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Sample records for blanca chihuahua mexico

  1. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  2. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  3. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  4. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  5. U-Sries Disequilibra in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell

    2006-03-16

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U, which is greater than unity, {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th, which is also greater than unity, and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks {sup 230}Th peaks, but contains {sup 234}U and {sup 226}Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate {sup 226}Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only

  6. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL 1 URANIUM DEPOSIT, PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dobson

    2005-09-14

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Stratigraphic study part of integrated research project examining migration of radionuclides at Pena Blanca; (2) Immediate objectives of study include: locate stratigraphic contacts in third dimension; measure rock properties (matrix permeability, porosity, mineralogy, cation exchange capacity) of cored section; determine fracture frequency and orientation; (3) Results of study serve as primary inputs to flow and transport models.

  7. Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, P.; Fayek, M.; Goodell, P.; Ghezzehei, T.; Melchor, F.; Murrell, M.; Oliver, R.; Reyes-Cortes, I.A.; de la Garza, R.; Simmons, A.

    2008-08-01

    The Nopal I site in the Pena Blanca uranium district has a number of geologic and hydrologic similarities to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, making it a useful analogue to evaluate process models for radionuclide transport. The PB-1 well was drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a DOE-sponsored natural analogue study to constrain processes affecting radionuclide transport. The well penetrates through the Tertiary volcanic section down to Cretaceous limestone and intersects the regional aquifer system. The well, drilled along the margin of the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. Detailed observations of these units were afforded through petrographic description and rock-property measurements of the core, together with geophysical logs of the well. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich, rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. This cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, goethite, jarosite, and opal. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the Nopal Formation is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation consists of poorly sorted conglomerate containing clasts of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert

  8. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. French; E.Y. Anthony; P.C. Goodell

    2005-07-18

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 234}Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment.

  9. Aspects of radiological safety and protection in the decontamination of the Benefit plant of uranium in Ciudad Aldama and in the storage of its residues in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico; Aspectos de seguridad y proteccion radiologica en la descontaminacion de la planta de beneficio de uranio en Ciudad Aldama y en el almacenamiento de sus residuos en Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M.A. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Between 1969 and 1971 the National Commission of Nuclear Energy and the Mining Fostering Commission operated coordinately a production plant of uranium and molybdenum concentrates (Benefit plant) at Ciudad Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico. During two years of operation some 45 tonnes of uranium concentrate and approximately 35,000 tonnes of uranium wetlands were produced. These last were stored in a dam to 120 m. toward West of the plant. Due to the nearness of the population with respect to what was the Benefit plant and over all to the wetland dam, the objective of this work had two main aspects: On the one hand, to carry out the works of radiological decontamination of the benefit plant of uranium, according to the established normative by the Regulatory organization in matter of radiological safety and protection (CNSNS) for the population and the hard workers. After that the works mentioned were realized it was considered that the estate which comprises what was the Benefit plant did not reach the established criteria by the CNSNS for being considered of unrestricted use such estate and it was not allowed any type of construction in the zone which could be showed the residual contamination which remains there. On the other hand, to determine the site where could be stored the radioactive wastes generated by the radiological decontamination and the wetland mobilization for its definitive storage in benefit of the present population and of the future generations due to the radionuclides which are in a such material. The site more adequate technical and economically to storage the wastes generated by this activity was evaluated. Whereby studies about demography, use of soil and water, meteorology, hydrology and ecology were realized. The site selected being in the Pena Blanca mountains, Chihuahua, place where is located one of the uranium zones and the most important of the country. In this work, specific objectives also were treated such as: knowing the radiological

  10. Gamma-ray characterization of uranium-series nuclides and its application to the study of the Pena Blanca natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virgina

    Two natural analogue sites located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico were characterized for radionuclide mobility. Analogue I is used to assess the long-term behavior of uranium-series nuclides in a host rock and geochemical environment that is similar to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analogue II represents a former dump site to assess short-term radionuclide mobility. Gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis was used to measure radioactivity of the U-series nuclides. Samples analyzed from Analogue I consist of: (1) fracture-infillings associated with different alteration assemblages collected within and outside the breccia pipe from various levels of the deposit and (2) fracture-infillings collected along an east-west trending fracture which intersects the breccia pipe and extends into the host rock. Alteration mineralogy, established via X-ray diffraction analysis, consists of pure kaolinite, a mixture of Fe-oxyhydroxide (goethite, hematite) With inclusions of jarosite and alunite, and carbonates. Results from activity ratios of 230Th/238U versus 226Ra/230Th indicate that majority of the Fe-oxyhydroxides from the breccia zone show a slight disequilibrium with respect to Ra enrichment and U depletion. This observation is modeled as requiring a multiple-event history of U mobility. An amorphous Fe sample distal to the breccia zone shows similar behavior but to a greater extent. This extreme behavior is ascribed to initially low U content and greater late-stage U removal. Two Fe-oxyhydroxide samples from Within the breccia pipe also display multiple-event stages but exhibit both Ra and U leaching. This behavior is shared by Fe-oxyhydroxide samples collected inside and peripheral to the breccia zone from the east-west trending fracture. Finally, three samples, two Fe phase samples outside the breccia zone and a kaolinite inside the breccia zone, show Ra and U enrichment. Also, a distal Fe-oxyhydroxide sample from the

  11. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  12. Uranium minerals from the San Marcos District, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortés, Manuel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Torres-Moye, Enrique; Esparza-Ponce, Hilda; Montero-Cabrera, María Elena

    2010-05-01

    The mineralogy of the two uranium deposits (Victorino and San Marcos I) of Sierra San Marcos, located 30 km northwest of Chihuahua City, Mexico, was studied by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry. At the San Marcos I deposit, uranophane Ca(UO2)2Si2O7·6(H2O) (the dominant mineral at both deposits) and metatyuyamunite Ca(UO2)(V2O8)·3(H2O) were observed. Uranophane, uraninite (UO2+x), masuyite Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)·3(H2O), and becquerelite Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 ·(8H2O) are present at the Victorino deposit. Field observations, coupled with analytical data, suggest the following sequence of mineralization: (1) deposition of uraninite, (2) alteration of uraninite to masuyite, (3) deposition of uranophane, (4) micro-fracturing, (5) calcite deposition in the micro-fractures, and (6) formation of becquerelite. The investigated deposits were formed by high-to low-temperature hydrothermal activity during post-orogenic evolution of Sierra San Marcos. The secondary mineralization occurred through a combination of hydrothermal and supergene alteration events. Becquerelite was formed in situ by reaction of uraninite with geothermal carbonated solutions, which led to almost complete dissolution of the precursor uraninite. The Victorino deposit represents the second known occurrence of becquerelite in Mexico, the other being the uranium deposits at Peña Blanca in Chihuahua State.

  13. Meteorite fail at pueblito de allende, chihuahua, Mexico: preliminary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E A; Schonfeld, E; Richardson, K A; Eldridge, J S

    1969-02-28

    Specimens from the meteorite fall at 1:05 a. m., on 8 February 1969 at Pueblito de Allende, Chihuahua, Mexico, have been recovered. The meteorite is a chondrite (C3 and C4) with both opaque and microcrystalline matrices. Specimens were brought to a low background gamma counter less than 4 (1/2) days after the fall, and gamma rays from short-lived isotopes have been observed.

  14. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chihuahua is Mexico’s largest state, and its physiographic complexity affects the distribution of its herpetofauna. We list amphibians and reptiles for the state of Chihuahua, with their conservation status. We also compare this list to those of six adjoining states in the United States and Mexico (New Mexico, Texas, Coahuila, Durango, Sinaloa, and Sonora. A total of 175 species of amphibians and reptiles is found in Chihuahua. Thirty-eight are amphibians, and 137 reptiles. Chihuahuan amphibians and reptiles represent just over 37% of such species from Chihuahua and neighboring states. Chihuahua shares the highest proportion of its herpetofauna with Sonora and Durango. Most of the herpetofauna of Chihuahua falls in IUCNs least concern category and is not listed by SEMARNAT. However, turtles in Chihuahua are a group of particular conservation concern.

  15. Energy saving programs and renewable energies in Chihuahua, Mexico; Programas de ahorro de energia y energias renovables en Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra Noris, Jose Luis [Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The high index of economic and technological growth registered in the border zone of northern Mexico in the last years, has simultaneously caused an annual growth in the electrical energy demand in a percentage higher than 6%. In this document are included the economic and environmental impacts caused by the projects developed in the Chihuahua State on energy efficiency and on the available potential of renewable energies. In order to evaluate the environmental impact that is caused when saving electrical energy in the diverse projects in process, the emission of CO{sub 2} is the only emission taken into account (even though also emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Hg exist) for being this polluting agent the one that contributes in greater amount to the global warming and the greenhouse effect. The emission index of CO{sub 2} that we considered in this presentation is of 600 kg/mwh, on the basis of the type of fuel and volume of generation of the plants in operation of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in the Chihuahua State. [Spanish] El alto indice de crecimiento economico y tecnologico registrado en la zona fronteriza del norte de Mexico en los ultimos anos, ha ocasionado paralelamente un crecimiento en la demanda de energia electrica superior al 6% anual. En este documento se incluyen los impactos economicos y ambientales de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el estado de Chihuahua en eficiencia energetica y en el potencial que se tiene de energias renovables. Para evaluar el impacto ambiental que se obtiene al ahorrar energia electrica en los diversos proyectos en proceso, se toma en cuenta unicamente emisiones de CO{sub 2} (aun cuando tambien existen emisiones de SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} y Hg) por ser este el contaminante que en mayor cantidad afecta al calentamiento global y al efecto invernadero. El indice de emisiones de CO{sub 2} que consideramos en esta presentacion es de 600 kg/mwh, en base al tipo de combustible y volumen de generacion de las

  16. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Cook, Paul J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Rodriguez, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de la Garza, Rodrigo

    2008-10-25

    An integrated field, laboratory, and modeling study of the Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) natural analogue site is being conducted to evaluate processes that control the mobilization and transport of radionuclides from a uranium ore deposit. One component of this study is an evaluation of the potential for radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone (UZ) via a seepage study in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine, excavated 10 m below a mined level surface. Seasonal rainfall on the exposed level surface infiltrates into the fractured rhyolitic ash-flow tuff and seeps into the adit. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage within the Nopal I +00 adit. Monitoring of seepage within the adit between April 2005 and December 2006 indicates that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Within the back adit area, a few zones where large volumes of water have been collected are linked to fast flow path fractures (0-4 h transit times) presumably associated with focused flow. In most locations, however, there is a 1-6 month time lag between major precipitation events and seepage within the adit, with longer residence times observed for the front adit area. Seepage data obtained from this study will be used to provide input to flow and transport models being developed for the Nopal I hydrogeologic system.

  17. Migration behavior of naturally occurring radionuclides at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, James D.; Pickett, David A.; Murphy, William M.; Pearcy, English C.

    1997-04-01

    Oxidation of pyrite at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Peña Blanca district, Chihuahua, Mexico has resulted in the formation of Fe-oxides/hydroxides. Anomalous U concentrations (i.e. several hundred to several thousand ppm) measured in goethite, hematite, and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides in a major fracture that crosscuts the deposit and the absence of U minerals in the fracture suggest that U was retained during secondary mineral growth or sorbed on mineral surfaces. Mobilization and transport of U away from the deposit is suggested by decreasing U concentrations in fracture-infilling materials and in goethite and hematite with distance from the deposit. Greater than unity {234U}/{238U} activity ratios measured in fracture-infilling materials indicate relatively recent ( < 1 Ma) U uptake from fluids that carried excess 234U. Systematic decreases in {234U}/{238U} activity ratios of fracture materials with distance from the deposit suggest a multistage mobilization process, such as remobilization of U from 234U-enriched infill minerals or differential or diminished transport of U-bearing solutions containing excess 234U.

  18. Cretaceous stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, Sierra Blanca basin, southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S.G. (New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Anderson, O.R. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The Sierra Blanca basin of Otero and Lincoln counties, New Mexico contains a Lower (upper Albian)-Upper (Santonian) Cretaceous section of marine and nonmarine strata as much as 700 m thick which represent the upper part of a regressive cycle followed by two transgressive-regressive deposition cycles. The lower 55 m of the Cretaceous section are the same tripartite Dakota Group units recognized in Guadalupe and San Miguel counties: basal Mesa Rica Sandstone (late Albian), medial Pajarito formation (late Albian) and upper Romeroville sandstone (earliest Cenomanian). The Mesa Rica and Pajarito represent a regression and are overlain disconformably by the transgressive Romeroville sandstone. Overlying transgressive marine clastics and minor carbonates of the Mancos Shale are as much as 73 m thick and include the early Turonian Greenhorn Limestone. The overlying Tres Hermanos formation (up to 91 m thick) consists of the (ascending order) Atarque sandstone and the Carthage and Fite Ranch sandstone members. These strata represent a mid-Turonian regression in response to regional tectonism (Atarque and Carthage), followed by a transgression (Fite Ranch sandstone) that ended in the deposition of the D-Cross Tongue of the Mancos Shale and Fort Hays Member of the Niobrara Formation during the late Turonian. The subsequent regression began with the Coniacian Gallup Sandstone (55 m) followed by coal-bearing Crevasse Canyon Formation (up to 244 m thick). The Coniacian-Santonian Crevasse Canyon Formation, the youngest Cretaceous unit in the basin, is disconformably overlain by middle Eocene conglomerates and red-bed siliciclastics of the Cub Mountain formation. Dakota Group age determinations in the Sierra Blanca basin are those of well-dated sections to the north, but ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from the Sierra Blanca basin provide precise age control for Cenomanian-Santonian marine and marginal marine strata and palynology and megafossil plants for nonmarine strata.

  19. Arsenogoyazite in Cenozoic volcanic tuff at Tabalaopa Basin, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Goodell, P.

    2012-12-01

    Arsenogoyazite has been identified in Cenozoic volcanic tuff at Tabalaopa Basin, Chihuahua, Mexico. Tabalaopa Basin contains volcanic strata and the unconsolidated Quaternary deposit. Cenozoic volcanic tuff forms the low hill terrene in this area. It is a major reservoir for the City of Chihuahua groundwater. Arsenic anomaly (more than 20 ppb) has been observed at El Mimbre, northeast of the city. The exposed reddish color volcanic rocks are felsic welded tuff and rhyolite. Sanidine, quartz, and biotite phenocrysts show linear distribution within the fine grain matrix. The rocks contain large amount of vesicles which are lineated with the welding bends. White and colorless microsize crystals formed on the well of the cavities and the majority of them are K-feldspar. Quartz, Ti-magnetite, and arsenogoyazite are coexisting with feldspars. The sizes of the crystals in the cavities are 10 to several 10s of micrometers. The arsenic x-ray maps have been collected for the rock sections to locate the arsenic minerals. The crystals in cavities show euhedral shape. Most arsenic containing crystals have a near cubic form with triangle surfaces at some corners. The high resolution field-emission SEM images have been collected to study the symmetry of the crystals. EDS spectra for the high arsenic phases show three major elements As-Al-Sr and also minor amount of P-S-REE-Ca-Fe-Si. Since the arsenic minerals are growing on the wall of the vesicle, it is difficult to perform good electron microprobe analysis. Some primary microprobe data give following results in weight percent: SrO 11.8-13.1, CaO 0.2-0.3, FeO 0.3-0.5, Al2O3 28.6-30.9, La2O3 2.4-2.5, Ce2O3 2.3-.24, SiO2 1.1-3.6, As2O5 32.4-35.2, P2O5 1.7-1.9, SO3 0.8-1.4. This chemistry is similar to the reported arsenogoyazite chemical data. So this high arsenic phase is identified as arsenogoyazite. The arsenic anomaly in groundwater at El Mimbre, Chihuahua should be contributed from this arsenic mineral phase in the strata.

  20. Conchostracans: Living and Fossil from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasch, P; Shaffer, B L

    1964-02-21

    In August 1963, living conchostracans (branchipod Crustacea) of the genera Leptestheria and Eulimnadia were collected at three stations in Chihuahua. One Sonoran locality yielded Triassic fossils of the family Cyzicidae, a widespread North American group. The geographic rangeof the geologically younger families Leptestheriidae and Limnadidae (particularly the genus Eulimnadia) thus extended to Chihuahua during post-Mesozoic time.

  1. Epithermal uranium deposits in a volcanogenic context: the example of Nopal 1 deposit, Sierra de Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, G.; Angiboust, S.; Fayek, M.; Camacho, A.; Allard, T.; Agrinier, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Peña Blanca molybdenum-uranium field (Chihuahua, Mexico) exhibits over 100 airborne anomalies hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs (44 Ma) overlying the Pozos conglomerate and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Uranium occurrences are associated with breccia zones at the intersection of two or more fault systems. Periodic reactivation of these structures associated with Basin and Range and Rio Grande tectonic events resulted in the mobilization of U and other elements by meteoric fluids heated by geothermal activity. Trace element geochemistry (U, Th, REE) provides evidence for local mobilization of uranium under oxidizing conditions. In addition, O- and H-isotope geochemistry of kaolinite, smectite, opal and calcite suggests that argillic alteration proceeded at shallow depth with meteoric water at 25-75 °C. Focussed along breccia zones, fluids precipitated several generations of pyrite and uraninite together with kaolinite, as in the Nopal 1 mine, indicating that mineralization and hydrothermal alteration of volcanic tuffs are contemporaneous. Low δ34S values (~ -24.5 ‰) of pyrites intimately associated with uraninite suggest that the reducing conditions at the origin of the U-mineralization arise from biological activity. Later, the uplift of Sierra Pena Blanca resulted in oxidation and remobilization of uranium, as confirmed by the spatial distribution of radiation-induced defect centers in kaolinites. These data show that tectonism and biogenic reducing conditions can play a major role in the formation and remobilization of uranium in epithermal deposits. By comparison with the other uranium deposits at Sierra Pena Blanca and nearby Sierra de Gomez, Nopal 1 deposit is one of the few deposits having retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  2. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  3. Radioactive hydrogeochemical processes in the Chihuahua-Sacramento Basin, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, J. C.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E. F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Reyes, I.; Espino, M. S., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingenieria, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The Chihuahua Basin is divided by its morphology into three main sub basins: Chihuahua-Sacramento sub basin, Chihuahua Dam sub basin and Chuviscar River sub basin. In the aquifers at the Sacramento sub basin, specific concentrations of uranium in groundwater range from 460 to 1260 Bq / m{sup 3}. The presence of strata and sandy clay lenses with radiometric anomalies in the N W of Chihuahua Valley was confirmed by a litostatigraphic study and gamma spectrometry measurements of drill cuttings. High uranium activity values found in the water of some deep wells may correspond to the presence of fine material bodies of carbonaceous material, possible forming pa leo-sediment of flooding or pa leo-soils. It is suggested that these clay horizons are uranyl ion collectors. Uranyl may suffer a reduction process by organic material. Furthermore the groundwater, depending on its ph and Eh, oxidizes and re-dissolves uranium. The hydrogeochemical behavior of San Marcos dam and the N W Valley area is the subject of studies that should help to clarify the origin of the radioactive elements and their relationships with other pollutants in the watershed. (Author)

  4. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  5. Hydrological responses of the Chihuahua Desert of Mexico to possible Heinrich Stadials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Jimenez, Jesús David; Roy, Priyadarsi D.; Lozano-Santacruz, Rufino; Giron-García, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Hydrological response of the Chihuahua Desert of Mexico to six different Heinrich Stadials (H6 to H1) is inferred with element ratio, carbonate abundance, and oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of lacustrine calcite in sediments collected from the Santiaguillo Basin. Overall runoff and hence precipitation remained below average during H6, H4, H2 and H1, and above average during H5 and H3. Similarly, runoff of H4 showed the least variability and it was most variable during H5. In general, dissolved HCO3- was dominantly sourced from atmospheric CO2 during the intervals of less runoff. However, lacustrine productivity as well as atmospheric CO2 influenced carbon isotope composition of dissolved HCO3- during the regimes of fluctuating hydrological conditions. H2 was an interval of relatively warmer water column and enhanced lacustrine productivity. Comparison with other records indicates occurrence of similar millennial-scale hydrological variability in the southwest US. However, we did not always observe concurrency in proxy records from the Chihuahua Desert of Mexico and southwest US. Similarity in tendencies of runoff into the Santiaguillo Basin and δ18O of speleothem from the Hulu Cave during the six different Heinrich Stadials suggests a possible hemispheric link between hydroclimate of the Chihuahua Desert of Mexico and the East Asian Monsoon.

  6. Bio-climatic strategy for energy saving in corporative buildings. City Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico; Estrategia bioclimatica para ahorro energetico en edificios corporativos. Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staines Orozco, E. R.

    2008-07-01

    Ciudad Juarez Chihuahua in Mexico is located in of de biggest Desert of Arid America called Chihuahuan Desert, and is there in where this border city with United State of North America and one of the border cities of greater commercial importance (a million six hundred thousands pop. approx.) has been develop to great influence of wasteful constructive systems of nonrenewable resources as they are the gas and electricity. These building take back surpassed models. In this article presents a design of a model of corporative building of five floors that counts including all a strategy from the process of architectonic design to the applications of echo passive and active Technologies (hybrid) like one of a ventilation tower, strategy that applied guarantees the significant saving to use energy. (Author)

  7. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, L; Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E; Cano Jiménez, A; Rentería Villalobos, M; Delgado Mendoza, C J; Jurado Tenorio, L A; Dávila Rangel, I; Herrera Peraza, E F

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports (222)Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited (222)Rn concentrations exceeding 11Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of (222)Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks.

  8. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  9. Perceptions of mental illness in Mexico: a descriptive study in the city of Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, F

    1987-01-01

    This work is a study of perceptions toward mental illness among respondents from the city of Chihuahua in Mexico. A non-probability sample of forty-seven respondents was taken during a two-week stay in the summer of 1985. To tap respondents' perceptions of mental illness, vignettes characterizing people normally thought to have symptoms of mental illness were employed. The study reveals that men and women perceive mental illness differently. In three out of four vignettes, women perceive mental disorder than men. It is argued that the reason for the disparity in perceptions between the sexes is the result of the sexual differentiation that exists in Mexico. With regard to whom the respondents would refer the person for help, the majority of the respondents recommended that, whether or not the person in the vignette is characterized as mentally ill or simply "sick", the person should seek professional help.

  10. A concurrent exposure to arsenic and fluoride from drinking water in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ishida, María C; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela; Zacarias, Olga L; Saunders, R Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M

    2015-04-24

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F-) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F- in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F- concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F-/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F- (U-F-) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F-/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F- concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F- concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F-, raising questions about possible contribution of F- exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F- exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention.

  11. Geochemical and Petrological Studies of Peralkaline Rocks from Laborcita de San Javier, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J. E.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Peralkaline igneous rocks are characterized by a lower total aluminum content in comparison to the total alkalis content (Na + K), and are important to determine the tectonic environment in which they formed. The majority of the volcanic activity in Chihuahua State, northern Mexico, is mostly related to the formation of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), product of the subduction of the Farallon plate. Volcanic activity of Paleogene age (late Oligocene) to the SW of Chihuahua city, specifically in the towns of Laborcita de San Javier and Cusihuiriachic, includes 27.5 M.a. peralkaline tuffs, capping the older rhyolites and andesites of the SMO. This sequence becomes thicker and more prominent towards the west. A volcanic section of more than 1,000 m thick is exposed in the Laborcita area, which ranges in age from 27 to 35 Ma. The oldest (bottom) unit is a calc-alkaline felsic ash-flow tuff and rhyolitic lavas interbedded with flows of mafic to intermediate composition. Overlying this unit, there is a basaltic andesite with an age of 30 to 33 Ma. Right at the top of this sequence, there is the widespread peralkaline ash-flow tuff (27.5 M.a.), focus of this study. Geochemical analyses performed to rhyolitic tuffs by Mauger and Dayvault (1983), have a peralkalinity index ranging from 0.94 to 1.20, while analyses prepared for this project only reach an index of 0.60. The appearance of peralkaline rocks in the Chihuahua State indicates the change of tectonic regime from compression (Farallon plate subduction) to distension (Basin and Range and/or Rio Grande Rift), about 27 M.a. ago.

  12. Persistent environmental pollutants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and south Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Montoya, A B; Lee, M C; Macías-Duarte, A; Rodríguez-Salazar, R; Juergens, P W; Lafón-Terrazas, A

    2008-01-01

    The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) disappeared from south Texas in the 1940s. Due to great success in the release of captive-reared aplomado falcons in south Texas, there are currently more than 40 established nesting pairs in the region. Addled eggs from aplomado falcons nesting in northern Chihuahua and south Texas were analyzed to determine organochlorine (OC) and inorganic element contaminant burdens and their potential association with egg failures and effects on reproduction. Among the OCs, DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] was present at the highest concentrations (range 262-21487 ng/g wet weight) followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range 88-3274 ng/g ww). DDE was greater (P=0.03) in eggs from El Sueco (Chihuahua, Mexico) than in those from Matagorda Island (Texas, USA). DDE concentrations in eggs of aplomado falcons from El Sueco were elevated; however, reproductive success in the two Chihuahuan populations did not seem to be affected by DDE. DDE and metals in potential avian prey of the aplomado falcon from Matagorda Island were very low and below levels in the diet at which some negative effects might be expected. Except for mercury (Hg), metal concentrations in eggs were fairly low and were not different among locations in Chihuahua and south Texas. Hg was somewhat elevated and was greater (PChihuahua locations. Periodic monitoring of Hg concentrations in addled eggs of aplomado falcons in south Texas is recommended to continue evaluating potential negative effects on their recovery.

  13. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-06-25

    Three wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes. The wells penetrate through the Tertiary volcanic section down to the Cretaceous limestone basement, and intersect the top of the regional aquifer system. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, and goethite. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the basal vitrophyre is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded, lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. The Nopal I ore body is restricted to a brecciated zone that intersects these two volcanic units. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation in the PB-1 core consists of interbedded, poorly sorted sandstone and conglomerate layers. The conglomeratic clasts consist of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert. Thin (2-6 m) intervals of intercalated pumiceous tuffs were observed within this unit. The contact between the Pozos Formation and the underlying Cretaceous limestone basement was observed at a depth of 244.4 m.

  14. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge dried, such as Rn-222 and its short-lived daughters. No filtration was used during the pumping of PB-1 or PB-2.

  15. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL 1 SITE, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Olver; R. de la Garza; S. Harder

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Determine the main source of the groundwater (GW) found within the DOE wells (PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3); and (2) Determine whether the Nopal I GW has any relationship to the connectivity between the regional Encinillas Aquifer to the west and the El Cuervo Aquifer to the east.

  16. Arsenic in freshwater fish in the Chihuahua County water reservoirs (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Myrna; Moreno, Myriam Verónica; Sosa, Manuel; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Water reservoirs in Chihuahua County, Mexico, are affected by some punctual and non-punctual geogenic and anthropogenic pollution sources; fish are located at the top of the food chain and are good indicators for the ecosystems pollution. The study goal was to: (i) determine arsenic concentration in fish collected from the Chuviscar, Chihuahua, San Marcos and El Rejon water reservoirs; (ii) to assess if the fishes are suitable for human consumption and (iii) link the arsenic contents in fish with those in sediment and water reported in studies made the same year for these water reservoirs. Sampling was done in summer, fall and winter. The highest arsenic concentration in the species varied through the sampling periods: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with 0.22 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in winter and Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) with 2.00 ± 0.15 mg/kg dw in summer in El Rejon water reservoir. A positive correlation of arsenic contents was found through all sampling seasons in fish samples and the samples of sediment and water. The contribution of the weekly intake of inorganic arsenic, based on the consumption of 0.245 kg fish muscles/body weight/week was found lower than the acceptable weekly intake of 0.015 mg/kg/body weight for inorganic arsenic suggested by FAO/WHO.

  17. Hongos degradadores de la madera en el estado de Chihuahua, México Wood decaying fungi from Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Díaz-Moreno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de 83 especies de hongos principalmente poliporoides degradadores de la madera que habitan en bosques de pino y encino-pino; de las cuales, 37 son registros nuevos para el estado de Chihuahua. Las familias Polyporaceae e Hymenochaetaceae fueron las más representativas, y los géneros con mayor número de especies, Phellinus e Inonotus.This paper presents a list of 83 species, most of them polypore wood decaying fungi from pine forest and oak-pine forest. Thirty seven species are new records for the state of Chihuahua. The families Polyporaceae and Hymenochaetaceae were the most abundant, and the genera with the highest number of species were Phellinus and Inonotus.

  18. "The State of Chihuahua", Lesson Plan for "Cultural Unit: Focus on Mexico."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Marianne

    This lesson plan was designed for students in Montana schools. The objectives for this culture unit are having: (1) students recognize the similarities between their home stat of Montana and the Mexican state of Chihuahua; (2) students learn about features unique to Chihuahua; and (3) students create an advertising brochure marketing Chihuahua to…

  19. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  20. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia Rentería-Villalobos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  1. Uranium in the surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River environment (Chihuahua, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  2. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in Raramuri people in Chihuahua, Mexico: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río Nájera, Danyella; Santana, Natalia; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; González-Chávez, Susana A; Quiñonez-Flores, Celia M; Pacheco-Tena, César

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) pain and rheumatic diseases in the Raramuri population (also known as Tarahumaras) who are an indigenous group in the northern state of Chihuahua in Mexico. We used the Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted including indigenous Raramuri aged ≥18 years from communities settled in Chihuahua City. Subjects with positive MSK pain were evaluated by primary care physicians and rheumatologists. Demographic and occupational factors such as gender and job type associated with rheumatic disease were investigated. A total of 380 indigenous Raramuri (mean age 33.6 ± 13.1 years; 37.9 % male) were interviewed. Seventy-six individuals (20 %) reported MSK pain in the last 7 days. Pain intensity was reported as "severe" and "the most severe" in 30 % of the cases. Fifty-six individuals (14.7 %) reported pain in the past and 86 (22.6 %) had either past or current pain. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases was 10.5 %. Diagnosed diseases were osteoarthritis (6.6 %), low back pain (1.6 %), spondyloarthritis (0.8 %), rheumatoid arthritis (0.5 %), non-specific arthritis (0.5 %), rheumatic regional pain syndromes (0.3 %), and fibromyalgia (0.3 %). Rheumatic disease was associated with the following variables: age (odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.08; p = 0.006), family history of rheumatic symptoms (OR 6.9; 95 % CI 2.6-18.7; p Mexico.

  3. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  4. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  5. Characterization of drought patterns through remote sensing over The Chihuahua Desert, Mexico"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, J. M.; Lopez, A.; Garatuza, J.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a phenomenon that has intensified during the last few decades in the arid and semi-arid zones of northern Mexico. In the Chihuahua desert, across Chihuahua, Durango and Coahuila states has caused loss of food sustainability (agriculture, livestock), an increase in human health problems, and detriment of ecosystem services as well as important economic losses. In order to understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to create tools that allow monitoring the territory's spatial heterogeneity and multi-temporality. With this purpose we propose the implementation of a drought model which includes the traditional indexes of climatic drought, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI, the Standardized Index of Rainfall SPI, data from meteorological stations and biophysical variations obtained from the MODIS sensors product MOD13 NDVI from 2001 to 2010, as well as biophysical variables characteristic of the environment, such as land use and vegetation coverage, Eco-regions, soil moisture, digital elevation model and irrigate agriculture districts. With the MODIS images, a spatially coherent time series was created analyzing the study area's phenology (TIMESAT) created the Seasonal Greenness (SG) and Start of Season Anomaly (SOSA) for the mentioned nine years. Through this, the annual cycles were established. With a decision tree model, all the previously mentioned proposed variables were integrated. The proposed model produces a general map which characterizes the vegetation condition (extreme drought, severe drought, moderate drought, near normal). Even though different techniques have been proposed on the monitoring of droughts, most of them generate drought indexes with a spatial resolution of 1km (Wardlow, B. et. al 2008; Levent T. et al. 2013). One of the main concerns of researchers on the matter is on improving the spatial information content and on having a better representation of the phenomenon. We use the normalized difference vegetation index

  6. Geochemical registers of Late Quaternary paleoclimatic conditions at Sonora and Chihuahua Deserts, Mexico: comparison and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Lozano-Garcia, S.

    2011-12-01

    Sonora and Chihuahua Deserts form the southwestern and southeastern parts of North American Desert system and spread over at least 5 different states in the northern Mexico. Presently, Sonora Desert receives annual precipitation in a bi-modal distribution, whereas Chihuahua Desert receives dominant summer precipitation. Paleoclimatic registers from Mojave Desert suggest that the spatial extent and magnitude of both the summer and winter precipitation varied during the last glacial period and such fluctuations were linked to the volume of the Laurentide ice sheet, changing winter-summer insolation, North Atlantic climatic variability and ENSO dynamics. We present multi-elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, organic and inorganic carbon from 750 cm long sediment core collected from paleolake San Felipe (31°N, western Sonora Desert) and 970 cm long sediment core collected from paleolake Babicora (29°N, western Chihuahua Desert) in order to understand the paleohydrological and paleoclimatic evolution in the arid region of northern Mexico. 6 AMS 14C dates constrain the San Felipe sediment core between 49 cal kyr BP and present. Similarly, 8 AMS 14C dates put the Babicora core in the age bracket between 76 cal kyr BP and present with two different hiatus at 4-8 cal kyr BP and 40-45 cal kyr BP. Due to the special geomorphology of San Felipe basin, Ti concentration was used as a proxy for pluvial discharge and to differentiate regimes of dominant summer and winter precipitation. Aeolian deposition was constrained at >48 cal kyr BP. Period of lower pluvial discharge during 14-48 cal kyr BP is related to a regime of dominant winter frontal storms. During 3-14 cal kyr BP, higher catchment erosion and transportation of REE bearing heavy minerals into the basin are possibly as a result of higher pluvial discharge related to a regime of dominant summer precipitation. In paleolake Babicora, high resolution Ti suggests higher pluvial inflow prior to 60 cal kyr BP (H

  7. Geochemistry of the thermal springs from San Antonio El Bravo zone, Chihuahua, Mexico; Geoquimica de manantiales termales de la zona de San Antonio El Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    Isotopic and chemical analysis o water produced by 14 springs in the San Antonio El Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico geothermal area, were carried out in order to establish the geochemical characteristics of the groundwater and to know their interaction with deeper geothermal fluids. We made two samplings of water and gases in 1984 and 1995. The chemical composition of waters produced by the springs in of sodium-bicarbonate-chloride type. It was found, according to the Na:K:Mg relative content, that most hot springs are located in the partial equilibrium zone, whereas the lowest temperature hot springs shift toward the groundwaters domain. The temperature estimated from gas geothermometry was 129 degrees celsius. The isotopic composition at Ojo Caliente and Infiernito springs presents enrichment in {delta}{sup 18}O, product rock-water interaction at high temperature. The Agua Roque spring is located in the line of meteoric waters. Analysis of metals was carried out too, the concentration of gold element is 0.09 mg/l in Ojo Caliente and Infiernito springs, whereas silver, aluminum and iron elements were not detected. The water quality of the springs for agricultural use, is classified between C2-S1, C3-S1, C3- S2, C4-S3 and C4-S4 types, that suggests that only the water from Agua Roque can be used for irrigation. The arsenic element was not detected but the concentration of the boron element is high for irrigation use (2.39 ppm). [Espanol] Los analisis quimicos e isotopicos de agua de 14 manantiales de la zona de San Antonio El Bravo. Chihuahua, Mexico, fueron realizados con el fin de conocer las caracteristicas geoquimicas del acuifero somero y su interaccion con fluidos geotermicos. Se realizaron 2 muestreos tanto de agua como de gases en 1984 y 1995. En ambos muestreos se encontro que la composicion quimica del agua de todos los manantiales es del tipo bicarbonatado-clorurado-sodico. De acuerdo con el contenido relativo de Na:K:Mg el agua de los manantiales mas calientes

  8. Geochemistry of the thermal springs from Piedras de Lumbre Zone, Chihuahua, Mexico; Geoquimica de los manantiales termales de la zona de Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water produced by 12 hot springs in the geothermal areas of Recubichi and Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico were carried out in order to establish the geochemical characteristic of the groundwater and to know their interaction with deeper geothermal fluids. We made two sampling of water and gases in 1984 and 1995. The chemical composition of waters produced by the springs is of sulfate alkaline type. It was found, according to the Na:K:Mg relative content that most hot springs are located in the partial equilibrium zone, whereas the lowest temperature hot springs shift toward the groundwaters domain. The temperature estimated from gas geothermometry was 187 degrees celsius. It was found that the He has a deep origin, whereas the N{sub 2} is of atmospheric origin. Methane was not detected, suggesting that equilibria between gases and the liquid phase was reached at temperatures over 150 degrees celsius. The chemical compositions for the springs at Recubichi and Piedras de Lumbre zones are similar, so, it suggests that they have the same origin. The water quality of the springs for agricultural use, is classified between C2-S2 and C2-S3 types, that suggest that this water can be used for irrigation. The arsenic element was not detected and the concentration for the boron element is lower that 0.175 ppm. [Espanol] Los analisis quimicos de agua de 12 manantiales y 4 fumarolas de las zonas de Recubichi y Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico fueron estudiados con el fin de conocer las caracteristicas geoquimicas del acuifero somero y su interaccion con fluidos geotermicos. Se realizaron 2 muestreos tanto de agua como de gases en 1984 y 1995. En ambos muestreos se encontro que la composicioon quimica del agua de todos los manantiales es del tipo sulfatado-sodico. De acuerdo con el contenido relativo de Na:K:Mg el agua de los manantiales mas calientes (93 grados celsius), se ubica en la zona de equilibrio parcial, mientras que en los de menor

  9. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  10. Classification and Geochemical Characterization of Igneous Rocks: Southern Part of Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, I. D.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Chihuahua City is the capital of the state with the same name, located in northern Mexico. The city was established near the Chuviscar River, but in the last decades it has been extended to the nearby areas (mountains), with volcanic (rhyolitic tuffs), and sedimentary rocks (limestone). The study area includes areas in the south part of Chihuahua City, where we can still find unbuilt lands and it is possible to appreciate outcrops of igneous rocks. This project includes 5 study spots, which are located about 9 km. far from the south extreme of the city. This research is developed in order to complement the geological information in this area, as there is no is detailed record of it. In the geological map H13-10 (SGM, 1997), it is said that the urban area is covered by Quaternary conglomerates, while exploring the region we have located several igneous rocks outcrops. In three of the sampling points, dark colored intrusive igneous rocks with large crystals appear in blocks without noticeable fractures. While in the other two sampling points, highly fractured blocks of pink aphanitic igneous rocks, showing traces of pyrolusite were observed. The petrographic study shows the two different textures that classify these rocks as extrusive (aphanitic) or intrusive (phaneritic), both with quartz and feldspars being the dominant minerals. Geochemical analyses confirm the felsic composition of the rocks, varying form trachytes to rhyolites. The trace element results show high contents of Sr, Ba, V, Rb, and Zr in trachytic compositions, while there are high concentrations of Mn, W, Rb and Co for rhyolitic compositions.

