TS and waste glass were used as the main raw materials, aluminium nitride (AlN) as the foaming agent, and borax as the fluxing agent. The influence of the amount of AlN added (1wt%-5wt%) on the crystalline phases, microstructure, and properties of the produced foam glass-ceramics was studied. The results showed that the main crystal phases were perovskite, diopside, and augite. With increasing AlN content, a transformation from diopside to augite occurred and the crystallinity of the pyroxene phases slightly decreased. Initially, the aver-age pore size and porosity of the foam glass-ceramics increased and subsequently decreased; similarly, their bulk density and compressive strength decreased and subsequently increased. The optimal properties were obtained when the foam glass-ceramics were prepared by adding 4wt% AlN.

  19. The enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron on the solidification of chromite ore processing residue by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinchunzi; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Binyuan; Fan, Leitao

    2015-09-01

    A bench scale study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the solidification of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide, and investigate the enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the solidification treatment. The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as the solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity-sulfuric acid & nitric acid method (Chinese standard HJ/T299-2007). Strength tests and semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The experimental results showed that the performance of pre-reduction/solidification (S/S) was superior to that of solidification alone. After pre-reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the TCLP limit for total Cr (5 mg L(-1)), whereas the samples with a COPR content below 40% met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3 mg L(-1)). At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:25929874

  20. Effects of additives on the phase transformation, occurrence state, and the interface of the Ti component in Ti-bearing blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wu; Zhang, Ju-hua; Li, Guang-qiang

    2016-09-01

    The influences of additives on the phase transformation, occurrence state, and the interface of the Ti component in Ti-bearing blast furnace slag were investigated. After oxidation, most of the Ti component in the slag was enriched into the perovskite phase, which served as the Ti-rich phase during the crystallization process. The phase transformation, occurrence state, and the interface of the Ti component were observed to be affected by the addition of different types of agents. During the oxidation process, titanaugite and Ti-rich diopside phases gradually transformed into non-Ti phases (anorthite: CaMgSi2O6 and CaAl2Si2O8) in the form of dendrites or columns, which were observed to be distributed at the surface of the perovskite phase. Several more cracks appeared along the grain boundaries of the perovskite phase after the addition of P2O5, facilitating the liberation of the perovskite phase. Composite additives combining both an acid and a base, such as CaO + CaF2 or P2O5 + CaF2, were used. We observed that the disadvantages of using single additives were successfully overcome.

  1. 高炉出铁场除尘方案研究%Study on Dust Removal Scenario of Iron Tapping Field of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶锋勇; 石峻

    2014-01-01

    The iron tapping ifeld of blast furnace workshop of a certain iron and steel work generates a great lot smoke and dusts with high concentration in its production course, causing serious pol ution of atmospheric environment and circumjacent environment and at the same time harming the employee’ health. In accordance with the analysis of technology system of dust removal and ventilation status in the whole iron tapping ifeld and the actual application, the paper sums up the dust removal program of the system that adapts to the ifeld.%某钢铁企业高炉炼铁车间的出铁场在生产过程中产生大量高浓度的烟尘,对厂区的大气环境及周边的环境造成严重污染,同时直接危害了职工的身体健康。通过对整个出铁场除尘工艺系统及通风状况的分析及实际应用情况,总结出了适合该场合的系统除尘方案。

  2. Influence of aluminium nitride as a foaming agent on the preparation of foam glass-ceramics from high-titanium blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huan; Feng, Ke-qin; Wang, Hai-bo; Chen, Chang-hong; Zhou, Hong-ling

    2016-05-01

    To effectively reuse high-titanium blast furnace slag (TS), foam glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by powder sintering at 1000°C. TS and waste glass were used as the main raw materials, aluminium nitride (AlN) as the foaming agent, and borax as the fluxing agent. The influence of the amount of AlN added (1wt%-5wt%) on the crystalline phases, microstructure, and properties of the produced foam glass-ceramics was studied. The results showed that the main crystal phases were perovskite, diopside, and augite. With increasing AlN content, a transformation from diopside to augite occurred and the crystallinity of the pyroxene phases slightly decreased. Initially, the average pore size and porosity of the foam glass-ceramics increased and subsequently decreased; similarly, their bulk density and compressive strength decreased and subsequently increased. The optimal properties were obtained when the foam glass-ceramics were prepared by adding 4wt% AlN.

  3. Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF slag modified by coal ash (CA. The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The effect of mBF/m ratio, slag temperature for injection and air pressure on the preparation of slag wool was systematically investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties were also studied to confirm the long-term working conditions of the slag wool. An industry-scale slag wool production application was established. The energy consumption and the pollutant generation, were analyzed and compared with the traditional production method, which indicated a 70% reduction in energy consumption and a 90% pollution emission decrease.

  4. Study on taphole clay with high strength and enviroment-friendly and its application in large blast furnace%大型高炉高强度环保炮泥的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国涛; 李淑忠; 熊亚非; 李怀远; 邓棠; 张洪雷

    2011-01-01

    对大型高炉高强度环保炮泥的组成、性能、结构进行了研究.研制的炮泥在炼铁厂4座高炉得到了应用,在3 800 m3高炉连续使用4个月,日出铁次数11~13次,铁水流速7.5 t/min,吨铁炮泥消耗降到0.49 kg;为高炉快速达产、减少铁水散喷创造了条件;该炮泥容易开孔,铁口通道稳定,抗渣铁侵蚀,没有黑色、黄色的毒害烟雾,利于现场工作环境的改善.%The composition, structure and properties of taphole clay with high strength and enviroment-friendly used for large blast furnace are investigated in this paper. The taphole clay has been applied at four blast furnaces of the Ironmaking Plant of WISCO,of which the taphole clay was continuously applied for four months at a new BF with 3 800 m3. On this furnace, the daily tapping time was 11-13, the flow rate of hot metal was 7. 5 t/min and the consumption of taphole clay decreased to 0. 49 kg/t, which was helpful for the new blast furnace to reach its designed production quickly. The taphole clay is good in anti-corrosion properties of slag and hot metal and easy to be opened, and no poisonous smoke in tapping process. As a result, the operational surrounding of casthouse can be improved.

  5. Reconstructing the Shape of Burden Line in Blast Furnace with Multi-point Radar Detection Method%多点雷达检测法重构高炉料线形状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关心; 尹怡欣

    2015-01-01

    The detection means for shape of burden line in blast furnace are restricted because the furnace is confined, so it is unfavorable to reconstruct the shape of burden line;thus the method of multi-point radar detection is proposed for reconstructing the shape of burden line in blast furnace. Comprehensively considering the burden distribution law in blast furnace and the influence of movement of gas flow upon the burden line, the detection is using multiple line segments to describe the burden line. Based on computerized loop iteration algorithm, and respectively adopting traditional burden distribution law and multi-point radar data to continuously approximating reconstruction of burden line. The results of practical tests show that the effect of this method is better than traditional method; that means the multi-point radar detection method can effectively be applied in blast furnace burden line reconstruction field.%针对高炉为密闭容器、料线形状检测手段受限以及不利于高炉料线重构的问题,提出多点雷达数据检测法重构高炉料线形状。综合考虑高炉布料规律和煤气流运动对炉料分布状态的影响,采用多条线段描述料线形状;通过计算机程序循环迭代算法,分别利用传统布料规律和多点雷达数据不断逼近重构料线。实测结果表明,多点雷达检测法比传统方法重构料线的效果好,说明多点雷达检测法能有效地应用于高炉料线重构领域。

  6. SKS炼铅鼓风炉的能量分析和(火用)分析%Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Blast Furnace in SKS Lead Smelting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋爱华; 梅炽; 时章明; 余煌; 姜信杰; 朱小军

    2011-01-01

    为挖掘SKS炼铅系统的鼓风炉(SKS鼓风炉)的节能潜力,在现场测试数据的基础上,采用能量分析法和(火用)分析法分别对SKS鼓风炉的能量收支、(火用)量收支分布状况进行了衡算和分析.结果表明:SKS鼓风炉的热效率和(火用)效率分别为47.55%和38.88%.采取减少排烟损失、利用冷却水带走的能量、采用高铅渣直接还原新工艺等措施可以提高炉子的热效率和(火用)效率;仅利用鼓风炉冷却水带走的能量就可以使炉子的热效率提高到71.34%,(火用)效率提高到43.01%.SKS鼓风炉的(火用)输出总量要远小于(火用)输入总量,内部不可逆(火用)损失占总输入(火用)的41.85%.SKS鼓风炉总(火用)量收入为总能量收入的1.61倍,这说明SKS鼓风炉的能量和(火用)量衡算已经没有太大的相关性,(火用)分析更能够反映出系统的物质、能量消耗的本质,而且SKS鼓风炉的(火用)分析要比能量分析更简单.%In order to exploit the potential of energy-saving of blast furnaces in SKS lead smelting systems (hereinafter referred to as SKS blast furnace )?the income and expense distribution of energy and exergy were calculated and analyzed by adopting the energy and exergy analysis approach. The results indicated that the thermal efficiency and the exergy efficiency of the SKS blast furnace is 47.55% and 38.88 %, respectively. The efficiencies can be improved by reducing the loss of discharged gas,making use of the energy of cooling water,directly reducing the high lead slag with new techniques, and so on. The thermal efficiency and the exergy efficiency of the SKS blast furnace can reach 71.34% and 43.01 %? Respectively?by only utilizing the energy of cooling water. The total output of the exergy leaving the SKS blast furnace is much smaller than the total input, and the internal irreversible exergy loss accounts for 41.85% of the total input of exergy. The exergy income of the SKS blast

  7. 高炉煤气锅炉热效率计算方法%Calculation methods of heat efficiency for blast furnace gas boilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亚兰; 司风琪; 徐治皋

    2015-01-01

    对于高炉煤气锅炉,由于其特有的燃料性质以及由此带来的锅炉尾部受热面的不同设置方式,使得其锅炉效热率的计算和修正有别于传统方法。在 GB 10184—1988《电站锅炉性能试验规程》的基础上,结合高炉煤气的特性和锅炉尾部受热面的设置特点,分析得到了适用于高炉煤气锅炉的热效率计算和修正方法,并以某钢铁厂220 t/h 全烧高炉煤气锅炉为研究对象进行实例分析,其结果可为该类锅炉的效率测试和计算提供参考。%The method for calculating and correcting thermal efficiency of blast furnace gas (BFG)boilers is differ-ent from the conventional way,for the special properties of BFG and the resulting boiler heating surface with differ-ent settings.On the basis of GB1 01 84—1 988 Performance test code ofutility boiler,the calculation and correction model for thermal efficiency of BFG boilers was put forward,according to the properties of BFG and the settings characteristics of the boiler tail heating surface.Taking a 220 t/h boiler burning pure BFG in an iron and steel com-pany as the research object,the proposed model was applied for case study.The results can provide references for thermal efficiency test and calculation for BFG boilers.

  8. 1750m3高炉煤气除尘改造及TRT发电技术的应用%De-dusting System Improvement and TRT Technology Application on the 1750m3 Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海刚; 许强

    2012-01-01

    介绍了济钢2座1750m3高炉煤气湿法改干法涂尘及TRT发电的主体设备、主要技术参数及取得的经济效益。%On the two 1750m3 blast furnaces of Jinan Iron and Steel Co., the wet BFG de-ducting system is replaced with the dry de-dusting system and the TRT generation unit is installed. These equipment and their technical data and economic benefits are presented.

  9. Design and Application of Spray Evaporative Cooling System for Blast Furnace Gas%高炉煤气喷雾蒸发冷却系统设计应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚同

    2014-01-01

    The application of spray evaporative cooling technology in metallurgical enter-prises to cool blast furnace gas is described, related process principles, process features are introduces and practical technical solutions are also provided.%叙述了利用喷雾蒸发冷却技术对钢铁企业中高炉煤气进行降温的工程应用。介绍了相关的工作原理、工艺流程、工艺特点,给出了实际的技术方案。

  10. Upgrading V2O5-WO3/TiO2 deNOx Catalyst with TiO2-SiO2 Support Prepared from Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Tuyetsuong Tran; Jian Yu; Lina Gan; Feng Guo; Dinhtuan Phan; Guangwen Xu

    2016-01-01

    The study is devoted to developing a rather high-efficiency NH3-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst for NOx removal using TiO2-SiO2 support made from blast furnace slag. Through adjusting hydrolytic pH value of TiOSO4 solution obtained from acidolysis of slag with 70 wt. % H2SO4, a series of TiO2-SiO2 mixed oxides was prepared to have different mass ratios of TiO2 to SiO2. The supports are further impregnated with V2O5 and WO3 to make the SCR catalysts for NOx removal. Characterizing...

  11. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  12. 高炉矿渣基充填胶凝材料的制备与应用%Preparation and Application Performance of Cementation Material Based on Blast Furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏凯; 赵亮; 景娇燕

    2013-01-01

    以高炉矿渣为主要原料,用石灰作激活剂,硬石膏、氯化钙作早强剂,通过试验制备一种高炉矿渣基胶凝材料。以铁尾矿、粉煤灰和河砂为骨料,用所制备的胶凝材料和普硅水泥作胶结料进行不同浓度砂浆的应用性能试验。试验表明:相同条件下,试验制备的高炉矿渣基胶凝材料能完全代替水泥用于矿山生产,并具有生产成本低,节能降耗的优点。%In this paper, one new cementation material has been prepared using the blast-furnace slag (BFS) as the main material, lime as activator, anhydrite and calcium chloride as early strength agent, and iron tailings, fly ash and sand as aggregate. The application performance of new material and ordinary Portland cement has been compared using them as binder in mortars with different concentration. The result showed that under the same conditions, the prepared blast-furnace slag cementation material can completely replace cement in mine backfilling, and has the advantages of low cost, saving energy and reducing consumption.

  13. 高炉熔渣余热回收技术发展过程及趋势%Development Process and Trend of the Waste Heat Recovery Technique of the Molten Blast Furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐渊洪; 干磊; 王海风; 张春霞; 严定鎏

    2012-01-01

    The development process and characteristic of the blast furnace slag waste heat recovery technique were analyzed from the end of nineteen seventies.The low exergy efficiency is the main limiting factor of commercial operation.The development trend of the blast furnace slag waste heat recovery technique is to improve the recovery efficiency,to optimize the utilization of waste heat and to develop the high value-added slag products.%系统分析了从20世纪70年代末以来高炉熔渣余热回收技术的发展历程及各个时期的特点,通过分析可知,目前高炉熔渣余热回收的效率很低,限制了其商业化运行。提高余热回收效率,优化余热利用方式,开发高附加值的炉渣副产品已成为熔渣余热回收技术发展的趋势。

  14. 高炉冲渣余热回收的试验研究与利用分析%Experimental Investigation of Waste Heat Recovery of Blast Furnace Slag Water and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The current situation and problems in waste heat utilization of blast furnace slag water are overviewed. In terms of the characteristics of waste heat of the blast furnace slag water, a detailed determination and theoretical analysis and calculation of energy has been made. The small scale tests have been conducted. The comparison of the theoretical calculation and test results indicates that the waste heat recovery of the slag water is feasi-ble. The first-hand test data lay the foundation for the waste heat recovery of the slag water and recovery of low quality steam in later stage.%  概述了目前高炉冲渣水余热利用的现状和存在的问题。根据高炉冲渣水余热的特点,进行了详细的能源诊断和理论分析计算,并进行了小规模的试验研究。通过理论计算和试验研究的对比,验证了高炉冲渣余热回收的可行性,获得了第一手的试验数据,为后期高炉冲渣余热回收和低品质蒸汽的回收奠定了基础。

  15. Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

  16. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  17. 二维高炉区域BFC网格生成技术及其Matlab实现%Study on BFC grid generation of blast furnace mathematical model and its realization in Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 张欣媛; 郄亚娜; 吕庆; 赵世伟

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the process of blast furnace ironmaking through mathematical models is an effective way of new technology research and development.As an important pre-treatment process,numerical grid generation process technology is a prerequisite for the simulation of the blast furnace.Grid quality has an important impact on the blast furnace model simulation accuracy,efficiency and convergence.Therefore, the establishment of high-quality grid is very important for solving the mathematical model of blast furnace.A new method for grids-generation of balst furnace mathematical model based on body-fitted coordinate (BFC)is studied,including division of solution region,conversion and discretisation of elliptic equation and the concrete steps of the grid generation in MATLAB.In the process of BFC grid generation, using Poisson equation with source phase as the transformation equation can make the orthogonality and density of the grid to get better controlled.Treating the boundary of the deadman as boundary condition can simplify the solving process of the mathematical model.The principles of the algorithm are simple and easy to program, as well as, the efficiency of generating grids is higher and the grids can satisfy the requirements of the mathematical model.%利用数学模型对高炉冶炼过程进行模拟是高炉炼铁新工艺研发的有效方法,网格生成技术是数值模拟过程中重要的前处理过程,是高炉模拟计算的先决条件。生成网格的质量对高炉模型模拟的精度、效率以及收敛性具有重要影响,因此,建立优质的网格对高炉数学模型的求解具有重要意义。文中提出了一种适用于高炉数学模型的适体坐标系(BFC )网格的生成方法,从求解区域的划分、椭圆型方程的转换、椭圆型方程的离散及BFC网格生成步骤等方面进行了研究,并把死料区的边界作为BFC网格计算的边界条件,使数学模型的求解过程得以简化。采

  18. The developing of the potential flow modelling of the burden flow in a blast furnace%对高炉内炉料运动势流模型及其流函数解法的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成善; 陈磊

    2011-01-01

    Potential flow theory is an alternative theory to simulate burden flow in a blast furnace.But a contour line of the flow function defined to solve the old potential flow model isn't a stream line.In this paper,the old potential flow model is first developed to a three-equation model which should include the equations of motion and continuity,and it is proved that the contour lines of the flow function defined to solve this three-equation model are stream lines.Second,an equation capable of calculating the distribution of diameter of burden particles in blast furnace is derived from an assumption that all burden particles on a stream line has the same diameter.Finally,the developed potential flow model and the derived equation are used to simulate a final reduction reactor producing hot metal containing Cr,together with other needed transportation equations.These works would play an important improving and exemplary role in the application of potential flow theory to simulate blast furnace process and other iron-making process.%高炉综合模拟中,势流理论是模拟固态炉料运动可选用的理论之一,但求解原势流模型所定义流函数的等值线不一定是流线。文中首先将原势流模型发展为包括连续性方程、旋度为0方程的3方程模型,而且证明了求解此3方程模型所定义流函数的等值线是流线,进而结合位于同一流线上的床层填充颗粒直径不变的假设,导出了可模拟计算床层内炉料颗粒直径分布的方程;讨论了基于发展后势流模型的物料混合特征。最后将对炉料势流模型及其流函数解法的发展推广为发展其他运动模型及其流函数解法的一般方法。笔者的工作对势流理论在高炉等相关工艺模拟中的应用有一定的推动和示范作用。

  19. Application of sea sand in the pellet shaft furnace in the production%海砂在球团竖炉生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南文哲; 徐毅; 帅博

    2014-01-01

    近年来随着钢铁行业的发展,富矿资源逐渐枯竭,而铁矿石需求却在日益增加,钢铁企业的成本面临着巨大压力,寻找低价矿成为了钢铁行业的重点。海砂储量丰富,除了含有较高的铁元素外,钒钛的含量也较高,且价格低廉。在竖炉球团生产中应用海砂矿,不但可以大幅度降低球团矿成本,其中富含的钒钛还能给高炉带来保护炉缸的效果,成为当前经济料生产条件下高炉护炉、稳定生产的必需料和急需料。%in recent years, with the development of iron and steel industry,iron ore resources are exhausted gradually, and the iron ore demand is increasing, the cost of iron and steel enterprises are faced with tremendous pressure, looking for low-cost ore became the focus of the iron and steel industry. Sand rich reserves, in addition to iron containing high, vanadium and titanium content is higher, and the price is low. Application of sand deposit in shaft furnace pelletizing production, can greatly reduce the cost of pellet, which is rich in vanadium titanium also has protection effect to the blast furnace hearth, become the current economic aggregate production conditions, protection of blast furnace,the stable production of essential materials and in urgent need of material.

  20. Laser hearth melt processing of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Weber, J. K.; Felten, J. J.; Nordine, Paul C.

    1996-02-01

    A new technique for synthesizing small batches of oxide-based ceramic and glass materials from high purity powders is described. The method uses continuous wave CO2 laser beam heating of material held on a water-cooled copper hearth. Contamination which would normally result during crucible melting is eliminated. Details of the technique are presented, and its operation and use are illustrated by results obtained in melting experiments with a-aluminum oxide, Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor material, and the mixtures, Al2O3-SiO2, Bi2O3-B2O3, Bi2O3-CuO. Specimen masses were 0.05-1.5 g.

  1. Blast furnace line shape measurement fusion and compensation algorithm based on radar%基于雷达的高炉料线形状融合测量与补偿算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗亮亮; 陈先中; 白真龙; 黄月琴; 侯庆文; 尹怡欣

    2014-01-01

    不采用传统接触力模型自下而上的高炉料面形状计算方法,而是根据土坡力学颗粒物质堆积理论,提出了新的基于堆积法的高炉料线形状融合计算方法,直接对料面形状进行计算.围绕高炉多环布料的炉料堆积特点,结合炉顶六点阵列雷达,获得了料面形状计算的边界条件,弥补了传统料型计算靠十字测温加机械探尺的经验估算.新方法通过高炉布料规律及炉料颗粒的物理堆积插值方法,采用贝叶斯数据融合方法和分段三次Hermite插值,结合布料体积约束条件,完成了理论计算与测量修正的结合.实测结果表明:料面形状融合法比传统单独的料面估算法,测量精度提高4.8%,料面分辨率提高27.2%,使布料控制可以更加精准和有针对性.%A fusion measuring method proposed in this paper by using the soil mechanical granular accumulation theory is a new concept for computing the burden line shape in blast furnaces. This method offers a powerful solution to compute the burden line shape directly in comparison with the traditional way in which the contact force model is adopted to compute the burden line shape in blast fur-naces from the bottom up. With the multiloop distributing accumulation property of blast furnaces and the advantage of 6-point array ra-dar on the top, the boundary conditions of the burden line shape can be easily calculated. Under the boundary conditions, the esti-mated values gotten by cross temperature and mechanical sounding rods can be compensated. Taking into consideration the distributing discipline of blast furnaces and the particle accumulation method, this method adopts Bayes data fusion and sectional triple Hermite in-terpolation under the boundary conditions to finish the combination of theoretical calculation and measurement correction. Measurement results indicate that compared with the traditional method, the measurement accuracy rises by 4.8% and

  2. The removal of SO2 in flue gas with pulsed corona discharge using wastewater from a blast furnace%脉冲放电条件下用高炉煤气洗涤水脱硫的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜利; 胡胜; 冯求宝; 李琳

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO2 from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from a blast furnace, by pulsed corona discharge specifically from 2s Blast Furnace of Wuhan Iron and Steel (Group) Corporation. Pulsed corona discharge was conducted using a new kind of reactor with a needle-needle electrode designed for this research. The influence of spray water, cycle index, L/G ratio ( the ratio between wastewater spay quantity and flue gas flow) and applied pulsed voltage on the removal ratio of sulphur dioxide are considered. The effects of pulsed corona discharge and SO2 on the removal ratio of cyanide were also studied. Results showed that the wastewater from the blast furnace has excellent desulphurization ability and the pulsed corona discharge plasma can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. It was also observed that the SO2 removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index. There is an optimal value of L/G for the SO2 removal ratio. The content of sulphate ion produced in the wastewater increased with the increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, and the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the removal rate of cyanide in the wastewater from the blast furnace can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurizotion process.%采用自行设计的针-针式电极结构的等离子体反应器装置,在脉冲电晕放电作用下利用武汉钢铁(集团)公司2#焦炉的高炉煤气洗涤水进行了烟气脱硫模拟试验,考察了喷淋水种类、循环次数、液气比、电压峰值对SO2去除效果的影响,并对脱硫的产物进行了分析;考察了脉冲放电、SO2对氰化物去除效果的影响.研究结果表明:高炉煤气洗涤水具有较好的脱硫效果,脱硫效率随着高炉煤气洗涤水循环次数的增加而降低,液气比存在最佳值;脉冲电晕放电有助于提高脱硫效果;脱硫产物硫酸根的含量随着脉冲电压

  3. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment

  4. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  5. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  6. Simulation of Burden Trajectory in a Bell-less Top Blast Furnace%无料钟炉顶高炉中炉料流动轨迹的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家用; 高征铠; 张建良; 国宏伟; 王春龙; 孔德文

    2011-01-01

    An equation of motion trajectory of blast furnace burden can be established by analyzing the movement and the acting force conditions of burden in a bell-less top blast furnace. Consequently, the previous model can be improved. The accuracy of simulation model has been proven by the experimental data of a domestic 3 200 m3 blast furnace charging before blowing in. The results indicate that the calculated values coincide with measured data of the radius of impact point of burden preferably. Along the chute length, the Coriolis force per unit mass increasing continuously. When the chute inclination angle is 41°, the Coriolis force per unit mass of coke approximately is 2.2~5.5 m/s2 while that of ore is about 2.1~4.6 m/s2, which accounts for 22%~56% and 21%~47% of acceleration of gravity respectively. When the flow velocity of gas is 0 m/s, the gas drag coefficient at coke is 1.83~1.88 while that at ore is 3.32~3.40,and the resistance acting on unit mass of burden is about 2.4~4.9 m/s2, which accounts for 1/4~1/2 of gravity per unit mass.%结合炉料在无料钟炉顶高炉中的实际运动情况,对炉料颗粒的运动和受力进行分析,建立了料流轨迹运动方程,改进了前人提出的模型,并利用实际高炉开炉装料实测数据对模型进行验证.结果表明,该模型计算的落点半径与实际测量数据较接近;沿溜槽长度方向单位质量炉料所受的科氏力小断增大,在溜槽倾角41°条件下,单位质量的焦炭所受科氏力约为2.2~5.5 m/s2,矿石约为2.1~4.6 m/s2,分别约占重力加速度的22%~56%和21%~47%;当煤气流速为0时,气体曳力系数焦炭为1.83~1.88,矿石为3.32~3.40,单位质量炉料所受阻力为2.4~4.9 m/s2,约占单位质量炉料所受重力的1/4~1/2.