  11. U-Series Transport Studies at the Pena Blanca, Mexico Natural Analog Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons; M. T. Murrell

    2001-05-31

    Natural analogs provide a line of evidence that supports the understanding of how natural and engineered processes would occur over long time frames and large spatial scales at a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Studies of U-series disequilibria within and around uranium deposits can provide valuable information on the timing of actinide mobility and hence the stability of a potential repository over geologic time scales. The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, is situated in unsaturated tuff that is similar in composition to the Topopah Spring Tuff of Yucca Mountain and closely matches other evaluation criteria for suitable natural analogs. By modeling the observed radioactive isotope disequilibria at Nopal I, we can estimate the rates of sorption-desorption and dissolution-precipitation of the radionuclides over time. Such information is vital to the testing or validation of performance assessment models for geologic nuclear waste disposal.

  12. Petrological and Geochemical Studies of the Igneous Rocks at Cerro EL Borrego, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, V. M.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Cerro El Borrego, which is a hill composed of igneous rocks, is located 13.7 km to the SW of Chihuahua city, in northern Mexico. The coordinates of the hill are 28° 11' 07'' N latitude and 105° 33' 23'' W longitude. The study area is within the Basin and Range Physiographic Province, characterized by a complex tectonic-structural pattern, such as elongated ranges with folds and igneous rock formations of Paleogene age. A lava flow of Oligocene age is part of the large volcanic and plutonic activity at the early times of the Cenozoic, which occurred to the NW portion of Mexico. In Cerro El Borrego, the rocks that outcrop are middle Oligocene's rhyolitic tuff to the NW of the hill, while to its SE there is a Pleistocene polymictic conglomerate. Previous work shows different interpretations about the origin and composition of the igneous rocks at Cerro El Borrego. This project includes whole rock and textural analyses, which helped to discern the petrogenesis of these rocks. Preliminary petrographic analyses indicate that the Cerro El Borrego, is a structural dome, and its feldspar-rich rocks contain large crystals that can be appreciated without a microscope. The presence of a porphyritic texture, suggest a sallow intrusion origin. A preliminary conclusion is that Cerro El Borrego is a shallow depth intrusive body with a syenitic composition derived from the Oligocene plutonic activity.

  13. Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans.

  14. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico.

  15. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A., E-mail: mmora@tamu.edu [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Baxter, C. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Montoya, A.B. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States); Gallardo, J.C. [Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 {mu}g/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 {mu}g/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: > We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. > Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. > Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. > Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. > Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  16. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  17. Measurements and Slope Analyses of Quaternary Cinder Cones, Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, M. I.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Camargo volcanic field (CVF) covers ~3000 km2 and is located in the southeast part of the state of Chihuahua, within the Basin and Range province. The CVF represents the largest mafic alkali volcanic field in northern Mexico. Over a 300 cinder cones have been recognized in the Camargo volcanic field. Volcanic activity ranges from 4.7 to 0.09 Ma revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating methods. Previous studies say that there is a close relationship between the cinder cone slope angle, due to mechanical weathering, and age. This technique is considered a reliable age indicator, especially in arid climates, such as occur in the CVF. Data were acquired with digital topographic maps (DRG) and digital elevation models (DEM) overlapped in the Global Mapper software. For each cone, the average radius (r) was calculated from six measurements, the height (h) is the difference between peak elevation and the altitude of the contour used to close the radius, and the slope angle was calculated using the equation Θ = tan-1(h/r). The slope angles of 30 cinder cones were calculated showing angles ranging from 4 to 15 degrees. A diffusion model, displayed by an exponential relationship between slope angle and age, places the ages of these 30 cones from 215 to 82 ka, within the range marked by radiometric methods. Future work include the analysis of more cinder cones to cover the whole CVF, and contribute to the validation of this technique.

  18. Thermal Waters in Maguarichi, Chihuahua, Mexico: Influence on Volcanic Rocks Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascote, C. R.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Piedras de Lumbre, Maguarichi, is located 294 km. to the SW of Chihuahua city, in northern Mexico, in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO). The study area is composed of a set of igneous volcanic rocks affected by hydrothermal flows, which apparently run along a fault. Outcrops of hot springs, going out with high pressure, are active all over the year and have no seasonal flow changes. The hydrothermal flows, approximately 20, that reach the surface area at Piedras de Lumbre, are altering the volcanic rocks that surround the hot springs. The study area is highly altered, and evidenced by a variety range of colors in the rock surfaces. The rock samples collected at the region show a crystal growth due to the influence of the salts from the thermal water. The rocks closest to the water openings have a change in its mineralogy, with the mafic minerals, present in andesites, been replaced by carbonates and sulfates, leaving only the clear mineral pseudomorphs. On the crust of the rocks a white layer of material (salts), product of the thermal waters has precipitated. The alteration is perceived only about 5 m. or less around the hot springs. The water, which has high contents of arsenic and sulfates has exerted a strong alteration in rhyolitic and andesitic rocks.

  19. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Cook, Paul J.; Rodríguez-Pineda, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de La Garza, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    A study of seepage occurring in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine in Chihuahua, Mexico, was conducted as part of an integrated natural analogue study to evaluate the effects of infiltration and seepage on the mobilization and transport of radionuclides. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage. Field observations recorded between April 2005 and December 2006 indicate that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Seepage, precipitation, and fracture data were used to test two hypotheses: (1) that fast flow seepage is triggered by large precipitation events, and (2) that an increased abundance of fractures and/or fracture intersections leads to higher seepage volumes. A few zones in the back adit recorded elevated seepage volumes immediately following large (>20 mm/day) precipitation events, with transit times of less than 4 h through the 8-m thick rock mass. In most locations, there is a 1-6 month time lag between the onset of the rainy season and seepage, with longer times observed for the front adit. There is a less clear-cut relation between fracture abundance and seepage volume; processes such as evaporation and surface flow along the ceiling may also influence seepage.

  20. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (< LOD) to 215 ng/g lipid, with a mean total PBDEs level of 29.5 ± 53.0 ng/g lipid (geometric mean ± standard deviation). The mean total PCBs level in the study participants was 29.0 ± 10.5 ng/g lipid (range 4.50-50.0 ng/g lipid). The mean concentration of total DDT (DDT + DDE) was 11.9 ± 6.70 ng/g lipid (range 3.00-26.0 ng/g lipid). The mean 1-OHP levels was 1.2 ± 1.1 µmol/mol creatinine (range

  1. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Renteria-Villalobos, M. [Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31410, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Tenorio, R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  2. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  3. Zinc-germanium ores of the Tres Marias Mine, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Melcher, Frank; Lodziak, Jerzy

    2009-04-01

    The Tres Marias carbonate-hosted Zn-Ge deposit in Chihuahua, Mexico contains sphalerite with the highest average Ge (960 ppm) and willemite with the highest reported Ge contents of Mississippi-Valley-type (MVT) deposits worldwide. This has prompted current exploration efforts to focus on the deposit as a high-grade source of germanium. The sulfide-rich ore type (>125,000 t at 20% Zn and 250 g/t Ge) contains Fe-rich botryoidal sphalerite (type I) associated with solid hydrocarbons. This type exhibits distinctive intimately intergrown lamellar texture of high-Fe sphalerite (average 9.9 wt.% Fe and 800 ppm Ge) and a somewhat less Fe-rich sphalerite phase (average 5.5 wt.% Fe and 470 ppm Ge). Reddish-brown banded sphalerite (type II, average 5.7 wt.% Fe and 1,320 ppm Ge) is subordinately followed by galena and pyrite. The sulfide-poor “oxidized” zinc ore (up to 50 wt.% Zn; 250 to 300 ppm Ge) is a fine-grained, often friable, alteration product of the sulfide ore and associated limestone and breccia host. While some areas are dominated by carbonates and sulfates, others are enriched in silicates such as hemimorphite and willemite. The gangue assemblage includes goethite, hematite, and amorphous silica or quartz. Minor wulfenite, greenockite, cinnabar, and descloizite also occur. Willemite occurs as interstitial replacement of sphalerite and fracture fillings in the oxidized ore and can be unusually rich in Pb (up to 2.0 wt.%) and Ge (up to 4,000 ppm). Oscillatory zonation reflects trace element incorporation into willemite from the oxidation of primary Ge-bearing sphalerite and galena by siliceous aqueous fluids. The Tres Marias deposit has hybrid characteristics consisting of a primary low-temperature MVT Ge-rich Zn-Pb sulfide ore body, overprinted by Ge-rich hemimorphite, willemite, and Fe oxide mineralization.

  4. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium.

  5. New geologic slip rates for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    Within the southern San Andreas transform plate boundary system, relatively little is known regarding active faulting in northern Baja California, Mexico, or offshore along the Inner Continental Borderland. The inner offshore system appears to be fed from the south by the Agua Blanca Fault (ABF), which strikes northwest across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Therefore, the geologic slip rate for the ABF also provides a minimum slip rate estimate for the offshore system, which is connected to the north to faults in the Los Angeles region. Previous studies along the ABF determined slip rates of ~4-6 mm/yr (~10% of relative plate motion). However, these rates relied on imprecise age estimates and offset geomorphic features of a type that require these rates to be interpreted as minima, allowing for the possibility that the slip rate for the ABF may be greater. Although seismically quiescent, the surface trace of the ABF clearly reflects Holocene activity, and given its connectivity with the offshore fault system, more quantitative slip rates for the ABF are needed to better understand earthquake hazard for both US and Mexican coastal populations. Using newly acquired airborne LiDAR, we have mapped primary and secondary fault strands along the segmented western 70 km of the ABF. Minimal development has left the geomorphic record of surface slip remarkably well preserved, and we have identified abundant evidence meter to km scale right-lateral displacement, including new Late Quaternary slip rate sites. We verified potential reconstructions at each site during summer 2015 fieldwork, and selected an initial group of three high potential slip rate sites for detailed mapping and geochronologic analyses. Offset landforms, including fluvial terrace risers, alluvial fans, and incised channel fill deposits, record displacements of ~5-80 m, and based on minimal soil development, none appear older than early Holocene. To quantitatively constrain landform ages

  6. Presence of Hypoderma lineatum stage I larvae in the esophagus of cattle slaughtered in Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Martínez, M T; Otero Negrete, J; Benítez, R; Méndez, M A; Juárez Vega, G; Cruz-Vázquez, C

    2007-05-15

    In order to detect the presence of Hypoderma lineatum stage I larvae within the esophagus of cattle slaughtered in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico, a total of five samplings were carried out between July and November 2000. In each instance, a random sample was taken from 10% of the animals slaughtered in a single work shift in each of the two slaughterhouses included in this study. The esophagus were cut longitudinally in order to carry out visual inspection and detect the presence of H. lineatum stage I larvae in the submucosa. The larvae were separated and counted. We identified the presence of H. lineatum stage I larvae in the esophagus for all sampling dates, nevertheless, within the last sampling only one esophagus had them. For all sampling dates the prevalence ranged between 11 and 33%; the latter corresponded to the sampling in October. A total of 287 esophagus was inspected of which 54 were positive with one or more larvae (19%); 233 larvae were obtained from these cases. The number of larvae recovered per sampling ranged from 46 to 74 between July and October, the highest number was found in September's sampling. The largest amount of stage I larvae per esophagus was 22 in the months of July and August. Larvae were always located in the submucosa of the esophagus and all were oriented longitudinally.

  7. Geochemical characterization and leaching behavior of slags: by-product materials from an old lead smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    Steel slags are stored in piles or stocks around or near the smelter site. Currently, there is an increasing interest in the use of waste materials, especially in the construction industry, to replace natural aggregates, help the environment and reduce the costs. Slags are being used widely as road ballast, road base or sub-base material, sandblasting agents or cement additives, but normally contain high concentrations of potentially toxic metals. Although these metals are associated with glass, silicate and oxide minerals, with slow solubilities in water, a characterization of the leaching behavior is essential in environmental evaluation for reuse scenarios. The state of Chihuahua is located in northern Mexico, and mining has been an important economic activity since the 18th century. In the early 1900's, a lead smelter operated in Avalos, Chihuahua (in the southern surroundings of Chihuahua city), and left considerable slag piles after their closure in the 1980's. In this study, this material has been geochemically analyzed to identify the metals contained in it, and used in "tank tests" experiments, to assess its leaching behavior. The slags from Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%) in different minerals such as hardystonite (Ca2ZnSi2O7), melanotekite (Pb2Fe3+3O2Si2O7), kentrolite (Pb2Mn2Si2O9) and sphalerite (ZnS) or trapped in the glass. Major elements are present in phases such as monticellite (CaMgSiO4), kirschsteinite (CaFe2+SiO4), hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6), babingtonite (Fe2Si3O9), magnetite (Fe3O4), and calcite (CaCO3). The leaching experiments were performed for 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours in mixtures of 30 and 50% of slags with natural road base material using distilled water at a pH 5 and 8 to recreate acidic and alkaline waters. The amounts of leached Pb ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 ppm, Zn from 0.1 to 0.6 ppm, As from 0 to 0.09 ppm, and Ca from 40 to 180 ppm, being the acidic experiments the ones that leached out the highest

  8. Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fayek; P. Goodell; M. Ren; A. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U{sup 6+} minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled {approx}50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained ({approx}50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few {micro}m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 {+-} 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is <1 Ma. Oxygen isotopic analyses show that uraninite from the ore body has a {delta}{sup 18}O = -10.8{per_thousand}, whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.5{per_thousand}. If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ({delta}{sup 18}O = -7{per_thousand}), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation

  9. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  10. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  11. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  12. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita(-1) day(-1). Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  13. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  14. Amphibians and reptiles associated with the prairie dog grasslands ecosystem and surrounding areas at the janos casas grandes complex, northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Santos Barrera; Jesús Pacheco; Gerardo Ceballos

    2008-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are considered a keystone species that forms extensive colonies in the grasslands of western and central North America. These colonies are characterized by high diversity of associated vertebrates. The largest colonies in North America are located in the Janos region, northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. In this study we present an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting at prairie dog grasslands and surrounding mesquite scrublands in the Janos regio...

  15. First-year performance of the Chorreras pv-hybrid ice-making system in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Luis; Foster, Robert; Cota, Alma D [Southwest Technology Development Institute, Las Cruces, New Mexico (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the reliability and performance of the Chorreras photovoltaic (PV) hybrid ice-making system. The system is a first of its kind in the world and is located near the fishing village of Chorreras, which is located along a man-made lake in a remote desert area of the State of Chihuahua in northern Mexico. The information gathered from technical field visits and a GOES satellite-based data collection system are reviewed to discuss system design and operation. The system has been working well in producing ice on a daily basis with only some minor control problems and water line calcification that reduced ice production until the line was cleaned. The hybrid system provides a daily average of 8.9 kWh at 240 volts to the ice-maker. The system Coefficient of Performance (COP) is about 0.65 and a total of 97 percent of the energy has been supplied by the PV array, while only 3 percent has been supplied by the back-up propane-fueled generator. Production of ice varies slightly each month due to changes in insolation and ambient temperatures. Overall ice production averages about 85 kg of ice per day. This project and this paper are dedicated to the memory of Ing. Juan Jose Onate Rodriguez from the Direccion General de Desarrollo Rural, who was the original project developer for the State of Chihuahua. [Spanish] Este articulo describe la confiabilidad y el rendimiento del sistema hibrido fotovoltaico (PV) de Chorreras para produccion de hielo. El sistema es el primero en su tipo en el mundo y esta localizado cerca del pueblo de pescadores de Chorreras, a la orilla de un lago artificial en un area desertica remota en el estado de Chihuahua, al norte de Mexico. Se esta revisando la informacion recopilada por las visitas tecnicas de campo y por el sistema de recoleccion de datos satelital GOES para analizar el diseno y operacion del sistema, que ha estado funcionando con buenos resultados en la produccion diaria de hielo, teniendo solo problemas menores de

  16. Guarijio de Arechuyvo, Chihuahua (Guarijio of Arechuyvo, Chihuahua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wick R.

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Guarijio, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Arechuyvo, Chihuahua. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the linguistic…

  17. Creación de la Biblioteca Virtual Ambiental del Estado de Chihuahua en El Colegio de Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes-Rendón, Esmeralda

    2008-01-01

    Presentation that talks about the thesis of the same title (Creation of the Environmental Virtual Library in the Mexican Chihuahua State at the Colegio de Chihuahua) at the Master Program in Environmental Engineering at the Ciudad Juarez Autonomous University, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  18. Variation in the Distribution of Four Cacti Species Due to Climate Change in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Cortes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is about four cacti species in the state of Chihuahua, (Coryphantha macromeris, Mammillaria lasiacantha, Echinocereus dasyacanthus and Ferocactus wislizenii. Geographic distribution was inferred with MaxEnt. Projection was estimated under three scenarios simulated from IPCC (A2, B1 and A1B and four periods (2000, 2020, 2050 and 2080 with 19 climatic variables. MaxEnt projects a species decrease in 2020 under scenario A2, increasing in the following years. In 2080 all species, except E. dasyacanthus, will occupy a larger area than their current one. Scenario B1 projected for 2050 a decrease for all species, and in 2080 all species except E. dasyacanthus will increase their area. With A1B, C. macromeris decreases 27% from 2020 to 2050. E. dasyacanthus increases from 2020 to 2050 and decreases 73% from 2020 to 2080. M. lasiacantha decreases 13% from 2020 to 2080 and F. wislizenii will increase 13% from 2020 to 2080. Some species will remain stable on their areas despite climate changes, and other species may be affected under the conditions of the A1B scenario. It is important to continue with studies which give a broader perspective about the consequences of climate change, thus enabling decision-making about resource management.

  19. Variation in the distribution of four cacti species due to climate change in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Leonor; Domínguez, Irma; Lebgue, Toutcha; Viramontes, Oscar; Melgoza, Alicia; Pinedo, Carmelo; Camarillo, Javier

    2013-12-24

    This study is about four cacti species in the state of Chihuahua, (Coryphantha macromeris, Mammillaria lasiacantha, Echinocereus dasyacanthus and Ferocactus wislizenii). Geographic distribution was inferred with MaxEnt. Projection was estimated under three scenarios simulated from IPCC (A2, B1 and A1B) and four periods (2000, 2020, 2050 and 2080) with 19 climatic variables. MaxEnt projects a species decrease in 2020 under scenario A2, increasing in the following years. In 2080 all species, except E. dasyacanthus, will occupy a larger area than their current one. Scenario B1 projected for 2050 a decrease for all species, and in 2080 all species except E. dasyacanthus will increase their area. With A1B, C. macromeris decreases 27% from 2020 to 2050. E. dasyacanthus increases from 2020 to 2050 and decreases 73% from 2020 to 2080. M. lasiacantha decreases 13% from 2020 to 2080 and F. wislizenii will increase 13% from 2020 to 2080. Some species will remain stable on their areas despite climate changes, and other species may be affected under the conditions of the A1B scenario. It is important to continue with studies which give a broader perspective about the consequences of climate change, thus enabling decision-making about resource management.

  20. Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, L; Montero-Cabrera, M E; Manjón-Collado, G; Colmenero-Sujo, L; Rentería-Villalobos, M; Cano-Jiménez, A; Rodríguez-Pineda, A; Dávila-Rangel, I; Quirino-Torres, L; Herrera-Peraza, E F

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentration of 222Rn, 226Ra and total uranium in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed throughout the state of Chihuahua has been measured. The values obtained of total uranium activity concentration in groundwater throughout the state run from Chihuahua City. Committed effective dose estimates for reference individuals were performed, with results as high as 134 microSv for infants in Aldama city. In Aldama and Chihuahua cities the average and many individual wells showed activity concentration values of uranium exceeding the Mexican norm of drinking water quality.

  1. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  2. Assessment of DDT and DDE levels in soil, dust, and blood samples from Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Betanzos, Angel F; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Maldonado, Iván Nelinho Pérez

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of DDT and DDE in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) and to investigate the blood levels of these insecticides in exposed children living in a north Mexican state (Chihuahua) where DDT was sprayed several years ago during (1) health campaigns for the control of malaria and (2) agricultural activities. DDT and DDE were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, lower levels were found in household outdoor samples. The levels in outdoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.788 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.642 mg/kg for DDE. The levels in indoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 15.47 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 1.063 mg/kg for DDE. Similar results to those found in indoor soil were found in dust, in which the levels ranged from 0.001 to 95.87 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.797 mg/kg for DDE. Moreover, blood levels showed that all of the communities studied had been exposed to DDT and/or DDE, indicating a general past or present exposure to DDT. It is important to note that the quotient DDT/DDE in all matrices was always >1. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis. However, applying precautionary principles, it is important to initiate a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to DDT and its metabolites in people living in this area.

  3. Allele and haplotype distribution for 16 Y-STRs (AmpFlSTR Y-filer kit) in the state of Chihuahua at North Center of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alarcón, A B; Moguel-Torres, M; León-Jiménez, A K; Cuéllar-Nevárez, G E; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2007-05-01

    The AmpFlSTR Y-filer kit, including 16 Y-STRs was analyzed in 326 males from Chihuahua, at North Central, Mexico. Allele frequencies and gene diversity for each locus were estimated. Four allele duplications, namely DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391 and DYS439; and one allele null at DYS448 were observed in the sample. The haplotype diversity was 99.97+/-0.3%. The AMOVA results, including a previous report from West of Mexico (Jalisco), showed that most of the genetic variability between these Mexican populations is attributable to intrapopulational differences (99.87%). This result supports a low-genetic differentiation between males from North and West regions of Mexico.

  4. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Gutierrez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP; between Rosales and Delicias (RD; Meoqui (M; El Torreon (ET, and Julimes (LJ. The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L-1 and location (0.10 mg L-1 exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem.

  5. Management Proposals of the Sabinas Reynosa Aquifer in Northeast Mexico, and Implications in the Development of Main Towns in Chihuahua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Sabinas Reynosa water table aquifer is located in northeast Mexico in the state of Chihuahua, where this hydrologic unit is controlled by Laramide structures. The hydrostratigraphy consists of three units. At the base is a slightly compacted conglomerate HU1. The middle unit HU2 consists of clay materials packed with a carbonate cement. The upper unit is constituted by a sandy caliche with a calcareous matrix with secondary porosity, which allows it to store and transmit large volumes of water. The three units are of Paleogene age. Recently, the towns near the Sabinas Reynosa aquifer have presented supply problems, thus, this project will determine the hydrologic characterization using the groundwater budget method in order to establish the volume of water that the aquifer will yield per unit of time. The first phase consisted of defining the balance equation, by establishing the terms involved in the budget and calculating their respective values. Two different factors were defined: the inflows and outflows. In the first case, underground inflow with 225.68 Mm3 in the last five years, recharge by irrigation with 32.08 Mm3 and anthropogenic recharge with 270.50 Mm3 were considered. In the second case, the factors include underground outflow with 359.55 Mm3, pumping with 561.43 Mm3 and evapotranspiration from the water table with 130.61 Mm3. Although this last variable was calculated on a preliminary basis, a more accurate estimate requires additional studies (in process), with the aim of obtaining a more representative value. In this work is considered that evapotranspiration takes a decisive role in the analysis of the budget and hence, in the decisions that have to be taken for the proper management of the hydrological system.

  6. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Roberto L; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Quintana, Ray; Ortega, Juan Angel; Gutierrez, Melida

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP); between Rosales and Delicias (RD); Meoqui (M); El Torreon (ET), and Julimes (LJ). The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L-1) and location (0.10 mg L-1) exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem.

  7. Heavy metal content in soils under different wastewater irrigation patterns in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, V M; Arias, H O Rubio; Quintana, R; Saucedo, R A; Gutierrez, M; Ortega, J A; Nevarez, G V

    2008-12-01

    An area near the city of Chihuahua has been traditionally irrigated with wastewater to grow forage crops. It has been hypothesized that metal levels could be found in these soils high enough to cause potential health problems to the population. The objective of this study was to determine heavy metal concentrations in different soils due to irrigation practices. Four soil types were evaluated; a soil with a past and present history of wastewater irrigation (S1), a soil with a history of wastewater irrigation until 2003 (S2), a soil with no irrigation history (S3), and a soil similar to S1 and adjacent to the river where the wastewater is transported (S11). Three soil depths were evaluated; 0-15, 15-30 and 30-50 cm. Consequently, a total of 150 soil samples were analyzed evaluating pH, EC, OM and the following elements; Na, K, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Fe. The pH (P=0.000) and EC (P=0.000) were different for each soil type but no differences were noted for soil depth and the interaction. Maximum pH levels were noted in S3 with a value of 8.74 while maximum EC was observed in S1 with a value of 0.850 dSm-1. The OM level was different for soil type (P=0.000), soil depth (P=0.005) and the interaction (P=0.014). S1 and S11 obtained maximum levels of OM while minimum levels were noted in S3. Maximum OM levels were observed at the 0-15 cm depth followed by the 15-30 cm depth and finally at the 30-50 cm depth. The highest concentration of metals was as follows: K in S1 (359.3 mg kg-1); Cd in S1 (4.48 mg kg-1); Pb in S11 (155.83 mg kg-1); Ni in S1 (10.74 mg kg-1); Cu in S1 (51.36 mg kg-1); B in S3 (41.5 mg kg-1); Fe in S3 (20,313.0 mg kg-1), Cr in S3 (44.26 mg kg-1) and Na in S3 (203.0 mg kg-1). The conclusion is that some metals are present in the soils due to anthropogenic activities but others are present in natural forms.

  8. Rural electrification in Chihuahua, Mexico at one third of the cost vs a conventional substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Omar; Gomez, Rolando; Solano, Arturo; Acosta, Eduardo

    2010-09-15

    This paper and presentation describes technical details about a successful experience in a unique project in Mexico for making possible the rural electrification at one third of the total cost vs a traditional substation. This alternate solution for electrification of rural communities where construction of distribution lines or traditional substations are not economically possible due to local government's budget limits or because the electrical companies are looking for the ROI Return Over Investment in poverty communities.

  9. Federalization of Education in Chihuahua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Andrae M.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the politics behind the initial centralization of primary education in Chihuahua, Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s. The article argues that the centralization of primary education was one of many tools used by the federal government to consolidate its power in the wake of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) and create a…

  10. Geospatial Mapping of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Sb in Urban Soil, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, M. A.; Grimida, S. E.; Elkekli, A. R.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Population-based random stratified sampling of the city of Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico provided 500 city blocks for study. We collected soil from the public space (where present) in front of each house on a selected block; equal measured small volumes of these were combined to produce a composite sample for analysis. Such composite samples (1) decrease, by an order of magnitude, laboratory processing and analysis costs, and (2) smooth the data to represent blocks as averages of individual houses. Retention of the unanalyzed samples of the individual houses permits their later analysis should the composites suggest further study of individual houses on an anomalous block. Elemental analysis of 10 mg pressed powders was performed on a Panalytical Epsilon5 EDS-XRF, via 8 secondary targets and 12 USGS and NIST multi-element rock standards. The mean and (range) of concentration for Pb was 43 (13-550) ppm; for Cr, 31 (1.8-76); for Cu, 22 (6-550); for Zn 84 (42-415) ppm; for Cd, 1.9 (0.1-6.2); and for Sb, 5.9 (2.7-29). The old urban core of Cd. Juarez was marked by high levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn, and, to a smaller degree, of Cd and Sb. This pattern mirrors that of contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA, directly across the narrow Rio Grande. Businesses, industrial facilities, transportation (both railroads and highways), traditional "downtown" shopping, and old residential districts cluster in this urban core. A Pb-Cu-Zn smelter, which operated for more than a century until 1999, is present in the US adjacent to the Rio Grande, about two km away from downtown Cd. Juarez. Thus the city has been subject to both traditional metal sources (e.g., leaded gasoline, highway debris) and smelter emissions. The poplation of Cd. Juarez has exploded in the last few decades to some 1.5 million inhabitants due both to natural growth and in-migration from rural districts for economic opportunity. Most of this growth has been accommodated by radial expansion of the city into the surrounding

  11. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, E. J.-P.; Blanc-Alétru, M.-C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the ``Las Vigas'' and ``La Virgen'' formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five ``stratigraphic'' levels (Σ1-Σ5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the ``Las Vigas'' Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian.

  12. A New Sample Transect through the Sierra Madre Occidental Silicic Large Igneous Province in Southern Chihuahua State, Mexico: First Stratigraphic, Petrologic, and Geochemical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Davila Harris, P.; Brown, S. R.; Anderson, L.; Moreno, N.

    2014-12-01

    We completed a field sampling transect across the northern Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province (SMO) in December 2013. Here we present the first stratigraphic, petrological, and geochemical data from the transect between Hidalgo del Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico. This is the first new transect across the SMO in 25 years and the only one between existing NE - SW transects at Chihuahua - Hermosillo and Durango - Mazatlan. The 245 km-long transect along Mexican Highway 24 crosses the boundary between the extended (Basin and Range) and non-extended (Sierra Madre Occidental plateau) parts of the SMO, and allows sampling of previously undescribed Oligocene (?) - early Miocene (?) rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, and occasional post-rhyolite, Miocene (?) SCORBA basaltic andesite lavas. 54 samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites (40) and lavas (7), and basaltic andesite lavas (7) were sampled along the transect, including 8 canyon sections with more than one unit. The ignimbrites are overwhelming rhyodacitic (plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) or rhyolitic (quartz (+/- sanidine) in additon to plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) and sparsely to highly phyric. Preliminary petrographic (phenocryst abundances) and geochemical (major and trace element) will be presented and compared to existing data from elsewhere in the SMO. Future work will include U-Pb zircon dating and whole rock and in-zircon radiogenic isotopes analyses.

  13. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    1998-01-01

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphie" levels (Z1-Z5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  14. Development of cleaner-burning brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Charles W; Corral, Alba Yadira; Lara, Antonio S

    2007-04-01

    The following results provide a comparison between net airborne contamination produced by the traditional form of kiln used in Northern Mexico and by those modified according to a design by Dr. Robert Marquez. What has become known as the MK style kiln was intended to significantly reduce contaminant emissions. The concept involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. Kilns of a pair are connected via clay brick channels. The roles are reversed after the initial kiln is refilled. Significant reductions in the particulate and gaseous emissions were achieved in the prototype system, but a connectional problem with recent kiln pairs has also limited the degree of operational success. The problem did not mask the potential of the MK kiln, as will be shown. Additional anticipated benefits to the owners of MK kilns, such as reduced operating cycles and decreased quantities of fuel, also have been verified. Key measurements made during all of the burns were of aerosol densities and buoyancies in the flues, kiln temperatures, and, on a number of occasions, chemical analyses of both aerosol and gaseous effluents. Continuous time histories of aerosol densities for most burns (of a total of -40) provide a basis for examining features and the effects of differing styles of operation with respect to burn efficiency and net contaminant masses. Covering the active kiln with a dome produces a net reduction in dry aerosol effluent mass of a factor between 5 and 10, whereas the addition of a filter kiln produces a net reduction of about a factor of 2. The use of used motor oil as a fuel further reduced aerosol contamination by -1 order of magnitude.

  15. Uranium Elemental and Isotopic Constraints on Groundwater Flow Beneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Goldstein; M.T. Murrell; A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit in Chihuahua, Mexico, is an excellent analogue for evaluating the fate of spent fuel, associated actinides, and fission products over long time scales for the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository. In 2003, three groundwater wells were drilled directly adjacent to (PB-1) and 50 m on either side of the uranium deposit (PB-2 and PB-3) in order to evaluate uranium-series transport in three dimensions. After drilling, uranium concentrations were elevated in all of the three wells (0.1-18 ppm) due to drilling activities and subsequently decreased to {approx}5-20% of initial values over the next several months. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were similar for PB-1 and PB-2 (1.005 to 1.079) but distinct for PB-3 (1.36 to 1.83) over this time period, suggesting limited mixing between groundwater from these wells over these short time and length scales. Regional groundwater wells located up to several km from the deposit also have distinct uranium isotopic characteristics and constrain mixing over larger length and time scales. We model the decreasing uranium concentrations in the newly drilled wells with a simple one-dimensional advection-dispersion model, assuming uranium is introduced as a slug to each of the wells and transported as a conservative tracer. Using this model for our data, the relative uranium concentrations are dependent on both the longitudinal dispersion as well as the mean groundwater flow velocity. These parameters have been found to be correlated in both laboratory and field studies of groundwater velocity and dispersion (Klotz et al., 1980). Using typical relationships between velocity and dispersion for field and laboratory studies along with the relationship observed from our uranium data, both velocity (1-10 n/yr) and dispersion coefficient (1E-5 to 1E-2 cm{sup 2}/s) can be derived from the modeling. As discussed above, these relatively small flow velocities and dispersivities agree with

  16. Lung Cancer Mortality and Radon Concentration in a Chronically Exposed Neighborhood in Chihuahua, Mexico: A Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio R. Hinojosa de la Garza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study correlated lung cancer (LC mortality with statistical data obtained from government public databases. In order to asses a relationship between LC deaths and radon accumulation in dwellings, indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive detectors randomly distributed in Chihuahua City. Kriging (K and Inverse-Distance Weighting (IDW spatial interpolations were carried out. Deaths were georeferenced and Moran’s I correlation coefficients were calculated. The mean values (over n=171 of the interpolation of radon concentrations of deceased’s dwellings were 247.8 and 217.1 Bq/m3, for K and IDW, respectively. Through the Moran’s I values obtained, correspondingly equal to 0.56 and 0.61, it was evident that LC mortality was directly associated with locations with high levels of radon, considering a stable population for more than 25 years, suggesting spatial clustering of LC deaths due to indoor radon concentrations.

  17. Lung cancer mortality and radon concentration in a chronically exposed neighborhood in Chihuahua, Mexico: a geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R; Sanín, Luz H; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Serrano Ramirez, Korina Ivette; Martínez Meyer, Enrique; Reyes Cortés, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This study correlated lung cancer (LC) mortality with statistical data obtained from government public databases. In order to asses a relationship between LC deaths and radon accumulation in dwellings, indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive detectors randomly distributed in Chihuahua City. Kriging (K) and Inverse-Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolations were carried out. Deaths were georeferenced and Moran's I correlation coefficients were calculated. The mean values (over n = 171) of the interpolation of radon concentrations of deceased's dwellings were 247.8 and 217.1 Bq/m(3), for K and IDW, respectively. Through the Moran's I values obtained, correspondingly equal to 0.56 and 0.61, it was evident that LC mortality was directly associated with locations with high levels of radon, considering a stable population for more than 25 years, suggesting spatial clustering of LC deaths due to indoor radon concentrations.

  18. Isotopes in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, Texas (USA) and Chihuahua (Mexico): local and general implications for recharge sources in alluvial basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Olivas, Alfredo Granados; Hogan, James F.; Hawley, John; Hutchison, William R.

    2008-06-01

    Stable isotope data for the Hueco Bolson aquifer (Texas, USA and Chihuahua, Mexico) distinguish four water types. Two types relate to recharge from the Rio Grande: pre-dam (pre-1916) river water with oxygen-18 and deuterium (δ18O, δD, ‰) from (-11.9, -90) to (-10.1, -82), contrasts with present-day river water (-8.5, -74) to (-5.3, -56). Pre-dam water is found beneath the Rio Grande floodplain and Ciudad Juárez, and is mixed with post-dam river water beneath the floodplain. Two other types relate to recharge of local precipitation; evidence of temporal change of precipitation isotopes is present in both types. Recharge from the Franklin and Organ Mountains plots between (-10.9, -76) and (-8.5, -60) on the global meteoric water line (GMWL), and is found along the western side of the Hueco Bolson, north of the Rio Grande. Recharge from the Diablo Plateau plots on an evaporation trend originating on the GMWL near (-8.5, -58). This water is found in the southeastern Hueco Bolson, north of the river; evaporation may be related to slow recharge through fine-grained sediment. Pre-dam water, recognizable by isotope composition, provides information on groundwater residence times in this and other dammed river basins.