  7. 火焰原子吸收光谱法测定高炉尘中铟%Determination of trace indium in blast furnace dust by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕佳; 王光明; 李辽沙

    2011-01-01

    After the sample was dissolved with mixed acid, excessive sodium hydroxide was added to dissolve indium hydroxide for separation and enrichment of trace indium in blast furnace dust. Then, the content of indium in sample was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Consequently, a simple determination method of trace indium in complex system was established. The influence factors on the dissolution and determination results were investigated including the dosages of acid, various alkaline liquors and the dosage of alkali. Moreover, the interference of coexisting ions was studied. Finally, the optimal experimental conditions were obtained. The results showed that sodium hydroxide could effectively dissolve trace indium hydroxide. Meanwhile, the ions of iron and magnesium were precipitated, removing most interference elements in blast furnace dust. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of this method was less than 4. 2 %, and the recoveries were 98 %-103 %.%采用混合酸溶样,过量氢氧化钠溶解氢氧化铟分离富集高炉尘中痕量铟,火焰原子吸收光谱法测定样品中铟含量,建立了一种测定复杂体系中痕量铟的简便方法.对实验过程中的酸用量、不同碱液及碱用量对溶解及测定结果的影响、共存离子的干扰等情况进行了考察,确定了最佳实验条件.实验结果表明,氢氧化钠能够有效的溶解痕量氢氧化铟,同时沉淀了铁、镁等离子,去除了高炉尘中大部分的干扰元素.方法相对标准偏差小于4.2%,回收率在98%~103%之间.

  8. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    OpenAIRE

    D. Baricová; P. Futáš; A. Pribulová; G. Fedorko; P. Demeter

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace) and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with ...

  9. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  10. 吸收式热泵回收高炉软水低温余热供热探讨%Low-temperature waste heat recovery of blast furnace using absorption heat pump for heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春丽; 王治国

    2014-01-01

    Characteristic of closed loop soft water cooling system of blast furnace was introduced .Ab-sorption heat pump was used to recover low -temperature waste heat recovery of soft water out of BF . The technology is feasible with considerable economic benefits , social benefits and environmental bene-fits.Meet the heating demand of iron and steel enterprises in north area with less steam consumption as well as to supply civil heating nearby with extra capacity .%分析了高炉软水密闭循环冷却系统特点,采用吸收式热泵技术回收高炉软水低温余热用于采暖。技术上可行,经济、社会效益和环境效益显著。既满足北方钢铁企业自身采暖需求,又缓解北方钢铁企业冬季蒸汽紧张的局面,富裕热量还可外供附近市政采暖。

  11. 基于TDC-GP2的高炉冷却水流量的测量设计%Design of Blast Furnace Cooling Water Flow Measurement Based on TDC-GP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江杰; 罗长海

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic flow meter,with its advantages,has been used in the large-diameter flow measurement of the water supply, electricity, petroleum, chemical industry widely. However,there is not a mature application for production in the same small diameter, low velocity flow measurement. Based on transit-time, this paper developed a device for flow measurement, and used a host controller STM32 and high precion time measurement chip TDC - GP2, to measure small diameter, low flow, and single-phase fluid blast furnace cooling water flow.%超声波流量计凭借其优势,在供水、电力、石油、化工等行业的大管径流量测量中得到了广泛应用.但对于生产中同样有需求的小管径、低流速流量测量,还没有成熟的应用.开发了一套基于时差法的流量测量装置,并且采用了主控制器STM32和高精度时间测量芯片TDC-GP2,用以测量小管径、低流速、单相流体的高炉冷却水的流量.

  12. Tube furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  13. Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Forastieri de Matos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de topo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque. Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente.Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnace where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the

  14. 高炉炉顶料流调节阀液压系统设计%Design of Hydraulic System of Blast Furnace Top Material Flow Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培俊; 赵刚; 张明银

    2012-01-01

    介绍了马钢2500m^3高炉炉顶料流调节阀液压系统的设计方案,使用结果表明采用比例阀的料流调节阀液压系统工作正常,故障率低,满足了生产要求。%Introduce the design plan of the hydraulic system of the material flow regulator on the top of a 2500m3 blast fumace. The application shows that the hydraulic system of the material flow regulator with a proportional valve works well, decreasing the fault rate and meeting the production requirement.

  15. Development and installation of an advanced beam guidance system on Viking`s 2.4 megawatt EB furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motchenbacher, C.A.; Grosse, I.A. [Viking Metallurgical, Verdi, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Viking Metallurgical is a manufacturer of titanium alloy and superalloy seamless ring forgings for the aerospace industry. For more than 20 years Viking has used electron beam cold hearth melting to recover titanium alloy scrap and to produce commercially pure titanium ingot for direct forging. In the 1970`s Viking pioneered electron beam cold hearth melting and in 1983 added a two-gun, 2.4 MW furnace. As part of Vikings efforts to improve process control we have commissioned and installed a new electron beam guidance system. The system is capable of generating virtually unlimited EB patterns resulting in improved melt control.

  16. Furnace assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  17. 铅鼓风炉中铜、硫、砷和锑对银分布的影响%Effect of copper, sulfur, arsenic and antimony on silver distribution in phases of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.CHAIDEZ-FELIX; A.ROMERO-SERRANO; A.HERNANDEZ-RAMIREZ; M.PEREZ-LABRA; I.ALMAGUER-GUZMAN; R.BENAVIDES-PEREZ; M.FLORES-FAVELA

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to estimate the effect of the lead impurities on the silver distribution in the phases formed in the lead blast furnace. Samples of sinter with different contents of Cu, S, As and Sb were equilibrated under reducing atmosphere (p(CO)/p(CO2)=2.45) at 1573 K in a tube furnace and slowly cooled. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis (SEM-EDS). There were five immiscible phases:slag (CaO, FeO and SiO2), matte (S, Cu and Fe), speiss (As, Fe and Cu), Cu-Sb phase and lead bullion (Pb, Ag, Sb, Cu, etc). The results showed that Cu and Sb promote silver losses during the process since they form a liquid solution with higher silver solubility than liquid bullion. Sulfur and arsenic react with copper to form the matte and speiss phases, respectively. The effect of S and As is to reduce the amount of Cu-Sb alloy and then the silver losses from the bullion.%研究铅鼓风炉中杂质对银分布的影响。将含有不同Cu、S、As和Sb含量的铅烧结块在管式炉中于1573 K下进行烧结,然后随炉冷却。烧结气氛为还原性的CO+CO2气体(p(CO)/p(CO2)=2.45)。采用SEM-EDS对所得样品进行表征。结果表明:烧结样品中含有5种不互溶的相,即炉渣(CaO,FeO,SiO2)、冰铜(S, Cu,Fe)、硬渣(As, Fe,Cu)、Cu-Sb相和铅块。银在Cu与Sb形成的熔体中的溶解度比在液态铅中的高。S与Cu形成冰铜, As与Cu形成硬渣。S和As能减少Cu-Sb合金的生成量,从而降低铅块中银的损失。

  18. Simulation of a combustion process of a billet reheating furnace; Simulacao do processo de combustao de um forno de reaquecimento de tarugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Barros, Jose Eduardo Mautone [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Serra, ES (Brazil); Moura Junior, Jose dos Reis Vieira de [ArcelorMittal Long Carbon Americas (Luxembourg); Belisario, Leandro Pego [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Real data-based energy balances with few simplifications are a powerful tool for furnaces energy performance evaluation, helping technical people to guide efforts in energy consumption issues, and consequently, in a final product cost reduction. This paper presents a methodology to simulate the combustion process in several operational conditions of a walking-hearth reheat furnace for billets in rolling mill facilities. The computational model consists, basically, in a dynamical solution which measured input variables are supplied from the furnaces supervisory and compared to measures by instruments in the system. Finally, it is made a variability analysis of the furnace and heat exchangers efficiencies.. (author)

  19. Preparation of grade zinc oxide f rom blast furnace dust by using ammonia process%氨法处理高炉瓦斯灰制取等级氧化锌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保平; 杨芳

    2014-01-01

    以氨-碳酸氢铵混合液为浸出剂浸出高炉瓦斯灰中的有价金属锌,经净化、蒸氨、煅烧得到等级氧化锌,对相关工艺参数进行优化选择。结果表明,最佳浸出条件为:[氨水]/[N H4 HCO3]=2、液固比为4、总氨浓度为5mol·L -1,浸出时间为3h,此条件下锌浸出率为82.55%;最佳净化条件为:锌粉用量为1.5g·L -1、净化时间为2.5h,此条件下铅的脱除率为97.70%;最佳蒸氨条件为90℃下蒸氨至终点溶液pH值为6~7,此条件下蒸氨后锌的沉淀率可达99.95%。沉淀物在500℃下煅烧1 h ,得到纯度为96.03%的氧化锌粉末,达到了H G/T 2527-94的一级标准。%Given the valuable metal zinc in blast furnace dust ,the grade zinc oxide was prepared from blast furnace dust by the process of leaching with ammonia-ammonium ,purification with zinc pow-der ,ammonia still process and calcination .The results show that the optimal conditions of leaching are the ratio of the concentration of ammonia to that of ammonium being 2 ,the ratio of liquid to solid being 4 ,the total ammonia concentration being 5 mol · L -1 ,and the leaching time being 3 hours ,un-der which the extraction rate of zinc is 82 .55% ;the optimal conditions of purification are that the con-sumption of zinc powder is 1 .5 g · L -1 ,the purification time is 2 .5 hours ,under which the desorption rate of Pb is 97 .70% ;and the optimal conditions of ammonia still process are that the temperature is 90 ℃ and pH value of pH is 6 to 7 ,under w hich the precipitation rate of zinc is 99 .95% .Calcined at 500 ℃ for 1 hour ,the content of zinc oxide powder is 96 .03% ,which complies with the primary standard of HG/T2527-94 .

  20. Thermal hardening of acid titanium-bearing pellets toprolong campaign life of blast furnace%酸性护炉球团矿焙烧工艺及固结机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德庆; 潘润润; 姜涛; 郭宇峰; 杨永斌; 邱冠周

    2000-01-01

    研究了新型炉料酸性含钛护炉球团矿的焙烧工艺及固结机理,结果表明:利用钒钛磁铁精矿和普通磁铁精矿的混合矿在预热和焙烧条件分别为950℃,15 min和1 200℃,15 min时制取的酸性含钛护炉氧化球团矿,其品位为TFe 58.56%、TiO27.89%,机械强度为3 127 N/个,主要冶金性能指标为RI 70.8%,RDI-3.15 7.29%,SI 15.27%,软熔温度区间为1 080~1 170℃,可满足大中型高炉的冶炼和护炉要求;固结机理为FeO3 再结晶和固相扩散固结,与普通铁矿氧化球团相同.本工艺不仅有利于延长高炉寿命和调整炉料结构,而且也为合理利用钒钛磁铁矿开辟了有效途径%An investigation into the process parameters and induration mechanism of thermal hardening for making acidtitanium-bearing pellets were carried out. It has been revealed that under the conditions of preheating at 950 ℃, roastingat 1 200℃ and durations of preheating and roasting respectively for 15 minutes, acid titanium-bearing oxide pellets as-saying total Fe 58.56% and TiO2 7.89% were manufactured successfully. The compressive strength reaches 3127 New-ton per pellet, their main metallurgical properties are as follows: RI 70.8%, RDI-3.15 7.29%, swelling index 15.27 %, pellet softening temperature range from beginning to finish at 1 080 ~ 1 170 ℃, all of which can meet the needsof protection and a charge for large and middle scale blast furnaces. Like that of ordinary pellets from magnetite concen-trates, the induration of titanium-bearing pellets depends on the recrystallization and solid phase diffusion of hematite.The making of the acid titanium-beating pellets is not only favorite to prolonging campaign life and modifying the burdenstructure of blast furnace, but also finds an effective way for utilization of vanadium titanomagnetite concentrate

  1. Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH. Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora.The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

  2. 从高炉瓦斯泥中浮选碳精矿的影响因素研究%Factors research on recovering carbon concentrate from blast furnace sludge by flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂轶苗; 戴奇卉; 牛福生

    2015-01-01

    Recovering carbon concentrate from blast furnace sludge using the flotation method . Collectors agent dosage ,foaming agent dosage ,dosage of disperser and flotation concentration were studied using single flotation method .The optimal conditions were collector is diesel with 500g/t ,disperser agent is sodium silicate with 100g/t ,foaming agent is 2# oil with 25g/t ,and flotation concentrations is 5% .Laboratory test through a flotation flow-sheet of “one rough flotation and two-stage concentrate” at the optimal operating condition was performed .The grade of carbon can be improved from 29 .2% to above 65% ,and the recovery of 66% could be obtained .%文中采用单一浮选从高炉瓦斯泥中浮选碳精矿,通过对捕收剂用量、起泡剂用量、分散剂用量以及浮选浓度这几个主要影响因素的研究,以粗选所得精矿的品位和回收率为指标,得到各种影响因素的最佳选别条件为:捕收剂选用柴油,用量为500g/t ,起泡剂选用2号油,用量为25g/t ,分散剂选用六偏磷酸钠,用量为100g/t ,选矿浓度为5%。在此条件下,进行一粗两精的选矿工艺,可使碳品位从29.2%提高到65%以上,回收率达到66%。

  3. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde C. Meisingset; Jens G. Balchen

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this p...

  4. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde C. Meisingset

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this paper.

  5. Risk and Benefit Calculation of Bao Steel Blast Furnace Slag Water Waste Heat Recovery EMC Project%宝钢高炉冲渣水余热利用合同能源管理项目风险及效益计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴海波

    2015-01-01

    对宝钢高炉冲渣水余热利用合同能源管理项目进引资金风险评估和效益计算,确立项目可行性,为项目的实施提供必要的依据.%The article introduces investment risk assessment and benefit calculation of Bao Steel blast furnace slag water waste heat recovery EMC project. It establishes feasibility of project and provides basic support for project implementation.

  6. 谈转底炉的发展%Development of Rotary Hearth Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洁

    2007-01-01

    对目前国外转底炉炼铁发展和工艺进行了综合阐述,主要包含INMETCO和Fastmet工艺,从Fastmelt的发展,到生产规模最大的美国动力钢的IDP,以及日本神户制钢、美国Midrex公司联合开发的转底炉生产铁块(Nuggets)的所谓Itmk-3(第三代炼铁法)等多种工艺.同时,对中国引进和发展这项技术阐述了其必要性和可行性.

  7. 铜冶炼高砷烟尘浸出渣鼓风炉熔炼烟气治理环保工艺探索及生产实践%Study on the Process and Practice of Treating the Fume from the Blast Furnace Burning Solid Wastes with High Content of Arsenic in the Process of Copper Smelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙仙

    2014-01-01

    对鼓风炉烟气特性进行分析,通过采用重力除尘-电收尘-动力波湿法除尘-氨法脱硫工艺及环保设施进行收尘、脱硫,有效消除了对环境的污染,使鼓风炉烟气排放满足《铅、锌工业污染物排放标准》(GB25466-2010)的要求。%Based on the analysis on the characteristics of blast furnace fume,the process of gravitational dust col-lection and electrostatic precipitator and dynamic wave wet dust collection and ammonia desulfurization was applied to remove the dusts and sulfur in order to reduce the negative environmental impacts.The discharge of the blast fur-nace fume can achieve the requirements of the national Emission Standard of Pollutants for Lead and Zinc Industry (GB25466-2010).

  8. Combined prediction model of blast furnace gas generation in steel industry%钢铁企业高炉煤气受入量的组合预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严亚; 张牧; 田慧欣

    2014-01-01

    针对钢铁企业中高炉煤气( BFG)受入量难以有效预测的问题,提出了一种基于数据滤波的组合预测模型。首先,采用经验模态分解( EMD)法将原始训练数据分解为相互独立的固有模态函数,根据各模态函数自相关函数的特点滤去噪声分量,采用滤波后的重构序列作为训练样本;然后,采用组合的支持向量机( SVM)模型对受入量进行预测,并利用遗传算法( GA)对支持向量机的参数进行优化;最后,利用现场实际数据验证该模型的预测精度,并与传统预测方法相比较,三组预测的平均绝对百分误差分别为3.22'、4.43'和5.23'。结果表明该方法对高炉煤气受入量的预测具有较高精度,为煤气管网的平衡调度提供了决策支持。%Concerning the prediction problem on Blast Furnace Gas ( BFG) genegration in steel industry, a combined prediction model based on data-filtering was proposed in this paper. Firstly, an empirical mode decomposition approach was employed to decompose the original training data into a group of independent intrinsic mode functions, the noise components were de-noised by the characteristics of the autocorrelation functions, and the training samples were reconstructed using the filtered sequence. Then a combined Support Vector Machine ( SVM) model was proposed to predict the BFG generation, and genetic algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of SVM. Finally the prediction accuracy of the model was validated using the actual data, which is compared with the traditional predicting methods. The mean absolute percentage error of the three groups were 3. 22' , 4. 43' and 5. 23' . The results show that the proposed method keeps high prediction precision on the prediction of BFG generation, which provides decision support for the gas resources scheduling.

  9. Synthesis of Foliar Fertilizer from Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag and Cultivation Experiment of Sweet Corn%由含钛高炉渣制备叶面肥及甜玉米栽培实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 薛向欣

    2016-01-01

    The foliar fertilizer was synthesized with the titanium-bearing blast furnace slag, potassium bisulfate,citric acid,urea and magnesium oxide as raw materials by melting and chelating methods.The field cultivation experiments of sweet corns were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of the foliar fertilizer on the growth,yield,characters and the SPAD value of nitrogen,magnesium,sugar and heavy metal in grains.The results showed that the foliar fertilizer contained nutritional elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, iron, titanium and magnesium.The application of the foliar fertilizer shortened the growing period of the sweet corn by 2 days,and also made the yield,plant heights,diameters of the stem and ears,grain number per panicle,weight of single spike,and the number of efficient panicles per plant,together with the SPAD value of chlorophyll in leaves,nitrogen and magnesium in grains significantly increase. However,there was no difference in the mass fraction of sugar,titanium,vanadium and chromium in the sweet corn.In addition,mass fractions of the heavy metal elements like vanadium and chromium in the sweet corn were below the maximum residue limit set by National Standards of China.%以含钛高炉渣、硫酸氢钾、柠檬酸、尿素和氧化镁为原料,采用熔融和螯合法制备叶面肥,并通过大田栽培实验研究了该叶面肥对甜玉米生长状况、产量、性状及籽粒的氮、镁、糖和重金属质量分数的影响。结果表明,该叶面肥含有植物营养元素氮、硫、钾、镁、铁和钛;该叶面肥的施用使甜玉米生育期缩短2d;产量、株高、茎粗、穗粗、穗粒数、单穗重、单株有效穗数、叶片中叶绿素的 SPAD 值、籽粒中氮和镁的质量分数明显增加,籽粒中糖、钛、钒和铬的质量分数无明显变化,且重金属元素钒和铬的质量分数符合国家标准。

  10. Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela N. da Conceição

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, escória de alto-forno (EAF e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana. Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade, ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, CTR (carga térmica radiante e entalpia (H em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto.The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, blast furnace slag (EAF, active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative

  11. Study on Prediction Method for Generation and Consumption of Blast Furnace Gas Based on Improved Echo State Network%基于改进回声状态网络的高炉煤气产耗预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 时飞飞; 赵珺; 王伟; 丛力群; 冯为民

    2011-01-01

    To the background of blast furnace gas (BFG) system in steel industry, an improved echo state network time series forecasting method with parameters was proposed to simulate gas generation and consumption. Based on least mean square error criterion, the network parameters were optimized with stochastic gradient descent method to achieve a minimal training error. This method can be used to obtain suitable network parameters of different objects such as connection weights, and related reservoir spectral radius. With this new method, the traditional echo state network method that selects network parameters only depending on human experience will be improved, and the prediction accuracy will be also promoted. The simulation results of practical gas generation and consumption have shown the validity of the proposed approach.%以钢铁企业高炉煤气系统为背景,针对其产生量和消耗量的预测问题,提出一种改进回声状态网络时间序列方法进行系统仿真预测。并根据最小均方差准则,以最小化网络训练误差为目标,采用随机梯度下降法对网络参数进行优化。该方法对于不同预测对象,可计算出合适的网络连接权值、储备池谱半径等参数,避免了传统回声状态网络方法中单凭经验选择网络参数的现状,提高了预测精度。采用该方法对高炉煤气系统现场实际产耗数据进行了仿真预测,仿真结果表明所提出方法的有效性。

  12. Influence of Dosage of Blast-furnace Slag on Microstructure of Cement-based Materials%磨细矿渣掺量对水泥基复合材料微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2013-01-01

    To determine the influence of blast-furnace slag on microstructure of cement-based materials and its the reasonable dosage, the harden hydrated cement with 10% -70% slag replacement at a fixed water to binder ratio of 0.48 was measured its porosity, pore size distribution, content of calcium hydroxide and non-e-vaporable water and the reaction degree of slag by using mercury intrusion porosimetry, backscattered electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis-Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Chemical analysis methods. The results show that pore structure can be improved by adding slag even at high incorporating proportion. Comparatively speaking, the porosity of harden slag-cement paste is smallest under the conditions of the slag content in the range of 30% to 50 %. In addition, according to the non-evaporated water curve trend and the reaction degree of the slag, an optimum content can be obtained, that is the non-evaporated water content and the highest reaction degree of slag, when the slag is replaced with 30 per cement content.%利用压汞、背散射电镜、X射线衍射(XRD)和综合热分析以及化学测试手段系统研究了水胶比为0.48、矿渣掺量为10%~70%的硬化浆体中孔隙率、孔径分布、CH(OH)2(称简CH)含量、非蒸发水量和矿渣反应程度,以确定矿渣掺量对水泥基材料微结构的影响以及最佳掺量.结果表明:矿渣在大掺量情况下也能够改善浆体孔结构分布,相比较而言,矿渣掺量在30%~50%之间时浆体的孔隙率最小;非蒸发水曲线的变化趋势以及矿渣自身反应程度说明,在其掺量30%左右时,存在一个最佳掺量使非蒸发水含量和反应程度最高.