  19. Genetic and serologic surveillance of rotavirus with P[8] and P[4] genotypes in feces from children in the city of Chihuahua, northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Romo-Sáenz, César I; Menchaca-Rodríguez, Griselda E; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Hernández-Luna, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes S

    2015-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccine was developed using the most prominent G and P genotypes circulating in children population. Therefore, severe gastroenteritis has been reduced around the world. This study investigated the G and P rotavirus genotypes circulating in children from two hospitals in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies against Rotavirus Wa strain were used to determine their homotypic and heterotypic reactivity to both P[8] and P[4] genotypes. G1, G2, and G3 VP7 genotypes and P[8] and P[4] VP4 genotypes were detected in common and uncommon combinations as well as mixed infectious. The predominant combination was G1P[8]. Phylogenetic analysis of VP4 gene revealed the presence of P[8]-1 and P[8]-3 lineages of P[8] genotype and P[4]-5 lineage of P[4] genotype. All but five G1P[8] rotavirus were detected by polyclonal anti-Rotavirus Wa strain. Mutation analysis revealed differences in three of the four neutralizing epitopes previously reported to VP8* subunit of VP4 protein. Results of this study offer insights over genetic variants of field rotavirus that could be detected in a homotypic and heterotypic way by antibodies elicited to rotavirus with P[8] genotype. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):27-32].

  20. A Record of Uranium-Series Transport in Fractured, Unsaturated Tuff at Nopal I, Sierra Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, J.; Goldstein, S. J.; Paviet, P.; Nunn, A. J.; Amato, R. S.; Hinrichs, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize U-series disequilibria measurements to investigate mineral fluid interactions and the role fractures play in the geochemical evolution of an analogue for a high level nuclear waste repository, the Nopal I uranium ore deposit. Samples of fracture-fill materials have been collected from a vertical drill core and surface fractures. High uranium concentrations in these materials (12-7700 ppm) indicate U mobility and transport from the deposit in the past. U concentrations generally decrease with horizontal distance away from the ore deposit but show no trend with depth. Isotopic activity ratios indicate a complicated geochemical evolution in terms of the timing and extent of actinide mobility, possibly due to changing environmental (redox) conditions over the history of the deposit. 234U/238U activity ratios are generally distinct from secular equilibrium and indicate some degree of open system U behavior during the past 1.2 Ma. However, calculated closed system 238U-234U-230Th model ages are generally >313 ka and >183 ka for the surface fracture and drill core samples respectively, suggesting closed system behavior for U and Th over this most recent time period. Whole rock isochrons drawn for the drill core samples show that at two of three depths fractures have remained closed with respect to U and Th mobility for >200 ka. However, open system behavior for U in the last 350 ka is suggested at 67 m depth. 231Pa/235U activity ratios within error of unity suggest closed system behavior for U and Pa for at least the past 185 ka. 226Ra/230Th activity ratios are typically <1 (0.7-1.2), suggesting recent (<8 ka) radium loss and mobility due to ongoing fluid flow in the fractures. Overall, the mainly closed system behavior of U-Th-Pa over the past ~200 ka provides one indicator of the geochemical immobility of these actinides over long time-scales for potential nuclear waste repositories sited in fractured, unsaturated tuff.

  1. Paleomagnetic Study of a Miocene Deformation in a Region Close to the Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogau-Chong, K.; Bohnel, H.; Aranda Gomez, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Sierra the Aguachile is a Miocene volcanic sequence located in the SE of Chihuahua State NW of the Camargo volcanic field and belongs to the Agua Mayo Group, which unconformably overlays Mesozoic calcareous units. The Sierra de Aguachile sequence defines a structure that may be interpreted as a plunging fold, which could be the result of a reactivation of the San Marcos Fault. This major fault is well known more to the east but may extend into the study area where it would be covered by the younger volcanic sequences; its main activity has been reported to be during the the Neocomian with reactivation phases in the Paleogene and Miocene. To test if the observed structure is the result of a tectonic deformation that happened after the emplacement of the volcanic sequence, a paleomagnetic study was carried out. A total of 14 sites were sampled from different parts of the structure, all in the capping ignimbrite layers. Site mean directions were determined using AF demagnetization. The fold test was applied to analyze if the remanence was acquired in situ or before the proposed folding. Precision parameters k before and after application of the tectonic corrections are 25.38 and 31.43, respectively. This indicates that the Sierra de Aguachile indeed was folded after emplacement of the ignimbrites, which restricts the age of the corresponding tectonic event to be younger than 31.3 +/- 0.7 Ma. Due to the gentle folding though, the difference in precision parameters is not significant at the 95% probability level.

  2. Leaching Behavior of Slags from AN Old Lead Smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico: Metals, Chlorides, Nitrates, Sulfates and Tds Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Waste materials (such as, smelter slags, waste glass, tires, plastics, rubbish, ashes, etc.), have a large potential to substitute natural materials, reducing costs, especially for the construction industry. Smelter slags are resistant and have better compression strength values in comparison to natural aggregates, and generally are far beyond of what the standard ratios need to qualify a material as a good one for construction. But this material has a big problem within it: the existence of toxic elements and compounds in high concentrations, which means that water and soil contamination can be present after water infiltrates through this material; so we perform leaching experiments to characterize and measure the possible contamination under controlled conditions. To perform the slags-leaching experiments, we used an EA-NEN-7375-2004 tank test standard from Netherlands. This test was selected because to our knowledge it is the only one which allows the use of coarse material, as the one utilized in construction. The leaching experiments sampling was performed at different times: 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours, to compare the leachate concentration at the two different pH's values (5 and 8) selected to simulate real conditions. For the leaching experiments, the slags were mixed with natural road base material (gravel-sands from volcanic rocks) at different proportions of 30% and 50%. In order to understand the slags' leaching behavior, other experiments were carried out with the pure material, for both (slags and natural aggregates). After analyses by ICP-OES , the slags from this smelter in Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%), as well such as: bicarbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, Mg, K, Na, Ca and TDS. Based on the results of the leaching analyses, via atomic absorption technique, we conclude that Pb and As concentrations are provided by the slags, meanwhile, the bicarbonates, chlorides, Na and Ca are contributed by the road

  3. Structural and biological control of the Cenozoic epithermal uranium concentrations from the Sierra Peña Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Fayek, Mostafa; Power, Ian M.; Camacho, Alfredo; Calas, Georges; Southam, Gordon

    2012-12-01

    Epithermal uranium deposits of the Sierra Peña Blanca are classic examples of volcanic-hosted deposits and have been used as natural analogs for radionuclide migration in volcanic settings. We present a new genetic model that incorporates both geochemical and tectonic features of these deposits, including one of the few documented cases of a geochemical signature of biogenic reducing conditions favoring uranium mineralization in an epithermal deposit. Four tectono-magmatic faulting events affected the volcanic pile. Uranium occurrences are associated with breccia zones at the intersection of fault systems. Periodic reactivation of these structures associated with Basin and Range and Rio Grande tectonic events resulted in the mobilization of U and other elements by meteoric fluids heated by geothermal activity. Focused along breccia zones, these fluids precipitated under reducing conditions several generations of pyrite and uraninite together with kaolinite. Oxygen isotopic data indicate a low formation temperature of uraninite, 45-55°C for the uraninite from the ore body and ˜20°C for late uraninite hosted by the underlying conglomerate. There is geochemical evidence for biological activity being at the origin of these reducing conditions, as shown by low δ34S values (˜-24.5‰) in pyrites and the presence of low δ13C (˜-24‰) values in microbial patches intimately associated with uraninite. These data show that tectonic activity coupled with microbial activity can play a major role in the formation of epithermal uranium deposits in unusual near-surface environments.

  4. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  5. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  6. Uranium-rich opal from the Nopal I uranium deposit, Peña Blanca, Mexico: Evidence for the uptake and retardation of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael; Fayek, Mostafa; Hawthorne, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit of the Sierra Peña Blanca, Mexico, has been the focus of numerous studies because of its economic importance and its use as a natural analog for nuclear-waste disposal in volcanic tuff. Secondary uranyl minerals such as uranophane, Ca[(UO 2)(SiO 3OH)] 2(H 2O) 5, and weeksite, (K,Na) 2[(UO 2) 2(Si 5O 13)](H 2O) 3, occur in the vadose zone of the deposit and are overgrown by silica glaze. These glazes consist mainly of opal A, which contains small particles of uraninite, UO 2, and weeksite. Close to a fault between brecciated volcanic rocks and welded tuff, a greenish silica glaze coats the altered breccia. Yellow silica glazes from the center of the breccia pipe and from the high-grade pile coat uranyl-silicates, predominantly uranophane and weeksite. All silica glazes are strongly zoned with respect to U and Ca, and the distribution of these elements indicates curved features and spherical particles inside the coatings. The concentrations of U and Ca correlate in the different zones and both elements inversely correlate with the concentration of Si. Zones within the silica glazes contain U and Ca in a 1:1 ratio with maximum concentrations of 0.08 and 0.15 at.% for the greenish and yellow glazes, respectively, suggesting trapping of either Ca 1U 1-aqueous species or -particles in the colloidal silica. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and oxygen-isotope ratios measured by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) indicate higher U 6+/U 4+ ratios, higher proportions of Si-OH groups and lower δ 18O values for the greenish silica glaze than for the yellow silica glaze. These differences in composition reflect increasing brecciation, porosity, and permeability from the center of the breccia pipe (yellow silica glaze) toward the fault (green silica glaze), where the seepage of meteoric water and Eh are higher.

  7. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  8. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell

    2005-07-11

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that

  9. Niveles ambientales de las PM2.5 y distancia a una vía de alto tránsito en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México Environmental PM2.5 levels and distance from a heavy traffic road in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar los niveles de las PM2.5 a diferentes distancias de una vía de alto tránsito. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron mediciones diarias de PM2.5, del 26 al 30 de agosto de 2002, a diferentes distancias de la avenida Tecnológico, en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Se hizo estadística descriptiva para cada distancia considerada y análisis de las pruebas no paramédicas de Kruskal Wallis y de tendencias cruzadas en grupos ordenados. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una tendencia de decremento significativa de la mediana de las PM2.5 conforme se aleja el punto de medición de la avenida Tecnológico (pOBJECTIVE: To assess PM2.5 levels at different distances from a heavy traffic road. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Daily measurements of PM2.5 were taken between August 26 and 30, 2002, at different distances from Tecnológico Avenue in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics for each distance and Kruskal Wallis and cross trend for ranks. RESULTS: We found a significantly decreasing trend of PM2.5 median levels with increasing distance from Tecnológico Avenue (p< 0.001. At 100 m distance from the avenue, PM2.5 levels decreased by 9.5 µg/m3 (40.6% when compared to median levels registered on the avenue. The results showed a highly significant negative correlation between PM2.5 measurements and the distance from the avenue (r=-0.70, n=20 and p=0.0005. CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 median levels decreased significantly after 100 meters from heavy traffic roads. These results are of great relevance when assessing exposure to PM2.5 in epidemiological studies.

  10. Historic and Current Distributions of River Otters (Lontra canadensis and (Lontra longicaudis in the Río Grande or Río Bravo del Norte Drainage of Colorado and New Mexico, USA and of Chihuahua, Mexico and Adjacent Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Polechla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Río Grande drainage is an important and imperiled wetland of the US/Mexican border arid lands. There is a desire to restore otter populations in this river by interested parties. In order to follow IUCN guidelines for restoration, biologists need learn more fully the situation prior to implementation of restoration management. A prerequisite for proper restoration conservation is to know the organism’s taxonomy (i.e., what taxa or species and subspecies one is dealing with, distribution, and relative abundance. The historic and current distribution of the Nearctic otter (Lontra canadensis and Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis in the borderlands of US and Mexico are reviewed in this paper. The evidence indicates that otters were native to the Río Grande valley and has been recorded in the languages and customs of Native Americans such as the Pueblo people prior to European settlement of the area. The first Spanish documents we were able to find whereby otters were recorded, date to the middle 16th century. Otters during historical times were probably more numerous than previously thought and one of the first wildlife laws in the borderlands revolved around a moratorium on trapping the otter and beaver. Presently, populations of otters occur in 1 the Río San Pedro of Chihuahua, a tributary of the Río Conchos entering the Río Grande from the southeast, 2 the upper Río Grande near the Colorado/New Mexico border, and 3 the middle Pecos River in southeastern New Mexico entering the Río Grande from the west. These observations are corroborated by multiple observations by competent observers and in the case of the first population, otter photos and sign. These populations are centered on areas with macro-habitats characterized by a river flowing through 1 deep canyons, or 2 ancillary wetlands. Considerable more detailed survey work is needed to determine the full extent of the distribution of otters in the Río Grande drainage. A genetic

  11. Determination of Rn{sup 222} in samples of well water and domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, Mexico; Determinacion de Rn{sup 222} en muestras de agua de pozos y domicilio de las ciudades de Chihuahua y Aldama, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav. edu. mx

    2004-07-01

    The study of the content of dissolved Rn{sup 222} is presented in underground water and of domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama of the State of Chihuahua. The existence of the Rn{sup 222} in the underground waters comes from its constant production in the rocks of the terrestrial bark. It has been determined that the radon is a noble gas of more solubility in the water, this solubility induces high concentrations in underground water, as well as bigger risk to the health in the human body once ingested or inhaled. Of the 32 wells studied in the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, the content of dissolved Rn{sup 222} in the water of 22 of them is bigger than 11 Bq/l and of 73 studied samples of water of domiciles 47 show bigger values that 11 Bq/l. These radon contents are attributable to the uraniferous rocks present in the aquifers. (Author)

  12. Pena blanca natural analogue project: summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Schon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill core. Datafrom site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  13. Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Project: Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.; Goldstein, S.; Dobson, P.F.; Goodell, P.; Ku, T.-L.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Saulnier, G.; Fayek, M.; de la Garza, R.

    2011-02-01

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill cores. Data from site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  14. Comentarios a la tesis en curso de la maestría en ingeniería ambiental de la Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez (UACJ) que elabora la Ing. Quím. Esmeralda Cervantes Rendón para la Creación de la Biblioteca Virtual Ambiental de Chihuahua en el Colegio de Chihuahua, en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México

    OpenAIRE

    Muela-Meza, Zapopan Martín

    2007-01-01

    This document includes through 14 pages the main comments made by the author to the ongoing thesis of the Environmental Engineering Master Degree program at the Ciudad Juarez Autonomous University (UACJ) being conducted by Ms. Esmeralda Cervantes Rendon, undergraduate in Chemical Engineering for the Creation of a Virtual [sic] Environmental Library of the Mexican state of Chihuahua at the College of Chihuahua Research Centre in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico which belongs to the nationwide ...

  15. Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil, radon-222 indoor and drinking water concentrations and dose assessment in the city of Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E; Villalba, L; Rentería Villalobos, M; Torres Moye, E; García León, M; García-Tenorio, R; Mireles García, F; Herrera Peraza, E F; Sánchez Aroche, D

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution gamma spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in soil samples taken from areas surrounding the city of Aldama, in Chihuahua. Results of indoor air short-time sampling, with diffusion barrier charcoal detectors, revealed relatively high indoor radon levels, ranging from 29 to 422 Bq/m3; the radon concentrations detected exceeded 148 Bq/m3 in 76% of the homes tested. Additionally, liquid scintillation counting showed concentrations of radon in drinking water ranging from 4.3 to 42 kBq/m3. The high activity of 238U in soil found in some places may be a result of the uranium milling process performed 20 years ago in the area. High radon concentrations indoor and in water may be explained by assuming the presence of uranium-bearing rocks underneath of the city, similar to a felsic dike located near Aldama. The estimated annual effective dose of gamma radiation from the soil and radon inhalation was 3.83 mSv.

  16. A predictable suite of helminth parasites in the long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus, from the Chihuahua desert in Texas and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, Albert G; Ortiz, Rafael; Canaris, Gay J

    2010-12-01

    Eighty-eight long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus, were examined for helminth parasites, 62 from Texas and 26 from Mexico. In total, 3,558 helminth parasites were obtained from this host, 2,273 from Texas birds and 1,285 from birds from Mexico. The component communities consisted of 22 species of helminths in Texas, and 19 in Mexico. Of a total of 26 helminth species recorded from the 2 localities, 15 were common to both, 7 found only in Texas, and 4 only in Mexico. Fifty-nine of 62 Texas birds and 25 of 26 birds from Mexico were infected. The most prevalent helminth for Texas was the cestode Shipleya inermis. The cestode Aploparaksis retroversa was the most abundant, accounting for 37% of the total abundance, and was second highest in prevalence. Five species of cestodes, A. retroversa, Aploparaksis diagonalis, Aploparaksis occidentalis, Aploparaksis rissae, and Shipleya inermis accounted for 79% of total abundance. In the sample from Mexico, S. inermis was also highest in prevalence, followed by the nematode Hystrichis tricolor. The cestode A. retroversa was highest in abundance at 50% of the total, and was third highest in prevalence. Mean species richness, diversity, and evenness were similar among the component communities of Texas and Mexico. A predictable suite of aploparaksid cestodes, together with the cestode S. inermis, constituted 79%, and 61%, of total abundance for the component communities of Texas and Mexico, respectively, and were present in all component communities for locality, season, and year. The cestodes, A. retroversa and S. inermis, were the dominant species in all component communities. Differences among component communities and low similarities for all other comparisons were largely caused by less predictable suites of helminth species. A checklist of helminth parasites reported for long-billed dowitchers is included.

  17. FINAL REPORT OF THE PEÑA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Steven Joel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Levy, Schon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (retired); Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (formerly); Amato, Ronald S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anthony, Elizabeth [University of Texas at El Paso, Chemisty Division; Cook, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division; Dobson, Patrick F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Department of Geological Sciences; French, Diana [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geology; Garza, Rodrigo de [Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingeniería; Ghezzehei, Teamrat [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division; Goodell, Philip C. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geology; Harder, Steven H. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geology; Ku, Teh-Lung [University of Southern California, Department of Earth Sciences; Luo, Shangde [University of Southern California, Department of Earth Sciences; Murrell, Michael Tildon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norman, Deborah E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunn, Andrew J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oliver, Ronald [Los Alamos National Laboratory (formerly); Pekar-Carpenter, Katrina [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geology; Rearick, Michael Sean [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ren, Minghua [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geology; Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingeniería; Pineda, Jose Alfredo [El Instituto de Ecología (INECOL), México; Saulnier, George [AREVA Federal Services LLC; Tarimala, Sowmitri [Los Alamos National Laboratory (formerly); Walton, John [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geology

    2016-10-04

    The Peña Blanca region, 50 km north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, México, was a target of uranium exploration and mining by the Mexican government. After mining ceased in 1981, researchers became interested in this region as a study area for subsurface uranium migration with relevance to geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Many studies related to this concept were conducted at the Nopal I mine site located on a cuesta (hill) of the Sierra Peña Blanca. This site has geologic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geochemical similarities to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a formerly proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), sponsored studies at Nopal I in the 1990s and supported the drilling of three research wells – PB1, PB2, and PB3 – at the site in 2003. Beginning in 2004, the Peña Blanca Natural Analogue Project was undertaken by U.S. DOE, OCRWM to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the transport of uranium and its radiogenic daughter products at the Nopal I site.

  18. Final report of the Peña Blanca natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Schön S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goldstein, Steven Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Amato, Ronald S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anthony, Elizabeth [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Cook, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Patrick F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fayek, Mostafa [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); French, Diana [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Garza, Rodrigo de [Univ. Autonoma de Chihuahua (Mexico); Ghezzehei, Teamrat [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goodell, Philip C. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Harder, Steven H. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Ku, Teh-Lung [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Luo, Shangde [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Murrell, Michael Tildon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norman, Deborah E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nunn, Andrew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliver, Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pekar-Carpenter, Katrina [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Rearick, Michael Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ren, Minghua [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio [Univ. Autonoma de Chihuahua (Mexico); Pineda, Jose Alfredo [El Instituto de Ecologia (INECOL) (Mexico); Saulnier, George [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Tarimala, Sowmitri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Walton, John [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-10-04

    The Peña Blanca region, 50 km north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, México, was a target of uranium exploration and mining by the Mexican government. After mining ceased in 1981, researchers became interested in this region as a study area for subsurface uranium migration with relevance to geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Many studies related to this concept were conducted at the Nopal I mine site located on a cuesta (hill) of the Sierra Peña Blanca. This site has geologic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geochemical similarities to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a formerly proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), sponsored studies at Nopal I in the 1990s and supported the drilling of three research wells – PB1, PB2, and PB3 – at the site in 2003. Beginning in 2004, the Peña Blanca Natural Analogue Project was undertaken by U.S. DOE, OCRWM to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the transport of uranium and its radiogenic daughter products at the Nopal I site.

  19. Corima: A Bilingual Experiment in the Tarahumara Region in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. How Does It Measure against Transitional Bilingual Programs in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Mario A.

    This report explores two bilingual educational approaches currently in use in Mexico and the United States. The study pursues a limited comparison between two modalities of bilingual instruction, as observed and reported in the consulted literature. The U.S. model featured is known as the two-way bilingual model, an additive approach to…

  20. Blanca Uribe e Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Artunduaga, Juan Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo trata del estudio y trabajo discográfico realizado por la pianista colombiana Blanca Uribe sobre la suite Iberia de Isaac Albéniz, con el cual recibió el premio Albéniz en Camprodón (España) y que evidencia el altísimo nivel musical, compromiso y respeto por una de las obras emblemáticas de la música española y quizá una de las más difíciles del repertorio pianístico de todos los tiempos -- Es el reconocimiento escrito a una vida dedicada al piano y sus consecuencias a...

  1. Short communication: characterization of microflora in Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renye, J A; Somkuti, G A; Van Hekken, D L; Guerrero Prieto, V M

    2011-07-01

    This work was performed to identify the bacterial species present in 10 Chihuahua cheeses obtained from commercial producers in Mexico using 16S rRNA gene analysis. As expected, some of the agar media initially used for isolation were not very selective, supporting the growth of several unrelated bacterial species. Sequence analysis identified potential pathogens, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, in all raw milk samples and 2 pasteurized milk samples. Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis were identified in 9 and 6 samples, respectively, and would serve as acidifying agents during cheese production. Lactobacilli were identified in all cheeses, with the most prevalent being Lactobacillus plantarum identified in 7 raw milk and 1 pasteurized milk cheeses. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Streptococcus macedonicus were identified in 4 raw milk cheeses and both were present in all pasteurized milk samples, suggesting that they may play a role in the development of traditional Chihuahua cheese attributes.

  2. Morbilidad infantil por causas respiratorias y su relación con la contaminación atmosférica en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México Infant morbidity caused by respiratory diseases and its relation with the air pollution in Juarez City, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Hernández-Cadena

    2007-02-01

    de control de la contaminación atmosférica para evitar que empeore la situación actual.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of atmospheric pollutants on the respiratory health of children of different age groups in Juarez City, Chihuahua, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on emergency room visits between 1997 and 2001 for respiratory diseases in children less than 17 years old were obtained from hospitals in the Juarez City belonging to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS. Diseases were classified into three groups according to ICD 9th and 10th codes: a upper respiratory diseases, b lower respiratory diseases, and c asthma attacks. This information was stratified by age group (5 years. Daily air pollution data (ozone and PM10 and weather conditions were obtained from the Monitoring Network System in Juarez City. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Generalized Additive Model assuming a Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Ozone concentrations, but not PM10, were statistically associated with emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, mainly among children 5 years old or younger. In this group, an increase of 20 ppb 1-hr maximum for ozone was associated with an increase of 8.3% in the number of emergency room visits for upper respiratory diseases, with a 3-day exposure lag; and an increase of 12.7% in the number of emergency room visits for lower respiratory diseases when considering a 4-day exposure lag in a maximum 8-hr mobile average. The largest effect for the complete sample and for the group 6 to 16 years of age was observed for 3-day lag (5.1% for an increase of 20 ppb 1-hr maximum for ozone. For the 6 to16 year old group we did not find a significant effect. CONCLUSION: The wide range of risk is quite important and might represent a substantial cost for the health system as well as for the society. Our results emphasize the need to implement preventive and control measures for air pollution and avoid the worsening of the present situation.

  3. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raysoni, Amit U., E-mail: auraysoni@miners.utep.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Garcia, Jose Humberto [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32470 (Mexico); Holguin, Fernando [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Flores Luevano, Silvia [Interdisciplinary Health Science Ph.D. Program, College of Health Sciences, The University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Li, Wen-Whai [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO{sub 2} appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: > First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. > Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10-2.5}, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO{sub 2} for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. > Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. > Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. > Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  4. [National Program of Continuous Academic Development for the General Physician (PRONADAMEG). The Chihuahua City experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martínez, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to report on the experience obtained during 8 years of the Programa Nacional de Actualización y Desarrollo Académico para el Medico General (PRONADAMEG) in Chihuahua City in Northern Mexico. During this period, 276 general physicians enrolled in PRONADAMEG and 140 concluded their training, with end effectiveness of 50.7%.

  5. The character of Queso Chihuahua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeting consumer demand for safe, high quality Hispanic-style cheese is problematic for cheese makers because of the lack of data on the quality traits of many of these cheeses. Our research on the Mexican cheese Queso Chihuahua (QC) determined many factors that influenced its quality traits and hel...

  6. Determining Deep Basin Structure of the Hueco and southern Mesilla Bolsons, West Texas, Southern New Mexico and Northern Chihuahua Using Nonseismic Geophysical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Avila, V.; Budhathoki, P.; Marrufo, S.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.; Moncada, M.; Dena Ornelas, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Hueco and southern Mesilla bolsons are the primary groundwater source for much of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez metropolitan region of over 1 million residents. The bolsons lie at the point where the strike of the southern Rio Grande rift changes from north-south to northwest-southeast, likely due to its interaction with pre-existing Mesozoic and Paleozoic structures. Tectonic activity continues with recent (< 750,000 years) movement along basin bounding and low level (M<4) seismicity. Over the past 4 years we have been using a conjunction of microgravity, magnetic, water well logs and electrical resistivity studies to image the complex structure of these basins within a heavily urbanized environment. These studies suggest the presence of several northwest-southeast striking cross faults within the southern Mesilla Bolson as well as an extensive subsurface andesite body related to the Cristo Rey laccolith. Intrabasin faults in the Hueco Bolson appear to cut the basin into at least 3 smaller subbasins and to control the boundary between fresh and saline water within the aquifer system beneath El Paso. We are also able to trace the East Franklins Mountain fault (last movement < 15,000 ya) at least 15 km south of the U.S.-Mexico border.

  7. BLANCA (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Barragán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La variación de las técnicas de cultivo de linfocitos y de bandeo cromosómico, según las especies y condiciones de laboratorio, hace que sea indispensable estandarizarlas para la especie objeto de estudio, con el fin de obtener mejores resultados. Se realizaron 71 cultivos de linfocitos de 10 venados cola blanca en cautiverio con diferentes variables para realizar la estandarización del cultivo de linfocitos (siembra y cosecha a partir de la técnica de Moorehead et al. (1960, adaptada a linfocitos bovinos, para la estandarización de las técnicas de bandeo cromosómico. La valoración de los protocolos se realizó mediante la evaluación del índice mitótico (IM, la eficiencia del mitógeno (EM y la morfología más adecuada de las metafases. Se estableció que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con un período de incubación de 70 horas, temperatura de 37,5ºC y tiempo de hipotónica de 38 minutos. El resto de condiciones fueron similares a las del bovino. Con los protocolos para bandas G, C, R y NOR adaptados en el Laboratorio de Citogenética se obtuvieron buenos resultados, con algunas modificaciones.

  8. Natural radioactivity in soils of the main cities of the State of Chihuahua; Radiactividad natural en suelos de las principales ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E.; Villalba, L. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2003-07-01

    The state of Chihuahua counts with at least 56 uranium zones or of minerals associated to this, being Pena Blanca the greatest and more important deposit of the country. Some of the main cities of the state are near to these deposits, as Aldama and Chihuahua. Its were took samples of soil of 11 cities of the state to determine the natural activity of radionuclides. It was determined the specific activity attributable to the parents of the series of {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th, and of the {sup 40} K isotopes, as well as effective dose rate H{sub E} in the soil samples. It was used the high resolution gamma spectrometry of a high purity Ge detector in the laboratory of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the CIMAV. The measure of the activity of the uranium series carries out by means of the lines of 351 KeV of the {sup 214} Pb and of 609 keV of the {sup 214} Bi, while the thorium series it was deduced of the lines of 238 keV of the {sup 212} Pb and of 912 keV of the {sup 228} Ac. Its were carried out copies and replies for the quality control. Its were found high values of specific activity of some radionuclides, in the near cities to uranium deposits like Aldama and Chihuahua. For the cities that are not near to deposits, as Ciudad Juarez and Ojinaga, the found values were normal. Also the effective dose rate was high for the near cities to deposits like Aldama, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, Jimenez and Nuevo Casas Grandes, it is also necessary to determine, the radon in air levels and of radionuclides in consumption water to obtain the dose that the population of those populations receives. (Author)

  9. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico; Calculo del blindaje estructural de la sala de tratamiento de radioterapia equipada con un acelerador lineal del tipo Tomotherapy Hi-Art en el Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, C. A. [Southwest Oncology Centers, North Civic Center Plaza No. 2926, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Plascencia, J. C. [Centro Oncologico Louis and Lucille Grado, Republica del Peru No. 102-5, Col. Americas, Aguascalientes (Mexico); Vargas V, M. X.; Toledo J, P., E-mail: cabshm@msn.co [Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza No. 6304, Fracc. Cima Comercial, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    therapy. In this work these specific methodologies are used for the structural shielding calculations of the tomo therapy equipment installed in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua. These calculation methodologies consider the primary radiation, of leakage, disperse, second dispersion and leakage dispersion. The obtained results indicate that due to the lead barrier of the primary beam, the main component that contributes to the shielding requirements of the installation is the leakage radiation. On the other hand, the component that more affects of the door shielding is the dispersion component in the patient. (Author)

  10. Border Environmental Education Resource Guide: Southern New Mexico, South Texas, Northern Chihuahua, Northern Coahuila, Northern Nuevo Leon, Northern Tamaulipas = Guia de Recursos de Educacion Ambiental en la Frontera: Sur de Nuevo Mexico, Sur de Texas, Norte de Chihuahua, Norte de Coahuila, Norte de Nuevo Leon, Norte de Tamaulipas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, David, Comp.

    This guide provides educators and residents of the border with useful information about environmental education program offerings along the eastern half of the United States-Mexico border. The programs listed in the guide represent a broad range of educational efforts focused on understanding the environment and solving environmental problems in…

  11. Identification and Mapping of the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence in the State of Chihuahua Assisted by ten ArcMap Based Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pina, C.; Granados, A.; Goodell, P.

    2007-05-01

    Edwards Formation is a reef limestone that hosts one of the largest aquifers of the State of Texas. In 2004 the United States and Mexico signed an agreement intended to characterize and identify the shared binational underground resources. Texas Water Development Board Report 360 established for the Edwards Aquifer an area of more than 31,000 km2, half of which is in the State of Coahuila, Mexico (the agreement did not include the State of Chihuahua). This led to the idea that Chihuahua may also have hydrologic potential in the Edwards equivalent, where numerous large cavern systems are already recognized (Naica's Sword Cavern, and the Coyame, Nombre de Dios and Bocagrande Caverns). The objective of this study is to establish the existence, in the State of Chihuahua, of the stratigraphic sequence and geohydrologic properties such as faulting, sinkholes, and springs, within the Edwards equivalent. The Consejo de Recursos Minerales geologic map, INEGI's hydrologic study, petroleum, mining and hydrogeology studies of Chihuahua, and many others, constitute the database used. ArcMap is used to define the geologic framework and construct different thematic layers (structural, lithological, hydrological) that would aid in the identification of the stratigraphic sequence. The results show that all the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence (ESS) exists in Chihuahua; that there are isolated areas of groundwater production in eastern Chihuahua possibly from ESS but this is not well established. Overall the ESS presents an unusual opportunity as a potentially productive aquifer in the State of Chihuahua.

  12. Crustal extension and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up in the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions, northern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bryan Patrick

    Silicic large igneous provinces are significant in the geologic record, due to their unusually extensive areal coverage (>100,000 km2) and large volumes (>250,000 km3), and may be characteristic of continental regions undergoing broad lithospheric extension. The Sierra Madre Occidental of northwestern Mexico is the biggest and best-preserved silicic large igneous province of the Cenozoic and is considered part of the extensive mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up that affected much of the southwestern North American Cordillera. Despite its size and preservation, very little is known about the geology of the Sierra Madre Occidental, and the timing and spatial extent of ignimbrite flare-up volcanism in relation to crustal extension is relatively unknown. This study presents new geologic mapping, stratigraphy, zircon U-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS dating, modal analysis, and geochemical data from the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions, two adjacent areas of the northern Sierra Madre Occidental in western Chihuahua. The rock exposure and topographic relief in this previously unmapped ~450 km2 area make it ideal for studying the relationships between silicic large igneous province volcanism and crustal extension. Three informal formations are identified in the study area: (1) the ca. 27.5 Ma Parajes formation, a ~1-km-thick succession of primarily welded silicic outflow ignimbrite sheets erupted from sources within ~50--100 km of the study area that were active during the Early Oligocene pulse of the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up; (2) the ca. 27--24.5 Ma Temoris formation, composed primarily of locally erupted mafic-intermediate lavas and associated intrusions with interbedded alluvial deposits, likely related to rocks of the Southern Cordillera basaltic andesite province that were intermittently erupted across all of the northern Sierra Madre Occidental following the Early Oligocene ignimbrite pulse; and (3) the ca. 24.5--23 Ma Sierra Guazapares

  13. Gallbladder agenesis in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamishina, Hiroaki; Katayama, Masaaki; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Jun; Chiba, Satoshi; Goryo, Masanobu; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun

    2010-07-01

    A 4-year-old neutered male Chihuahua was presented with a history of anorexia and vomiting. Continuous elevation of liver enzymes was found on repeated blood examinations and the dog was referred to us for further evaluation. The absence of gallbladder was suspected on ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy and retrograde cholangiography confirmed gallbladder agenesis and a possible hypoplasia of the right medial and lateral liver lobes. Histologically, proliferation of bile ductules associated with portal fibrosis and pseudolobular formation were apparent in the liver lobes.

  14. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  15. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Chihuahua-Sinaloa border region in northern Mexico: Insights from zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granodiorite intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Goodell, Philip C.; Feinstein, Michael Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    We present the whole-rock geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granodioritic plutons at the southwestern boundary of Chihuahua with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora. These granodiorites are exposed in the north and south of the Rio El Fuerte in southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. The magmatism spans over a time period of 37 Ma from 90 to 53 Ma. Zircons are exclusively magmatic with strong oscillatory zoning. No inheritance of any age has been observed. Our new U-Pb dating ( 250 analyses) does not support the involvement of older basement lithologies in the generation of the granitic magmas. The U-Pb apatite ages from granodiorites in southwest Chihuahua vary from 52 to 70 Ma. These apatite ages are 1 to 20 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages, suggesting variable cooling rates from very fast to 15 °C/Ma ( 800 °C to 500 °C) and shallow to moderate emplacement depths. In contrast, U-Pb apatite ages from the Sinaloa batholith are restricted from 64 to 61 Ma and are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb ages range from 67 to 60 Ma within the error, indicating rapid cooling and very shallow emplacement. However, one sample from El Realito showed a larger difference of 20 Ma in zircon-apatite age pair: zircon 80 ± 0.8 Ma and apatite 60.6 ± 4 Ma, suggesting a slower cooling rate of 15 °C/Ma. The weighted mean initial εHf (t) isotope composition (2σ) of granodiorites varies from + 1.8 to + 5.2. The radiogenic Hf isotope composition coupled with previous Sr-Nd isotope data demonstrates a significant shift from multiple crustal sources in the Sonoran batholithic belt to the predominant contribution of the mantle-derived magmas in the southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. Based on U-Pb ages, the absence of inheritance, typical high Th/U ratio and radiogenic Hf isotope composition, we suggest that the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from

  16. Mexican Queso Chihuahua: functional properties of aging cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D W; Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Tomasula, P M; Molina-Corral, F J; Gardea, A A

    2011-09-01

    Queso Chihuahua, a semi-hard cheese manufactured from raw milk (RM) in northern Mexico, is being replaced by pasteurized milk (PM) versions because of food safety concerns and the desire for longer shelf life. In this study, the functional traits of authentic Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from RM or PM were characterized to identify sources of variation and to determine if pasteurization of the cheese milk resulted in changes to the functional properties. Two brands of RM cheese and 2 brands of PM cheese obtained in 3 seasons of the year from 4 manufacturers in Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of storage at 4°C. A color measurement spectrophotometer was used to collect color data before and after heating at 232°C for 5 min or 130°C for 75 min. Meltability was measured using the Schreiber Melt Test on samples heated to 232°C for 5 min. Sliceability (the force required to cut through a sample) was measured using a texture analyzer fitted with a wire cutter attachment. Proteolysis was tracked using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Compared with PM cheeses, RM cheeses showed less browning upon heating, melted more at 232°C, and initially required a greater cutting force. With aging, cheeses increased in meltability, decreased in whiteness when measured before heating, and required less cutting force to slice. Seasonal variations in the cheesemilk had minimal or no effect on the functional properties. The differences in the functional properties can be attributed, in part, to the mixed microflora present in the RM cheeses compared with the more homogeneous microflora added during the manufacture of PM cheeses. The degree of proteolysis and subsequent integrity of the cheese matrix contribute to melt, slice, and color properties of the RM and PM cheeses. Understanding the functional properties of the authentic RM cheeses will help researchers and cheesemakers develop pasteurized versions that maintain the traditional traits desired in the

  17. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  18. Entrevista a Blanca Castellón

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Entrevista a Blanca Castellón, Vicepresidenta de la Fundación Festival Internacional de Poesía de Granada acerca de la organización y función social del festival. Fil: Ríos, María del Pilar. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Tucumán. Instituto de Investigaciones Sobre El Lenguaje y la Cultura; Argentina

  19. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  20. Neumopericardio debido a herida por arma blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Merino Barrera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hombre de 24 años de edad que ingresó en el hospital debido a una herida por arma blanca penetrante en el hemitórax derecho. La herida, de 3 cm a nivel de la piel, se localizaba a nivel del segundo espacio intercostal derecho y la radiografía de tórax demostró un neumotórax del mismo lado y una colección radiotransparente, por debajo del pericardio parietal, desde el origen de los grandes vasos hasta la porción apical del ventrículo izquierdo.