  13. Research on Al2O3-SiC Gunning Material for Blast Furnace%高炉用铝碳化硅质喷补料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦岩; 刘国涛; 童则明; 陈勇

    2011-01-01

    Using fused corundum, silicon carbide, cyanite, silicon dioxide micro powder, alumina micro powder and pure calcium aluminate cement as raw materials, and tackifier, water reducing agent,antioxidant as additives, the influence of performance on the blast furnace gunning material by added alumina micro powder and cyanite was studied. The microstructurre of the specimens after high temperature treatment was analyzed by SEM. Results show that the viscosity and plasticity of gunning material will be increased by joined Al203 micro-powder. This is helpful to improve the attachment rate during the gunning material be used. For another, joined aluminum micro powder, can promote the reaction of silicon dioxide micro powder with A12O3, and generate mullite, then the internal bonding strength, volume stability and slag erosion resistance get strengthening. And cyanite as crystal nucleus be joined, can accelerate generate mullite, to further improve the thermal shock resistance and slag erosion resistance of gunning material.%以电熔刚玉、碳化硅、蓝晶石、硅微粉、铝微粉和纯铝酸钙水泥等为原料,添加增粘剂、减水剂、抗氧化剂等,研究了铝微粉和蓝晶石的加入对高炉喷补料性能的影响;并通过SEM对高温烧成后的试样进行微观分析.结果表明:Al2O3微粉加入,提高了喷补料的粘塑性,这有利于提高喷补料施工时的附着率;其次,铝微粉的加入有利于硅微粉与Al2O3反应生成莫来石,提高了喷补料内部的结合强度,增强了喷补料的体积稳定性能和抗渣侵蚀能力.而蓝晶石的加入,作为晶核也促进了莫来石的形成,使材料的热震稳定性能和抗侵蚀能力进一步提高.

  14. Investigation on the Potentials of Cupola Furnace Slag in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Adeyemi Alabi; Joseph O. Afolayan

    2013-01-01

    The compressive strength of the concrete designed using blast cupola furnace slag and granulated cupola slag as a coarse aggregate and partial replacement for cement was investigated. A series of experimental studies were conducted involve concrete production in two stages. The first stage comprised of normal aggregate concrete (NAC) produced with normal aggregates and 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Meanwhile, the second stage involved production of concrete comprising of cupola furnace...

  15. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho

  16. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlquist, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  17. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Combustion Characteristics of a 300 MW Blast Furnace Gas/Pulverized Coal Combined Combustion Boiler%300MW煤粉/高炉煤气混燃锅炉燃烧特性数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春波; 魏建国; 盛金贵; 李艳奇

    2012-01-01

    Blast furnace gas(BFG) produced from steel mill is a low heat value fuel,which combined with pulverized coal to combust in boiler is one of effective ways.However,the combustion characteristics would be changed greatly when compared with only pulverized coal combustion.For example,superheaters and reheaters are easy to excess rated temperatures and carbon content in fly ash will become higher,etc.All these problems lead to its limited application today.Take a 300MW BFG/pulverized coal boiler for example,the combustion characteristics were simulated by means of two mixture fractions way.The pure coal condition and three BFG ratio: 10%,20% and 30% conditions were investigated.It shows the temperature level in boiler is lowered obviously when BFG was mixed into boiler.For example,the maximal temperature is lowered about 81K when BFG ratio is 10% for a boiler section.Also,the temperature becomes lower with the BFG ratio.When BFG was mixed into boiler the flue gases volume would be increased.So,the actual stay time for pulverized coal in boiler will be shortened and it is more difficulty for coal to combust completely.Aslo,it is helpfully for control NO emission when BFG was mixed into boiler.%钢厂高炉煤气是一种低热值燃料,它和煤粉在炉内掺烧是其一种有效的利用途径。但煤粉掺烧高炉煤气后燃烧特性与纯煤粉燃烧有很大不同,掺烧过程中易发生过/再热器超温、飞灰含碳量过高等问题,导致其在大型锅炉上的应用很少。针对某钢厂300MW四角切圆煤粉/高炉煤气混燃锅炉,使用二混合分数法对其燃烧特性进行数值模拟。对比研究了纯燃煤工况和高炉煤气掺烧量分别为10%、20%、30%的工况,发现掺烧高炉煤气时炉内温度水平有明显下降(如,掺烧10%高炉煤气时截面最高温度降低81K),且随着掺烧量的增加而加剧,但下降的趋势变缓。掺烧高炉煤气后产生烟气量增多,炉膛出口烟速有明显增加,

  19. 利用高炉瓦斯泥中的锌制备活性氧化锌的研究%Study on preparing active zinc oxide using zinc of blast furnace sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文群; 刘宪; 杨运泉; 贺恒; 高波

    2012-01-01

    Active zinc oxide was prepared by pyrometallurgy enrichment and followed by wet leaching using zinc-containing blast furnace sludge as raw material.The effects of temperature and time on zinc volatilization efficiency and zinc oxide content from the sludge were studied in the pyrometallurgy enrichment process.The optimum condition was that the calcination temperature increased from room temperature to 1 000 ℃ with a rate of 10 ℃/min temperature programme and then remained for 1 h under nitrogen atmosphere.The zinc oxide content and zinc volatilization efficiency was high to 82.24% and 97%,respectively.The effects of temperature,the amount of ammonia and ammonium bicarbonate and the ratio of liquid to solid on the zinc oxide leaching efficiency in the wet leaching process were also investigated.The optimal conditions were that with 40 ℃ of leaching temperature,two times of theory amount of ammonia and ammonium bicarbonate,4∶ 1 ratio of liquid to solid and 2 h of leaching time,the zinc oxide leaching efficiency was high to 99.9%.The precursor basic zinc carbonate,obtained in the wet leaching,was calcined to produce active zinc oxide with a purity of 98.4%.The total recovery efficiency of zinc oxide was high to 95.3%.%利用高炉炼铁瓦斯泥中的锌,采用火法富集和湿法浸取制取活性氧化锌。考察了温度、时间对火法富集产品中氧化锌含量和原料瓦斯泥中锌挥发率的影响,确定了富集工艺的最佳条件为:在氮气氛围下,温度从常温以10℃/min升温至1 000℃并且在1 000℃下保持1 h,得到的富集产品中氧化锌含量82.24%;瓦斯泥中锌挥发率97%。同时考察了温度、氨水用量、碳酸氢铵用量和液固比等因素对氧化锌浸取率的影响。确定的最佳工艺条件为:浸取温度40℃,氨水用量为理论量的2倍,碳酸氢铵用量为理论量的2倍,液固比4∶1,浸取时间2 h,氧化锌浸取率达99.9%。湿法制得的活性前驱体碱式碳酸

  20. Correlation Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Fly Ash Mixture of the Macro Micro Mechanics Parameter%高炉矿渣粉煤灰混合料的宏细观力学参数相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香; 吴成龙; 孙国栋; 陈彬

    2015-01-01

    在三维颗粒流离散元理论及已有试验数据的基础上,通过设置大量不同的数值样本,利用PFC3D对高炉矿渣粉煤灰混合料的室内大型直剪试验进行数值仿真。基于此,对混合料的宏细观力学参数进行相关性分析,进而标定混合料的细观参数。结果表明:颗粒摩擦系数影响较小但不宜忽略,对粘聚力影响较大的范围一般介于0.3~1.5之间;刚度比与强度比对混合料的宏观力学响应会产生较大影响,分析认为宜将刚度比控制在0.4~2范围内,而强度比宜为0.4~4之间比较有效。半径因子对剪应力峰值及初始弹性模量所产生的影响具有同步性,并且随着半径因子的增大而增大,而强度参数中的内摩擦角与粘聚力随半径因子的增大呈相反趋势变化。最后,将数值模拟结果与室内试验进行对比分析,标定了混合料的细观参数,分析表明,数值计算的结果与室内试验结果基本吻合。%Based on the three-dimensional particle flow discrete element theory and the existing test data, The blast furnace slag fly ash mixture numerical simulation of large direct shear test was carried out by setting a large number of different values of samples,and using PFC3D. Based on this, it analysis the correlation of mixture about macro micro-mechanics parameters, so as to calibrate the micro-mechanics parameters of mixture. The results showed that particle friction coefficient has small impact but it should not be ignored, the range which has a large impact is generally between 0. 3~1. 5; stiffness ratio and the intensity ratio of mixture have great influence on macro mechanical response. This paper analysised that the stiffness ratio should be controlled in the range of 0 . 4~2 , while the intensity ratio should be between 0. 4~4 which would be more effective. Radius factor is synchronous to the effect of shear stress peak value and the initial elastic modulus, and it

  1. 包钢高炉瓦斯灰中有害元素分离的研究%Separation of the Harmful Elements from the Blast Furnace Gas Ash of Baotou Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永春; 韦严勇; 李亮; 贾素奇

    2015-01-01

    At present,less than 10% of the blast furnace gas ash is being recycled while the numerous rest is piled up or abandoned.If Na,K,Pb and Zn were removed as well as metallic,iron was reduced from iron oxides among the gas ash,iron could be cumulated in large number by sintering.In the paper,experiments had focused on the research,in which the gas ash was processed by direct reduction coupled with carbon in it.The results showed that, at the temperature of 950 ℃ during 2 hours,the removal ratio of Na and Pb averaged above 90%,while that of Zn was relatively low and K could hardly be removed.Experiments also had been done that mixed certain calcium chloride with the gas ash;the mixture was processed by chloridizing roast.The results proved that at the temperature of 1000℃during 2 hours,Na,K and Pb were almost removed from the gas ash,and the removal ratio of Zn reached up to 86.34%,in which Na was separated by direct reduction of carbon while K by chlorination mainly.%包钢高炉瓦斯灰能够循环利用的不到10%,其余的均大批堆放或遗弃处理,若将其中的 K、Na、Pb 和 Zn 脱除,将铁氧化物还原为金属铁,则可大量用于烧结。论文利用瓦斯灰中的碳进行直接还原焙烧,研究结果表明:在950℃、反应2.0 h 的条件下,瓦斯灰中 Na、Pb 的脱除率都在90%以上,Zn 脱除率相对较低,而 K 几乎不能被脱除;在瓦斯灰中配入氯化钙进行氯化焙烧,研究结果表明:在1000℃,反应2.0 h 的条件下,瓦斯灰中 Na、K、Pb 几乎完全被脱除,Zn 的脱除率可达86.34%,Na 的去除主要通过碳的直接还原,而 K 的去除主要通过氯化反应。

  2. Study on Blast Furnace Slag System of Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite Under Neutral Atmosphere%中性气氛下钒钛磁铁矿高炉渣系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储满生; 冯聪; 唐珏; 柳政根

    2015-01-01

    以钒钛磁铁矿现场高炉渣为基础,纯化学试剂调制渣样,在中性气氛条件下研究了炉渣二元碱度及 MgO,Al2 O3,TiO2,V2 O5含量对实验渣系冶金性能的影响.结果表明:增加碱度和 MgO 含量,炉渣熔化性温度(tm )、初始黏度(η0)和高温黏度(ηh )呈先降低后升高趋势;增大 Al2 O3含量,炉渣 tm 升高,η0先降低后升高,ηh 呈上升趋势;增大 TiO2含量,炉渣 tm 升高,η0和ηh 逐渐下降,炉渣黏流活化能升高,热稳定性变差;增大 V2 O5含量,炉渣 tm 先降低后升高,η0和ηh 逐渐增大.高炉冶炼钒钛磁铁矿适宜渣系为:二元碱度1.15,MgO,Al2 O3,TiO2,V2 O5质量分数分别为13%,13%,7%,0.30%.%The components of practical blast furnace (BF)slag of vanadium-titanium magnetite were adjusted by adding pure chemical reagents.The effects of binary basicity,MgO,Al2 O3 , TiO2 and V2 O5 on the metallurgical properties of experimental slag were studied under neutral atmosphere.The results showed that with increasing content of basicity and MgO,the melting temperature (tm ),initial viscosity (η0 )and high-temperature viscosity (ηh )of slag first decrease and then increase.As increasing Al2 O3 content,tm increases,η0 first decreases and then increases,ηh increases.When increasing TiO2 content,tm increases,η0 and ηh decrease.The viscosity flow activation energy of slag increases and the heat stability of slag becomes worse.With increasing V2 O5 content,tm first decreases and then increases,η0 and ηh increase.The suitable BF slag for smelting vanadium-titanium magnetite is:binary basicity 1.15,MgO 13%,Al2 O3 13%,TiO2 7%,V2 O5 0.30%.

  3. Using SPL (Spent Pot-Lining) as an Alternative Fuel in Metallurgical Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Mostaghel, Sina; Ray, Shamik; Chattopadyay, Kinnor

    2016-09-01

    Replacing coke (coal) in a metallurgical furnace with other alternative fuels is beneficial for process economics and environmental friendliness. Coal injection is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking, and spent pot-lining (SPL) was conceptualized as an alternative to coal. SPL is a resourceful waste from primary Aluminum production, with high carbon value. Equilibrium thermodynamics was used to calculate the energy content of SPL, and the compositional changes during SPL combustion. In order to capture the kinetics and mass transfer aspects, a blast furnace tuyere region CFD model was developed. The results of SPL combustion were compared with standard PCI coals, which are commonly used in blast furnaces. The CFD model was validated with experimental results for standard high volatile coals.