  1. y Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro Arzaluz Solano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la aplicación del Programa Hábitat, diseñado por el Gobierno de Vicente Fox en 2002, en dos ciudades fronterizas: Nogales, Sonora, y Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. Se analiza la implantación del programa atendiendo sus particularidades, entre otros aspectos, se señalan los diferentes agentes que intervinieron en la ejecución de Hábitat, que pese a la claridad de las reglas, fueron diferentes en cada caso. También, las forma s de participación ciudadana promovidas por los gobiernos locales en ambos casos. Se presentan una reflexión final sobre el desarrollo de Hábitat en la frontera norte, y algunas recomendaciones.

  2. Helminth parasites of the bufflehead duck, Bucephala albeola, wintering in the Chihuahua Desert with a checklist of helminth parasites reported from this host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Beverly W; Canaris, A G

    2009-02-01

    The bufflehead duck (Bucephala albeola) (Mergini) ranges from Alaska and Canada to the United States and Mexico. Buffleheads ingest invertebrates as a major component of their food throughout life. Puddle ducks (Anatinae) change mainly to vegetable foods at an early age. Loss of helminth parasite species and abundance in the fall migration has been reported for puddle ducks. This change in food has been hypothesized to cause some of the parasite loss. Nothing was known about helminth community dynamics in wintering buffleheads, including possible loss of helminths evident in puddle ducks. Helminth communities of the buffleheads were compared between wintering localities in the Chihuahua Desert of Texas and Mexico and to results from a nesting locality in Manitoba, Canada. There were no significant differences for average helminth species richness, prevalence, or abundance between the nesting and wintering grounds. Replenishment of helminths occurred in wintering buffleheads, and abundance of some helminth species increased significantly over time. The majority of helminth life cycles were indirect. These results were mostly related to the bufflehead's continued ingestion of invertebrate foods. Seven of the 41 helminth species present in buffleheads were in common to the 3 localities. Helminth community similarities between Manitoba and Texas and Manitoba and Mexico were much lower than similarity between Texas and Mexico. The dissimilarities were mostly attributable to differences in habitats but may also indicate loss of helminth species with subsequent infections with other species. The component community of the bufflehead from the Chihuahua Desert in Texas (n = 41) consisted of 23 species of helminths (10 species of cestodes, 7 trematodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) for a total of 4,008 individual specimens. Cestodes accounted for 69% of the total abundance. The component community of B. albeola from the Chihuahua Desert in Mexico (n = 26) consisted

  3. Correlation of the activity of the {sup 238} U in soil and {sup 222} Rn in domiciles, with the rocks of cities of the Estado de Chihuahua; Correlacion de la actividad del {sup 238} U en suelo y {sup 222} Rn en domicilios, con las rocas de ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Montero C, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120 C.P. 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2004-07-01

    The state of Chihuahua has numerous locations of uranium, being Pena Blanca the great and more important location of the country. Diverse rock types with important quantities of uranium are distributed by the whole state. The igneous extrusive acid rocks are those that have bigger quantity of uranium, like they are the rhyolites and dacites and these rocks are located in enough proportion by the whole state. Some of the main cities of the state are near to locations or uraniferous rocks, as Aldama, Nuevo Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Jimenez and Bocoyna, other important cities are not near important locations. It was determined specific activity by gamma spectroscopy of the series of the {sup 238} U in soils and determination of the radon concentration in domiciles of the main cities of the state. They were found high specific activity values in soil in eight of the thirteen analyzed cities and important radon concentrations in three cities. It was found relationship among the specific activity in soil in near cities to uraniferous locations. (Author)

  4. Treatment of afibrinogenemia in a chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This report discusses the diagnosis and treatment of afibrinogenemia in a Chihuahua. Prolongations of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin clotting time (TCT) together with fibrinogen assay results of either no or trace amounts of fibrinogen support a diagnosis of afibrinogenemia. Differential diagnoses include common coagulopathies, liver failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Either aggressive cryoprecipitate or plasma transfusions are required to treat afibrinogenemia. The current guidelines for treatment of coagulopathies include plasma transfusions (either 15-30 mL/kg or until both PT and aPTT are normalized). This report describes a case in which bleeding persisted 2 days after standard plasma transfusion levels were administered and PT and aPTT levels had normalized. In this case, the bleeding was stabilized for up to 2 mo after administering > 54 mL/kg plasma. In human medicine, either cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrate is used to increase blood fibrinogen levels to 100 mg/dL for minor bleeding and 200 mg/dL for major bleeding. Further studies are needed; however, the author of this report suggests that aggressive transfusions and monitoring are needed in veterinary afibrinogenemia cases.

  5. Radiologic inspection in an office built rod contaminated with radioactive material, in Tiaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico; Inspeccion radiologica en una oficina construida con varilla contaminada con material radiactivo, en Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas Mar, B.

    2011-07-01

    Note that in 1983 took place {sup T}he most important radiological accident occurred in Mexico in recent years occurred in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, consisting ea involuntary casting a source of Cobalt-60 (originally intended for medical use in teletherapy) and manufacture of rods for the construction and steel bases for tables, in the smelter {sup S}teel de Chihuahua{sup ,} so presumably, that the rods of the office of Tlaquepaque, come from the radiological accident.

  6. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in five Chihuahua dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R J; Dickinson, P J; Kube, S A; Moore, P F; Couto, S S; Vernau, K M; Sturges, B K; Lecouteur, R A

    2008-05-01

    An acute to chronic idiopathic necrotizing meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in 5 Chihuahua dogs aged between 1.5 and 10 years. Presenting neurologic signs included seizures, blindness, mentation changes, and postural deficits occurring from 5 days to 5.5 months prior to presentation. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses from 2 of 3 dogs sampled were consistent with an inflammatory disease. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of 2 dogs demonstrated multifocal loss or collapse of cortical gray/white matter demarcation hypointense on T1-weighted images, with T2-weighted hyperintensity and slight postcontrast enhancement. Multifocal asymmetrical areas of necrosis or collapse in both gray and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres was seen grossly in 4 brains. Microscopically in all dogs, there was a severe, asymmetrical, intensely cellular, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis usually with cystic necrosis in subcortical white matter. There were no lesions in the mesencephalon or metencephalon except in 1 dog. Immunophenotyping defined populations of CD3, CD11d, CD18, CD20, CD45, CD45 RA, and CD79a immunoreactive inflammatory cells varying in density and location but common to acute and chronic lesions. In fresh frozen lesions, both CD1b,c and CD11c immunoreactive dendritic antigen-presenting cells were also identified. Immunoreactivity for canine distemper viral (CDV) antigen was negative in all dogs. The clinical signs, distribution pattern, and histologic type of lesions bear close similarities to necrotizing meningoencephalitis as described in series of both Pug and Maltese breed dogs and less commonly in other breeds.

  7. A case of factor X deficiency in a Chihuahua dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuss, Jessica; Weatherton, Linda

    2016-08-01

    A juvenile Chihuahua dog developed hemoperitoneum after routine ovariohysterectomy. She was managed with packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusions as well as an exploratory laparotomy to verify ligature sites. No recurrence of hemorrhage occurred. Factor X deficiency was diagnosed and confirmed with repeat analysis including during times of health.

  8. Mexican chihuahua cheese: sensory profiles of young cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Drake, M A; Corral, F J Molina; Prieto, V M Guerrero; Gardea, A A

    2006-10-01

    Sensory profiles of fresh semihard Chihuahua cheese produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua were developed to characterize the flavors and textures of this traditionally made Hispanic-style cheese. Multiple allotments of Chihuahua cheese, 9 brands made with raw milk (RM) and 5 brands made with pasteurized milk (PM), were obtained within 3 d of manufacture from 12 different cheese plants throughout Chihuahua, México. Cheeses were shipped overnight to Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, and flavor analyses were conducted within 14 to 18 d after manufacture. Four brands (2 RM and 2 PM cheeses) were then selected and multiple allotments were shipped at 3 distinct seasons over a 1-yr period for evaluation of flavor and texture. Microbial analysis was conducted prior to testing to ensure product safety. Descriptive analyses of cheese flavors and textures were conducted with panelists trained to use a universal or product-specific Spectrum intensity scale, respectively. Sensory profiles of cheeses varied among the different manufacturers. The most prominent flavor attributes were salty, sour, diacetyl, cooked, whey, bitter, and milk-fat. The RM cheeses had more intense sour, bitter, and prickle scores than the PM cheeses. Many cheese texture attributes were similar, but RM cheeses were perceived as softer than PM cheeses. As the demand for Hispanic-style cheeses increases, defining and understanding the sensory attributes of traditionally made Mexican cheeses provides guidance to cheese manufacturers as new ways are explored to improve the production and shelf life of the cheeses.

  9. 26Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; de Lucio, O.; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-01

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of 26Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce 26Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for 26Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the 28Si(d,α)26 Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced 26Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  10. {sup 26}Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; Lucio, O. de; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E., E-mail: chavez@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of {sup 26}Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce {sup 26}Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for {sup 26}Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the {sup 28}Si(d,α){sup 26} Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced {sup 26}Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  11. Chihuahua: actores sociales y modernización

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor M. Quintana S.

    2009-01-01

    El auge maquilero, el ascenso y caída del neopanismo, el emporio del narcotráfico, la cultura de las parabólicas y del "six pack"... Aquí empieza y termina para muchos la modernización sufrida por el estado de Chihuahua en los años ochenta. Más allá de estos hechos, analizadores válidos de los cambios que se operan en la sociedad norteña, la modernización significa en el Chihuahua de la década pasada, transformación acelerada de su estructura productiva y de su perfil ocupacional, nuevas form...

  12. Chihuahua: actores sociales y modernización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Quintana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El auge maquilero, el ascenso y caída del neopanismo, el emporio del narcotráfico, la cultura de las parabólicas y del "six pack"... Aquí empieza y termina para muchos la modernización sufrida por el estado de Chihuahua en los años ochenta. Más allá de estos hechos, analizadores válidos de los cambios que se operan en la sociedad norteña, la modernización significa en el Chihuahua de la década pasada, transformación acelerada de su estructura productiva y de su perfil ocupacional, nuevas formas de trabajo y de vida cotidiana, despegue del bipartidismo, intensificación de los intercambios con los Estados Unidos. Cambios, pues, en el eje estructural de la sociedad, en el escenario en que los actores se desenvuelven.

  13. Geophysical and Hydrological Characterization of Alluvial Fans in the Valle El Sauz Encinillas, Chihuahua, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Aragón, A.; Chávez-Aguirre, R.; Osuna-Vizcarra, A.; Espejel-García, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    The Valle El Sauz Encinillas (VESE) is located 92 km north of Chihuahua City, México. Despite being the principal aquifer feeding Chihuahua City, and being flanked by two well studied geological features (Bloque Calera-Del Nido to the West, and the Sierra Peña Blanca to the East), a lack of available hydrogeological data prevails in the valley. The goals of this study are two: 1) geomorphometrical analysis of the sub-basins and alluvial fans, and 2) determination of the alluvial fan geoelectrical units via electrical-resistivity soundings. The Basin and Range system forms a closed sub-basin with a lacustrine basin system in extinction process. The aquifer is located in alluvial Quaternary sediments, with varying granulometry, reaching a thickness of 600 meters at the center of the valley. The biggest alluvial fan in the VESE is located at the Cañón de Santa Clara, and intersects the playa-lake deposits of the Laguna de Encinillas. This fan has a surface of 73.2 km2 and an average slope of 0.437°. The geomorphometrical analysis included the sub-basins, currents, and the fans in the area. These analyses allow a comparison between alluvial fans in the VESE and those in Death Valley, California, USA. The alluvial fans in both areas show a similar behavior in all plots. Twenty electrical resistivity soundings (Schlumberger array, AB/2 distance of 400 m) were performed in the alluvial fan. The basement and four other geoelectrical units were identified in the fan. The geophysical data, granulometric determinations, plus geochemical information of twelve wells in the area were analyzed. These data show how the decrease in granulometry, both frontally and laterally in the fan, results in a rise of the hydraulic conductivity and transmisivity values (water wells in Los Sauces and El Faro). However, both the permeability and the water quality in its distal portion, are affected by the playa lake deposits, the raising ratio of clay-size sediments (and evaporites) in the

  14. Gasoline Consumption Dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Munoz Sapien, Gabriel; Barraza de Anda, Martha P.; Dominguez Ruvalcaba, Lisbeily

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzes short-run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function ARIMA analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciu...

  15. The fuel consumption increase in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr; Gabriel Muñoz Sapien; Martha Patricia Barraza de Anda; Lisbeily Domínguez Ruvalcaba

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes short–run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function arima analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciu...

  16. Sedimentary response to tectonism in the extensional Chihuahua trough, Cretaceous of Southern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, P.; Langford, R. P.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Chihuahua Trough formed an extensional basin, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to Southern Arizona, along the Present Border of the United States and Mexico. West of the Big Bend of Texas, Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments are less than 150 m thick, and in many areas are absent. The sedimentary package thickens to over 3km within the trough. The Albian Cox Sandstone is one of the most areally extensive formations and consists of interbedded fluvial coastal and shallow marine sandstones and shales. In this study area, shales (10-70 m) are thicker more than sandstone beds (2-10 m). This unit is overlain by Finlay formation, a fine crystalline gray limestone and underlain by Bluff Mesa formation, a fossiliferous shallow marine limestone. Cross-bedded, brown, fine to medium grained sandstone, interbedded with siltstone, shale and limestone are characteristic lithology of the Cox. The Indio Mountains of Trans-Pecos Texas offer an ideal location to study how this package accommodates the deformation associated with the subsiding Chihuahua trough. A continuous outcrop extends over 30 km oblique to the basin margin and thickens from approximately 375 m on the northern side to 437 m on the southern side of the 10 km section studied so far. One important mechanism is rotation of the strata into the basin, followed by truncation along sequence boundaries. The lower two sequence in the southern Indio mountains are rotated down to the basin relative to Finlay. The lowest sequences thicken from an erosional pinch out towards the South. Shale beds thicken within the rotated strata and accommodate some of the tilting. For example, Thickness of the shale bed varies from 18 m to 70 m within a 2 km distance. However, erosional truncation of the tilted strata accounts for most of the increases in thickness within sequences. The base of the formation has been rotated about 6 degrees south relative to the top of the formation. Another observed

  17. 77 FR 33562 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ..., c/o PV STAR, S.A. DE C.V., Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; Calle Cedro No. 804, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; DOB 14 Mar 1960; POB Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; citizen Mexico; nationality Mexico; C.U.R.P... 4. PV STAR, S.A. DE C.V., Ohio No. 4123, Col. Quintas Del Sol, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31214, Mexico;...

  18. Spatial Analysis of the National Evaluation of Scholastic Achievement (ENLACE in Schools of the Municipality of Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Cervera Gómez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was focused on analyzing the results of the first National Assessment of Academic Achievement for Scholar Centers (ENLACE; acronym in Spanish applied during the year 2006 in the Municipality of Juarez (State of Chihuahua, Mexico. In order to conduct the spatial analysis a geographical information system (GIS was used to make a georeferenced database were all variables were connected to a point representing a school. Results of the examinations expressed as deficient, elemental, good en excellent were spatially distributed over the urban area of Ciudad Juárez. Apparently there is a high spatial correlation between ENLACE’s results with the socioeconomic level of people. In this way results going from good to excellent were spatially located over the sectors more developed of the city. Poor results going from Insufficient to Elemental were spatially located at places with higher deficits of infrastructure and low socioeconomic levels.

  19. Risk factors for asthma in school children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza Villarreal, Albino; Sanín Aguirre, Luz Helena; Téllez Rojo, Martha María; Lacasaña Navarro, Marina; Romieu, Isabelle

    2003-06-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis were analyzed in a random sample of school children (n=6174) residing in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood methodology was applied through a standardized questionnaire. The sample was obtained with a bietapic design. Cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheezing was 6.8% (95% CI 6.2, 7.4) and 20% (95% of CI 19.7, 21.8) respectively; the prevalence of rhinitis was 5.0% (95% CI 4.5, 5.6). Family history of asthma odds ratio (OR) 2.33 (95% CI 1.78-3.05), respiratory infection after birth (OR) 3.44 (95% CI 2.76-4.29), and exposure to environmental tobacco (OR) 1.35 (95% CI 1.06-1.68) were the strongest risk factors for asthma and allergic rhinitis. The multifactorial etiology of asthma and allergic rhinitis was confirmed, as well as the importance of early exposure to environmental factors.

  20. Bradyrhizobia from wild Phaseolus, Desmodium, and Macroptilium species in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew A

    2002-04-01

    rRNA genetic markers were analyzed in 97 isolates of nodule bacteria from six legume species in Chihuahua, Mexico. The most common genotypes were widely shared across host species and had 16S rRNA sequences identical to those of strains from an eastern North American legume (Amphicarpaea) that are closely related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii.

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for the Defensive Training Initiative, Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Zwank, and M. Cardenas . 1997. Breeding Biology of Aplomado Falcons in Desert Grasslands of Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:135...Management Deputy Stat Director P.O. Box 27115 Santa Fe, NM 87502 Nancy Skinner, Chief USDI, National Park Service P.O. Box 728 Santa Fe, NM 87504

  2. Lesiones de mancha blanca en Ortodoncia: conceptos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vargas

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de lesiones de mancha blanca (WSLs es un riesgo significativo asociado con el tratamiento de ortodoncia cuando la higiene oral es deficiente. Aparatos de ortodoncia fijos transforman los procedimientos de higiene oral convencionales más difíciles y aumentan el número de sitios de retención de placa. Si bien los valores de prevalencia son variados, los datos son suficientes para considerar la desmineralización como un problema importante, haciendo de la prevención durante el tratamiento uno de los mayores desafíos clínicos. El propósito de este trabajo es realizar una revisión actualizada de la literatura disponible respecto a la etiología, prevención y tratamiento de manchas blancas asociadas al tratamiento de ortodoncia con aparatología fija.

  3. Absence seizures with myoclonic features in a juvenile Chihuahua dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Roberto; Ochi, Ayako; Cortez, Miguel A

    2010-06-01

    Long-term video-EEG was recorded for an eight-month-old Chihuahua dog with recurrent episodes of altered behaviour associated with head and nose twitching. Each episode lasted one to two seconds, multiple times per day before treatment. Ictal EEG showed generalised bilaterally synchronous 4 Hz spike-and-wave complexes during the "absence-like" event, along with rhythmically correlated head and nose twitching. We present video documentation of such attacks and discuss their similarities to human epilepsy with myoclonic absences.

  4. Pylorogastric intussusception in a Chihuahua puppy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lideo, L; Mutinelli, F; Milan, R

    2010-12-01

    A three-month-old Chihuahua dog was presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and cardiovascular shock. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and iodated contrast gastrogram revealed suspected pylorogastric intussusception. Because of the poor prognosis the dog was euthanatized. Diagnosis of pylorogastric intussusception was confirmed at necropsy. Parasitological, virological, serological and histological examinations were also performed. This report documents the sixth case of pylorogastric (i.e. duodenogastric, gastrogastric) intussusception in the veterinary medical literature and it is the first report on a puppy dog in which US and radiographic diagnosis were confirmed post mortem.

  5. 77 FR 76624 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    .... DE C.V., Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; c/o ESTUDIOS Y PROYECTOS INTEGRALES DEL NORTE, S.C., Chihuahua..., Mexico; c/o ESTUDIOS Y PROYECTOS INTEGRALES DEL NORTE, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; 3210...

  6. Catolicismo social, mutualismo y revolución en Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Salmerón Sanginés

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra una de las fuentes de la Revolución Mexicana más defectuosamente conocidas -el catolicismo social- y su concatenación con el movimiento encabezado por Francisco Villa, sus demandas obreras y políticas y sus modelos de gobierno, mediante la figura de varios dirigentes entre los que destaca Silvestre Terrazas Enríquez. Asimismo destaca el trabajo de organización de las sociedades mutualistas obreras y de la prensa de posición católica, durante el Porfiriato, con la revolución en Chihuahua.This article shows one of the most misunderstood sources of the Mexican Revolution, social catholicism and its link with the movement led by Francisco Villa, its workers' and political demands and models of government, through the figure of various leaders, particularly Silvestre Terrazas Enríquez, and the organizational work of workers' mutual societies and the catholic press during the Porfiriato with the revolution in Chihuahua.

  7. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses.

  8. Toward the Great War: U.S. Army Operations and Mexico, 1865-1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Mexico back to the Republican government of President Benito Juarez in 1866.32 The return of President Benito Juarez to power in Mexico brought peace...operations. The U.S. had little intention of allowing Mexican military north of the border, and neither President Juarez nor his successor...Chihuahua, and to take over Ciudad Juarez in the spring of 1911. This victory was a major psychological victory, but more importantly it secured a

  9. 78 FR 72751 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... C.V., Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; Fernando De Borja 509, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31240, Mexico; DOB 04 Nov 1945; POB Aquiles Serdan, Chihuahua, Mexico; nationality Mexico; citizen Mexico; R.F.C... SERVICIO AEREO LEO LOPEZ, S.A. DE C.V., Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; Calle Septima No. 1401, Villa...

  10. Mentiras por omisión en la "raza blanca"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Simesen de Bielke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La razón instrumental blanca es hija legítima de la sociedad capitalista y, como tal, ha diseñado todos los ámbitos de la organización burocrática, el método científico, los distintos dispositivos del cuerpo social y los aparatos jurídicos e ideológicos. El reduccionismo liberticida, por ejemplo, no es un accidente epistemológico, sino que su vocación homogeneizadora ha respondido y responde a una forma particular de organización económica y política: la concepción reduccionista del mundo, la revolución industrial y la economía capitalista son los componentes filosófico, tecnológico y económico de un mismo proceso excluyente. El mismo, a través de sus avances científico-tecnológicos y su mentira civilizatoria, es quien va destruyendo paulatinamente nuestro oikos, nuestra simbiosis originaria con lo natural, nuestra sensibilidad, nuestra diversidad, únicos sustentos para la conservación de toda vida sobre el planeta. Quienes, como intelectuales, han desmontado esta estructura de la Razón Blanca falócrata colonizadora a través de sus dicotomías (humanidad y naturaleza, hombre y mujer, ciudad y pueblo, metrópolis y colonia, trabajo y vida, naturaleza y cultura, deben plantearse el imperativo moral de comprometerse con la denuncia pública acerca de este maridaje entre ciencia y fuerza, ciencia y militarismo, ciencia y patriarcado. Es el momento del desmontaje también de todas las ‘razones’ descendientes de la Razón Blanca: ¿porqué no pensar también en nuestra ‘razón académica’?

  11. El pintor renacentista Jácome de Blancas

    OpenAIRE

    Collar de Cáceres, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Jácome de Blancas es pintor documentado en Medina del Campo (Valladolid) entre 1543 y 1554 Y activo acaso hasta cerca de 1574. Ninguna de sus obras de que hay memoria, realizadas con artistas como Luis Vélez o Leonardo de Carrión, se han conservado, pero hay razones para asegurar que se trata del maestro Jácome que realizó en 1550 el retablo mayor de Santa María del Castillo en Olmedo (Valladolid), y con él deben relacionarse otras pinturas existentes en las localidades vallisoletanas de Medi...

  12. The fuel consumption increase in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Fullerton Jr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes short–run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function arima analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez relative to that charged across the border in el Paso, Texas, USA, and formal sector employment in Ciudad Juárez. Out–of–sample simulations indicate that the model is relatively accurate for forecasts of to 1 to 24 months into the future.

  13. Narcolepsy in a hypocretin/orexin-deficient chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonokura, M; Fujita, K; Morozumi, M; Yoshida, Y; Kanbayashi, T; Nishino, S

    2003-06-21

    A two-year-old male chihuahua suffered attacks of muscle weakness and immobility, although it had no family history of paroxysmal attacks. No neurological or blood biochemical abnormalities were recorded when it was first examined. The attacks were typically elicited by stimulation, such as feeding, and a case of sporadic narcolepsy-cataplexy was therefore suspected. Treatment orally three times a day with 1 mg/kg imipramine, was effective in reducing the attacks. The concentration of hypocretin-1/orexin A in the dog's cerebrospinal fluid was less than 80 pg/ml (22.5 pmol/litre), compared with normal canine levels of 250 to 350 pg/ml (70.0 to 98.3 pmol/litre), supporting a diagnosis of hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy.

  14. Intracranial meningioma with polygonal granular cell appearance in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Yumi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Uetsuka, Koji

    2008-05-01

    A menigioma with polygonal granular cell proliferation in an 11-year and 8-month-old male Chihuahua is described. The tumor was observed under the dura matter of the right cerebrum. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of solid growth foci of small- or large- sized polygonal cells, with pale-stained nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and fine granular to foamy eosinophilic cytoplasm. Some of the proliferating cells contained variable amounts of cytoplasmic PAS-positive granules. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and S-100 protein. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells contained vesicular structures with a few small round-shaped bodies in the cytoplasm. We diagnosed the case as canine meningioma with granular cell appearance.

  15. Traumatic fragmented medial coronoid process in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, H S; Wheeler, J L; Manley, P A

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a disease process that has not previously been reported in toy-breed dogs. This report describes a presumptive case of FMCP in a 14-month-old Chihuahua that was presented for evaluation approximately four weeks following acute onset of moderate lameness in the left forelimb. Definitive diagnosis of a fragmented medial coronoid process was based upon computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan also demonstrated moderate joint incongruity in the affected elbow. Surgical removal of the fragment and subtotal coronoidectomy were performed via a medial arthrotomy. An ulnar ostectomy was also performed to address joint incongruity. Histology of specimens removed at surgery did not demonstrate evidence of microdamage as characteristic of FMCP in large breed dogs, and instead, suggested that the fracture was acute and traumatic in nature. Rapid return to function was observed following surgery.

  16. Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis and hydrocephalus in a chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, M; Hattori, R; Yamate, J; Kotani, T; Sasai, K

    2003-05-01

    A two-year-old, female chihuahua presented with a six-month history of visual dysfunction. Computed tomography revealed dilation of the lateral ventricles in the central nervous system (CNS). The dog was tentatively diagnosed as having hydrocephalus and a month later was euthanased at the owner's request. The skull was expanded and dome-like in shape and an open fontanelle was observed on postmortem examination. Histologically, swollen neurons possessing yellowish pigment granules in the cytoplasm were observed throughout the CNS. These storage materials stained positively with periodic acid Schiff, Schmorl method for lipofuscin and oil red O for lipid, and showed autofluorescence under fluorescence microscopy. Ultrastructurally, the storage materials consisted of dense lamellar structures. This case was unique in having ceroid-lipofuscinosis in association with hydrocephalus.

  17. Assessing the yield, microstructure, and texture properties of miniature Chihuahua-type cheese manufactured with a phospholipase A1 and exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso-Reyes, N; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Sepulveda, D R; Hernández-Ochoa, L R

    2014-02-01

    Chihuahua cheese or Mennonite cheese is one of the most popular and consumed cheeses in Mexico and by the Hispanic community in the United States. According to local producers the yield of Chihuahua cheese ranges from 9 to 9.5 kg of cheese from 100 kg of milk. Cheese yield is a crucial determinant of profitability in cheese-manufacturing plants; therefore, different methods have been developed to increase it. In this work, a miniature Chihuahua-type cheese model was used to assess the effect of a phospholipase A1 (PL-A1) and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (separately and in combination) on the yield, microstructure, and texture of cheese. Four different cheeses were manufactured: cheese made with PL-A1, cheese made with EPS-producing bacteria, cheese with both PL-A1 and EPS-producing bacteria, and a cheese control without PL-A1 or EPS-producing bacteria. The compositional analysis of cheese was carried out using methods of AOAC International (Washington, DC). The actual yield and moisture-adjusted yield were calculated for all cheese treatments. Texture profile analyses of cheeses were performed using a texture analyzer. Micrographs were obtained by electron scanning microscopy. Fifty panelists carried out sensorial analysis using ranking tests. Incorporation of EPS-producing bacteria in the manufacture of cheese increased the moisture content and water activity. In contrast, the addition of PL-A1 did not increase fat retention or cheese yield. The use of EPS alone improved the cheese yield by increasing water and fat retention, but also caused a negative effect on the texture and flavor of Chihuahua cheese. The use of EPS-producing bacteria in combination with PL-A1 improved the cheese yield and increased the moisture and fat content. The cheeses with the best flavor and texture were those manufactured with PL-A1 and the cheeses manufactured with the combination of PL-A1 and EPS-producing culture.

  18. Hidrogeochemistry of Maguarichi's thermal waters, Chihuahua, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Rascon-Oaxaca, E.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The surface expression of the Piedras de Lumbre Geothermal Zone comprises hot springs and steaming fumaroles, which occur in the vicinity of fractures within the rhyolites related to the Sierra Madre Occidental. Waters from hot springs and fumaroles were sampled in order to classify their temperature, hydrogeochemical behavior and origin. Maguarichi, is located in the southwestern part of the mexican state of Chihuahua, in the high Sierra Tarahumara, 350 km southwest from Chihuahua City. Previous work characterized the water as having a sulfate-chloride and sodium-chloride composition, and a temperature (calculated with geothermometers) of 130°C. In 2001, after close to ten years of geological, geochemical and geophysical work made by the Mexican Federal Electrical Commission (CFE), a small geothermal power plant was installed at a cost of US$1.3 million. This small (300 kW) binary-cycle unit supplied energy to the nearby Maguarichi village, 6 kilometers away. The unit was dismantled in 2007 when the electric grid reached the village. In 2012, after a visit by the Mexican president, a plan to develop this area as a touristic attraction is under way. In order to determine the hydrogeochemistry of the thermal waters, two sampling expeditions (October 2011 and May 2012) were performed and the preliminary results show that samples have temperatures ranging from 80°C to 98°C, with major ion and heavy element concentrations below the maximum permissible levels for human consumption waters (NOM-127-SSA1-1994). Sulfate values range from 198 to 222 mg/l, while arsenic ranges from 0.009 to 0.015mg/l. By using H and O stable isotopes we expect to determine the origin of this waters (meteoric or magmatic).

  19. 2012 Little Bear Post Fire, Sierra Blanca NE NW, CIR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains imagery for the Lincoln National Forest, Otero County, New Mexico. The imagery was flown to provide coverage after the 2012 Little Bear Fire.

  20. 2012 Little Bear Post Fire, Sierra Blanca NE NW, RGB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains imagery for the Lincoln National Forest, Otero County, New Mexico. The imagery was flown to provide coverage after the 2012 Little Bear Fire.

  1. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Manchego and Chihuahua Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-López, C; Hernández-Sánchez, H

    2000-12-05

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive the Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheese-making processes and its persistence during the ripening stages of both cheeses was examined. Commercial pasteurized and homogenized whole milk was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (strain ATCC 19114) to a level between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The milk was used to make Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheeses in a 25-l vat. Mexican Manchego cheese was ripened for 5 days and Chihuahua cheese for 6 weeks at 12 degrees C and 85% RH. Listeria present in the cheese was enumerated by diluting samples in sterile 0.1% peptone water and plating on Oxford agar. Duplicate samples were taken at each step of the manufacturing process. During the first week of ripening samples were taken daily from both cheeses. For Chihuahua cheese, samples were taken weekly after the first week of the ripening stage. During the manufacture of Mexican Manchego cheese, Listeria counts remained relatively constant at 10(6) CFU/ml, while with Chihuahua cheese there was a one log decrease in numbers (10(6) to 10(5) CFU/ml). After pressing both curds overnight, numbers of bacteria decreased in Mexican Manchego cheese to 8.2 x 10(5) but increased in Chihuahua cheese from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) CFU/ml. During the ripening stage, counts of Listeria remained constant in both cheeses. However, since the Chihuahua cheese ripening stage is about 6 weeks, the number of bacteria decreased from 2 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(4) CFU/g. The results show that Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive the manufacture and ripening processes of both Mexican cheeses.

  2. Efecto de dos agentes remineralizantes en lesiones de mancha blanca: Estudio in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Maribel Chicaiza Naranjo; Nilda Eugenia Navarrete Angulo

    2016-01-01

    La caries dental continúa siendo la enfermedad con mayor prevalencia en el mundo, es importante diagnosticarla y tratarla desde su estadio inicial de mancha blanca ya que es una lesión reversible. La aparición de nuevos materiales como el fosfopéptido de caseína- estabilizado de fosfato de calcio amorfo (Recaldent) para remineralizar las manchas blancas nos brindan más opciones terapéuticas en Odontopediatria. Objetivo: Evaluar in-vitro la remineralización de la mancha blanca a partir de la a...

  3. Enemigos naturales de la mosca blanca Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): parasitoides y depredadores.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se estudió la composición de parasitoides y depredadores de la mosca blanca en espiral Aleurodicus dispersus así como la abundancia relativa de las primeras diez fincas productoras de banano, durante 1997 y 1998 en Matina, Limón, Costa Rica. Se recuperaron cuatro especies de parasitoides de ninfas de mosca blanca Encarsiella noyesi Hayat, E. aleurodici (Girault), Encarsiella probo nsp. y Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani. Los depredadores de ninfas y adultos de mosca blanca más comunes fueron dos...

  4. Holocene denudation and landscape deformation in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, K. R.; Hall, S. R.; Michalak, M.; Farber, D.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Active orogenic systems are subject to a host of processes that influence their topographic and structural evolution. Broadly speaking, these processes can be divided into two general groups: tectonics and climate. Both are capable of inducing profound changes within an orogen, although many specifics regarding their forcings, interactions, and feedbacks remain unclear. Here, we address the evolution of the Cordillera Blanca Mountain Range of northern Peru: an elevated, high-relief, 200km long string of glaciated peaks along the spine of the Andes. The striking Cordillera Blanca Detachment Fault (CBDF) is actively facilitating the production of several kilometers of relief along the western flank of the range, and abundant records of past glaciations span from >440 ka to the present. Thus, tectonics (active faulting) and climate (glacial erosion) are operating in tandem to produce some of the highest topography in the western hemisphere, affording the opportunity to investigate their potential interactions. Through the use of cosmogenic 10Be, low temperature thermochronology and digital terrain analysis we characterize the rates of landscape change as well as the present morphology. Significant variation in range elevation (maximum, mean, modal and minimum), relief (local and within basins) and slope (maximum, mean and minimum) exist along the strike of the range, potentially reflecting variable displacement along the CBDF, varying degrees of glacial erosion along the mountain range, or some combination of the two. The morphology of the adjacent supradetachment basin varies as well, containing zones with distinct styles of faulting and basin growth likely defined by the segmentation history of the CBDF. New thermochronologic data extends the current dataset, which we combine with 10Be basin-averaged erosion rates from basins along the range. These two datasets constrain the exhumational and erosional history of the range-forming Cordillera Blanca Batholith from the

  5. Mentiras por omisión en la "raza blanca"

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Silvia Simesen de Bielke

    2003-01-01

    La razón instrumental blanca es hija legítima de la sociedad capitalista y, como tal, ha diseñado todos los ámbitos de la organización burocrática, el método científico, los distintos dispositivos del cuerpo social y los aparatos jurídicos e ideológicos. El reduccionismo liberticida, por ejemplo, no es un accidente epistemológico, sino que su vocación homogeneizadora ha respondido y responde a una forma particular de organización económica y política: la concepción reduccionista del mundo, la...

  6. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  7. Chihuahua: a water reuse case in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, M S; Navarro, C J; Pérez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Water supply for all kind of uses in Chihuahua is mainly groundwater. During the last decade this city has been damaged with a heavy hydrologic crisis because of a persistent drought. This came up with the overexploitation of groundwater aquifers; therefore a deficit between demand and offer was done. To minimize this problem the government authorities have started an integral plan of optimizing hydrologic resources which considers the treatment of wastewater and the use of reclaimed water. The secondary wastewater treatment facility of the city treats about 30,000 m3/d of a wastewater with high organic contents, and produces an effluent with low concentration of suspended solids, organic matter, fats, detergents, and metals. Reclaimed water is conveyed toward strategic sites for the irrigation of great green areas in sport clubs, educational institutions and industrial zones, besides of its utilization on some manufacturing processes, road service, and also over construction industry. The potential reuse of this water goes farther from those activities; the treatment of the secondary effluent until the required levels of the water-bearing recharge criteria are met for drinking water supply is considered as the next step to achieve through a suitable planning strategy for the best integral resource advantage.