  4. Using SPL (Spent Pot-Lining) as an Alternative Fuel in Metallurgical Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Mostaghel, Sina; Ray, Shamik; Chattopadyay, Kinnor

    2016-05-01

    Replacing coke (coal) in a metallurgical furnace with other alternative fuels is beneficial for process economics and environmental friendliness. Coal injection is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking, and spent pot-lining (SPL) was conceptualized as an alternative to coal. SPL is a resourceful waste from primary Aluminum production, with high carbon value. Equilibrium thermodynamics was used to calculate the energy content of SPL, and the compositional changes during SPL combustion. In order to capture the kinetics and mass transfer aspects, a blast furnace tuyere region CFD model was developed. The results of SPL combustion were compared with standard PCI coals, which are commonly used in blast furnaces. The CFD model was validated with experimental results for standard high volatile coals.

  5. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  6. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  7. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  8. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years

  9. Natural gas for melting in foundries. Pt. 1. Gas cupola furnace. Naturgas til smelteprocesser i stoeberier. Del 1. Gasfyret kupolovn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strande, K.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the relatively large amounts of nautral gas from the Danish North Sea a collection and analysis of information has been carried out in order to assess the possibilities of using natural gas for smelting of cast iron. Especially the English coke-less cupola furnace is analysed. Though it has some obvious environmental and metallurgical advantages calculations of operating cost show that the gas cupola furnace is not a convincing alternative to the smelting plants already in existence. Also the use of gas in the cupola furnace is assessed. Results have been obtained that has lead to installation of several gas/coke furnaces. But the development of the divided blast concept has made the cold-blast cupola furnace nearly as efficient as the gas/coke cupula furnace. EFP-85. 17 refs.

  10. Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke

    1962-01-01

    .This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L. Merril was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3. The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

  11. New Techniques Adopted at Yan-gang’s 2×1 080 m3 Blast Furnace%燕山钢铁2×1080 m3高炉工艺技术特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉峰; 孙晓东; 王宜利

    2015-01-01

    Some new techniques that are adopted in the design of Yangang’s 1080 m3 B.F are introduced. They are fully covered thin-skinned lining, copper stave, carbon-ceramic cup bottom and hearth, closed loop soft water cooling system, PW serial type bell-less top with two coaxial vertical hoppers, improved top-fired stove and all-dry bag dusting etc, all of which establish the basis for the B.F. to realize the objects of“high production, high quality, low consumption, long life and lower pollution to the circumstance”in the future.%重点介绍了燕钢2×1080 m3高炉工艺的长寿技术、PW型串罐无钟炉顶技术、改进型顶燃式热风炉技术、高炉煤气干法除尘技术以及汽轮拖动鼓风机+背压发电技术。项目设计中采用了许多国内国际领先新工艺、新装备,为实现“高产、优质、低耗、长寿、环保”的生产目标奠定了技术基础。

  12. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high

  13. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and hi

  14. Chemical profiling of ancient hearths reveals recurrent salmon use in Ice Age Beringia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Kyungcheol; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Reuther, Joshua D; Wang, Shiway W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-30

    Current approaches to reconstruct subsistence and dietary trends in ancient hunter-gatherer societies include stable isotope analyses, but these have focused on human remains, cooking pottery, and food residues, which are relatively rare in the archaeological record. In contrast, short-term hearths are more ubiquitous worldwide, and these features can provide valuable evidence for ancient subsistence practices, particularly when faunal remains are not preserved. To test the suitability of hearths for this purpose, we conducted multiple chemical analyses: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of total organic matter (expressed as δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses of individual fatty acids (δ(13)C16:0 and δ(13)C18:0) from 17 well-preserved hearths present in three occupations dating between ∼13,200-11,500 calibrated years B.P. at the Upward Sun River (USR) site in central Alaska. We combined δ(15)N and δ(13)CFA data in a Bayesian mixing model (stable isotope analysis in R) with concentration dependency to each hearth. Our model values were tested against faunal indices, indicating a strong positive relationship between marine proportional contributions to each hearth and salmon abundance. Results of the models show substantial anadromous salmon use in multiple USR components, indicating recurrent use of the site for salmon processing during the terminal Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that salmonid and freshwater resources were more important for late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers than previously thought and highlight the potential of chemical profiling of hearth organic residues for providing greater geographic and temporal insights into resource use by prepottery societies. PMID:27573838

  15. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  16. IRON ORE SINTER PRODUCTION USING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bridi Telles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel production through Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF generates approximately 15% to 20% of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD. This waste is considered dangerous due to the presence of metals as lead and cadmium that leach in contact with water. Because of this, the EAFD recycling becomes an alternative to diminish the costs with landfills and environmental harms caused by the waste. The iron ore sintering is a process that reuses most part of powders generated by the steelmaking. However the EAFD is not reused in this process because it contains zinc. The zinc is highly detrimental inside blast furnaces causing heavy crusts and affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the process. Therefore, this work studies the EAFD reuse in the iron ore sintering process to produce iron ore sinter with zinc contents between the limits established for blast furnaces.

  17. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  18. Continuous ring furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Stefani, G.; Genevois, J.L.; Paolo, P.

    1981-01-06

    A smoke conducting apparatus for use particularly with continuous ring furnaces (e.g., Hoffman furnaces) wherein each furnace chamber is connected to the smoke channel, the latter being a metal pipe inclined slightly from horizontal and provided with one or more traps along the length of its bottom surface, each trap containing a removable receptacle, and heating means being disposed along the bottom of the channel to fluidize tarry deposits of combustion products so that such deposits will flow by gravity into the removable receptacle.

  19. 78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... energy conservation standards for vented gas hearth products. 75 FR 20112. Following DOE's adoption of...Care/searchFaq.asp?c=Gas ). EER Consulting, ``Input Rate of Pilot Burners on Gas Fireplaces... because classifying products of such type as covered products is necessary or appropriate to carry out...

  20. Dough and hearth bread characteristics influenced by protein composition, protein content, DATEM, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Hollung, K.; Uhlen, A.K.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein composition, protein content, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), and their interaction on dough and bread characteristics were studied by small- and pilot-scale hearth bread baking, dough rheological testing using the Kieffer extensibility rig, and size di

  1. Space station furnace facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  3. Induction Furnace - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek R. Gandhewar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the productivity improvement .Due to non availability of the proper instrumentations the effect of the ill practices can not be precisely judged. If this is properly measured, the percentage of productivity improvement in steel melting Induction Furnace can be calculated.The review is carried out from the literature in the various journals and manuals.

  4. Investigation on the Potentials of Cupola Furnace Slag in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adeyemi Alabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of the concrete designed using blast cupola furnace slag and granulated cupola slag as a coarse aggregate and partial replacement for cement was investigated. A series of experimental studies were conducted involve concrete production in two stages. The first stage comprised of normal aggregate concrete (NAC produced with normal aggregates and 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Meanwhile, the second stage involved production of concrete comprising of cupola furnace slag an aggregates with 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC and subsequently with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% cementitious replacement with granulated cupola furnace slag that had been grounded and milled to less than 75 µm diameter. The outcomes of compressive strength test conducted on the slag aggregate concrete (SAC with and without granulated slag cementitious replacement were satisfactory compared to normal aggregate concretes (NAC.

  5. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  6. Cordierite Bricks for Ceramic Burner of Hot Blast Stove YB/T 4128-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Chai Junlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,technical requirements,shape and dimension,test method,quality appraisal procedure,packing,marking,transportation,storage and quality certificate of cordierite bricks for ceramic burner of blast furnace and hot blast stove.

  7. High temperature furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  8. Trends in furnace control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.J.; Keefe, M.D. (Italimpianti of America, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Dept.)

    1993-07-01

    This paper relates Italimpianti's experiences over the past few years in the area of control of reheat furnaces for the steel industry. The focus is on the level 1 area; specifically on the use of PLC-based systems to perform both combustion control and mechanical/hydraulic control. Some topics to be discussed are: overview of reheat furnace control system requirements; PLC only control vs separate PLC and DCS systems; PLC hardware requirements; man machine interface (MMI) requirements; purge, light-on and safety logic; implementation of more sophisticated level 1 control algorithms; furnace temperature optimization: look up tables vs full thermal modeling; and recent trends including integrated PLC/DCS system.

  9. Fuzzy Synthesis Evaluation Method for Position State of Blast Furnace Cohesive Zone Based on Entropy Weight Extension Theory%基于熵权-可拓理论的高炉软熔带位置状态模糊综合评判方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贵军; 蒋朝辉; 桂卫华; 阳春华; 谢永芳

    2015-01-01

    针对高炉(Blast furnace, BF)软熔带位置状态影响因素复杂多样且具有层次性和模糊性的特点,提出了基于熵权–可拓理论的高炉软熔带位置状态两级模糊综合评判的新方法。首先,在对高炉生产过程参数进行整理、分类的基础上,采用可拓理论和熵权法确定第一级评判的隶属矩阵和模糊权向量,进行一级模糊评判。其次,以一级评判结果矩阵构成第二级评判的隶属矩阵,并结合层次分析法(Analytic hierarchy process, AHP)确定的第二级模糊权向量,进行二级模糊评判。利用物元的可拓性定性分析和可拓集合论的关联函数定量计算相结合的方法,实现对高炉软熔带位置状态的两级模糊综合评判。最后,以某钢铁厂2650 m3高炉为实例对其软熔带位置状态进行综合评判,所得结果与现场实际情况吻合良好。%As the position state of blast furnace (BF) cohesive zone is influenced by various complex factors, which have hierarchical and fuzzy characteristics, a two-stage fuzzy synthesis evaluation method based on entropy weight extension theory is proposed. Using the extension theory and entropy weight method, the membership matrixes and fuzzy weight vectors of the first-stage are determined for the first-stage fuzzy evaluation, which is based on the work of organizing and classifying the process data of BF. Then, after determining the second-stage fuzzy weight vector by utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the membership matrix of the second-stage fuzzy evaluation is generated on the basis of the result matrixes of the first-stage fuzzy evaluation. Thus, the two-stage fuzzy evaluation of the position state of BF cohesive zone can be carried out with not only qualitative analysis with extension of matter-element but also quantitative calculation with correlation function of extension set theory. A case study of a 2 650 m3 steel plant is carried out to verify the proposed method

  10. Numerical analysis of flow behavior in tuyere and raceway of oxygen blast furnace with new type of oxy-coal burner%氧气高炉新型氧煤燃烧器设计参数对风口区流场影响数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 张建良; 孙辉; 刘征建

    2016-01-01

    氧气高炉通过向风口回旋区喷吹煤粉以及脱除CO2的循环高炉煤气,可有效降低CO2排放。运用CFD商业软件,建立风口回旋区三维模型,针对氧气高炉所设计的新型燃烧器中氧煤枪数量及其与直吹管所呈角度和空间物理位置对风口回旋区流场的影响进行数值模拟。研究结果表明:采用单支氧煤枪操作,当其位于直吹管上部时,煤气流速度随喷吹角度由7°~15°变化时逐渐减小,且夹角为9°较为适宜,当其位于下部时,随着夹角越大,对风口回旋区深度增加越有利;采用双氧煤枪操作,当其在直吹管上下、左右分布时,夹角分别为11°和13°较合理;当单支氧煤枪位于直吹管上方且夹角为9°、距离d为75 mm时能较好地促进风口回旋区深度增加并保持足够的鼓风动能。%Oxygen blast furnace can effectively reduce CO2emissions by two means, pulverized coal injection and recycling of CO2-removed blast furnace gas. To study the velocity fieldamongthe tuyere and raceway region, a three-dimensional modelwasbuildupusing the commercial CFD software. The factors these numerical simulations mainly focus on the number of oxygen-coal lances, the angle and distance between the blowpipe and oxy-coal lances. Numerical results show that increasing angle between the blowpipe and oxy-coal lance from 7° to 15° results in lower velocity when the oxy-coal lanceisset above the blowpipe,the appropriate angle is 9°. When the lance is located below the blowpipe, the bigger the angle is, the deeper the raceway will be.Inaddition, when theoxy-coal burner has two lances, the lances are set at two sides of the blowpipe, i.e. vertical and horizontal distribution around the blowpipe, and the reasonable angles are 11° and 13°.Besides,the suitable distance between the blowpipe and oxy-coal lance is 75mm when the oxy-coal lanceisset above the blowpipe.