  8. Analysis of point source emissions in the Texas-Mexico border region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.; Deshpande, B. [Texas A& amp; M University, Kingsville, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Pollutant emissions in the Texas-Mexico border were investigated using an emission database that covers 25 Texas counties and the states of Coahuila, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas in Mexico. Major emissions are from energy generation, mainly from two coal-fired facilities in Coahuila, which also generate most of carbon dioxide. Texas exhibits a larger concentration of sources; around Laredo and the Lower Rio Grande Valley and a sugarcane mill is a significant contributor to particles emissions. In Mexico the minerals and metals industries are the second major contributors to emissions, especially particles. Fossil fuel production is the main source of VOCs.

  9. Resting energy expenditure in white and non-white severely obese women Gasto energético en reposo de mujeres obesas severas blancas y no blancas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mika Horie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the resting energy expenditure (REE of white and non-white severely obese Brazilian women. REE was examined in 83 severely obese Brazilian women (n = 58 white and 25 non-white with mean (± SD age 42.99 ± 11.35 and body mass index 46.88 ± 6.22 kg/m² who were candidates for gastric bypass surgery. Body composition was assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP BOD PODÒ body composition system (Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA and REE was measured, under established protocol, with an open-circuit calorimeter (Deltatrac II MBM-200, Datex-Ohmeda, Madison, WI, USA. There was no significant difference between the REE of white and non-white severely obese women (1,953 ± 273 and 1,906 ± 271 kcal/d, respectively; p = 0.48. However, when adjusted for fat free mass (MLG, REE was significantly higher in nonwhite severely obese women (difference between groups of 158.4 kcal, p El presente estudio tenía como objetivo comparar el gasto energético en reposo (GER de mujeres brasileñas obesas severas, blancas y no blancas. Se examinó el GER en 83 mujeres brasileñas obesas severas (n = 58 blancas y 25 no blancas con un promedio de edad (± SD de 42,99 ± 11,35 e índice de masa corporal de 46,88 ± 6,22 kg/m², que serían sometidas a cirugía de bypass gástrico. Se evaluó la composición corporal por medio de una pletismografía por desplazamiento de aire (ADP BOD PODÒ sistema de composición corporal (de Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, California, EE.UU. y se evaluó el GER, de acuerdo con el protocolo establecido, con un calorímetro de circuito abierto (fabricado por Deltatrac II MBM-200, Datex-Ohmeda, Madison, Wisconsin, EE.UU.. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el GER de mujeres obesas severas blancas y no blancas (1.953 ± 273 y 1.906 ± 271 kcal/d, respectivamente; p = 0,48. Sin embargo, al ajustarse en masa libre de grasa (FFM, por sus siglas en inglés, el GER fue

  10. The Impacts of Chihuahua Desert Aerosol Intrusions on Convective Clouds and Regional Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Karina

    Growing up in a desert region influenced by a monsoon system and experiencing, first-hand, dust storms produced by convective thunderstorms stimulated my interest in the study of the impacts of aerosols on clouds. Contrary to other studies which focus more on anthropogenic aerosols, I chose to investigate the role of natural aerosols in the deserts of North America. Moreover, the role played by aerosols in desert regions within the North American Monsoon domain has not received as much attention as in other monsoon regions around the world. This dissertation describes my investigation of the connection between mineral aerosols (dust storms) and monsoon rainfall in the deserts of the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. To develop the context for the study of the role of mineral dust in summer-time convection on a regional scale, large-scale dynamical processes and their impact on the inter-annual variability of monsoon rainfall were analyzed. I developed the climatology of monsoonal rainfall and dust storms using surface observations to determine which mesoscale features influence North American Monsoon rainfall in the Paso Del Norte region. The strongest correlations were found between sea surface temperatures over the Gulf of California, Gulf of California moisture surges and monsoon rainfall in the Paso Del Norte region. A connection to ENSO could not be clearly established despite analyzing twenty-one years of data. However, by breaking the data into segments, a strong correlation was found for periods of intense rainfall. Twenty-one case studies were identified in which dust storms were produced in conjunction with thunderstorms during the 2005 - 2007 monsoon seasons. However, in some cases all the conditions were there for rainfall to occur but it did not precipitate. I concluded that strong thunderstorm outflow was triggering dust storms. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem V3.1.1) was used to evaluate

  11. Dose by {sup 222} Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city; Dosis por {sup 222} Rn en casas-habitacion de la ciudad de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero S, L.H.; Talamantes F, C. [ITCH II, Ave. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua (Mexico); Villalba, M.L. [UACH, Facultad de Ingenieria, Chihuahua (Mexico); Dobson, P.F. [Laboratorio Nacional Lawrence Berkeley, California (United States); Ortalejo M, B. [UACH, Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the {sup 226} Ra that generates to the {sup 222} Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the {sup 222} Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m{sup 3}, since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were

  12. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M. [Centro de lnvestigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, (Mexico); Rodriguez P, A. [World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Chihuahuan Desert Program, Coronado 1005, 31000 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 11, ETS Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla, (Spain); Crespo, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  13. Intermittent pancreatitis in a 2-year-old chihuahua mixed breed dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice K Y

    2006-05-01

    A 2-year-old, female, Chihuahua mixed breed was presented on multiple occasions with vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnostic tests, including blood analyses and ultrasonography, established pancreatitis as the cause of gastrointestinal irritation. Hospitalization and supportive care, followed by maintenance of a prescription gastrointestinal diet, allowed management of the disease.

  14. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of fetal death and hydranencephaly in two Chihuahua fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Robert De J; Alvarado, Manuel S; Sandoval, Jorge E; Vilchez, Eloina

    2003-01-01

    Hydranencephaly and fetal death was diagnosed in two of three fetuses during the abdominal sonographic examination of a 2.5-year-old, intact female Chihuahua that had clinical signs of dystocia 63 days after mating. A cesarean section was performed and one live normal puppy was present. Two dead puppies, each with a markedly enlarged and fluid filled skull were removed.

  15. Structure of Sierra Blanca (Alpujarride Complex, west of the Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Blanca, situated in the SW of Málaga, forms part of the Blanca unit, belonging to the Alpujarride Complex of the Betic Cordillera. Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles (white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top, linked with a transitional contact. The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpositions, the direction of which is approximately E-W in the eastern area and N-S and E-W in the West. In both areas the folds present opposing vergences, consistently towards the interior of the sierra. The origin of these structures is explained with a model of westerly movements of the Blanca unit, in relation to the Los Reales unit, with the formation of frontal and lateral folds. In its advancement, the western part of Sierra Blanca underwent an important anti-clockwise rotation responsible for the co-existence of folds in N-S and E-W directions. These structures occurred under ductile conditions, owing to the presence of important overthrusting peridotitic masses of the Los Reales unit. This model of westerly displacement is inserted in the process undergone by the Betic-Rif Internal Zones (with Blanca and Los Reales units included which occurred at the end of the Oligocene-Early Miocene when the Gibraltar arch began to be formed.Sierra Blanca, situada al SW de Málaga, forma parte de la unidad de Blanca que pertenece al complejo Alpujárride de la Cordillera Bética. Su secuencia litológica está compuesta por un conjunto inferior de migmatitas, gneises y esquistos, y por una formación superior de mármoles, blancos dolomíticos en la base y mármoles calizos azules hacia la parte superior, entre los que existe un tránsito gradual. La estructura de Sierra Blanca está formada por pliegues, generalmente isoclinales, con flancos invertidos que muestran

  16. Efecto de dos agentes remineralizantes en lesiones de mancha blanca: Estudio in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Maribel Chicaiza Naranjo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La caries dental continúa siendo la enfermedad con mayor prevalencia en el mundo, es importante diagnosticarla y tratarla desde su estadio inicial de mancha blanca ya que es una lesión reversible. La aparición de nuevos materiales como el fosfopéptido de caseína- estabilizado de fosfato de calcio amorfo (Recaldent para remineralizar las manchas blancas nos brindan más opciones terapéuticas en Odontopediatria. Objetivo: Evaluar in-vitro la remineralización de la mancha blanca a partir de la aplicación de las pastas dentales a base de Recaldent: Mi Paste y Mi Paste Plus en dientes temporales. Materiales y métodos: Fueron utilizados 30 dientes temporales sanos obtenidos por movilidad fisiológica, divididos en Grupo A 15 dientes, Grupo B 15 dientes, en ambos grupos se generó la mancha blanca con un agente desmineralizante, para la remineralización  al grupo A se le aplicó Mi Paste, al grupo B Mi Paste Plus, se evaluó el grado de desmineralización y remineralización mediante un láser, Diagnodent, después de 10 días de la aplicación de las pastas dentales. Resultados: Se demostró que en ambos grupos existió remineralización de la mancha blanca, 14.73 grados de fluorescencia con Mi Paste y 15.67 grados con Mi Paste Plus, siendo mayor el grupo B. Conclusión: Concluyendo que, si existe remineralización de la mancha blanca a partir de la aplicación de pasta dental, Mi Paste y Mi Paste Plus con derivados de la caseína (Recaldent en dientes temporales, estudio in vitro. Logrando mejores resultados al utilizar Mi Paste Plus. 

  17. Factors Influencing Neotropical River Otter Habitat Use in Central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carillo-Rubio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research regarding the habitat use of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis is lacking. I assessed habitat use by the species in the San Pedro River of northern México using presence/absence (i.e., detection/non‐detection data from 21 used and 25 randomly‐selected unused sites. The best fitting logistic regression models and principal component ordination reveal that river otters prefer habitat patches dominated by large, deep pools with nearby talus/rock cover and densely vegetated riverbanks. I mention the importance of understanding habitat use patterns for river otter ecology and conservation and the usefulness of presence/absence data in population ecology and conservation planning research.

  18. Metabolomic characteristics of arsenic-associated diabetes in a prospective cohort in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth; González-Horta, Carmen; Rager, Julia; Bailey, Kathryn A; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Ishida, María C; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S; Hernández Cerón, Roberto; Viniegra Morales, Damián; Baeza Terrazas, Francisco A; Saunders, R Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A; Buse, John B; Loomis, Dana; Jia, Wei; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Del Razo, Luz M; Stýblo, Miroslav; Fry, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been linked to an increased risk of diabetes, yet the specific disease phenotype and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study we set out to identify iAs exposure-associated metabolites with altered abundance in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals in an effort to understand the relationship between exposure, metabolomic response, and disease status. A nested study design was used to profile metabolomic shifts in urine and plasma collected from 90 diabetic and 86 nondiabetic individuals matched for varying iAs concentrations in drinking water, body mass index, age, and sex. Diabetes diagnosis was based on measures of fasting plasma glucose and 2-h blood glucose. Multivariable models were used to identify metabolites with altered abundance associated with iAs exposure among diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. A total of 132 metabolites were identified to shift in urine or plasma in response to iAs exposure characterized by the sum of iAs metabolites in urine (U-tAs). Although many metabolites were altered in both diabetic and nondiabetic 35 subjects, diabetic individuals displayed a unique response to iAs exposure with 59 altered metabolites including those that play a role in tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, these data highlight the broad impact of iAs exposure on the human metabolome, and demonstrate some specificity of the metabolomic response between diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. These data may provide novel insights into the mechanisms and phenotype of diabetes associated with iAs exposure.

  19. Thorium isotopes in colloidal fraction of water from San Marcos Dam, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Lares, M.; Melgoza, A.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.

    2013-07-01

    The main interest of this stiidy is to assess the contents and distribution of Th-series isotopes in colloidal fraction of surface water from San Marcos dam, because the suspended particulate matter serves as transport medium for several pollutants. The aim of this work was to assess the distribution of thorium isotopes (232Th and 230Th) contained in suspended matter. Samples were taken from three surface points along the San Marcos dam: water input, midpoint, and near to dam wall. In this last point, a depth sampling was also carried out. Here, three depth points were taken at 0.4, 8 and 15 meters. To evaluate the thorium behavior in surface water, from every water sample the colloidal fraction was separated, between 1 and 0.1 μm. Thorium isotopes concentraron in samples were obtained by alpha spectrometry. Activity concentrations obtained of 232Th and 230Th in surface points ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Bq ṡ L-1, whereas in depth points ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 Bq ṡ L-1, respectively. The results show that 230Th is in higher concentration than 232Th in colloidal fraction. This can be attributed to a preference of these colloids to adsorb uranium. Thus, the activity ratio 230Th/232Th in colloidal fraction showed values from 2.3 to 10.2. In surface points along the dam, 230Th activity concentration decreases while 232Th concentration remains constant. On the other hand, activity concentrations of both isotopes showed a pointed out enhancement with depth. The results have shown a possible lixiviation of uranium from geological substrate into the surface water and an important fractionation of thorium isotopes, which suggest that thorium is non-homogeneously distributed along San Marcos dam.

  20. The NS3 protein of rice hoja blanca virus suppresses RNA silencing in mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnettler, E.; Hemmes, J.C.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The NS3 protein of the tenuivirus rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) has previously been shown to represent the viral RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor and is active in both plant and insect cells by binding short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vitro. Using a firefly luciferase-based silencing assay it is

  1. Dinámica del Consumo de Gasolina en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Munoz Sapien, Gabriel; Barraza de Anda, Martha P.; Dominguez Ruvalcaba, Lisbeily

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzes short-run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function ARIMA analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in ...

  2. Can cosmic ray exposure dating reveal the normal faulting activity of the Cordillera Blanca Fault, Peru?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The build-up of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be within bedrock scarps and escarpments associated to the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, Peru, was measured to evaluate, through Cosmic Ray Exposure dating, its normal faulting activity. The highest mountain peaks in Peru belong to the 210 km-long, NW- striking, Cordillera Blanca. Along its western border, the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault is responsible for a vertical relief over 4.4 km, whose prominent 2 km high escarpment is characterized by ~1 km-high triangular facets corresponding to vertical displacements cumulated during the last 1-2 million years. At a more detailed scale, this fault system exhibits continuous geomorphic evidence of repeated displacements, underlined by 2 to 70 m-high scarps, corresponding to vertical displacements cumulated since Late Pleistocene and Holocene periods. Although microseismicity occurs along the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, no major historical or instrumental earthquake has been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish settlement in the 16th century. To evaluate the vertical slip rate along the major 90 km-long central segment of the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, the Quaternary fault escarpment (i.e., triangular facet, as well as the bedrock fault scarp, have been sampled for 10Be Cosmic Ray Exposure dating. Even if the uppermost part of the triangular facets have been resurfaced by the Last Glacial Maximum glaciers, our results allow to estimate a vertical slip-rate of 3±1 mm/yr, and suggest at least 2 seismic events during the last 3000 years.

  3. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    The Cordillera Blanca mountain range is the highest in Peru and contains many of the world's tropical glaciers. This region is severely impacted by climate change causing accelerated glacier retreat. Secondary impacts of climate change on glacier retreat include stress on water resources and the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from the many lakes that are forming and growing at the base of glaciers. A number of GLOFs originating from lakes in the Cordillera Blanca have occurred over the last century, several of which have had catastrophic impacts on cities and communities downstream. Glaciologists and engineers in Peru have been studying the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca for many years and have identified several lakes that are considered dangerous. However, a systematic analysis of all the lakes in the Cordillera Blanca has never before been attempted. Some methodologies for this type of systematic analysis have been proposed (eg. Emmer and Vilimek 2014; Wang, et al. 2011), but as yet they have only been applied to a few select lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. This study uses remotely sensed data to study all of the lakes of the Glacial Lake Inventory published by the Glaciology and Water Resources Unit of Peru's National Water Authority (UGRH 2011). The objective of this study is to assign a level of potential hazard to each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca and to ascertain if any of the lakes beyond those that have already been studied might pose a danger to nearby populations. A number of parameters of analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, have been selected to assess the hazard level of each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca using digital elevation models, satellite imagery, and glacier outlines. These parameters are then combined to come up with a preliminary assessment of the hazard level of each lake; the equation weighting each parameter draws on previously published methodologies but is tailored to the regional characteristics

  4. Identificación del agente causal de la pudrición blanca en Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hernández Mendieta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Identification of the white rot agent in Morelos, MexicoTítulo corto: Agente causal de la pudrición blanca en Morelos, MéxicoResumen: Cepas aisladas de Trametes versicolor (L.:Fr. Pilát causando pudrición blanca en especies arbóreas de amate amarillo (Ficus petiolaris, cirián o cuatecomate (Crescentia alata, guayaba (Psidium guajava y sauce colorado (Salix humboltiana en los municipios de Ayala, Cuautla, Cuernavaca, Jojutla, Tepalcingo, Tlaltizapán, Tlaquiltenango y Zacatepec de Hidalgo en el estado de Morelos, México se desarrollaron en medio de cultivo agua-agar enriquecido con 2,4-D amina en concentraciones de 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 y 5000 ppm, con el objetivo de conocer su desarrollo en esta sal. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron en un intervalo de 50 a 1000 ppm con un óptimo de 500 a 1000 ppm.L, las concentraciones de 2000 a 5000 ppm inhiben el desarrollo del hongo. Se confirma que las cepas aisladas de T. versicolor pueden emplearse como herramienta potencial de biorremediación de aguas contaminadas por ácido 2,4-D que es empleado como herbicida para el control de malezas de hoja ancha en cultivos de maíz, arroz, caña de azúcar y sorgo en la región de estudio.Palabras clave: Trametes versicolor, identificación, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacetico, 2,4-D.Abstract: Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr Pilát was identified causing white rot of hardwood tree species of amate amarillo (Ficus petiolaris, cuatecomate or cirián (Crescentia alata, guayava (Psidium guajava and sauce colorado (Salix humboltiana in municipalities of Ayala, Cuautla, Cuernavaca, Jojutla Tepalcingo Tlaltizapan, Tlaquiltenango and Zacatepec de Hidalgo in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Collected strains were grown in water-agar culture medium with 2,4-D amine at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm with the aim of know their growth in this salt. The best results were found

  5. Bases fisiológicas de la hipertensión arterial de bata blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Yamileth Irina

    2009-01-01

    La hipertensión de bata blanca, también conocida como hipertensión clínica aislada o de consultorio, se define como la presencia de valores de presión arterial superiores a los parámetros normales cuando ésta es medida en un ambiente médico, pero dentro de un rango normal cuando se mide fuera de éste, usualmente mediante el monitoreo ambulatorio de la presión arterial o por la automedición de la presión arterial en el hogar. A pesar de que la hipertensión de bata blanca ha sido reconocida com...

  6. Study of the total uranium in underground water in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua; Estudio del uranio total en agua subterranea en la Ciudad de Jimenez, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M. [Centro de Investigacion de Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: marusia.renteria@cimav.edu.mx

    2004-07-01

    Samples of water of wells in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua were analyzed, and its were determined the content of total uranium. It was used the technique of extraction of uranium from water adding Bis ( 2- ethylexyl) phosphate and scintillating Beta plate Hi safe, and the measures of the activities were carried out in the portable scintillation detector Thiathler- O Y HIDEX. The obtained interval of concentrations was 0.12 to 0.26 Bq/l that it is finds below the maximum permissible limits that it manages the Mexican regulation. It was found a significant correlation among the concentration of uranium and those total solid dissolved present in the samples. (Author)

  7. El Complejo Petroquímico de Bahía Blanca: una historia sinuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odisio, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura abordar os problemas que enfrentou a instalação do Complexo Petroquímico em Bahia Blanca, desde o início dos anos 1970. Mesmo quando o pólo obteve um forte impulso do Estado, enfrentou várias dificuldades, as quais fizeram com o prazo estimado para o começo definitivo das operações fosse ultrapassado em muito

  8. El estrés periodístico en la ciudad de Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Edith Barajas

    2001-01-01

    Es indiscutible que los macrofactores sociales, económicos y políticos de nuestro país, en general, son elementos de influencia en la calidad del flujo de información en los medios masivos de comunicación; sin embargo, no explican los resultados de la actividad periodística. La profesora Barajas articula una investigación para tratar de conocer en una primera aproximación las causas del estresamiento en sus compañeros de profesión que laboran en prensa y televisión en Chihuahua.

  9. El estrés periodístico en la ciudad de Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Edith Barajas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Es indiscutible que los macrofactores sociales, económicos y políticos de nuestro país, en general, son elementos de influencia en la calidad del flujo de información en los medios masivos de comunicación; sin embargo, no explican los resultados de la actividad periodística. La profesora Barajas articula una investigación para tratar de conocer en una primera aproximación las causas del estresamiento en sus compañeros de profesión que laboran en prensa y televisión en Chihuahua.

  10. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and thoracic limb malformations in a Chihuahua puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, V A; Watson, A G

    1995-01-01

    A three-month-old, male Chihuahua puppy with congenital absence of the distal 40% of the right thoracic limb was examined. The limb ended as a short, rounded, skin-covered stump. Radiography revealed a 40% shortened humerus tapered to a blunt end without its distal extremity. Dissection of the left thoracic limb identified luxation of the elbow joint and absence of the fourth digital pad. Alizarin-red staining and clearing demonstrated syndactylous fourth and fifth digits in the left thoracic limb and an anomalous eighth lumbar vertebra. This additional vertebra was unilaterally sacralized and constituted a lumbosacral transitional vertebra.

  11. Use of a TTA plate for correction of severe patella baja in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, George A; Jackson, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    A 7 yr old spayed female Chihuahua presented for right hind limb lameness and reduced stifle range of motion. Radiographs showed a marked patella baja of the right stifle and evidence of a previous surgery to correct a medial patellar luxation. A tibial tuberosity osteotomy was performed to allow proximal translation of the tibial tuberosity, which was stabilized with a tibial tuberosity advancement plate. Four weeks postoperatively, lameness and articular range of motion were improved, and the use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications was discontinued. The dog was still ambulating well and had no lameness 12 mo postsurgically.

  12. Illegal sales of cigarettes to minors--Ciudad Juárez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-21

    In 1996, the United States-Mexico Binational Commission (US-MBC) Health Working Group identified prevention of tobacco use, particularly among adolescents, as a priority and subsequently recommended joint efforts toward reducing illegal sales of cigarettes to minors. A 1997 survey of 561 commercial cigarette outlets in Mexico City found that 79% of retailers sold cigarettes to minors. To assess the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors in other regions of Mexico and on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border, during January-February 1999 the General Directorate of Epidemiology in Mexico, the Chihuahua State Department of Health Services (CDH), the Ciudad Juarez Department of Health (CJDH), the Texas Department of Health (TDH), and the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDH) surveyed cigarette outlets in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico. This report summarizes the results of these surveys, which indicate that almost all retailers in the surveyed outlets in Ciudad Juarez sold cigarettes to minors and that sales rates to minors were substantially lower in El Paso and Las Cruces.

  13. Los hogares con jefatura femenina y la calidad de vida. Chihuahua y Tijuana, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Navarro Ornelas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la calidad de vida de los hogares ubicados en las ciudades de Chihuahua y Tijuana de acuerdo con el sexo del jefe del hogar, para lo cual se construye un índice. Se presenta un panorama sociodemográfico de tales ciudades tomando como base los resultados del ii Conteo de Población y Vivienda 2005; asimismo se formula un análisis de la calidad de vida en los hogares con los datos que ofrece la Encuesta sobre Calidad de Vida, Competitividad y Violencia Social en Hogares de 26 Ciudades Mexicanas, aplicada en diciembre de 2005. Se incluye un indicador de calidad de vida y se aplica la metodología de regresión logística para explicar la diferencia entre los niveles de calidad de vida de ambas ciudades y según el sexo del jefe. El modelo de regresión muestra que a la variable sexo corresponde un pequeño incremento en el riesgo de tener una mala calidad de vida para los hogares dirigidos por mujeres en la ciudad de Tijuana, mientras que en la de Chihuahua no se presenta tal incremento, esto es, el sexo del jefe no influye en la calidad de vida de los hogares; son las variables edad, estado civil y educación las que la determinan significativamente en ambas ciudades.

  14. La vivienda nueva en la ciudad de Chihuahua: oferta y demanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo-Aguilar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el papel del gobierno y del mercado inmobiliario en relación con la disponibilidad de vivienda nueva en la ciudad de Chihuahua en el periodo 2000-2005, no sólo en términos cuantitativos sino también en calidad en cuanto a que tenga las características que le permitan satisfacer las necesidades básicas de las familias, como lo define la agenda internacional denominada Habitat, éstas son: espacio suficiente, seguridad y disponibilidad de servicios, entre otros. Para ello, este trabajo se divide en seis apartados: 1 apuntes teórico-conceptuales sobre la vivienda; 2 desarrollo institucional de atención a la vivienda en México; 3 dinámica de crecimiento de la ciudad de Chihuahua; 4 características de la vivienda tradicional y nueva; 5 oferta de vivienda nueva para el caso particular, y 6 demanda de vivienda. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones sobre el tema.

  15. The Chihuahua dog: A new animal model for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis CLN7 disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kiterie M E; Bras, Jose; Sharpe, Samuel J; Anderson, Glenn W; Darwent, Lee; Kun-Rodrigues, Celia; Alroy, Joseph; Penderis, Jacques; Mole, Sara E; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guerreiro, Rita J

    2016-04-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders characterized by neurodegeneration and accumulation of lipopigments mainly within the neurons. We studied two littermate Chihuahua dogs presenting with progressive signs of blindness, ataxia, pacing, and cognitive impairment from 1 year of age. Because of worsening of clinical signs, both dogs were euthanized at about 2 years of age. Postmortem examination revealed marked accumulation of autofluorescent intracellular inclusions within the brain, characteristic of NCL. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on one of the affected dogs. After sequence alignment and variant calling against the canine reference genome, variants were identified in the coding region or splicing regions of four previously known NCL genes (CLN6, ARSG, CLN2 [=TPP1], and CLN7 [=MFSD8]). Subsequent segregation analysis within the family (two affected dogs, both parents, and three relatives) identified MFSD8:p.Phe282Leufs13*, which had previously been identified in one Chinese crested dog with no available ancestries, as the causal mutation. Because of the similarities of the clinical signs and histopathological changes with the human form of the disease, we propose that the Chihuahua dog could be a good animal model of CLN7 disease.

  16. Casa, cuerpo. La poesía de Blanca Varela frente al espejo Casa, cuerpo. La poesía de Blanca Varela frente al espejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lino Salvador

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La bibliografía crítica existente sobre Blanca Varela se ve enriquecida con un nuevo libro de Camilo Fernández Cozman que recibe por título  Casa, cuerpo. La poesía de Blanca Varela frente al espejo. Este libro, divido en cuatro capítulos, representa, sin duda, un serio acercamiento a diversos tópicos de la poesía vareliana. En este texto, el Miembro de Número de la Academia Peruana de la Lengua, fiel a su rigor interdisciplinario cuya base radica en la retórica general textual, inicia su investigación con un exhaustivo balance de la recepción crítica sobre la lírica de la poeta peruana. En el capítulo que inicia el libro, examina los artículos y ensayos más representativos destacando las ideas de Octavio Paz, las sugerentes reflexiones de José Miguel Oviedo, los disímiles puntos de vista existentes entre Roberto Paoli y David Sobrevilla que buscaban comprender la propuesta del verso de la poeta de  Ese puerto existe. El crítico destaca, también, los importantes aportes de Rocío Silva-Santisteban y Bethsabé Huamán que, desde la perspectiva de los estudios de género, abren el camino para nuevas claves de lectura. Asimismo, examina la mirada que la historiografía literaria tiene sobre la poeta; así como también los criterios a partir de los cuales se posibilitó su presencia en distintas antologías.

  17. Relación entre consultas a urgencias por enfermedad respiratoria y contaminación atmosférica en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua Relationship between emergency room visits for respiratory disease and atmospheric pollution in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Hernández-Cadena

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre las concentraciones ambientales de partículas de diámetro OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of <=10 µm particles (PM10 and atmospheric ozone concentrations, with the daily number of emergency visits due to asthma and acute respiratory diseases, among children aged under 15, living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1998 and 1999, an ecologic study was conducted. Atmospheric data were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, from eight monitoring stations located in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, and El Paso, Texas. From July 1997 to December 1998, data from emergency room visits for respiratory illness were abstracted from existing medical records of two Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS hospitals in Ciudad Juarez. Diagnoses were classified into two groups: a asthma, and b upper respiratory infections (URI, according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and/or IDC-10. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression time series method. RESULTS: During the study period, the mean 24-hour PM10 level was 34.46 µg/m³ (SD=17.99 and the mean ozone level was 51.60 ppb (SD=20.70. The model shows that an increase of 20 µg/m³ in the mean 24-hour exposure to PM10 was related to an increase of 4.97% (95% CI 0.97-9.13 in emergency visits for asthma, with a 5-day lag, as well as to an increase of 9% (95% CI 1.8-16.8 when a cumulative 5-day exposure was considered. URI increased 2.95% as a cause of emergency room visits, for each 20 µg/m³ increase in the mean 24-hour exposure to PM10. The impact of PM10 on emergency visits for asthma was greater on days with ozone ambient levels exceeded 49 ppb (median value. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association was found between environmental PM10 and ozone concentrations and the daily number of emergency room visits due to asthma and acute respiratory diseases, even with levels lower than the

  18. 78 FR 8702 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ....C. AAHT-600725-4L7 (Mexico) (individual) . 4. ARMENTA ZAVALA, Arnoldo Humberto, Av. Pte. A. de Sta... Lorenzo, Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico; Fresno No. 1116, Col Granjas, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31000, Mexico;...

  19. La Blanca. La conservación y restauración de una ciudad Maya

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Cosme, Gaspar; Vidal Lorenzo, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    El proyecto La Blanca tiene como objetivo la excavación e investigación científica de una antigua ciudad maya situada en el Petén guatemalteco. Es un proyecto interdisciplinar en el que participan las Universidades de Valencia, San Carlos de Guatemala y Politécnica de Valencia a través de investigadores del Instituto de Restauración del Patrimonio. Desde el verano del año 2003, en que se realizaron las primeras prospecciones que dieron pie a la formulación del proyecto, se han realizado tres ...

  20. Sobrepoblación de venado cola blanca en el noreste de México

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez M., Alfonso; Hewitt, David

    2001-01-01

    Debido a que la cacería de hembras de venado cola blanca texano (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) era ilegal en México, las poblaciones de venado en algunos ranchos de la región fronteriza del noreste del país, alcanzan densidades muy altas por lo que la condición nutricional de los animales y la calidad del hábitat puede verse afectada. En el presente estudio se determinó el estatus nutricional de 350 hembras capturadas en el noreste de México entre febrero y marzo ...

  1. Estudio enológico de variedades minoritarias blancas de vid del Principado de Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    García, Ana; Loureiro, M.D.; Fernández, Norman; Fernández, Ovidio; Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Picinelli, A.M. (Anna); Suárez, Belén

    2011-01-01

    null El viñedo asturiano se basa en el cultivo de variedades autóctonas del noroeste español. La variedad blanca más extendida es el Albarín blanco, y la variedad Godello está presente en todos los viñedos de manera residual. Se han evaluado parámetros enológicos en uva y en vinos monovarietales de ambas variedades. En el momento de la maduración, se han observado importantes diferencias varietales en cuanto al peso de 100 uvas y a las concentraciones de ácidos orgánicos....

  2. Biodegradación de DDT por dos cepas nativas de hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Osmel Domínguez; Miguel Ramos- Leal; Ana Margarita Manzano; María Isabel Sánchez; Ayixon Sánchez; Giselle Torres; Juan Arguelles; Armando Romeu; Jorge Palacios; Gonzalo Dierksmeier; Gilda Guerra

    2010-01-01

    La biodegradación de DDT por hongos ha recibido relativamente muy poco interés. Investigaciones actuales han confirmado que un gran número de hongos pueden degradar el DDT. Los Hongos de la Podredumbre Blanca (HPB) son un grupo de basidiomicetos degradadores de la lignina que han recibido una considerable atención por su potencial en la biorremediación. Ellos son capaces de degradar la lignina y otras moléculas recalcitrantes debido a que poseen un sistema multienzimático extracelular inespe...

  3. Costa Blanca: Public Space And Perceived Image as Key to Tourism Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Los destinos turísticos tradicionales del litoral español se enfrentan a profundas transformaciones debidas a varios factores, entre los que se encuentran cambios notables en el comportamiento de la demanda y un intenso crecimiento de la competencia a todos los niveles, que puede poner en duda la pervivencia del modelo de desarrollo de estas áreas maduras. Lejos de ser una excepción, la situación que se describe para la Costa Blanca es extrapolable a otros destinos turísticos en otras regione...

  4. Petrological and Geochemical characterization of central Chihuahua basalts: a possible local sign of rifting activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Garcia-Rascon, M.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Morton-Bermea, O.

    2012-12-01

    The central part of the mexican state, Chihuahua, is the oriental border of the Sierra Madre Occidental (silicic large igneous province), which consist of series of ignimbrites divided into two volcanic groups of andesites and rhyolites. In the central region of Chihuahua, the volcanic rocks are now part of the Basin and Range, allowing the presence of mafic rocks in the lower areas. The study area is located approximately 200 km to the NW of Chihuahua city near to La Guajolota town, in the Namiquipa County. There are at least 5 outcrops of basalts to the west of the road, named Puerto de Lopez, Malpaises, El Tascate, Quebrada Honda, and Carrizalio, respectively. These outcrops have only been previously described by the Mexican Geologic Survey (SGM) as thin basaltic flows, with vesicles filled with quartz, and phenocrystals of labradorite, andesine, oligoclase and olivine. Petrologically, the basalts present different textures, from small phenocrysts of plagioclase in a very fine matrix to large, zoned and sometimes broken phenocrysts of plagioclase in a coarser matrix. All samples have olivine in an advanced state of alteration, iddingsite. The geochemical analyses report that these basaltic flows contain characteristics of rift basalts. The rocks have a normative olivine values from 5.78 to 27.26 and nepheline values from 0 to 2.34. In the TAS diagram the samples straddle the join between basalt and trachy-basalt, reflecting a high K2O content. The Mg# average is 0.297, a value that suggests that the basalts do not come from a primitive magma. The basalts have high values of Ba (945-1334 ppm), Cu (54-147 ppm), and Zn (123-615 ppm). The contents of Rb (23-57 ppm), Sr (659-810 ppm), Y (26-33 ppm), Zr (148-217 ppm) and Cr (79-98 ppm) are characteristics of rift basalts. Using discrimination diagrams, the basalts plot in the field of within plate, supporting the rifting origin. Outcrops of other basalts, at about 80 to 100 km to the east of the study area, Lomas El

  5. Investigation of the radioactivity in air, water and soil in the Estado de Chihuahua; Investigacion de la radiactividad en aire, agua y suelo en el Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Villalba, M.L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Colmenero S, L.H. [CIMAV e Instituto Tecnologico de Chihuahua, Av. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2004-07-01

    The results of the determinations of activities of the series of U-238, Th-232 and the K-40 in soils, of the Rn-222 in the air of the domiciles, and in underground water are presented, as well as the total uranium activity in underground water, product of an extensive sampling in the state of Chihuahua. In two of the aquifers a positive correlation was obtained among the concentration of total uranium and the Rn-222 dissolved in the water of each well. Also it was finds a positive tendency among the averages of the concentration of U-238 in the soil and of the concentration of Rn-222 in the air of the domiciles in different towns, and among the averages of the concentration of U-238 in the floor and of the concentration of the Rn-222 dissolved in the well water in different aquifer. It is suggested that the constitution for rocks more or less uraniferous of the alluvial valleys gives explanation to the observed correlations. (Author)

  6. Qualitative evidence on abortion stigma from Mexico City and five states in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik M; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía Piñeros, María Consuelo; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Social manifestations of abortion stigma depend upon cultural, legal, and religious context. Abortion stigma in Mexico is under-researched. This study explored the sources, experiences, and consequences of stigma from the perspectives of women who had had an abortion, male partners, and members of the general population in different regional and legal contexts. We explored abortion stigma in Mexico City where abortion is legal in the first trimester and five states-Chihuahua, Chiapas, Jalisco, Oaxaca, and Yucatán-where abortion remains restricted. In each state, we conducted three focus groups-men ages 24-40 years (n = 36), women 25-40 years (n = 37), and young women ages 18-24 years (n = 27)-and four in-depth face-to-face interviews in total; two with women (n = 12) and two with the male partners of women who had had an abortion (n = 12). For 4 of the 12 women, this was their second abortion. This exploratory study suggests that abortion stigma was influenced by norms that placed a high value on motherhood and a conservative Catholic discourse. Some participants in this study described abortion as an "indelible mark" on a woman's identity and "divine punishment" as a consequence. Perspectives encountered in Mexico City often differed from the conservative postures in the states.

  7. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  8. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  9. Distribución del ingreso agropecuario en Chihuahua, México 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Callejas Juárez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la desigualdad en el ingreso de los productores agropecuarios Chihuahua, México. Esto se realizó mediante el cálculo del Coeficiente de Gini (CG. Se utilizó el Ingreso Neto (IN, así como transferencias de gobierno y valor de los activos. Los productores se estratificaron en nueve grupos considerando el valor de los activos y el grado de marginación. El CG del IN fue 74% para los productores agropecuarios, agrícolas 81%, pecuarios 70%, transferencias de gobierno 71% y activos 75%. El 50% de los productores con activos altos acumuló 54% del ingreso agropecuario, mientras que 67% con baja marginación el 71%. Para productores pecuarios, el 96% del IN se concentró en productores con activos altos y 70% en productores con baja marginación.