  11. Effect of Dosage of Fly Ash and Blast Furnace Slag on Performance of Concrete Prepared with Poorly Graded Sand%粉煤灰矿渣掺量对劣级配砂配制混凝土性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂红; 张雨杰; 陈航; 赵菊梅

    2015-01-01

    为生产优质的劣级配砂配制混凝土,通过调节粉煤灰矿渣掺量配制了6组劣级配砂配制混凝土,用Andreasen方程评价砂石堆积效应,并测试混凝土坍落度和抗压强度,研究粉煤灰矿渣掺量差异对劣级配砂配制混凝土工作性和抗压强度的影响。研究结果发现,劣级配砂与石混合仍可获得较紧密堆积,复掺40%粉煤灰、矿渣的混凝土及单掺30%粉煤灰的混凝土工作性满足泵送要求;各组混凝土56 d抗压强度均满足强度等级要求,且随粉煤灰含量增加混凝土抗压强度减小。可推断矿渣粉煤灰掺量对虽为劣级配砂配制但具有较紧密堆积混凝土工作性和抗压强度的影响,与对正常级配砂配制混凝土工作性和抗压强度的影响一致。%In order to fabricate high quality concrete using poorly graded sand,six groups of concrete with poor sand gradation were prepared with different dosages of fly ash (FA)and blast furnace slag (BFS). The sand and stone compactness of the concrete was evaluated using the Andreasen equation, and the slump and compressive strength of the concrete were tested to study the effect of the dosage of fly ash and blast furnace slag on the workability and compressive strength of the concrete prepared with poor sand gradation. The results showed that the poorly graded sand and crushed stones had an adequately dense packing;both the concrete groups with 40% FA +BFS replacement and 30% FA replacement satisfied the pumping requirement;the concrete compressive strength in each group at 56 d satisfied the requirement of the strength grade,and decreased with the increasing of the dosage of fly ash. Therefore,the effect of the FA and BFS dosage on the workability and compressive strength of the concrete with poor sand gradation and dense packing is similar to that on the concrete with normal sand gradation.

  12. Female role models in Bukusu folktales: Education at the mother’s hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namulundah Florence

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Folktales serve a descriptive, as well as prescriptive role, by consistently depicting societal and cultural norms. Sexist portrayals sanction the marginality of Bukusu women, particularly when these reflect prevailing gender roles and expectations. However, contests over identity and representation are as ancient as (unwritten history. The analysis of tales From Our Mothers’ Hearths: Bukusu Folktales and Proverbs, offers a wide range of role models for women; some of which depict female agency in exacting circumstances (Florence, N., 2005. From our Mothers’ Hearths: Bukusu Folktales and Proverbs. NJ: Africa World Pres/The Red Sea Press. Further, females as narrators, protagonists, and the primary audience act as both curator and creators of culture.

  13. Exergy performance analysis for irreversible closed Brayton cycle combined cooling, heating and power generation plant driven by residual energy and heat of blast furnace%高炉余能余热驱动的不可逆闭式布雷顿热电冷联产装置(炯)性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉君; 陈林根; 孙丰瑞

    2013-01-01

    A combined cooling,heating and power (CCHP) generation plant model composing by one irreversible closed Brayton cycle driven by residual energy and heat of blast furnace and one endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption refrigeration cycle was established by using finite time thermodynamics.The expressions of the exergy output rate and exergy efficiency were derived.The effects of the cycle parameters on the characteristics of exergy output rate and exergy efficiency versus pressure ratio were analyzed by using numerical calculations.The performances of the maximum exergy output rate was compared with that of the maximum exergy efficiency and some suggestions on the designs and operations of actual CCHP plants were proposed.%用有限时间热力学理论建立了由一个高炉余能余热驱动的不可逆闭式布雷顿循环和一个内可逆四热源吸收式制冷循环组成的热电冷联产循环模型,导出了其(娴)输出率和(炯)效率的表达式.利用数值计算方法,分析了循环各参数对(炯)输出率和(炯)效率与压比关系的影响,比较了最大(炯)输出率和最大(炯)效率性能,给出了实际热电冷联产装置设计和运行的建议.

  14. Characterization of U-6Nb ingots produced via the electron beam cold hearth refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1997-11-14

    A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6% niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting, hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt/VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium and trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. This material was also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

  15. Influence of operation parameters on flash smelting furnace based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinfeng Li; Shiheng Peng; Xiangli Han; Chi Mei; Tianyuan Xiao

    2004-01-01

    The influence of three important operation parameters in Jinlong flash smelting furnace, including the distributing blast speed, the oxygen enrichment rate of process air and the ratio of central oxygen to overall oxygen (Oc/Oo), has been investigated using a virtual simulation system on copper flash smelting furnace. The core of this virtual simulation system is a numerical simulation of CFD (computational fluid dynamics), and this system incorporates coupling momentum transport, heat transport, mass transport,reaction kinetics between gas and particles and chemical reactions between gas and gas. A set of numerical predicted data were obtained. The CFD simulation shows that there is a sensitive zone of the distributing blast speed, and the dust content ascends when the speed exceeds 180 m-s-1. Increasing the oxygen concentration of processing air benefits the efficient production of the flash smelting furnace.

  16. New possibilities of Consteel furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

    2012-06-01

    The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

  17. Use of emission spectroscopy as a tool for optimization of plasma hearth operation for hazardous waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal processing of mixed wastes by plasma hearth vitrification requires optimization of and continuous monitoring of plasma hearth operation. A series of investigations utilizing emission spectroscopy has been initiated to characterize the plasma of a 96 kW plasma hearth in order to determine optimum conditions for monitoring and hence controlling plasma hearth performance. The plasma hearth test stand is based upon a 96 kW, transferred arc plasma torch. The torch is mounted in a vacuum vessel through an electrically operated XYZ Gimbal mount. The peak operating power depends on the gas used for the plasma. The operational limits for DC voltage are 180 V to 550 V; and the current is operated at a constant value, selectable in the range from 72 to 200 amps. The plasma arc length can be varied from 2.5 cm to 25 cm, and is dependent on the supply voltage and the process gas used. The arc current and voltage, gas pressure, cooling water flow, and cooling water temperature are monitored and stored by a PC-based data acquisition system. Five optical ports are available for making optical diagnostic measurements

  18. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  19. Combinatorial synthesis of phosphors using arc-imaging furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Ishigaki, Kenji Toda, Masahiro Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi Uematsu and Mineo Sato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have applied a novel 'melt synthesis technique' rather than a conventional solid-state reaction to rapidly synthesize phosphor materials. During a synthesis, the mixture of oxides or their precursors is melted by light pulses (10–60 s in an arc-imaging furnace on a water-cooled copper hearth to form a globule of 1–5 mm diameter, which is then rapidly cooled by turning off the light. Using this method, we synthesized several phosphor compounds including Y3Al5O12:Ce(YAG and SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy. Complex phosphor oxides are difficult to produce by conventional solid-state reaction techniques because of the slow reaction rates among solid oxides; as a result, the oxides form homogeneous compounds or solid solutions. On the other hand, melt reactions are very fast (10–60 s and result in homogeneous compounds owing to rapid diffusion and mixing in the liquid phase. Therefore, melt synthesis techniques are suitable for preparing multi component homogeneous compounds and solid solutions.

  20. Carbon-free induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  1. Non-carbon induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  2. Analogue experimental study on centrifugal-air blast granulation for molten slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace slag is a by-product in iron and steel production process which has a high yield with extremely high discharge temperature. Aiming at energy and water saving as well as emission reduction, dry granulation technique appears to be a good application for the treatment of blast furnace slag. In this study, a granulation technique combining a high-speed rotating cup with air blast is proposed. The performance of this design was investigated by adopting a mixture of rosin and paraffin wax as the analogue of blast furnace slag. The effects of rotating speed of the atomizer, liquid flow rate and blast air flow rate on particle size, particle mass distribution and fiber mass fraction were studied. The effect of the function of air blast on the granulation performance was particularly discussed. The results showed that at a higher rotating speed and a smaller liquid flow rate, smaller particles can be easily obtained, yet the fiber mass fraction also increases. However, the increasing blast air leads to the increase of particle size and fiber mass fraction. For the operating conditions tested in this study, over 60% of total mass of particles fall within the size range of 0.5–1 mm, which means that the present system has a good performance in centrifugal granulation

  3. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  4. Regenerative burner and low thermal mass insulation modifications to a forging furnace. A demonstration at Forgemasters Engineering Ltd. , Sheffield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    Energy savings worth Pound 40,600/year are currently being realised by Forgemasters Engineering Ltd following the installation of regenerative burners and the addition of low thermal mass insulation to the furnace inner walls and roof of one of their reverberatory type bogie hearth pre-heat furnaces. Forgemasters Engineering Ltd produce high quality forged steel components for a wide range of industries. As part of this operation large forging ingots are heated prior to further working. Before modification, the furnace was only capable of heating temperatures up to 1,000/sup 0/C. It can now operate at higher temperatures (up to 1,200/sup 0/C), thus improving its production flexibility. In addition, the furnace is reported as recovering more rapidly from set point changes and the introduction of cold charge. The project, supported under the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme, reduced energy consumption by 32%. Of this saving, 20% was due to insulation and 80% to the regenerative burners. (author).

  5. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  6. Two chamber reaction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  7. High pressure furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  8. High pressure oxygen furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  9. Generating electricity and heat from lean gas. Dual fuel engine generates electricity and process heat from cupola furnace gas; Strom und Waerme aus Schwachgas gewinnen. Zuendstrahlmotor erzeugt Strom und Prozesswaerme aus Kupolofengas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    White-hot molten iron flows into the launder. The blast of heat released provides visitors with an impressive demonstration of the amount of energy flowing in foundries. Large volumes of carbon (coke) are used for the melting process in the cupola furnace, whereby a combustible process gas is formed as a by-product. This so-called cupola furnace gas has a low heating value and has previously been completely combusted for generating the hot blast in the cupola furnace's recuperator. However, in this process only around 35 % of the contained energy is used thermally. Now it is possible to utilise the remaining 65 % of the chemically bound energy that was previously not used in most foundries: a modified biogas combined heat and power plant runs with cupola furnace gas (CFG) from the melting furnace. (orig.)

  10. Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Irassar, E. F.; Rahhal, V. F.; Donza, H. A.; Menéndez, G.; Bonavetti, V. L.

    2006-01-01

    For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as p...

  11. Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C. In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45 was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO2 and diminishing the Fe/SiO2 ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system.

    Se realizaron dos estudios experimentales de solubilidad de metal en escorias a 1.473 K (1.200 °C. En el primero se estudió la solubilidad de plomo en el sistema PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” bajo una atmósfera reductora (PCO/PCO2 = 2,45. En la segunda parte, escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” fueron equilibradas con aleaciones Pb - 1,3 % Ag en atmósfera inerte. En ambos casos la relación CaO/SiO2 fue variada de 1.0 a 1.6 y la relación Fe/SiO2 fue de 1,1 y 1,7. La solubilidad de plomo en las escorias de ambas etapas experimentales disminuye con el incremento de la basicidad (CaO/SiO2 y la disminución de la relación Fe/SiO2. El óxido de plomo es el único compuesto que puede ser reducido bajo la atmósfera reductora y a la temperatura en el nivel de las toberas del horno alto, 1.473 K. La solubilidad de la plata en la escoria decrece con el aumento de las relaciones CaO/SiO2 y Fe/SiO2 en las escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3”.

  12. Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez; Romero, A.; Hernández, A.; Almaguer, I.; R. Benavides

    2012-01-01

    Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C). In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45) was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slag...

  13. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  14. Análise fluido-dinâmica do escoamento em ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar de argamassas preparadas com cimento Portland de alto-forno Fluid-dynamic analysis of the flow in air permeability measurement of mortars prepared with blast-slag furnace Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pereira

    2008-06-01

    . These studies not only have evaluated the permeability of porous media, but also to analyze the behavior of the fluid during the flow. Being about to the cement based materials, the measuring of the permeability becomes basic so that the durability of these can be estimate, therefore is the permeability that controls the rate of ingression and movement of deleterious agents inside these materials. Thus, diverse methodologies and mathematical equations have been used to foresee the permeability of cementitious materials, however, some discrepancies and nonsense in the results have been found. Amongst the used methodologies to measure the permeability of porous media, one meets developed it by Thenoz, which it has demonstrated good results in cement based materials. Thus, this work aims at, by means of assay of permeability to air, carried through in accordance with the methodology of Thenoz, to evaluate the fluid-dynamic behavior of air during the assay of permeability in mortars. For this, mortars prepared with two types of Portland cement of blast furnace (CP IIE-32 and CP III - 32, two relations water/cement (0.5 and 0.6 and ages of 14 and 28 days were used. By means of the gotten results it was possible to observe that during the draining the compressibility of air can be ignored, the regimen of draining can be considered as to plate, demonstrating that the methodology proposal for Thenoz and used mathematical equations can result in coefficients of trustworthy air permeability, therefore phenomena and considerations that could influence in this type of flow can be neglected, in accordance with what it is considered by literature.

  15. Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zorzal Velten

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de textura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0 pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura.This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0 by the TRB System and as NS' by the MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization

  16. Plasma arc melting treatment of low level radioactive waste with centrifugal hearth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Arc Melting technology may possible be able to treat various kinds of waste streams through volume reduction and stabilization into a disposal waste form. The ability of other melting technologies to convert inorganic material in a single step, however, varies according to the characteristics of the materials. Plasma technology also can treat organic waste by selecting the oxidation atmosphere. The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has decided to construct a low level radioactive waste treatment facility using the Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) process with an 8 ft rotating hearth and 1.2 MW transferred torch developed by Retech (Ukiah, CA. USA) in the Tsuruga power station. In Japan, the plasma technology has been developed for incineration ash treatment, but the JAPC plant will be the first treatment system using plasma technology for solid waste with various characteristics and shapes. (author)

  17. Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Fotini

    2009-05-01

    Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented. PMID:19423603

  18. Valorization of electric arc furnace primary steelmaking slags for cement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Kee-Seok; Jung, Sung Suk; Hwang, Jin Ill; Choi, Jae-Seok; Sohn, Il

    2015-07-01

    To produce supplementary cementitious materials from electric arc furnace (EAF) slags, FeO was reduced using a two-stage reduction process that included an Al-dross reduction reaction followed by direct carbon reduction. A decrease in FeO was observed on tapping after the first-stage reduction, and further reduction with a stirred carbon rod in the second-stage reduction resulted in final FeO content below 5wt%, which is compatible with cement clinker applications. The reduced electric arc furnace slags (REAFS) mixed with cement at a unit ratio exhibited physical properties comparable to those of commercialized ground granulated blast furnace slags (GGBFS). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to obtain fundamental information on the cooling characteristics and conditions required to obtain amorphous REAFS. REAFS can be applied in cement mixtures to achieve the hydraulic properties needed for commercial use.

  19. Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Fotini

    2009-05-01

    Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented.

  20. Development of innovative iron making process, Hi-QIP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda Kanji [JFE Steel Corp. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The direct reduction smelting process of iron is explained based on the tasks in the conventional blast furnace process. Furthermore, Hi-QIP (High Quality Iron Pebble) method that is under development as a new iron making process from powdery iron ores and pulverized coal to metallic iron directly with respect to the principle, and the development status is explained. The Midrex process, the fusion reduction process, and the rotary hearth furnace method that supplement the blast furnace process are explained. The Hi-QIP process is a coal-based bed type reduction and melting process. The whole process is conducted in a rotary hearth of a furnace continuously. Tests are conducted to confirm the feasibility of the Hi-QIP process with a bench-scale furnace. A pilot plant has been constructed to verify the feasibility of the process with a continuous type large furnace. 3 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Research report of fiscal 1997. Research on the projects on Activities Implemented Jointly Japan Program (feasibility research on energy saving by improving heat management for hot blast stoves and heating furnaces); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. `Kyodo jisshi katsudo Japan Program` ni kakawaru project chosa (neppuro, kanetsuro no netsukanri kaizen ni yoru sho energy kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research was made on joint implementation (JI) for preventing global climate changes in China. Since such the stove and furnace consume a large amount of energy, their improvement and energy saving are important for integrated iron plants. Maanshan iron plant was selected for the research. All the furnaces were manually operated without combustion control systems, and oxygen meters for exhaust gas frequently troubled. As measures for the stoves, operation at a proper air fuel ratio, improvement of over heat storage combustion, and dust cleaning for waste heat recovery gas heaters were proposed. For the furnaces, a proper oxygen content at the end of furnaces (reduction of invasion air) was proposed to improve exhaust gas loss up to that in Japan. For this target, reinforced instrument management and standardized combustion control are essential. JI of software improvement for operation and management can reduce annual greenhouse effect gas emission to 45,900t and 6,300t in carbon equivalent for the stove and furnace, respectively. CO2 reduction is also estimated to be 1,173,000t and 205,000t in China of 107,570,000t in raw steel production, respectively. 28 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  3. The Distribution Model in the Hearth Industry: A Strategic Analysis to Gain Competitive Advantage for Regency Fireplace Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rachwalski, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a strategic analysis of the distribution model in the hearth industry for Regency Fireplace Products (Regency). The paper researches the business environment for Regency in North America, determines its competitive position in the industry and develops strategies for competitive advantage and steady growth. An industry analysis is conducted to determine the key success factors for incumbents that compete in the industry. Competitors are compared to explore the opportunitie...

  4. Design of a Centrifugal Blower for a 400kg Rotary Furnace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Malami Suleiman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance of a rotary furnace cannot be unconnected to failure in the design of the blower among others, This paper discuss the design of a centrifugal blower for a rotary furnace which will give the required manometric efficiency that will aid adequate combustion as required. The blower was designed to convert ‘driver’ energy to kinetic energy in the fluid by accelerating it to the outer rim of the revolving device known as the impeller. The impeller, driven by the blower shaft adds the velocity component to the fluid by centrifugally casting the fluid away from the impeller vane tips. The amount of energy given to the fluid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. Significance: Centrifugal blowers are applicable in furnaces such as Rotary and cupola furnace, the efficiency of these furnaces depend on the blast rate and air delivery from a well design blower. This paper will guide to achieve this aims.

  5. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  6. Installation and Trial Run of the Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of neutron experiment in the future, the neutron lab equips with extreme temperature furnace (Fig. 1), the furnace is designed and produced by the professional producer-Scientific

  7. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE's mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration

  8. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  9. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

  10. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  11. Applicability of Carbonated Electric Arc Furnace Slag to Mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have been studying the absorption of CO2 in the steelmaking slag. In this study, an application of the electric arc furnace slag after the carbonation to admixture of mortar was investigated with the JIS (A6206-1997) method for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for concrete. The percent flows for the test mortar were smaller than that for the standard mortar. The percent flow of the carbonated slag whose average particle size of more than approximately 4 μm increased with an increase in the average size of the particles. Because the compressive strengths of the test mortar cured for 91 days were almost the same as those cured 28 days, the slag after the carbonation was thought not to have self-hardening property for a medium and long term. The compressive strength for the test mortar was almost unchanged within a range of approximately 2 to 7 μm of the average particle size, and it in this range was highest. The activity indexes for the test mortar prepared with the slag after the carbonation ranged from approximately 40 to 60%.

  12. Applicability of Carbonated Electric Arc Furnace Slag to Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S.; Arisawa, R.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Murakami, K.; Maegawa, A.; Izaki, M.

    2012-03-01

    Authors have been studying the absorption of CO2 in the steelmaking slag. In this study, an application of the electric arc furnace slag after the carbonation to admixture of mortar was investigated with the JIS (A6206-1997) method for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for concrete. The percent flows for the test mortar were smaller than that for the standard mortar. The percent flow of the carbonated slag whose average particle size of more than approximately 4 μm increased with an increase in the average size of the particles. Because the compressive strengths of the test mortar cured for 91 days were almost the same as those cured 28 days, the slag after the carbonation was thought not to have self-hardening property for a medium and long term. The compressive strength for the test mortar was almost unchanged within a range of approximately 2 to 7 μm of the average particle size, and it in this range was highest. The activity indexes for the test mortar prepared with the slag after the carbonation ranged from approximately 40 to 60 %.

  13. Development of gas-fired vacuum furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikirica, S.J. (Gas Research Inst. (United States)); Hemsath, K.H. (Indugas Inc. (United States)); Panahi, S.K. (Southern California Gas Co. (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum processing in metallurgical heat treating processes is finding widespread acceptance. Gas-fired vacuum furnaces have several features that make them perform differently from electrically heated vacuum furnaces. This paper describes the development and preliminary performance results of a gas-fired vacuum-capable furnace system. A gas-fired vacuum furnace, with a novel high convection heating system, is show to result in lower energy operating cost and improved temperature uniformity in processes such as ion nitriding. Industrial gas-fired furnace designs, capable of operation to 1850 F, are described for horizontal and vertical configurations. (orig.)

  14. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form

  15. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  16. Blasting in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva, Nikolinka; Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2015-01-01

    The long history of underground facilities gives us a lot of cognitions that we use in the choice of appropriate drilling and blasting parameters to obtain satisfactory results in underground facility constructions. In this paper are represent parts of those cognitions. Selection of an appropriate blast hole pattern, hole cut type, total quantity of explosives, initiation sequence and to the amount of explosive detonated per delay are crucial for successfully blasting in underground facilitie...

  17. The thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust under low gas phase pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests on the process of thermal reduction of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD in the temperature range from 1273 to 1473 K. Before proceeding to the experimental tests, a thermodynamic analysis was made using the computer program FactSage® with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for the dust components reduction reaction to proceed. The results of tests carried out, respectively, under atmospheric pressure conditions and under reduced pressure conditions are presented, where carbon in the form of graphite and blast-furnace dust (containing approx. 40 % of carbon was used as the reducer. The test results represent the effect of reduced pressure on the potential for intensifying the process of zinc removal from the dust. The degree of zinc extraction was considerably higher compared to the results of tests carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions.

  18. New gunpowder blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces gunpowder blasting, which consists of ten chapters. It deals with conception of gunpowder on the history of gunpowder, difference between gunpowder and general materials and classification of gunpowder, reaction of gunpowder, shock wave and detonation, on properties, material velocity and structure, test method on gunpowder and an article processed with heat, gunpowder such as igniter charge, carlit and slurry gunpowder, propellant and an article processed with heat, blasting on basics and Bench cut, blasting operations and security blasting construction and using of gunpowder.

  19. Effect of BF Operation on Hearth Erosion%高炉操作对炉缸侵蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜屏; 雷鸣; 刘建波; 田口整司

    2012-01-01

    No.1 BF in Hongfa Iron Making Plant was relined in Jan 2011 due to serious hearth erosion.The 6th and 7th layers carbon bricks in the hearth suffered most serious erosion,showing abnormal triangle erosion line.By analyzing the carbon bricks and simulating the operation condition of hearth,high zinc input and circumferential flow of molten iron are confirmed to be the main reasons for the accelerated hearth erosion.Zinc input to the No.1 BF in Hongfa Iron Making Plant was too high,which resulted in the decrease of thermal conductivity and increase of thermal expansion coefficient of carbon brick,and thus accelerated the melting corrosion and thermal stress erosion of carbon bricks.On the other hand,the short tapping hole,small coke free zone and low permeability of dead man caused by raw material quality and BF operation also accelerated the melting corrosion of hearth by circumferential flow of molten iron.The erosion can be improved by decreasing zinc input to BF,increasing the length of tapping hole,controlling the size of deadman,improving coke quality and selecting proper PCI.%沙钢宏发炼铁厂1号高炉因炉缸侵蚀于2011年1月进行大修。炉缸内第6、7层碳砖侵蚀最严重,呈异常三角形侵蚀。通过对炉缸碳砖的分析和操作条件的模拟,发现高炉锌负荷过高和铁水环流是加剧炉缸侵蚀的主要原因。宏发高炉的锌负荷偏高,使ZnO在炉缸第6、7层碳砖中严重富集,导致碳砖导热系数下降,热膨胀系数增加,加剧碳砖的熔蚀和热应力引起的侵蚀。另外,由于原料质量和操作原因,使得宏发高炉的铁口长度较短、无焦区偏小和死料柱的透气透液性有时较差,加剧了铁水环流对炉缸的侵蚀。可以通过控制入炉锌负荷,延长铁口长度、控制死料柱的尺寸、提高焦炭质量和控制合适的喷煤比来改善炉缸的侵蚀。

  20. VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

    1958-03-11

    This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.