  10. Social acceptability urban form and sustainability in urban neighborhoods in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gabriela Vargas Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of urban planning, questioning around sustainability and the possibility of sustainable urban planning has led to a new set of approaches and discussions that impact studies on urban form and sustainable livelihoods. This approach characterized the work presented by Mike Jenks and Colin Jones (2010, Dimensions of the Sustainable City, where a set of variables are presented about urban sustainability from the neighbourhood level of analysis. In that sense, this article proposes the analysis of three social housing neighborhoods in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, integrating aspects of urban form and social acceptability, in order to understand the relationship between the physical and sociocultural dimensions of the concept of urban sustainability.

  11. Seismic Stratigraphy of Pleistocene Deltaic Deposits in Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVADOR ALIOTTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina has a morphological configuration resulting from hydrological and sedimentary processes related to Late Quaternary sea level changes. This estuarine system occupies a large coastal plain with a dense net of tidal channels, low-altitude islands and large intertidal flats. Little is known about the sedimentary units of the marine subbottom. Therefore, a stratigraphical analysis of the northern coast of Bahía Blanca estuary was carried out using high resolution seismic (3.5 kHz in order to: i define Quaternary sequences, ii describe sedimentary structures, and iii determine the paleoenvironmental conditions of sedimentation. The seismic stratigraphic data collected and their correlation with drilling lithological data show five seismic sequences (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5, of which S1-S2 were found to be associated with a continental paleoenvironment of Miocene-Pleistocene age. Sequences S3 and S4, whose lithology and seismic facies (paleochannel structures and prograding reflection configurations, were defined on these materials, to evidence the development of an ancient deltaic environment which was part of a large Pleistocene drainage system. The S5 sequence was formed during the Holocene transgressive-regressive process and complete the seismostratigraphic column defined in the present study.

  12. Sistema perceptivo cotidiano de los adolescentes de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Farinelli María Laura

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende ofrecer una metodología para planificar los espacios urbanos, a través del reconocimiento de las imágenes percibidas por diferentes actores. El objetivo es comprender el sistema perceptivo de referencia local de los adolescentes de Bahía Blanca, a partir de sus prácticas socioespaciales y de sus vínculos con familiares y amigos, como medios para definir y categorizar los lugares de mayor concurrencia habitual que, por su significado emocional, se convierten en geosímbolos de referencia colectiva. El método utilizado se fundamenta en datos cuali-cuantitativos para elaborar cartografía de abstracción subjetiva, que posteriormente será utilizada para orientar la intervención urbana bajo conceptos de estética y funcionalidad. Se espera contribuir al reconocimiento de los sectores que más agradan a los jóvenes en aras de la redefinición del diseño de las zonas urbanas de Bahía Blanca.

  13. Sistema perceptivo cotidiano de los adolescentes de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Rubio Farinelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende ofrecer una metodología para planificar los espacios urbanos, a través del reconocimiento de las imágenes percibidas por diferentes actores. El objetivo es comprender el sistema perceptivo de referencia local de los adolescentes de Bahía Blanca, a partir de sus prácticas socioespaciales y de sus vínculos con familiares y amigos, como medios para definir y categorizar los lugares de mayor concurrencia habitual que, por su significado emocional, se convierten en geosímbolos de referencia colectiva. El método utilizado se fundamenta en datos cuali-cuantitativos para elaborar cartografía de abstracción subjetiva, que posteriormente será utilizada para orientar la intervención urbana bajo conceptos de estética y funcionalidad. Se espera contribuir al reconocimiento de los sectores que más agradan a los jóvenes en aras de la redefinición del diseño de las zonas urbanas de Bahía Blanca.

  14. Capacidad reguladora de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen sobre mosca blanca Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood en tomate bajo invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerly Alejandra Castro-Lopez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemíptera: Aleyrodidae es uno de los principales limitantes del cultivo de tomate Solanum lycopersicum, por generar problemas directos e indirectos en este sistema de producción; para el manejo de este insecto (mosca blanca se acude a excesivas aplicaciones de productos de síntesis química, sin obtener los mejores resultados. Este estudio consistió en evaluar, en condiciones de invernadero, la capacidad reguladora de Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuróptera: Chrysopidae sobre la mosca blanca presente en tomate. En plantas infestadas con individuos de T. vaporariorum se adicionó C. externa en niveles poblacionales de 80, 160 y 240 individuos en estado larval por planta, y se contó con un testigo sin depredador. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar en condiciones de invernadero (temperatura promedio de 20 ºC y humedad relativa del 60 %. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las densidades del depredador, con infestaciones de 35, 52 y 53 % de T. vaporariorum (tras cuatro semanas, correspondientes a las liberaciones de 240, 160 y 80 individuos por planta, respectivamente. Se observó que las plantas del testigo presentaron menor altura y número de ramas, respecto de los tratamientos en los cuales había presencia del depredador C. externa.

  15. Regional location of electric-electronics sector in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Jacinto Flores Flores

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the degree of regional location of the electric-electronic sector of Mexico. Location coefficient was calculated using variables total employed persons and the total gross output; It was complemented by a shift-share analysis; both methods based on official information from economic censuses of 2004 and 2009. The methods used is descriptive techniques and the results generated depend on the selected period of time, they suggested that the electric-electronic sector is highly localized in the northeastern regions and northwestern Mexico, more specifically, in the states of Baja California, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas. However, the state of Baja California Sur has a zero activity in the electric-electronic sector. These findings provide support for the development of targeted policies to actions that promote the competitiveness of high-tech industry of Mexico. A future line of research is to expand the scope of the study to identify the most significant conditions for the electric-electronic sector of Mexico location.

  16. The first educational interferometer in Mexico (FEYMANS): A novel project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Guesten, Rolf; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Carreto, Francisco; Valdes Estrada, Erik; Wendolyn Blanco Cardenas, Monica; Rodríguez Garza, Carolina B.; Pech Castillo, Gerardo A.; Ángel Vaquerizo, Juan

    2016-07-01

    An interferometer is composed of several radio telescopes (dishes) separated by a defined distance and used in synchrony. This kind of array produces a superior angular resolution, better than the resolution achieved by a single dish of the same combined area. In this work we propose the First Educational Youth Mexican Array North South, FEYMANS. It consists of an educational interferometer with initially four dishes. This array harvests Mexico's geography by locating each dish at the periphery of the country; creating new scientific links of provincial populations with the capital. The FEYMANS project focus in high school students and their projects on physics, chemistry and astronomy as a final project. Also, it can be used for bachelor theses. The initial and central dish-node is planed to be in Mexico City. After its construction, the efforts will focus to build subsequent nodes, on the Northwest region, Northeast, or Southeast. Region Northwest will give service to Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua states. Region Northeast will cover Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. Finally, region Southeast will give access to Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas. This project has been conceived by young professional astronomers and Mexican experts that will operate each node. Also, we have the technical support of the "Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomy in Bonn Germany" and the educational model of the "PARTNeR" project in Spain. This interferometer will be financed by Mexico's Federal Congress and by Mexico City's Legislative Assembly (ALDF).

  17. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R. [McCarthy Tetrault, Calgary, AB (Canada); Daschle, R. [Transalta Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of the energy sector in Mexico, an important player in the world energy market, whose trade and market policies support economic development and foreign investment. Trade, commerce and investment between Canada and Mexico has been increasing steadily ever since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect in January 1994. TransAlta Corporation and Westcoast Energy Inc. are two very active investors in the energy sector. Westcoast has invested in increasing natural gas and oil production from the Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico through the Campeche Natural Gas Compression Service Project and the Cantarell Nitrogen Plant. TransAlta has invested in two natural gas fired power plants which are both expected to be in service for the second quarter of 2003. These include the 252 MW Campeche facility and the 259 MW Chihuahua facility. Mexico has proven crude oil reserves of 27 billion barrels, proven natural gas reserves of 30 tcf, and in 2000 had a crude oil production of 3.4 mmbl/d, of which half was exported. The energy sector in Mexico may need about $120 billion of investment by 2010, of which half will be used for crude oil exploration and production, transportation and refining and the other half for natural gas exploration and production, transportation and distribution and power generation. Recently, the Mexican government embarked on two initiatives. The first to increase the productivity and profitability of PEMEX, the largest corporation in Mexico and one of the largest in the world, and to allow a form of private investment in the development of non-associated natural gas fields. This paper discussed the significance of the Multiple Service Contracts (MSC) program which involves domestic and international petroleum exploration and development. It also discussed forms of business organizations, taxation and structuring, financial issues, employment and the North American Free Trade Agreement

  18. Post-laramide folds in early- to mid-Tertiary volcanic and/or gravel sequences in eastern Chihuahua, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Gomez, J. J.; Chávez-Cabello, G.; Cerca-Niño, M.; Harald, B.; Iriondo, A.; Kurt, W.; Gildardo, G.

    2009-12-01

    Laramide age deformation in Northern Mexico ended prior to the accumulation of thick sequences of volcanic rocks, which in most places are flat-lying or gently tilted by normal faults related to Basin and Range extension. W of the Plomosas uplift, at Sierra Cuesta del Infierno, volcanic rocks interlayered with thin gravel deposits were locally folded in the period between 45.3 ± 0.1 Ma (Ar/Ar, san) and 33.95 ± 0.4 (U-Pb, zircon), producing a NNW-trending, plunging syncline associated with a monocline and two sets of domino-style normal faults. This group of structures roughly mimics the tectonic western front of the Chihuahua Thrust and Fold Belt at nearby Sierra El Morrión. There are thick sequences of continental gravel deposits in the southeastern portion of Chihuahua. Some sequences are mostly composed by clasts derived from Mesozoic marine sediments, with minor amounts of plutonic and volcanic rock fragments; they were deposited prior to the accumulation of a thick sequence of upper Eocene - middle Oligocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. E of Camargo (13 km, 090°), near Cerro El Jabalí, we have documented a NE tilted (40 to 70°), > 1200 m thick, gravel deposit, which was intruded by a 45.82 ± 0.02 Ma (Ar/Ar, hbl) andesitic sill. NW and SE of the Camargo volcanic field are two plunging synclines exposed at the sierras Aguachile (65 km, 066° from Camargo) and La Herradura (115 km, 097° from Camargo). These NNW-trending folds are younger than a rhyolitic ignimbrite at Aguachile (K-Ar, 31.3 Ma) and an andesite (Ar/Ar = 33.5± 0.3 Ma) at La Herradura. Part of La Herradura folded sequence is a gravel deposit formed by limestone clasts, similar to the Cerro El Jabalí sequence. S of Sierra El Diablo there is a striking array of structures, exposed in a large area (60 x 70 km). These structures were developed in sand and gravel deposits. Some of the folds have N-S trending axes and other folds are E-W trending. A few structures are clearly non-coaxial re

  19. El rururbano: espacio de contrastes, significados y pertenencia, ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Sereno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas rururbanas, por su condición de borde, están sometidas a transformaciones provocadas por el crecimiento urbano y sufren los impactos asociados al proceso de globalización. Ambos factores imponen formas de apropiación y utilización de los recursos que obligan a los residentes a cambiar sus rutinas cotidianas y adoptar nuevas estrategias. En este artículo se caracterizan las funciones, el uso del suelo y las prácticas socioespaciales de los residentes del rururbano de Bahía Blanca, así como la incidencia de las presiones globales-urbanas y del sentido de pertenencia en la predisposición a cambiar de modo de vida y destino de las tierras.

  20. Torres Blancas

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    José Manuel López-Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nella Madrid degli anni sessanta l’architetto navarro Sáenz de Oíza sperimenta la costruzione di un edificio residenziale a torre in cemento armato. Risultato della felice relazione con un imprenditore mecenate, Juan Huarte, l’edificio si articola nella variazione tipologica di alloggi ad L e duplex, di locali per uffici e servizi, fino agli spazi ad uso comune, come la piscina e il ristorante della terrazza sul tetto, per proporsi come modello di piccola città autosufficiente. / In 1960s Madrid, the Navarrese architect Sáenz de Oíza tried constructing a residential tower in reinforced concrete. The happy result of a partnership with an entrepreneur patron, Juan Huarte, the building is split into L-shaped dwellings and duplexes, rooms for offices and services, as well as communal spaces, such as a swimming pool and a restaurant on the roof terrace, to exemplify a model of a small, self-sufficient town.

  1. Measurements of light absorbing particulates on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

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    C. G. Schmitt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in air temperature, increases in light absorbing particulates deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light absorbing particulates sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May–August of 2011, 2012 and 2013, two hundred and forty snow samples were collected from fifteen mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the three expeditions and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same expedition. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM, a new technique that measures the ability of particulates on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC. As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective Black Carbon (eBC. During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2. Calculated eBC mass from the filter analysis and the SP2 refractory Black Carbon (rBC results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92. These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light absorbing particulates in the more polluted areas were likely BC. The three years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g−1 than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g−1 eBC, indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  2. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

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    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  3. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

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    Germán Poleo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR, y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA. Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar aire. Los peces se alimentaron a saciedad con pienso comercial por 192 días. Los parámetros de calidad de agua como: oxígeno disuelto, amonio total, nitritos, nitratos, alcalinidad, dureza, temperatura y pH, se midieron semanalmente. Los peces en el SCR crecieron a una tasa de 2,34±0,05 g por día, y tuvieron conversión alimenticia de 1,5±0,06, densidad final de 12,96±0,53 kg m-3, y peso final de 449,5±99 g. En el SRA, los peces crecieron 2,33±0,03 g por día, con conversión alimenticia de 1,6±0,07, densidad final de 12,13±1,12 kg m-3, y peso final de 446,5±10 g. La cachama blanca puede ser cultivada en sistemas cerrados con cero recambio de agua en altas densidades.

  4. Another Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the…

  5. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Sediments from Prevalent Dust Sources in the Central Chihuahuan Desert, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez Acosta, M.; Gill, T. E.; Peinado, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Chihuahuan Desert has been recognized as an important contributor of mineral aerosols emplaced into the atmosphere in the Western Hemisphere. Along with the production of these aerosols, growing concern has been stated relating the downwind transport of atmospheric dust particles to increases in human health related impacts such as asthma and bronchitis in the Binational Paso Del Norte, the largest urban area in the region. Efforts have been made to describe the source types (land use/cover) and frequency of emission from the "dust hotspots" or prevalent sources within the region. These studies have outlined specific areas and their related sedimentological environments responsible for the regular dust production. Ephemeral lakes, fluvial and alluvial related environments form the main natural dust producing landforms in the region, modulated by short-term climatic variability and anthropogenic disturbance. Analysis of remote sensing imagery shows that the margins between natural areas and agricultural lands form the main anthropogenic related source areas. Most of the previously published studies focus on these remotely sensed descriptions of the dust sources, while only a few deal with in situ or field characteristics of these sources. A formal and detailed description of the physicochemical properties of many of these areas is presented, providing key data on this component of the overall dust production cycle. Elemental and mineralogical compositions of dust source sediments, soil textural compositions (grain size distributions) and field sedimentological descriptions are presented as an effort to attain a detailed in situ description of the prevalent dust sources in the central part of the Chihuahuan Desert.

  6. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from Skylab imagery. [Mojave Desert block of Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two alternate models for the extension of the Texas zone through the Mojave Desert block have been developed: (1) along the Pisgah Line, and (2) along the eastern Transverse Ranges; this model suggests a counterclockwise rotation of the Mojave block. Analysis of S190B photographs of the western Mojave Desert provides strong evidence for the feasibility of identifying recent fault breaks.

  7. Unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog, Chihuahua, Mexico -- Implications for radionuclide mobility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Chemical and U-Th isotopic data on unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog reveal effects of water-rock interaction and help constrain models of radionuclide release and transport at the site and, by analogy, at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geochemical reaction-path modeling indicates that, under oxidizing conditions, dissolution of uraninite (spent fuel analog) by these waters will lead to eventual schoepite precipitation regardless of initial silica concentration provided that groundwater is not continuously replenished. Thus, less soluble uranyl silicates may not dominate the initial alteration assemblage and keep dissolved U concentrations low. Uranium-series activity ratios are consistent with models of U transport at the site and display varying degrees of leaching versus recoil mobilization. Thorium concentrations may reflect the importance of colloidal transport of low-solubility radionuclides in the unsaturated zone.

  8. Phenotypic variation of the Mexican duck (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N.J.; Reynolds, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 98 breeding Mexican Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) was made in Mexico from six areas between the United States border with Chihuahua and Lake Chapala, Jalisco, in order to study geographic variation. Plumage indices showed a relatively smooth clinal change from north to south; northern populations were most influenced by the Northern Mallard (A. platyrhynchos) phenotype. Measurements of total, wing, and culmen lengths and bill width were usually significantly larger in males at any one site, but showed no regular geographic trends. Hybridization between platyrhynchos and diazi phenotypes may or may not be increasing in the middle Rio Grande and Rio Conchos valleys; available data are insufficient to decide. A spring 1978 aerial census yielded an estimate of 55,500 diazi -like birds in Mexico. Populations of diazi appear to be as large as the available habitat allows; management should be directed towards increasing and stabilizing the nesting habitat; and the stability of the zone of intergradation should be investigated.

  9. La segregación socioespacial en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. López Navarrete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la segregación socioespacial en el municipio de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, para responder a la pregunta de investigación: ¿cuáles son las características principales de la distribución espacial de los estratos socioeconómicos, así como su evolución en el tiempo? El análisis factorial permite, mediante el método de componentes principales, combinar variables socioeconómicas y generar indicadores para saber si los habitantes de determinadas zonas urbanas comparten características similares, para analizar el grado de segregación espacial. La hipótesis de desigualdad no se pudo rechazar mediante la validez estadística de los índices de segregación socioespacial, excepto el del año 2000. Se concluye que el problema de la segregación es producto de la especulación del suelo de desarrolladores privados, y que también el Estado es un actor clave para generarla y revertirla.

  10. El comercio minorista en el norte de México: agentes de Sonora y Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen O. Bocanegra Gastélum

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las actividades económicas que actualmente se desarrolla con mayor intensidad en los estados de la frontera norte de México es el comercio de bienes de consumo personal. El tamaño del mercado que integra una población con niveles de ingreso per cápita superiores a la media nacional, además de ser territorio de cruce de mercancías en dos direcciones, lo hacen un espacio atractivo para el consumo y los agentes que se dedican al giro económico de ese tipo de comercio. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la importancia, estructura y dinámica de esa actividad en dos estados colindantes con el vecino país del norte (Chihuahua y Sonora, ofreciendo elementos cuantitativos, los institucionales que instrumenta el Estado, así como los referentes al perfil competitivo de las empresas que operan en esa región. En el trabajo se demuestra que en cada una de esas entidades se está dando una depuración de los agentes económicos del comercio a favor de empresas que provienen de estados vecinos y en contra de las nativas de los estados respectivos.

  11. Indicators for the sustainable use of water in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

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    Luis Ernesto Cervera Gómez

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to develop indicators that allow us to progress in the evaluation of the sustainable use of water in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. In order to measure sustainability, a systematic model was proposed involving society, institutions, infrastructure and the environment that would allow us to advance in the knowledge about interaction between society and its environment. Progress was achieved in the developing and measurement of some indicators, such as those related to quality of life and current state of water infrastructure and treatment. Using existing data, it was possible to develop and measure the following indicators for the sustainable use of water: 1. secure access to water; 2. access to adequate sanitation systems; 3. domiciliary connections; 4. water price; 5. water consumption, and 6. waste water treatment. Results indicate that the municipal water system of Ciudad Juarez presents good indicators for sustainable use of water, however, they do not take into account the negative rate of rechargeextraction of the city's water supply system or of the quality of water for human consumption. The author considers that other indicators related to institutional and legal frame works, citizen participation, water quality, and environmental impact must be developed and estimated.

  12. Desarrollo forestal sustentable en Chihuahua, México: una estrategia multidimensional

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    Concepción Luján Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Establecer una estrategia multidimensional para lograr el desarrollo forestal sustentable en la región de clima templado frío en Chihuahua, México, fue el objetivo del presente estudio, que se obtuvo con la aplicación del modelo Multiconferencia de Búsqueda (MCB, basado en el sistema de organización por asociaciones de productores forestales (ejidatarios, comuneros y pequeños propietarios, incluidos indígenas y mestizos. La metodología participativa aplicada consideró el carácter social de la propiedad de los recursos forestales en México, y se apoyó en la colaboración activa de ejidos y comunidades y demás actores relacionados. La estrategia multidimensional establecida está integrada por las dimensiones ecológicas ambientales, socioculturales, económicas, político-institucionales y científico-tecnológicas, que incluye objetivos y acciones estratégicas que consideran las necesidades e intereses comunes de los involucrados en la búsqueda del desarrollo forestal regional, con visión de sustentabilidad.

  13. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the i.v. fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis.

  14. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  15. Uranium and radium activities in samples of aquifers of the main cities of the Estado de Chihuahua; Actividades de uranio y radio en muestras de agua subterranea de las principales ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav.edu.mx

    2003-07-01

    The natural uranium is in four valence states +3, +4, +5 and +6 being the hexavalent state the more soluble, which plays an important role in the transport of the uranium in the environment. The high concentrations of uranium in water not only in near waters to uranium mines, but also are in some mineral waters or in waters that are extracted of deep wells as it happens in the State of Chihuahua, where the underground waters are the fundamental source of consumption. The radium is a disintegration product of the uranium, the radio content in water is considered the second source of natural radioactivity. The distribution of radium in water is in function of the uranium content present in the aquifer. It was determined the uranium and radium content in samples of underground water of the main cities of the State of Chihuahua according to their number of inhabitants. The extraction methods for uranium and sulfates precipitation of Ba-Ra by means of the addition of barium carriers for the radium were used. The measures of the activities of uranium and radium were carried out by means of a portable liquid scintillation detector trade mark Thiathler-OY HIDEX. The obtained results have demonstrated that the content of uranium and radium in dissolution are in most of the sampling wells above the permissible maximum levels that manage the Mexican regulations. The high contents of uranium and radio can be attributed since to the influence of the geologic substrate characteristic of the zone in the State of Chihuahua they exist but of 50 uranium deposits. (Author)

  16. Uranium-series constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater flow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven J; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I; Murrell, Michael T; Dobson, Patrick F; Norman, Deborah E; Amato, Ronald S; Nunn, Andrew J

    2010-03-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the Nopal I uranium ore deposit were obtained to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes for a nuclear waste repository located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 are consistent with a simple physical mixing model that indicates that groundwater velocities are low ( approximately 10 m/y). Uranium isotopic constraints, well productivities, and radon systematics also suggest limited groundwater mixing and slow flow in the saturated zone. Uranium isotopic systematics for seepage water collected in the mine adit show a spatial dependence which is consistent with longer water-rock interaction times and higher uranium dissolution inputs at the front adit where the deposit is located. Uranium-series disequilibria measurements for mostly unsaturated zone samples indicate that (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.005 to 0.48 and (226)Ra/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.006 to 113. (239)Pu/(238)U mass ratios for the saturated zone are 1000 times lower than the U mobility. Saturated zone mobility decreases in the order (238)U approximately (226)Ra > (230)Th approximately (239)Pu. Radium and thorium appear to have higher mobility in the unsaturated zone based on U-series data from fractures and seepage water near the deposit.

  17. Uranium-series constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater flow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.J.; Abdel-Fattah, A.I.; Murrell, M.T.; Dobson, P.F.; Norman, D.E.; Amato, R.S.; Nunn, A. J.

    2009-10-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the Nopal I uranium ore deposit were obtained to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes for a nuclear waste repository located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 are consistent with a simple physical mixing model that indicates that groundwater velocities are low ({approx}10 m/y). Uranium isotopic constraints, well productivities, and radon systematics also suggest limited groundwater mixing and slow flow in the saturated zone. Uranium isotopic systematics for seepage water collected in the mine adit show a spatial dependence which is consistent with longer water-rock interaction times and higher uranium dissolution inputs at the front adit where the deposit is located. Uranium-series disequilibria measurements for mostly unsaturated zone samples indicate that {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.005-0.48 and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.006-113. {sup 239}Pu/{sup 238}U mass ratios for the saturated zone are <2 x 10{sup -14}, and Pu mobility in the saturated zone is >1000 times lower than the U mobility. Saturated zone mobility decreases in the order {sup 238}U{approx}{sup 226}Ra > {sup 230}Th{approx}{sup 239}Pu. Radium and thorium appear to have higher mobility in the unsaturated zone based on U-series data from fractures and seepage water near the deposit.

  18. URANIUM-SERIES CONSTRAINTS ON RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND GROUNDWATER FLOW AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell

    2006-04-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (< 10 m/yr). Field tests, well productivity, and uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.

  19. Un Micoinsecticida como Agente de Control de la Mosca Blanca (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows y Perrings) en Jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Loera Gallardo; Ernesto Salgado Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la eficacia del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana, elaborado como suspensión emulsificable a concentración de 2.1 x 1010 esporas mL-1 y aplicado en dosis de 1.0, 1.5 y 2.0 L ha-1, contra la mosca blanca Bemisia argentifolii en la variedad Flora Dade de jitomate. Se incluyó como testigo al insecticida endosulfán en concentrado emulsificable (350 g de i.a. L-1) y aplicado en dosis de 2.0 L ha-1. Se evaluó el número de ninfas vivas de mosca blanca encontradas en un área de 2 cm d...

  20. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  1. Preferencias de consumo de cuatro forrajes por venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus mantenidos en cautiverio en Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Fernando Castillo-López

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El  venado cola blanca  (Odocoileus  virginianus.Zimmermann es uno de los recursos silvestres y cinegéticos más  importantes  en México.  Sin embargo,  los estudios que existen sobre  su crianza en cautiverio son insuficientes para optimizar su producción. El objetivo planteado en este trabajo fue  evaluar  la  preferencia  relativa  de  cuatro forrajes,  comparar  el  consumo  ad  libitum  del forraje nativo preferido contra un pasto de corte, en venados cola blanca mantenidos en cautiverio, y medir  la relación entre el contenido de sustancias antinutricionales de  los alimentos con el consumo.Se utilizaron cuatro venados cola blanca machos adultos  con  peso  promedio  de  45  Kg,  y  tres especies de árboles  forrajeros nativos: Leucaena leucocephala, Guazuma ulmifolia,  Brosimum alicastrum  y  el  pasto  de  corte  Pennisetum purpureum.  Para  medir  la  preferencia  se realizaron dos experimentos, mediante el diseño

  2. Evaluación del desarrollo de aminas biógenas en queso chihuahua durante la vida de anaquel

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2013-01-01

    La inocuidad de los alimentos constituye una de las preocupaciones de la industria de alimentos ya que afecta directamente a la salud de los consumidores. El queso chihuahua es el queso madurado de mayor consumo en México, la maduración se realiza mediante la adición de microorganismos lácticos, principalmente del género Lactococcus y en algunos casos también Streptococcus thermophilus y Lactobacillus. Se ha demostrado que en alimentos madurados se pueden desarrollar aminas biógenas por la pr...

  3. Evaluación del desarrollo de aminas biógenas en queso chihuahua durante la vida de anaquel

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2013-01-01

    La inocuidad de los alimentos constituye una de las preocupaciones de la industria de alimentos ya que afecta directamente a la salud de los consumidores. El queso chihuahua es el queso madurado de mayor consumo en México, la maduración se realiza mediante la adición de microorganismos lácticos, principalmente del género Lactococcus y en algunos casos también Streptococcus thermophilus y Lactobacillus. Se ha demostrado que en alimentos madurados se pueden desarrollar aminas biógenas por la...

  4. EL PROCESO DE TRABAJO PARTICIPATIVO EN LA EVALUACIÓN DE BIBLIOTECAS UNIVERSITARIAS: CASO UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE CHIHUAHUA

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Tarango Ortiz; Gabriela Mendoza Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Se describe la experiencia obtenida en el sistema de bibliotecas de la Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua durante el diseño y validación de un plan de evaluación a partir del empleo de un modelo de trabajo participativo. El modelo propuesto es sustentado en una revisión de la literatura de los trabajos relacionados al tema de la evaluación de las bibliotecas universitarias en México, así como los principios generales de la metaevaluación y evaluación. El trabajo concluye anali-zando las condic...

  5. EL PROCESO DE TRABAJO PARTICIPATIVO EN LA EVALUACIÓN DE BIBLIOTECAS UNIVERSITARIAS: CASO UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE CHIHUAHUA

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Tarango Ortiz; Gabriela Mendoza Guillén

    2009-01-01

    The experience acquired in the library system of the Autonomous Univer-sity of Chihuahua is described during the design and validation of a plan of evalua-tion starting with the employment of a model of participative work. The model is proposed is sustained on the revision of the supported literature of the works which is related to the theme of evaluation which pertains to the mexican university librar-ies, as well as the general principles of the metaevalution and the evaluation. The work c...

  6. La violencia en la región noroeste de Chihuahua. Experiencias e impactos desde la comunidad educativa

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos J. Estrada Ruiz; Adán Cano Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    La violencia escolar ha sido un tema explorado de manera importante en los últimos años desde la investigación educativa en México, sin embargo, en contextos de alta violencia no se han mostrado los impactos de la violencia extraescolar y estructural, en la escuela y en otros espacios comunitarios. El artículo presenta resultados de una investigación que tuvo por objetivo reconstruir el impacto de la violencia en la región noroeste de Chihuahua, desde la comunidad educativa (docentes, padres,...

  7. Downscaling reanalysis data to high-resolution variables above a glacier surface (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Marlis; Mölg, Thomas; Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg

    2010-05-01

    Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term atmospheric data. The aim of this study is to extend the existing time series into the past. We present an empirical-statistical downscaling (ESD) model that links 6-hourly NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to the local target variables, measured at the tropical glacier Artesonraju (Northern Cordillera Blanca). The approach is particular in the context of ESD for two reasons. First, the observational time series for model calibration are short (only about two years). Second, unlike most ESD studies in climate research, we focus on variables at a high temporal resolution (i.e., six-hourly values). Our target variables are two important drivers in the surface energy balance of tropical glaciers; air temperature and specific humidity. The selection of predictor fields from the reanalysis data is based on regression analyses and climatologic considerations. The ESD modelling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses. Principal component screening is based on cross-validation using the Akaike Information Criterion as model selection criterion. Double cross-validation is applied for model evaluation. Potential autocorrelation in the time series is considered by defining the block length in the resampling procedure. Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modelling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice by using both single- and mixed-field predictors of the variables air temperature (1000 hPa), specific humidity (1000 hPa), and zonal wind speed (500 hPa). The chosen downscaling domain ranges from 80 to 50 degrees west and from 0 to 20 degrees south. Statistical transfer functions are derived individually for different months and times of day (month/hour-models). The forecast skill of the month/hour-models largely depends on

  8. Prevalencia de desnutrición en niños tarahumaras menores de cinco años en el municipio de Guachochi, Chihuahua Prevalence of malnutrition in Tarahumara children under 5 years of age in the municipality of Guachochi, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Monárrez

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de desnutrición en niños tarahumaras menores de cinco años en el municipio de Guachochi, Chihuahua, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Durante el verano de 1996, fueron muestreados 450 niños, representativos de 62 comunidades, estratificadas por el tamaño de su población. La muestra representa 12.2% del total de tarahumaras del municipio. Para cada uno de los índices antropométricos peso/edad, peso/talla y talla/edad se calculó la desviación en puntaje Z de cada observación de la mediana de la población de referencia (NCHS. Se presentan medias y desviaciones estándar de las mediciones realizadas, así como la prevalencia de desnutrición, estratificada por edad, sexo y tamaño de la localidad de residencia de los niños. RESULTADOS: Las prevalencias de desnutrición a ±DE:-1.66±1.1; peso/talla: 3.5% (±DE: -0.43±0.9 y; talla/edad: 57.1% (±DE: -2.15±1.3. Los niños de 12-23 meses de edad fueron los más afectados (OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition among Tarahumara children under 5 years of age in the municipality of Guachochi, Chihuahua, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the summer of 1996, we interviewed a representative sample of 450 children from 62 communities, stratified by size of population. The sample represents 12.2% of the total number of Tarahumaras in the municipality. For each of three anthropometric indices (weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age, we calculated the Z-score in reference to NCHS population values. Results are presented as means and standard deviations as well as prevalence of malnutrition at different cut-off-points, stratified by age, sex, and size of the community. RESULTS: Prevalence figures of malnutrition (<-2Z were: weight-for-age: 36.4% (mean SD± -1.66 ±1.1; weight-for-height: 3.5% (mean SD± -0.43 ±0.9; and height-for-age: 57.1% (mean SD± -2.15 ±1.3. Children aged 12-23 months were the most affected, both in weight

  9. Recent evolution and degradation of the bent Jatunraju glacier (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam; Loarte, Edwin C.; Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, Vít

    2015-01-01

    This article brings new insight into the recent evolution and degradation of the bent Jatunraju glacier in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Analysis of topographical maps, aerial photos and satellite images covering a period of 66 years and a field survey performed in June 2013 and May 2014 helped to describe the geomorphological setting and ongoing processes. Recent evolution and degradation processes are also deduced from surface movements. Historical geodetic measurements (1967-1968; 1977-1984) and current LANDSAT images (2001-2013) were used to estimate surface velocities and changes in surface velocities over time. Our investigation showed that the most significant changes happened at an altitude of between 4300 and 4450 m asl. A significant decrease in surface velocities and increase in debris thickness indicate that this part of Jatunraju turned from a debris-covered glacier into an ice-cored rock glacier during the analyzed period. Particular parts of the article describe the cycle of formation and extinction of supraglacial lakes and the melting of buried (debris-covered) ice. A scenario of future evolution is outlined and discussed as well. We assume that ice degradation within the debris-covered glacier will continue and that the altitude of its presence will increase hand-in-hand with the changing environment.

  10. Epidemiology of acanthocephalan infections in crabs from the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, L F; Perez, A M; Martorelli, S R

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted in two populations of crabs, Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Neohelice granulata from the Bahía Blanca Estuary, in Argentina, to identify risk factors for infection by the acanthocephalan Profilicollis chasmagnathi and to assess the association between infection and mortality of these hosts. Cyrtograpsus angulatus and N. granulata crabs were sampled seasonally over the course of a year, and spring sampling included collection of dead crabs predated by Olrog's gulls in a nearby breeding colony. Potential risk factors for infection were assessed and the number of cystacanth larvae per crab was counted. In C. angulatus, the odds of infection increased by 7% for each millimetre increase in carapace length, and were nearly 17 times greater in crabs sampled from the Olrog's gull feeding area compared with those sampled from nests in the breeding colony. For every millimetre increase in carapace length in N. granulata, the odds of infection increased by 13% in crabs from the breeding colony, and by 32% in crabs from the feeding area. Mean intensity of infection in N. granulata increased by 16.5% for each additional millimetre of carapace width. The level of parasite aggregation was lowest in the largest C. angulatus and highest in N. granulata predated by Olrog's gull. The results show that host size is the most important factor influencing infection prevalence in both crab species and intensity of infection in N. granulata, and suggest the presence of parasite-induced mortality in the populations studied.

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANATÓMICA DE LAS HOJAS DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Sam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca tiene amplios y variados usos medicinales, debido a sus múltiples propiedades, motivo por el cual se decidió realizar el presente trabajo, con el objetivo de estudiar la anatomía foliar de plantas de albahaca blanca. El experimento se realizó en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA con plantas cultivadas en macetas. Las muestras de tejido foliar fueron cortadas a mano alzada y de la epidermis se tomaron impresiones de ambas superficies foliares. Se pudo apreciar que entre los parénquimas clorofílicos en ambas superficies de la hoja, se ven las cavidades que contienen los aceites esenciales de la albahaca. Una de las características importantes de estas cavidades es que se encuentran en ambas superficies. En las hojas analizadas se pudieron observar glándulas en diferentes estadios de crecimiento; esta es una característica muy importante, ya que pudieran variar según las condiciones en que se desarrollan las plantas.

  12. Herida facial por arma blanca. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un joven de 34 años de edad, sexo masculino, de color de piel mestiza, de procedencia rural, con antecedentes de salud, que se recibió en el área de código rojo del Cuerpo de Guardia del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, con una herida por arma blanca en la región inferior izquierda de la cara, producto de una riña, por lo que se le aplicó tratamiento quirúrgico de urgencia. El objetivo de esta presentación es enfatizar en la importancia de una atención multifactorial, que permita atender los parámetros vitales y controlar el estado hemodinámico del paciente, así como de la realización del estudio de laboratorio que corresponda, para desarrollar una conducta rápida y eficaz.

  13. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas en el contexto de una constante de gravitación G variable en el tiempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.; Torres, D. F.

    En este trabajo se estudia por primera vez de manera autoconsistente la evolución de las estrellas enanas blancas en el caso de una constante de gravitación G variable en el tiempo. Teniendo en cuenta que: 1) las enanas blancas son en general estrellas muy viejas y 2) su fuente de energía es básicamente de origen térmico y gravitacional, estos objetos son en principio muy adecuados para analizar distintas teorías de gravitación. Los cálculos que aquí presentamos fueron realizados utilizando nuestro código de evolución estelar, el cual calcula la evolución de estrellas enanas blancas por medio del esquema iterativo de Henyey. Dicho código, basado en una descripción física muy detallada, ha sido modificado para tener en cuenta la variación del valor de G. Encontramos que un G variable (decreciente en el tiempo) modifica fuertemente la evolución de las enanas blancas, conduciendo a un rápido enfriamiento de la estrella. Nuestros resultados son comparados con recientes datos observacionales sobre la función de luminosidad de las enanas blancas.

  14. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    Like most of the cities around the world Chihuahua City suffers atmospheric and soil pollution. This is a problem that requires immediate attention from both public authorities and the scientific community. Although it is known that high levels of heavy metals are present in the airborne particulate matter, soil and dust in many urban regions, the information about personal exposure to these pollutants in Chihuahua City is nonexistent. This study focuses on the analysis and characterization of lead and arsenic in the airborne and soil particulate matter present in the interiors of households and their surrounding outdoor environments in the southern part of Chihuahua City. The sampling area chosen for this study was located in the southern part of Chihuahua City. An atmospheric sampling point selected by the Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) was selected as a geographical center, with a 2 km radius forming the sampling area. The households selected for analyses were located on Lombardo Toledano Street, a high-traffic street. The main objectives of this study were to establish the maximum exposure level in outdoor and indoor environments for particulate matter less than 10 mum (PM 10), Pb, and As, to determine the background level of Chihuahua City for these same elements, to determine the isotopic ratios of Pb206 and Pb207 in the indoor and outdoor atmospheric samples, and to verify if the source of the pollution is from anthropogenic and/or natural sources. Additionally, a comparison of the analytical data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) versus the analytical data from inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was conducted. The comparison of these techniques was based on sample preparation, speed of analysis, and accuracy of results. In the case of sample preparation, two extraction techniques were performed for a comparison of the extraction/leaching of Pb and As from the samples. These microwave

  15. Mental health outcomes of Mexico's drug war in Ciudad Juárez: A pilot study among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A

    2014-03-01

    During the most intense period of armed conflict related to the drug trade in Mexico, forty students attending the Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez (UACJ) in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, were surveyed in this pilot study for symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. The percentage of participants who scored positively for symptoms of PTSD depression and anxiety were 32.5%, 35% and 37.5%, respectively. Criteria for post-traumatic stress were analyzed separately. The most frequently-reported traumatic events included extortion or robbery, confinement to home, injury to loved one, being in an armed conflict, witnessing a killing or dead body and being beaten. Trauma events positively associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms included robbery or extortion, armed conflict situation, exposure to frequent arms fire, and witnessing a killing or dead body.

  16. Methodology to determine the consumption and potential of saving of electrical energy in the systems of air-conditioning in the residential sector: case the Northwest of Mexico; Metodologia para determinar el consumo y potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en los sistemas de climatizacion en el sector residencial: caso Noroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, J. A.; Morillon Galvez, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work there are studied the characteristics of the consumption of electrical residential energy due to the systems of air conditioning and to cos mell, in the region Northwest of Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, and Nayarit) and the North region (Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon). Between the principal results one finds that the potential saving of electrical energy, with base in the use of passive systems as the isolation of the housings, decided in 3,356 GWh (similar to the electrical annual supply that there needs the state of Durango or Guerrero). (Author)

  17. High Temperature Oxidation of Superalloys and Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-28

    Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados S.C Miguel de Cervantes #120 , Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico .CP31109 9... Materiales Avanzados. S.C. (CIMAV) Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua C. P. 31109. Chihuahua, Chih. Mexico. Grant No.: FA9550-06-1...Almeraya-Calderon. Ph. D. Thesis. Centra de Investigation en Materiales Avanzados. S. C, Chihuahua, Chi, Mexico. 1998. [8]. D. M. Farrell, W.K

  18. Dinámica e implicancia del aluvión de la laguna 513, Cordillera Blanca, Ancash, Perú Dinamics and implications of the laguna 513 Aluvion, Cordillera Blanca, Ancash Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Valderrama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La Cordillera Blanca, al norte de Perú, es la zona con más actividad geodinámica externa en Perú. En ella ocurrieron grandes flujos de detritos de origen glaciar, varios de ellos fueron grandes desastres y cobraron miles de vidas. El 11 de abril del 2010, la laguna 513, ubicada en el centro de la Cordillera Blanca, sufrió un desembalse parcial por la caída de un gran bloque de hielo y rocas del nevado Hualcán (5500 m.s.n.m.. Este evento pese a ser de dimensiones considerables, no generó grandes pérdidas ni afectó alguna ciudad importante. Mediante simulaciones numéricas de flujo se estudió su dinámica, se determinó sus volúmenes y su turbulencia así como también explicamos e papel de la morfología de la zona en la desaceleración del flujo, su encausamiento en un valle fluvial y su posterior comportamiento como crecida de río. Las simulaciones realizadas mediante FLO2D se validan mediante comparaciones con imágenes de satélite post evento y datos de campo.The Cordillera Blanca in northern Peru is the most external geodynamics active areas in Perú. There have been occurred the biggest glacier source debris flow in the Peruvian history, most of them became on major disasters and claimed thousands of lives. On April 11th, 2010, the Laguna 513, located in the center of the Cordillera Blanca, suffered a partial GLOF due a massive rock and ice fall from Nevado Hualcán (5500 masl. This event, despite being of considerable size, did not generate large losses or affect any major city. Using numerical simulations we study the dynamics of the consequent GLOF and debris flow. We determined the volume and turbulence as well as also explained the role of the geomorphology of the area in the flow deceleration process and the river flood subsequent behavior. The FLO 2D simulations are validated with post event satellite image and field data.

  19. Possible Scenarios of Impacts of Climatic Change on Potential Evapotranspiration in the Watershed of the Conchos River, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal-Villasenor, J. A.; Rodriguez-Pineda, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The watershed of the Conchos River is the main watershed of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, and it is the main source of water of the watershed of the Grande river downstream El Paso, Texas. Such part of the watershed of the Grande River is also the border between Mexico and the United States of America, from El Paso-Ciudad Juarez up to Brownsville-Matamoros. It is very important for the state of Chihuahua and Mexico as a whole, to construct possible scenarios of the effects of the global climatic change in the potential evapotranspiration in such watershed and to construct likely scenarios which results will help to define an integrated watershed management to mitigate those global climate change impacts. The results of a recent study sponsored by the alliance between WWF-Fundacion Gonzalo Rio Arronte, are presented in the paper. The study was conducted to construct possible scenarios on the effects of the global climatic change on the potential evapotranspiration in the watershed of the Conchos River in Mexico. Three watershed characteristic meteorological stations were selected to conduct such study. The predictions of change of the surface air temperature and the change of the rainfall produced by the global climatic change, by the end of the XXI Century, were those published by the Hadley Center. The results show that air temperature increment of one degree centigrade increases evapotranspiration values between 3 and 3.5% with respect current values. As a consequence moisture deficiency increases from 9% to 40%. With an air temperature increment of three degrees centigrades, the potential evapotranspiration increases between 8.8% and 10% increasing moisture deficiency from 27.5% up to 116%. The expected rainfall increment values show a negligible contribution for the potential evapotranspiration reduction in the Rio Conchos watershed. These results conclude that immediate actions need to be taken to mitigate climate change impacts all along the watershed.

  20. Slope deformations in high-mountain regions as observed by InSAR: Examples from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Holger; Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Huggel, Christian; Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, Vít; Wiesmann, Andreas; Kääb, Andreas; Cochachin, Alejo; Plummer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Steep topography, the world's highest concentration of tropical glaciers, numerous glacial lakes and strong seismic activity combined with a densely populated valley bottom in the Rio Santa basin characterize the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. Besides glacier-related processes, a variety of landslide types and processes is present outside the glaciated areas, favoured by the steep terrain, geological conditions, sparse vegetation, intense precipitation, and strong seismicity. This combination of high hazard potentials and vulnerabilities results in a long list of natural disasters. Information on surface displacements is very valuable for early detection of emerging hazard potentials and their assessment. Interferometric processing of SAR data (InSAR) provides the possibility to remotely detect different types of surface displacement processes, also in remote locations where no other monitoring data are available. This contribution, developed under the ESA-funded S:GLA:MO project (sglamo.gamma-rs.ch), shows the potential of InSAR products for hazard assessments and glaciological investigations in high-mountain regions. We present a selection of different surface displacements as observed in the Cordillera Blanca based on InSAR data: a landslide zone near the Rampac Grande village, where in 2009 a landslide caused casualties and property loss; a landslide at the entry of the Santa Cruz Valley, northern Cordillera Blanca, where the displacement history could be reconstructed over five years; surface displacements at the interior moraine slopes surrounding Laguna Palcacocha, a major glacier lake above the city of Huaraz, which are compared to and complemented by geophysical investigations in the field; surface displacements at the moraine damming Laguna Safuna Alta, a glacier lake in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca; glacier velocities across the entire Cordillera Blanca, revealing ice flow velocities of more than 200 m yr-1 at certain locations at the end of

  1. Carbon and Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Fires in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W. M.; Flores Garnica, G.; Baker, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many atmospheric greenhouse gases and photochemically reactive trace gases. There are limited data available on the spatial and temporal extent of biomass fires and associated trace gas and aerosol emissions in Mexico. Biomass burning is a unique source of these gases and aerosols, in comparison to industrial and biogenic sources, because the locations of fires vary considerably both daily and seasonally and depend on human activities and meteorological conditions. In Mexico, the fire season starts in January and about two-thirds of the fires occur in April and May. The amount of trace gases and aerosols emitted by fires spatially and temporally is a major uncertainty in quantifying the impact of fire emissions on regional atmospheric chemical composition. To quantify emissions, it is necessary to know the type of vegetation, the burned area, the amount of biomass burned, and the emission factor of each compound for each ecosystem. In this study biomass burning experiments were conducted in Mexico to measure trace gas emissions from 24 experimental fires and wildfires in semiarid, temperate, and tropical ecosystems from 2005 to 2007. A range of representative vegetation types were selected for ground-based experimental burns to characterize fire emissions from representative Mexico fuels. A third of the country was surveyed each year, beginning in the north. The fire experiments in the first year were conducted in Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas states in pine forest, oak forest, grass, and chaparral. The second-year fire experiments were conducted on pine forest, oak forest, shrub, agricultural, grass, and herbaceous fuels in Jalisco, Puebla, and Oaxaca states in central Mexico. The third-year experiments were conducted in pine-oak forests of Chiapas, coastal grass, and low subtropical forest on the Yucatan peninsula. FASS (Fire Atmosphere Sampling System) towers were deployed for the experimental fires. Each FASS

  2. Evaluación poblacional del venado cola blanca en un bosque tropical seco de la mixteca poblana

    OpenAIRE

    M. Concepción López Téllez; Salvador Mandujano; Gonzalo Yánes

    2007-01-01

    Con el objetivo de diagnosticar el potencial de aprovechamiento y prioridades de manejo en UMAs extensivas, se estimó la densidad poblacional del venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus mexicanus) y se caracterizó el hábitat de bosque tropical seco en cuatro localidades de la Mixteca Poblana, México. En cada localidad se establecieron cinco transectos para el conteo de grupos fecales de marzo del 2000 a marzo de 2001. Se aplicó un análisis de componentes principales para describir el hábit...

  3. COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimun basilicum L.) ANTE REDUCCIONES DE LAS CANTIDADES DE AGUA APLICADA POR FASES DEL DESARROLLO

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de conocer qué fase del desarrollo de la albahaca blanca (Ocimun basilicum L.) resulta más afectada por una deficiencia hídrica y las alteraciones que se producen en el crecimiento y las relaciones hídricas en esas condiciones. Se sembraron semillas en recipientes de seis litros de capacidad con un sustrato formado por suelo y materia orgánica del tipo cachaza en una relación 3:1 v/v. Los tratamientos se controlaron por el método gravimétrico y c...

  4. Dieta y disponibilidad de forraje del vendo cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus thomasi) en Campeche, México.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En el estado de Campeche no existen estudios sobre la composición botánica de la dieta de Odocoileus virginianus; de 1999 al 2010 se conformaron 122 Unidades de Manejo Ambiental, ocupando una superficie de 761,690 ha (SEMARNAT 2011), es decir, el 13 % del territorio Campechano realiza algún tipo de aprovechamiento de fauna silvestre, incluyendo al venado cola blanca. Los objetivos fueron estimar la composición botánica de la dieta y su cambio estacional, la disponibilidad de forraje y la capa...

  5. Parásitos zoonóticos en heces caninas en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca

    OpenAIRE

    La Sala, Luciano Francisco; Sixto R. COSTAMAGNA; Leiboff, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    [En Comunicaciones breves de la Revista Argentina de Zoonosis y Enfermedades Infecciosas Emergentes] Existe una gran cantidad de agentes infecciosos transmisibles entre el perro doméstico (Canis lupus familiaris) y el hombre. Entre estos se encuentran enteroparásitos, algunos de los cuales representan un riesgo para la salud pública aún en países desarrollados. La ciudad de Bahía Blanca, en Argentina, tiene una población de 301.531 habitantes distribuidos en 126.639 hogares. Asimismo, existen...

  6. Evaluación de recursos hídricos de las sierras Blanca y Mijas (Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadillo, I.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A water balance of Sierras Blanca and Mijas Hydrogeological Unit, the most important aquifer in the Costa del Sol, in the period 1990/91-1993/94, has been made. The recharge is produced by the infiltration of rain water with a total amount of 116.9 hmhm3/year/year: 60.2 hm3/year has been evapotranspirated, 56.7 hm3/year belongs to the useful rain (8 hm3/year as streamflow and 48.7 hm /year as infiltration. The discharge have been measured and gives a total amount of 62.2 hm3/year: 28.2 hm3/year by the springs and 34 hm3/year by the pumpings. The useful rain has been calculated with several methods (Turc, Coutagne, Kessler, chloride method and monthly and daily Thornwaite method -with field capacities of 25 and 50 mm-. The method that fits in a better way with the known volumes of recharge and discharge, for each one of the aquifer system and for the whole Blanca-Mijas Hydrogeological Unit, is the chloride method.Se ha realizado el balance de la Unidad Hidrogeológica Sierra Blanca-Sierra de Mijas, la más importante de la Costa del Sol, para la media del período 1990/911993/ 94. La precipitación media sobre la Unidad es de 116,9 hm3/año: 60,2 hm3/año se evapotranspiran y 56,7 hm3/año constituyen la lluvia útil (8 hm3/año de escorrentía y 48,7 hm3/año de infiltración eficaz. Las salidas controlables ascienden a 62,2 hm3/año: 28,2 hm3/año se descargan por manantiales y 34 hm3/año por bombeos. La lluvia útil se ha calculado mediante varios métodos (Turc, Coutagne, Kessler, balance de cloruros, Thornwhite diario y mensual -con capacidades de campo de 25 y 50 mm-. El método que más se adapta a los volúmenes conocidos de entradas y salidas, para cada uno de los sistemas acuíferos y para la Unidad Hidrogeológica BlancaMijas en su conjunto, es el balance de cloruros.

  7. CONDICIÓN AMBIENTAL DE LOS POBLADOS DE CERRILLOS, SABANA BONITA Y PEÑAS BLANCAS, PUNTARENAS, COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Chassoul Acosta, María José

    2015-01-01

    resultados mostrados en este artículo son parte de una investigación más grande que propone un modelo de desarrollo sostenible para las comunidades de Cerrillos, Sabana Bonita y Peñas Blancas de Esparza, Puntarenas. Específicamente se analiza el equilibrio existente entre las actividades que realizan los habitantes y el uso que le brindan a los recursos naturales, a partir de los datos obtenidos de la aplicación de una encuesta que indaga sobre variables como: energía, suelo, agua, residuos, ...

  8. Origen y evolución de la manufactura en áreas no metropolitanas. El caso de Bahía Blanca en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Viego

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN Bahía Blanca ha sido caracterizada en varios trabajos sobre geografía económica argentina como la principal ciudad del sur del país, en términos poblacionales y económicos. En particular, se ha destacado la preeminencia de su aparato industrial (históricamente orientado a la exportación) y el rol del tejido productivo como centro de abastecimiento de la mayoría de las localidades patagónicas. Esta función fue difundida en el lema “Bahía Blanca, puerta y puerto del sur argentino”, que...

  9. New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Emmer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and easily repeatable objective method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes within the Peruvian region of Cordillera Blanca (excluding ice-dammed lakes, which do not reach significant volumes in this region. The presented method was designed to meet four basic principles, which we considered as being crucial. These are: (a principle of regional focus; (b principle of objectivity; (c principle of repeatability; and (d principle of multiple results. Potential hazardousness is assessed based on a combination of decision trees for clarity and numerical calculation for objectivity. A total of seventeen assessed characteristics are used, of which seven have yet to be used in this context before. Also, several ratios and calculations are defined for the first time. We assume that it is not relevant to represent the overall potential hazardousness of a particular lake by one result (number, thus the potential hazardousness is described in the presented method by five separate results (representing five different glacial lake outburst flood scenarios. These are potentials for: (a dam overtopping resulting from a dynamic slope movement into the lake; (b dam overtopping following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream; (c dam failure resulting from a dynamic slope movement into the lake; (d dam failure following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream; and (e dam failure following a heavy earthquake. All of these potentials theoretically range from 0 to 1. The presented method was verified on the basis of assessing the pre-flood conditions of seven lakes which have produced ten glacial lake outburst floods in the past and ten lakes which have not. A comparison of these results showed that the presented method successfully identifies the potentially hazardous lakes.

  10. La casa y la mesa de la reina Blanca de Navarra (1433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Larrayoz, Fernando

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to amplify a subject not developed enough, for the moment, in the lines of historical research that are being carried out in Navarre. It is divided in two sections. On one hand, aspects as servants, provision, products and prices, among others, have been studied through the organisation in queen Blanca's Hostel. On the other hand, we have approached the symbolic factor that feeding implies. We have also studied questions relating to crockery, feeding paces, religious aspects and beneficiaries from food. At last, in spite of having few and dispersed data, we have tried to give a view about culinary practises in the navarresse court during the first half of the 15th century.[fr] L'étude envisage l'approfondisement d'un sujet jusqu'au présent peu développé, dans les lignes de recherche historique prioritaires en Navarre. Le travail est divisé en deux sections. D'une part, l'organisation de l'Hôtel de la reine Blanche, dont on a analise les serviteurs, les fourniseurs, les produits et les prix, parmis d'autres aspects de l'institution. De l'autre, on s'est approché à l'élément symbolique que la nourriture implique, en touchant des matières comme les vaisselles, les rythmes alimentaires, les aspects religieux et les bénéficiaires des aliments. Enfin, malgré les rares sources disponibles, on a cherché à donner aussi une vision générale des pratiques culinaires de la Cour navarraise au XVᵉ siècle.

  11. Tipificación y estatus raxonómico de Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens (sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae [Typification and taxonomic status of Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens comb. et stat. nov. (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se reivindica el valor taxonómico y lectotipifica el nombre de Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae propuesto por Carlos Pau para describir una planta presente en la sierra litoral valenciana de Carcaixent (Valencia. Esta variedad se recombina con rango subespecífico dentro C. resupinta Coss., acorde con la actual sistemática propuesta para este complejo grupo de plantas. Morfológicamente esta planta se caracterizada por la ausencia o el pequeño tamaño de las fimbrias en el ápice de las brácteas involucrales del capítulo. ABSTRACT: We both propose the taxonomic value and lectotypify the name of Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae proposed by Carlos Pau to describe a plant taxa living in the Valencian litoral range of Carcaixent (Valencia, Spain. This variety is recombined with subspecific rank inside C. resupinata Coss., following the current systematics proposed for this plant group. As main morphological trait, this subspecies is characterised by the absence or very low size of fimbriae under the involucral bract ápex.

  12. Participación ciudadana en las colonias sin agua potable y alcantarillado de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis de la participación ciudadana en la gestión del agua en 14 colonias que carecen del servicio de agua potable y alcantarillado en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. La metodología consistió en analizar y relacionar las influencias externas e internas de los ciudadanos resultando una participación ciudadana muy baja en la gestión del agua determinada en gran medida por el poco conocimiento sobre el tema, la poca confianza en las instituciones públicas, la mínima disposición de participar en proyectos comunitarios y por la gran influencia que tiene el sistema político en la gestión del servicio.

  13. The involvement of citizens and water management: Neighborhood committees leaders in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze public participation in water management through a survey applied to the leaders of neighborhood committees in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. As part of the methodology, two variables —external and internal influences— and fourteen indicators were utilized. Results show that neighborhood committees, as a public participation structure, are in crisis. The structure shows both internal and external signs of breaking up: there are no clear mechanisms of summons or participation, nor are there any adecuate mechanisms capable of articulating demands and government authority, insofar as external political agents have been allowed to participate in internal management and committee issues. For this reason, the capacity of local neighborhood committees to make decisions regarding city water management is placed in doubt.

  14. Mujeres indígenas, gobierno y comunidad: El caso de mujeres tarahumaras en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Estela Pérez García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La situación de las mujeres indígenas en Chihuahua se caracteriza por la marginación, pobreza y desigualdad. Por esta razón, algunos(as miembros de la etnia rarámuri obligados por las necesidades más elementales, emigran con sus familias a las principales ciudades de la entidad. En el caso específico de la comunidad indígena asentada en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, encontramos que son mujeres quienes dirigen las tareas de gobierno, rol tradicionalmente asignados a los hombres. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar un acercamiento de la participación femenina en el gobierno de la colonia tarahumara, con el propósito de conocer cómo se genera esta participación, sus liderazgos y las formas de resolución de sus problemas al interior de la comunidad. Para este propósito se realizaron entrevista con representantes de la comunidad y sus dos gobernadoras, además de un grupo focal con la presidenta y un grupo de mujeres. Los resultados de esta investigación mostraron dos cuestiones significativas: la situación de extrema vulnerabilidad en que viven las indígenas en el entorno urbano y que el gobierno femenino usa estrategias apegadas al rol de género para mantener el orden, el liderazgo y mejorar la calidad de vida de su comunidad.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE LA PROPUESTA DE INTERVENCIÓN PARA ESTUDIANTES SOBRESALIENTES: CASO CHIHUAHUA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Covarrubias Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito exponer los resultados de un trabajo de investigación evaluativa realizado para valorar la implementación de la Propuesta de Intervención Educativa para alumnos y alumnas con Aptitudes Sobresalientes, puesta en marcha por la Secretaría de Educación Pública de México durante el ciclo escolar 2007-2008. Para evaluar dicha propuesta, se diseñó y aplicó un modelo conformado por cuatro componentes, cuatro criterios y trece descriptores. Para la recuperación de los datos y su análisis correspondiente, se empleó una metodología de corte mixto que consideró diferentes momentos, actores e instrumentos. En este documento se presenta el trabajo realizado mediante el enfoque cualitativo, destacando los resultados obtenidos en los grupos de discusión y las entrevistas semiestructuradas. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el estado de Chihuahua, México y participaron como informantes significativos el personal de educación especial del subsistema estatal del estado de Chihuahua, padres y madres de familia de estudiantes sobresalientes, maestras de grupo regular, alumnado identificado como sobresaliente y personas expertas en el tema de las altas capacidades. Los resultados apuntan que la propuesta de intervención valorada cuenta con cualidades relacionadas con su fundamento teórico y metodológico, sin embargo, la mayor debilidad se ubica en la operatividad, aspecto que puede ser sujeto a mejorar para la obtención de mayores resultados en la intervención.

  16. Evaluación de la propuesta de intervención para estudiantes sobresalientes: caso Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covarrubias Pizarro, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito exponer los resultados de un trabajo de investigación evaluativa realizado para valorar la implementación de la Propuesta de Intervención Educativa para alumnos y alumnas con Aptitudes Sobresalientes, puesta en marcha por la Secretaría de Educación Pública de México durante el ciclo escolar 2007-2008. Para evaluar dicha propuesta, se diseñó y aplicó un modelo conformado por cuatro componentes, cuatro criterios y trece descriptores. Para la recuperación de los datos y su análisis correspondiente, se empleó una metodología de corte mixto que consideró diferentes momentos, actores e instrumentos. En este documento se presenta el trabajo realizado mediante el enfoque cualitativo, destacando los resultados obtenidos en los grupos de discusión y las entrevistas semiestructuradas. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el estado de Chihuahua, México y participaron como informantes significativos el personal de educación especial del subsistema estatal del estado de Chihuahua, padres y madres de familia de estudiantes sobresalientes, maestras de grupo regular, alumnado identificado como sobresaliente y personas expertas en el tema de las altas capacidades. Los resultados apuntan que la propuesta de intervención valorada cuenta con cualidades relacionadas con su fundamento teórico y metodológico, sin embargo, la mayor debilidad se ubica en la operatividad, aspecto que puede ser sujeto a mejorar para la obtención de mayores resultados en la intervención.

  17. [Discharges for external injuries from a hospital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; De Cosio, Federico G; Moye-Elizalde, Gustavo; Fornelli-Laffon, Felipe F

    2012-05-01

    In Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, morbidity and mortality from injuries have increased alarmingly since 2008. This paper aims to examine the changes in the number of hospital discharges for external injuries recorded during the 2008-2010 period in a hospital in Ciudad Juarez. A descriptive retrospective study conducted at the Ciudad Juarez General Hospital looked at the incidence of external injuries as the reason for hospital discharges during the period under analysis. The average proportion of hospital discharges attributed to external injuries was 27%, with the 25-44-year-old age group being the most affected. More than half of the discharges were for fractures. The incidence rate of hospital discharges attributed to injuries in Ciudad Juarez was almost four times greater than that reported at the national level.

  18. Niveles de contaminación del agua potable en la cabecera municipal de Ascención, Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Osbaldo Rubio Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El agua es una sustancia indispensable para la vida por lo que se considera como el recurso natural más apreciado en el planeta. En el norte de México existe el “Programa ambiental México-Estados Unidos: Frontera 2020”; en el cual participan instituciones mexicanas como la Junta Municipal de Aguas y Saneamiento (JMAS mientras que por parte de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica participan el Taskforce U.S., la Agencia Ambiental (USEPA y la Universidad Estatal de Nuevo Mexico, entre otras (PAMEUF, 2013. En dicho programa ambiental el municipio de Ascensión está contemplado dentro de los planes de acción, por ser una región fronteriza, en especial en lo relacionado a la meta 2, la cual especifica el suministro de agua limpia y segura. Es importante mencionar que, a la fecha, no se conoce información que permita evaluar el nivel de calidad que aportan los cinco pozos que surten de agua a la cabecera municipal de Ascención, Chihuahua. El objetivo fue evaluar la calidad del agua potable que utiliza la comunidad de Ascensión, Chihuahua, mediante análisis físico-químico-metales y microbiológicos. Método: Las muestras de agua se obtuvieron de cinco pozos y de cinco hogares seleccionados al azar en cuatro temporadas. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos; julio de 2011, septiembre de 2011, diciembre de 2011 y mayo de 2012. Por lo tanto, se analizaron un total de 40 muestras a las que se les cuantificó el potencial de hidrógeno (pH, conductividad eléctrica (CE, temperatura (T, oxígeno disuelto (OD, turbidez (Tur, sólidos totales (SDT, coliformes totales (CT, coliformes fecales (CF y los siguientes metales; Al, As, B, Cd, Ca, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, K, Na, Se, Si y Zn. Se aplicó un ANOVA para buscar diferencias por estación (Factor A, por fuente (Factor B y su interacción (AxB. Para la variable de coliformes se aplicó la prueba noparamétrica de Kruskal-Wallis. En todos los casos se consideró un nivel de

  19. Toxicidad aguda del sulfato de cobre (CuSO4) en alevinos de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) bajo condiciones de aguas blandas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Gómez-Manrique, Wilson; Calderón-Bernal, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    To preliminarily determine acute CuSO4 toxicity in cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) fingerlings, 110 individuals were exposed to seven different concentrations: 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 4.00 ppm using semi-static system aquariums. Water hardness in reference to CaCO3 wa...

  20. The NS3 protein of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus suppresses RNA silencing in plant and insect hosts by efficiently binding both siRNAs and miRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, J.C.; Lakatos, L.; Goldbach, R.W.; Burgyan, J.; Prins, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense as well as in developmental processes in plants and insects. Negative strand RNA viruses such as the plant virus Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV) replicate in plants and in their insect transmission vector. Like most plant-infecting viruses, RHBV

  1. Impact of climatic change in forests and natural protected areas of Mexico; Impacto del cambio climatico en los bosques y areas naturales protegidas de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villers-Ruiz, L.; Trejo-Vazquez, I. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Geografia

    1998-01-01

    The vulnerability of Mexico`s forest ecosystems to climate change was assessed according to the results of two General Circulating Models (GCMs): CCCM and GFDL-R30. Holdridge`s life zones classification was used for the analysis. The paper shows the climatic differences for each model and for different region of Mexico. Climate scenarios were compared to current climate so as to recognise climate change regions for each model. Of the 18 life zones reported for the country, the most affected ones would be the temperate cold and warm forests, tending to disappear. On the contrary, tropical dry, very dry and thorn forests with warm affinities tend to widen their current surfaces, according to the CCCMN model. The GFDL-R30 model foresees increases in the distribution of tropical, humid and wet forests, which would be favored by the increase in rainfall, giving place to tropical rain forests, currently non-existent in the country. Of the 33 natural protected areas used for this study, 24 show changes in their life zones, the most affected ones are those found in the northern and occidental regions of the country. The most affected forest industries would be those located in the Sierra Madre Occidental, in the states of Durango and Chihuahua, and to the occidental part of the country, the industries found in Michoacan and Jalisco. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Conmemoraciones históricas, activación y posicionamiento turístico: Centenario, Bicentenario y Tricentenario en Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Fernández Poncela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una revisión y reflexión sobre algunos conceptos y fenómenos sociales con relación al patrimonio cultural, las conmemoraciones históricas y el turismo cultural. El estudio de caso es la triple celebración en Chihuahua, Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana, Bicentenario de la Independencia de México y Tricentenario de la fundación de la ciudad capital del estado de Chihuahua. Con este ejemplo, se observa cómo se reproduce y consume la identidad nacional, el patrimonio histórico y cultural -tangible e intangible- y cómo el turismo consume identidad y patrimonio. Desde el presente exaltamos el pasado y proyectamos expectativas hacia el futuro.

  3. Injertos en chiles tipo Cayene, jalapeño y chilaca en el noroeste de Chihuahua, México Grafting in Cayenne, jalapeño and chilaca chili peppers in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Osuna-Ávila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En semillas cosechadas por los agricultores se estudió la influencia en la sincronización de los diámetros de tallos en injertos comunes y recíprocos utilizando los tipos de chiles, jalapeño, chilaca y Cayene como injertos y el criollo de Morelos CM-334 como portainjerto. El grosor del tallo del CM 334 presentó mayor compatibilidad con el chile tipo jalapeño y con el tipo chilacay fue muy distante con el grosor del tallo del tipo de chile Cayene. La formación de callo abundante entre la unión de los injertos ensayados mostró buena aptitud y afinidad lo cual permitió la conexión firme del cambium con el patrón. Los porcentajes de supervivencia de los injertos fueron 90% con los chiles lo cual está dentro del rango aceptable a nivel comercial. El usar el CM 334 como un portainjerto resistente a P .capsici podría formar parte del manejo integrado para controlar la marchitez en estos tipos de chiles comerciales. El injerto reciproco puede ser usado para estudiar genes asociados con procesos de regulación de señales a distancia capaces de moverse de la raíz al brote como ramificaciones, floración, resistencia sistémica y respuestas a estrés abiótico.In seeds harvested by farmers, the influence on the timing of the diameters of stems was studied in common and reciprocal grafts using chilies, jalapeño, chilaca and Cayenne as grafts and, landrace Morelos CM-334 as the rootstock. CM 334's stem diameter showed high compatibility with jalapeño and chilaca, and was very distant with Cayenne. Abundant callus formation between the unions of the tested grafts showed good aptitude and affinity which allowed the firm connection of the vascular cambium. The rates of graft survival were of 90% with chilies, which is within the acceptable range for commercially purposes. Using CM 334 as a rootstock resistant to P. capsici could be part of an integrated control for wilt in these types of commercial chilies. The reciprocal graft can be used to study genes associated with regulatory processes of signais able to move from the roots to the sprout, such as branching, flowering, systemic resistance and abiotic stress responses.

  4. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de

  5. Real-time PCR genotyping assay for canine progressive rod-cone degeneration and mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Moeko; Tada, Naomi; Mitsui, Hiroko; Tomioka, Hitomi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Yabuki, Akira; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) is a middle- to late-onset, autosomal recessive, inherited retinal disorder caused by a substitution (c.5G>A) in the canine PRCD gene that has been identified in 29 or more purebred dogs. In the present study, a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed and evaluated for rapid genotyping and large-scale screening of the mutation. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of the three most popular breeds in Japan (Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds) to determine the current mutant allele frequency. The assay separated all the genotypes of canine PRCD rapidly, indicating its suitability for large-scale surveys. The results of the survey showed that the mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles was high enough (approximately 0.09) to allow the establishment of measures for the prevention and control of this disorder in breeding kennels. The mutant allele was detected in Chihuahuas for the first time, but the frequency was lower (approximately 0.02) than that in Toy Poodles. The mutant allele was not detected in Miniature Dachshunds. This assay will allow the selective breeding of dogs from the two most popular breeds (Toy Poodle and Chihuahua) in Japan and effective prevention or control of the disorder.

  6. Homozygosity of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' region of the canine estrogen receptor 1 gene is greater in Toy Poodles than in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Indunil N; Tanaka, Kakeru; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tsuji, Makoto; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2011-06-01

    Differences in the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) were examined in Miniature Dachshunds (n = 48), Chihuahuas (n = 20) and Toy Poodles (n = 18). Five DNA fragments located in the 40-kb region at the 3' end of ESR1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and were directly sequenced. We compared allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies at each SNP in the 3' end of ESR1 for these three breeds of small dog. The frequency of the major allele and the genotype frequency of the major allele homozygotes, were significantly higher in Toy Poodles for five SNPs (SNP #5, #14-17) than in Miniature Dachshunds, and significantly higher in Toy Poodles than Chihuahuas for three SNPs (SNP #15-17). A common haplotype block was identified in an approximately 20-kb region encompassing four SNPs (SNPs # 14-17). The frequencies of the most abundant estimated haplotype (GTTG) and GTTG homozygotes were significantly higher in Toy Poodles than in the other two breeds. These results imply that homozygosity for the allele, genotype and haplotype distribution within the block at the 3' end of ESR1 is greater in Toy Poodles than in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas.

  7. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  8. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  9. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  10. HAWC @ Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carramiñana, Alberto; González, María Magdalena; Salazar, Humberto; Alfaro, Ruben; Medina Tanco, Gustavo; Valdés Galicia, José; Delepine, David; Zepeda, Arnulfo; Villaseñor, Luis; Mendoza, Eduardo; Nava, Janina; Vázquez, Lilí; Tenorio Tagle, Guillermo; Carrasco, Luis; Silich, Sergey; Rogríguez Liñán, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Eduardo; Page, Dany; Lee, William; Dultzin, Deborah; Benitez, Erika; Ávila Reese, Vladimir; Mendoza, Sergio; Martos, Marco; Hernández Toledo, Héctor; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martínez, Oscar; Fernández, Arturo; Álvarez Ochoa, Cesar; Díaz, Lorenzo; Rosado, Alfonso; Ramírez, Cupatitzio; Menchaca, Arturo; Belmont, Ernesto; Sandoval, Andrés; Martínez, Arnulfo; Grabski, Varlen; Nellen, Lukas; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Lara, Alejandro; Caballero, Rogelio; Moreno, Gerardo; Napsuciale, Mauro; Ureña, Luis; Reyes, Marco; Migénes, Victor; Herrera, Gerardo; Saavedra, Oscar; Carrillo, Alejandro; Carrasco Nuñez, Gerardo; Vargas, Carlos

    The High Altitude Water Cerenkov detector HAWC will be a powefull instrument to survey the TeV sky. Mexico has proposed to locate this experiment in the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, between Citlaltepetl and Tliltepetl, host of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). The region has a sizeable technical infrastructure related to the LMT and we recently studied a 4100m location in terms of its feasibility to host HAWC. We present the proposed site location and extension, its water acquisition, experimental and complementary infrastructures.

  11. Prevalencia de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas en niños escolares de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua Prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in school children in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Barraza-Villarreal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, de la rinitis y del eczema en escolares. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre abril de 1998 y mayo de 1999 en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, a una muestra aleatoria de 6 174 niños de 53 escuelas. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC (etapas 1 y 2 para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, rinitis y eczema. La información de prevalencia, tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos, se obtuvo mediante un cuestionario ya estandarizado y contestado por los padres de los niños. El diseño de la muestra se hizo por un muestreo mixto, en el cual se estratificó por nivel de contaminación ambiental. Se estimaron prevalencias actual y acumulada estratificando por grupo de edad, sexo, área e historia familiar de asma. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia (silbidos fue de 6.8% (IC95% 6.2-7.4 y 20.% (IC95% 19.7-21.8, respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue mayor en el grupo de 6-8 años que en el de 11-14 años(9.7% contra 5.8% (phttp://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To assess the prevalence and severity of asthma and allergic diseases in schoolchildren residing in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1998 to May 1999, among 6 174 children from 53 schools in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. The method used was the one recommended by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC to determine the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. Parents were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire on current and cumulative prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. A sample stratified by level of pollution was selected. Results. The cumulative prevalence of medically diagnosed asthma and wheezing was 6.8% (95

  12. Energy cogeneration for the industrial sector. Exploration of possibilities for Bahia Blanca petrochemical complex; Cogeneracion de energia para el sector industrial. Exploracion de posibilidades para el polo petroquimico de Bahia Blanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Carlos H. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Electrotecnia; Baraychart, Rogelio [Tecnolatina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial plants have installed gas turbines in connection with total energy schemes. By combining a gas turbine with a steam plant, through an Independent Power Producer (IPP), increasing in overall efficiency can be archived compared to a steam plant alone. The general applications and economic considerations after privatization of Argentine Network, indicates that for power supply, combined cycle with cogeneration, is appropriate for generation, because of improving quality service, lowering capital cost improving and high efficiency. Figures are shown in this paper, for a project at the petrochemical development pole in Bahia Blanca city, located in the south of Buenos Aires Province. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: gea at delec.fi.uba.ar; tecnolat at ssdnet.com.ar

  13. Exceso de luz blanca que mata : de la «blanca agonía» (Mallarmé) a la «blancura mortal» (Antonio Gamoneda)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Carbó, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Exceso de luz blanca que mata: de la «blanche agonie» (Mallarmé) a la «blancura mortal» (Antonio Gamoneda), pasando por la «mort éclairante» (René Char). Esto es, un recorrido por una luz extrema aniquilante («pur éclat», Mallarmé; «weißer Glanz», Rilke; «mort éblouie», Michel de Certeau): desde la «luz de lo invisible» (nûr al-ghayb, Ibn al-‘Arabî), que exige la «extinción » completa (fanâ’) del contemplador, a «lo blanco [como] técnica de autodisolución » (J...

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico and description of a novel mutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. García-Magallanes; F. Luque-Ortega; E. M. Aguilar-Medina; R. Ramos-Payán; C. Galaviz-Hernández; J. G. Romero-Quintana; L. Del Pozo-Yauner; H. Rangel-Villalobos; E. Arámbula-Meraz

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is the most common enzyme pathology in humans; it is X-linked inherited and causes neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, chronic nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia and drug-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. G6PD deficiency has scarcely been studied in the northern region of Mexico, which is important because of the genetic heterogeneity described in Mexican population. Therefore, samples from the northern Mexico were biochemically screened for G6PD deficiency, and PCR-RFLPs, and DNA sequencing used to identify mutations in positive samples. The frequency of G6PD deficiency in the population was 0.95% ($n = 1993$); the mutations in 86% of these samples were G6PD A-202A/376G, G6PD A-376G/968C and G6PD Santamaria376G/542T. Contrary to previous reports, we demonstrated that G6PD deficiency distribution is relatively homogenous throughout the country $(P = 0.48336)$, and the unique exception with high frequency of G6PD deficiency does not involve a coastal population (Chihuahua: 2.4%). Analysis of eight polymorphic sites showed only 10 haplotypes. In one individual we identified a new G6PD mutation named Mexico DF193A>G (rs199474830), which probably results in a damaging functional effect, according to PolyPhen analysis. Proteomic impact of the mutation is also described.

  15. La Blanca, un asentamiento urbano maya en la cuenca del río Mopán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Muñoz Cosme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los resultados de una investigación realizada recientemente en el asentamiento maya de La Blanca, Guatemala, cuyas características urbanas y arquitectónicas revelan datos significativos de su importancia social y cultural y del papel que jugó en el ámbito de la cuenca del río Mopán. La metodología empleada en esta investigación, así como la puesta en valor de este importante patrimonio cultural, nos ha permitido demostrar cómo, al mismo tiempo, es factible llevar a cabo acciones susceptibles de favorecer el desarrollo social, económico y cultural de las poblaciones vinculadas a sitios arqueológicos como éste.

  16. La otra Cuba, colonización blanca y diversificación agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Orovio, Consuelo

    2003-01-01

    [ES] Estudio del proyecto político y social de José Antonio Saco, basado en un proyecto económico en el que la organización de la agricultura cubana era el punto central. Éste, alejado de los planteamientos dominantes de la sacarocracia, mantenía una posición antiesclavista y apostó por la introducción de una población campesina blanca, y la diversificación agrícola con cultivos como naranja, añil y arroz, entre otros. Este proyecto reformista suponía una serie de cambios en cuanto al increme...

  17. Urban growth and its impacts on the climate and the society of Bahía Blanca city, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ferrelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the urban growth of Bahia Blanca city and its impacts on the microclimate considering its inhabitants perception. LANDSAT satellite images were processed for the period 1984-2014. The urban area, the temperature and the biomass was estimated. Temperature, relative humidity and wind speed from the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (Argentina were analyzed. The growth of the city has reduced the biomass. The LST decreased 0.6 ºC due to the increasing of shadows generated by buildings and the heat capacity of their materials. The opinion of the citizen corresponded with the meteorological data analyzed. Consultations with stakeholders generated useful information to guide city planning, public policy and decision making to improve the inhabitants’ quality of life.

  18. Archaeometric study of ceramic figurines from the Maya settlement of La Blanca (Petén, Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajada, P.; Roldán, C.; Vidal, C.; Rodenas, I.; Carballo, J.; Murcia, S.; Juanes, D.

    2014-04-01

    In this article, analytical results will be presented and discussed regarding a selected set of figurines from the ancient Maya settlement of La Blanca in Petén, Guatemala. The objective is to characterize the ceramic material by two analytical complementary techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The data obtained by means of both XRD and TXRF were compared and analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to obtain sample groups according to their chemical composition. The results of this archaeometric study have been compared to those that have been obtained through macroscopic characterization by means of the traditional classification system know as Type-Variety. Discordances have been found between the clusters obtained by the Type-Variety classification system and the multivariate classification procedures performed on analytical data.

  19. Emerging Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: A Case Study at Arteson Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, R. E.; Mckinney, D. C.; Gomez, J.; Voss, K.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resources systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glacier mass balance. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2012 at the Arteson glacier in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. A new lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Arteson glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create landslides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. This new lake is part of a series of three lakes that have formed below the Arteson glacier. The two lower lakes, Artesonraju and Paron, are much larger so that if there were an avalanche or landslide into the new lake below Arteson glacier, the impact could potentially be more catastrophic than a GLOF from one single lake. Estimates of how the lake mass balance is likely to evolve due to the retreating glacier are key to assessing the flood risk from this dynamic three-lake system. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, the ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Arteson glacier and underlying bedrock give us a clue to how the lake is likely to evolve. GPR measurements of

  20. Legendary lost city Ciudad Blanca found under tropical forest in Honduras, using ERS-2 and JERS-1 SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakam-Simen, Francis; Nezry, Edmond; Ewing, James J.; Maschal, Ted

    1998-10-01

    The legendary 'Ciudad Blanca' of Honduras was first referred to under the name Xucutaco by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes already in 1526. Located in the remote, impenetrable and incompletely mapped rainforest of the Mosquito Coast, it was never conquered by the Spanish. With the time, it was slowly abandoned and forgotten. Two JERS-1 and one ERS-2 SLC Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been used to identify and to locate the lost city, a task made difficult due to the thick vegetation cover. To this end, advanced processing tools for the detection of artificial targets under forest cover, and for SAR data fusion have been used. Among the techniques used, a new Bayesian Distribution Entropy Maximum A Posteriori (DE-MAP) vector speckle filter, particularly suited for the restoration of a strongly textured scene, has been used to enhance the SAR images. This new speckle filter incorporates a statistical description of the effects of the SAR imaging system: in order to account for the effects due to the spatial correlation of the speckle in SAR images, an estimator originating from the local spatial autocorrelation function (ACF) of the SAR signal are incorporated to this filter, to refine the evaluation of the non-stationary first order local statistics, to improve the restoration of the scene textural properties, and to preserve the useful spatial resolution in the speckle filtered image. On the other hand, radargrammetric techniques have been used to: (1) produce a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area; (2) fuse ERS and JERS information in order to allow visual identification of the remnants of Ciudad Blanca by visual photo-interpretation. Using the processed images, geocoded UTM spatio-maps of the region have also been produced to locate accurately our findings, and guide a ground expedition in the future.

  1. Review Article: Lake and breach hazard assessment for moraine-dammed lakes: an example from the Cordillera Blanca (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Emmer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs and related debris flows represent a significant threat in high mountainous areas across the globe. It is necessary to quantify this threat so as to mitigate their catastrophic effects. Complete GLOF hazard assessment incorporates two phases: the probability of water release from a given glacial lake is estimated through lake and breach hazard assessment while the endangered areas are identified during downstream hazard assessment. This paper outlines a number of methods of lake and breach hazard assessment, which can be grouped into three categories: qualitative, of which we outline eight; semi-quantitative, of which we outline two; and quantitative, of which we outline three. It is considered that five groups of critical parameters are essential for an accurate regionally focused hazard assessment method for moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. These comprise the possibility of dynamic slope movements into the lake, the possibility of a flood wave from a lake situated upstream, the possibility of dam rupture following a large earthquake, the size of the dam freeboard (or ratio of dam freeboard, and a distinction between natural dams and those with remedial work. It is shown that none of the summarised methods uses all these criteria with, at most, three of the five considered by the outlined methods. A number of these methods were used on six selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca: lakes Quitacocha, Checquiacocha, Palcacocha, Llaca, Rajucolta, and Tararhua. The results have been compared and show that each method has certain advantages and disadvantages when used in this region. These methods demonstrate that the most hazardous lake is Lake Palcacocha.

  2. LOZA BLANCA O MAYÓLICA DE AGUASCALIENTES, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuiel Valencia Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aguascalientes was a town that was founded in the sixteenth century as part of the expansionist project spanish in northern New Spain. Linked to the development of the mining centers and to the life of the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro delay two centuries to become one of the most important cities in Mexico. In the nineteenth century became famous their production of polychrome majolica whose designs and features are described in the present work. The ceramic sample originates in two contexts, the Jardín de los Palacios and Casa Terán.

  3. Mexico; Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  4. Disrupted by violence: children's well-being and families' economic, social, and cultural capital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alma A; Grineski, Sara E

    2012-05-01

    Since 2008, Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, Mexico) has been undergoing a wave of violence due to a drug war, making the city a difficult environment in which to raise a family. This study uses qualitative methodology that incorporates 16 in-depth interviews with parents of children ages 0-5 years and 9 sets of photos from a subset of interviewed parents. The study explores how families' economic, social, and cultural capital has been disrupted by the violence and how it affects children's well-being. Social and economic capital declined significantly because of the violence as families experienced crime, had increased difficulty finding and maintaining employment, and decreased their interactions outside the home. Interviews also suggested that opportunities to gain cultural capital decreased because of this isolation. Understanding the detrimental effects of violence on families' capital can contribute to understanding children's well-being in violence-stricken communities.

  5. Segregación socioespacial y accesibilidad al empleo en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Fuentes Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizó la relación espacial entre el índice de jerarquía socioespacial y el índice de accesibilidad a centros de empleo en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, mediante el análisis exploratorio de datos espaciales, en dos etapas; en la primera se construyeron los índices mencionados y en la segunda se revisó su relación espacial, a través del mismo análisis, en específico de la autocorrela ción espacial y el análisis con indicadores locales de asociación espacial. Para la construcción de los índices se usó información de los censos de población y vivienda y el económico por ageb. El análisis espacial se llevó a cabo mediante el software Geoda. Los resultados probaron la relación espacial entre la segregación residencial y la accesibilidad a los centros de empleo, así como la identificación de agrupamientos homogéneos de agebs con un alto o bajo índice de jerarquía socioespacial y accesibiliadad al empleo, que permiten identificar clusters de exclusión social.

  6. La producción de becerros en Chihuahua: un análisis económico marginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Callejas Juárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de los recursos con productividad (eficiencia, eficacia, calidad y economía deben ser el objeto de uso en el sector agropecuario. Se realizó un análisis para cuantificar la situación económica marginal de costos, ingresos y utilidad en productores con 40, 100, 200 y 500 vacas del sistema vaca-becerro, en las cuatro principales zonas productoras del estado de Chihuahua. Los datos se analizaron con el programa de simulación MEXSIM, utilizado por la SAGARPA para analizar los principales sistemas de producción agropecuaria de México y desarrollado por Agricultural and Food Policy Center (AFPC, de la Universidad de Texas A&M (TAMU. La situación económica fue precautoria para todas las escalas de producción, debido a bajas precipitaciones que provocaron la disminución del forraje producido y de los becerros destetados. Sin embargo, el 100% de las unidades de producción analizadas son rentables; asimismo, es variable entre escalas de producción y se incrementa a mayor escala de producción. La utilidad marginal promedio fue de 1,656.82 $/vaca, 115.18 $/ha, 2,563.41 $/ becerro y 16.34 $/kg de becerro. El sistema de producción muestra una ineficiencia de 32%, provocada por los productores de menor escala.

  7. La violencia en la región noroeste de Chihuahua. Experiencias e impactos desde la comunidad educativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Estrada Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia escolar ha sido un tema explorado de manera importante en los últimos años desde la investigación educativa en México, sin embargo, en contextos de alta violencia no se han mostrado los impactos de la violencia extraescolar y estructural, en la escuela y en otros espacios comunitarios. El artículo presenta resultados de una investigación que tuvo por objetivo reconstruir el impacto de la violencia en la región noroeste de Chihuahua, desde la comunidad educativa (docentes, padres, estudiantes de dos municipios en particular. A la manera de estudios en caso y recurriendo al análisis de contenido, se analizanlos impactos en la percepción del incremento de la violencia a partir de la experiencia directa; la modificación de la dinámica de las escuelas; el abandono de los espacios públicos y el señalamiento de “nuevos” actores, aparentemente ajenos a la comunidad, que aparecen a priori por su condición social, como los responsables de la violencia.

  8. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. II. Bahía Blanca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, G. E.; Vázquez, R. A.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station; settled in the city of Bahia Blanca; Provincia de Buenos Aires; in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work sets the geographical coordinates of the station and clears up some confusion about its true location. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  10. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  11. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  12. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  13. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE MUJERES BLANCAS Y NEGRAS VÍCTIMAS DE LA VIOLENCIA DE PAREJA EN EL NORDESTE DE BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaré Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los casos de mujeres blancas y negras víctimas de la violencia de pareja en el nordeste de Brasil, así como determinar las diferencias de abuso dentro del marco de una relación de pareja en función de diversas variables sociodemográficas. Una muestra de 386 mujeres (183 blancas y 203 negras con relación de pareja heterosexual desde hacía al menos seis meses contestó al Index of Spouse Abuse. Los resultados encontrados permiten concluir que las mujeres de raza negra sufren más abusos en su relación de pareja que las blancas, y que la edad, el nivel educativo, la ocupación, la práctica religiosa y la ideología política no se relacionan con la frecuencia de abuso físico y no físico.

  14. Comparación entre mujeres blancas y negras víctimas de la violencia de pareja en el nordeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaré Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los casos de mujeres blancas y negras víctimas de la violencia de pareja en el nordeste de Brasil, así como determinar las diferencias de abuso dentro del marco de una relación de pareja en función de diversas variables sociodemográficas. Una muestra de 386 mujeres (183 blancas y 203 negras con relación de pareja heterosexual desde hacía al menos seis meses contestó al Index of Spouse Abuse. Los resultados encontrados permiten concluir que las mujeres de raza negra sufren más abusos en su relación de pareja que las blancas, y que la edad, el nivel educativo, la ocupación, la práctica religiosa y la ideología política no se relacionan con la frecuencia de abuso físico y no físico.

  15. Calidad de plántula en cinco cultivares de papa determinada por la intensidad de luz blanca y tipo de propagación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina de Jesús Pérez López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una evaluación del crecimiento de plántulas de cinco cultivares de papa, propagadas a partir de esquejes de ápices y de medios en presencia de luz blanca, para determinar la calidad de la plántula. Los cultivares Atlantic y Fianna presentaron una mayor adaptación al Sistema Hidropónico debido a un mayor grosor de tallo y a la presencia de abundante raíz; el clon fl-1867 presentó el mayor número de nudos y en calidad de raíz fue sobresaliente. El efecto de la luz blanca no favoreció la altura de la planta y número de nudos. La luz blanca a 6 000 y 5 000 luxes contribuyó a un grosor de tallo de 1.24 y 1.23 mm, cumpliendo con los estándares de calidad para el laboratorio.

  16. Ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas en conductores profesionales en la carretera de Vía Blanca (Cuba Drink driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Guanche Garcell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo determinar la frecuencia de ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas en conductores profesionales (Vía Blanca, Ciudad de La Habana, realizamos un estudio observacional descriptivo de 832 conductores seleccionados mediante muestreo estratificado polietápico de los que, mediante entrevista estructurada, se registraron las variables de interés y a continuación se les realizó una medición de alcohol en aliento. La frecuencia de ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas fue del 8,18% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 5,94-10,42, con un predominio de sujetos con valores de alcohol ≤ 0,24% (51,07%. En horario de «alto riesgo» fue más frecuente detectar a conductores bajo el efecto del alcohol con edades entre 40 y 49 años (10,3% y con 15 a 24 años de experiencia como conductor (11,02%. La frecuencia identificada de conductores bajo efecto del alcohol refuerza la necesidad de elaborar estrategias de prevención.To determine the frequency of drink driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City, we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drink driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%, with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levels ≤ 0.24% (51.07%. Drink driving was more frequent in «high risk» hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%, and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%. The frequency of drink driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  17. Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviranta, Anna-Mariam; McFadyen, Angus K.; Jokinen, Tarja S.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Rusbridge, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM) in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS). Method Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios) of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB) using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections. Results The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to <0.001). Associated with SM were a reduced occipital crest and two acute changes in angulation i) ‘sphenoid flexure’ at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis ii) ‘cervical flexure’ at the foramen magnum allied with medulla oblongata elevation. Comparing dogs with and without SM, each breed had a unique trait: Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001); Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009); CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007). Conclusion The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal

  18. NoWMex: Continuous GNSS Sites in Northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Nowadays GPS has become part of daily life activities. In the near future, with the GPS modernization and the use of Glonass and Galileo as a Global Navigation Satellite System will give relative location precision from decimeters to millimeters in near real time applications. In order to realize this, we need a global array of continuously operating GNSS stations built to meet the standards of the geophysical communities and linked with gravimetric local measurements to discern the vertical component of our active Earth. Trying to follow this revolution, CICESE has been working with GPS since 1985. The GPS site CICE was built as an IGS reference station in 1995. Afterward we built 5 more continuous GPS sites in Northwest Mexico with the support of SCIGN. The CGPS NoWMex network is currently made up of six sites: CIC1, SPMX, CORX, GUAX, USMX and YESX (sopac.ucsd.edu). Recently, we implemented an experimental GPS processing lab as part of the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory in the Seismology Department at CICESE. 30 stations are now currently processed from the network Red Geodesica Nacional Activa (RGNA-INEGI), NoWMex, and sites in neighbor countries. Fiducials solutions in ITRF2000 are obtained using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.31 with final igs orbits, every month since 2006. In order to make a contribution to densification of ITRF and support NAREF, SIRGAS and SNARF issues related to scientific and geomatics results; we are looking for internal (Mexican) and external colleagues as well as funding for maintenance and increase the number of CGNSS in NoWMeX including southern Basin and Ranger (Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Durango), Gulf of California islands, Peninsular Californias, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima and the Mexican Pacific islands: Guadalupe (2 more sites), Cedros, Socorro (DORIS site), Clarion and Tres Marias. We must to build more and free available CGNSS sites in and around Mexico to contribute to sea level rise and global change studies.

  19. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  20. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  1. Calidad del agua del Río Conchos en la región de Ojinaga, Chihuahua: parámetros fisicoquímicos, metales y metaloides

    OpenAIRE

    C Holguín; H. Rubio; ME Olave; Saucedo, R.; M. Gutiérrez; Bautista, R.

    2006-01-01

    El agua del río Conchos es un recurso vital para alrededor de un mill´on de habitantes del estado de Chihuahua, y es el principal afluente del Río Bravo. Con el objetivo de determinar la calidad del agua se realizaron seis muestreos durante 2004: febrero 20, marzo 19, abril 23, mayo 21, junio 18 y julio 23. Se determinaron par´ametros físicos (temperatura, CE y sólidos totales), qu´ #305;micos (pH, N-total, N-amoniacal, N-orgánico, cloruros y P-total), y los siguientes 30 elementos utilizando...

  2. Prevalencia de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas en niños escolares de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza-Villarreal Albino; Sanín-Aguirre Luz Helena; Téllez-Rojo Martha María; Lacasaña-Navarro Marina; Romieu Isabelle

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, de la rinitis y del eczema en escolares. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre abril de 1998 y mayo de 1999 en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, a una muestra aleatoria de 6 174 niños de 53 escuelas. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) (etapas 1 y 2) para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, rinitis y eczema. La información de prevalenci...

  3. La tecnificación del riego ante la escasez del agua para la generación de alimentos. Estudio de caso en Chihuahua, México

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la productividad del agua y el impactode la tecnificación del riego sobre ella y el rendimiento de los cultivos comoprincipales aportadores de alimentos. Se realizó en el Distrito de Riego 005, Delicias,Chihuahua. Se usó el método comparativo para dos escenarios: el antes, como lacondición previa a la tecnificación del riego en el año 2003, caracterizada por unasuperficie con riego por gravedad, y el después en 2012-2013, en la superficie conriego ...

  4. El proceso de trabajo participativo en la evaluación de bibliotecas universitarias: caso Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Tarango Ortiz, Javier; Mendoza Guillén, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Se describe la experiencia obtenida en el sistema de bibliotecas de la Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua durante el diseño y validación de un plan de evaluación a partir del empleo de un modelo de trabajo participativo. El modelo propuesto es sustentado en una revisión de la literatura de los trabajos relacionados al tema de la evaluación de las bibliotecas universitarias en México, así como los principios generales de la metaevaluación y evaluación. El trabajo concluye anali-zando las condic...

  5. Elaboración del duelo de una madre cuyo hijo trabajaba como sicario en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalía Delgado Durán

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo es parte de una investigación cualitativa sobre el proceso de ela - boración de duelo de la madre de un sicario en el contexto de una terapia Gestalt. Se utilizó para su análisis la perspectiva de las etapas del duelo de Kübler-Ross (2006:59- 119). La exacerbación de la violencia generada en buena medida por pugnas entre gru - pos del crimen organizado en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Martínez, 2008), ha dado como resultado una gran cantidad de muertes, una de ellas es el caso...

  6. Medición de la vulnerabilidad: el caso de la adicción a drogas ilícitas en Chihuahua, México

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto J. Córdova-Contreras; Álvaro J. Idrovo

    2010-01-01

    En el presente estudio se explora el modelo de Rogers para cuantificar la vulnerabilidad, pero sin pruebas empíricas de su utilidad. Éste usa un triángulo equilátero cuyos lados representan los recursos personales y el apoyo ambiental, y la base el grado de vulnerabilidad. Se comparan los datos de la Encuesta estatal de adicciones del estado de Chihuahua, del año 2000, con los resultados obtenidos con la visión tradicional de la epidemiología. El enfoque de la vulnerabilidad identificó a la p...

  7. Religious Syncretism in Mexico. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, David

    This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…

  8. Effect of the temperature on the sorption of cadmium in natural clinoptilolite from the State of Chihuahua; Efecto de la temperatura sobre la sorcion de cadmio en clinoptilolita natural del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambula V, V

    2004-07-01

    The investigation works related with the removal of cadmium of aqueous solutions, they make emphasis in a great number of materials that were used for this end, as well as in the parameters that influence, such as the temperature and the pH. In this work it was investigated the effect of the temperature on the removal of cadmium, using a zeolitic mineral native of the State of Chihuahua for they were determined it kinetic parameters, those diffusivity coefficients and the retention mechanisms (adsorption or ion exchange) involved. The clinoptilolite samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy in high vacuum (MEB), elementary microanalysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental part consisted on putting in contact solutions of cadmium with the mineral, varying the temperature, the time of contact or the concentration; the quantification of sodium and cadmium in the liquid phase was carried out by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy (EAA). It was determined the time of equilibrium for the removal process. The temperature and the concentration influence on the process of sorption of cadmium in the zeolitic mineral (kinetics and isotherms). The kinetic model that describes better the sorption process of cadmium in the clinoptilolite was the pseudo-2 order. The apparent coefficient of diffusivity presented a greater value conforms to increment the temperature. The results of the isotherm of adsorption of cadmium presented a better adjustment to the Freundlich model. The quantity of cadmium retained by the mineral it was greater than the quantity of sodium found in the solution after the contact between the solution of cadmium and the zeolitic mineral and in accordance with the obtained separation factors, the natural zeolite shows a greater affinity for the cadmium that for the sodium ({alpha} > 1). (Author)

  9. Mantle to Surface Fluid Transfer Above a Flat Slab Subduction Zone: Isotopic Evidence from Hot Springs in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. L.; Jessup, M. J.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, C. A.; Hughes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal springs in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, provide geochemical evidence for deeply circulated hydrothermal fluids that carry significant mantle-derived helium. The Cordillera Blanca is a ~200 km-long NNW-SSE trending mountain range in the Peruvian Andes located above an amagmatic flat-slab subduction segment. The west side of the range is bounded by the Cordillera Blanca detachment that preserves a progression of top to the west ductile shear to brittle normal faulting since ~5 Ma. We report aqueous and stable isotope geochemical results from fluid and gas samples collected in 2013 and 2015 from 13 hot springs emanating from the Cordillera Blanca detachment and associated hanging wall faults. Most springs are vigorously bubbling (degassing), and range in temperature, pH, and conductivity from 17-89 °C, 5.95-8.87, and 0.17-21.5 mS, respectively. The hottest springs issue directly from the northern segment of the detachment. Geochemically, springs are CO2-rich, alkaline-chloride to alkaline-carbonate waters, with elevated trace metal contents including Fe, Cu, As, Zn, Sb, and Tl. Notably, As contents are ≤11 ppm, indicating that thermal waters may be adversely impacting local water quality. Water δ18O and δD, trends in elemental chemistry, and cation geothermometry collectively demonstrate mixing of hot (200-260 °C) saline fluid with cold meteoric recharge along the fault. Helium isotope ratios (3He/4He) for dissolved gases in the hot springs range from 0.62 to 1.98 RC/RA, indicating the presence of ~25% mantle-derived helium, assuming mixing of an asthenospheric end-member with the crustal helium reservoir. CO2/3He and carbon stable isotope ratios indicate a carbon source derived from mixing of crustal sources with minor mantle carbon. Overall, the volatile signature overlaps with orogen-wide datasets where crustal overprinting has modified mantle contributions at active arc volcanoes. Given the long duration since active magmatism in the Cordillera

  10. Gestión de conocimiento en PyME del sector servicios en la ciudad de Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Gutiérrez-Diez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de conocimiento es fundamental en la sobrevivencia de las PyME. Este trabajo describe los resultados, obtenidos hasta mayo del 2013, donde en particular se estudian los procesos de gestión de conocimiento, en treinta PyME del sector de servicios, ubicadas en la ciudad de Chihuahua. Se usó como marco de referencia el modelo de espiral de creación de conocimiento organizacional de Nonaka y Takeuchi., a partir del cual de evaluaron las dimensiones de Socialización, Interiorización, Exteriorización y Combinación. Se desarrolló y aplicó un instrumento, dirigido a los empleadores. Los resultados fueron analizados a través de una estadistica descriptiva, correlacional y regresión lineal. En los resultados obtenidos, se describen los valores asignados por los empleadores a estas diferentes categorías. Se obtuvo que las categorías de Socialización y Combinación muestran aportaciones más bajas, mientras que Exteriorización, Interiorización y Combinación aportan más al proceso de gestión de conocimiento. Lo anterior permite concluir una clara falta de estrategias y procesos que favorezcan la generación del conocimiento organizacional para estas PyME, en particular en las actividades de Socialización y Combinación.

  11. La estructura espacial urbana y accesibilidad diferenciada a centros de empleo en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Fuentes Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen disparidades intraurbanas en los tiempos de traslado del viaje al trabajo en transporte público y privado, producto de una accesibilidad diferenciada a los centros de empleo en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua; el objetivo del artículo es explicarlas. La metodología empleada es el análisis espacial, además se elaboraron cuatro modelos de regresión simple estimados mediante la técnica de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios (MCO. Las variables se construyeron con información de la Encuesta de origen-destino de 1997, el XII Censo general de población y vivienda de 2000 y el XIII Censo económico de 1999, a nivel del área geográfica básica (AGEB. Los resultados de los modelos de regresión indican que el índice de accesibilidad, el balance entre empleos y viviendas, el valor del suelo y las variables aproximadas de uso del suelo (proporción de trabajadores en el sector secundario y terciario muestran efectos estadísticamente significativos al explicar diferencias en los tiempos de traslado al trabajo en transporte público. Así mismo, el índice de accesibilidad, valor del suelo y la proporción de trabajadores en el sector secundario incrementan dichos tiempos en transporte privado. Los resultados tienen implicaciones en términos de políticas de usos del suelo y planeación del transporte.

  12. INOCULACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA ROYA BLANCA (Puccinia horiana HENNINGS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C\\u00E9sar Vences-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad el desarrollar la técnica de inoculación in vitro de la roya blanca, con el objeto de ahorrar tiempo y espacio en la caracterización de los distintos cultivares de crisantemo respecto al grado de susceptibilidad o resistencia a este patógeno. En Tenancingo, Estado de México, en el periodo 2004-2005 se colectaron hojas de crisantemo que presentaban daños por la enfermedad, se desinfectaron para posteriormente inocular las pústulas sobre plantas creciendo bajo condiciones in vitro. El recipiente de cultivo se mantuvo a una humedad relativa alrededor del 95% y temperaturas entre los 13 y 27 ºC, bajo condiciones de luz y oscuridad. Los daños por la enfermedad se manifestaron a los 20 días después de la inoculación. Los tratamientos a 17 ºC y oscuridad generaron un mayor número de pústulas (18,7. El diámetro de las pústulas fluctuó entre los 0,71 mm (tratamientos con 17 ºC y luz a los 1,79 mm en los tratamientos con 19 ºC y bajo oscuridad.

  13. Analysis of 15 autosomal STR loci from Mar del Plata and Bahia Blanca (Central Region of Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, María Laura; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Sambuco, Lorena Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Stella Maris; Iudica, Celia Estela

    2014-05-01

    Allele frequencies for the 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit were estimated in a sample of unrelated individuals from Mar del Plata (MDQ; N = 180) and Bahia Blanca (BB; N = 85) (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Biological samples were obtained from voluntary donors and forensic cases. Both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction, except for locus vWA in MDQ and D2S1338 in BB. FGA was the most informative locus, and the least discriminating locus was TPOX in both samples. The combined power of discrimination (PDc) and the combined probability of exclusion (PEc) were similar in MDQ and BB samples (0.999999998 < PDc < 0.999999999 and 0.999999979 < PEc < 0.999999989). The multidimentional scaling plot from Rst genetic distance matrix and the interethnic admixture estimation supported a higher European contribution in populations of the central region compared with populations from other regions of Argentina with higher Amerindian composition. These results enlarge the Argentine databases of autosomal STR loci, revealed as an excellent tool for human identification tests and population genetic analysis.

  14. Organizaciones, redes y desarrollo económico en ciudades medias: el caso de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Diez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, las ciudades medias han recuperado su protagonismo en los sistemas urbanos, tanto en la bibliografía científica como en las estrategias de ordenamiento y desarrollo territorial a escala internacional. Como sucedió en la década de 1960, dichas localidades están adquiriendo preponderancia como componentes destacados de las políticas de desarrollo regional, al incorporarse como actores clave en las posibilidades de despegue industrial de territorios periféricos. Entre los instrumentos tendientes a promover su crecimiento y consolidación, la literatura especializada destaca la conformación de redes institucionales, como un elemento capaz de incentivar la innovación y el cambio tecnológico. En este sentido, se sostiene que en las ciudades medias más exitosas en el mundo, la existencia de un tejido institucional denso y complejo ha sido determinante para garantizar una competitividad de base territorial adecuada. El presente trabajo pretende analizar la dinámica de funcionamiento de la red de organizaciones de apoyo a la producción de Bahía Blanca, Argentina, con el propósito de entender en qué medida mejora las condiciones de competencia y desarrollo del territorio.

  15. [Hydrological and edaphic structure of an oyster-farming site: Duna Blanca (Bay of Dakhla, south Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, H; Orbi, A; Mouradi, A; Zidane, F; Blais, J F

    2008-09-01

    Morocco shelters lagoons, estuaries and bays along its paralic coasts which are among the most productive in the world. The Bay of Dakhla is the longest and the most important site in Morocco due to its halieutic richness. In fact, this bay is an ecosystem with great potential in terms of aquaculture, mainly shellfish farming, and shelters favorable zones for tapiculture, mytiliculture and ostreiculture, in accordance with ecological planning. A hydrological study (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll "a", suspended matter and organic matter) was conducted on a breeding project of the cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) installed on the Duna Blanca site since April 2003. A seasonal follow-up of sediment structure was carried out involving granulometric and metallic studies. The hydrological sampling was performed monthly on the surface and at the bottom, during spring tides, low tide and high tide. The results confirmed that the site encompasses a wealth of nutritive elements and a significant chlorophyll-rich biomass. A gradient of hypersalinity is well correlated with seasonal variation of the temperature. The sedimentary structure ranges from muddy-sandy to sandy type. The metal concentrations in the sediments never exceeded the toxicity thresholds. However, the site's production potential cannot be limitless and could be affected by the extension and installation of new conchylaceous farms.

  16. Estudio histológico del sistema digestivo en diferentes estadios de desarrollo de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Mendoza R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus es la segunda fuente de producción piscícola en Colombia, después de la tilapia roja (Oreochomi ssp. y antes de la trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Se destaca, además, como una de las especies con mayor potencial productivo en el país. Se realizó el estudio histológico del sistema digestivo de la Piaractus brachypomus a fin determinar la morfología normal en diferentes estadios de desarrollo. Para ello se clasificaron los animales según la edad, el tamaño y el peso en ovas embrionadas, larvas con saco vitelino, alevinos después de reabsorción de saco vitelino, juveniles (3-5 cm, 5-7 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm y adultos (300 g. La fijación de los tejidos se realizó en formaldehído al 3,7 % y se describió microscópicamente cavidad bucal, faringe, esófago, estómago, ciegos pilóricos, intestinos y las glándulas anexas, hígado y páncreas. Por último, se describió macroscópicamente la organización anatómica de este sistema.

  17. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-12-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health.

  18. Archival explorations of climate variability and social vulnerability in colonial Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endfield, G.H. [School of Geography, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG 7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Unpublished archival documentary sources are used to explore the vulnerability to - and implications of - climatic variability and extreme weather events in colonial Mexico. Attention focuses on three regions covering a variety of environmental, social, economic, and political contexts and histories and located at key points along a north-south rainfall gradient: Chihuahua in the arid north, Oaxaca in the wetter south and Guanajuato located in the central Mexican highlands. A number of themes are considered. First, the significance of successive, prolonged, or combined climate events as triggers of agrarian crisis. Second, a case study demonstrating the national and regional impacts of a particularly devastating climate induced famine, culminating with the so-called 'Year of Hunger' between 1785 and 1786, is presented. The way in which social networks and community engagement were rallied as a means of fortifying social resilience to this and other crises will be highlighted. Third, the impacts of selected historical flood events are explored in order to highlight how the degree of impact of a flood was a function of public expectation, preparedness and also the particular socio-economic and environmental context in which the event took place. An overview of the spatial and temporal variations in vulnerability and resilience to climatic variability and extreme weather events in colonial Mexico is then provided, considering those recorded events that could potentially relate to broader scale, possibly global, climate changes.

  19. Occurrence and treatment of arsenic in groundwater and soil in northern Mexico and southwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Lucy Mar; Gutiérrez, Mélida; Alarcón-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Villalba, Maria de Lourdes; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-04-01

    This review focuses on the occurrence and treatment of arsenic (As) in the arid region of northern Mexico (states of Chihuahua and Coahuila) and bordering states of the southwestern US (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas), an area known for having high As concentrations. Information assembled and assessed includes the content and probable source of As in water, soil, and sediments and treatment methods that have been applied in the area. High As concentrations were found mainly in groundwater, their source being mostly from natural origin related to volcanic processes with significant anthropogenic contributions near mining and smelting of ores containing arsenic. The affinity of As for solid phases in alkaline conditions common to arid areas precludes it from being present in surface waters, accumulating instead in sediments and shifting its threat to its potential remobilization in reservoir sediments and irrigation waterways. Factors such as oxidation and pH that affect the mobility of As in the subsurface environment are mentioned. Independent of socio-demographic variables, nutritional status, and levels of blood lead, cognitive development in children is being affected when exposed to As. Treatments known to effectively reduce As content to safe drinking water levels as well as those that are capable of reducing As content in soils are discussed. Besides conventional methods, emergent technologies, such as phytoremediation, offer a viable solution to As contamination in drinking water.

  20. Estimating maquiladora hazardous waste generation on the U.S./Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mace M.; Kontuly, Thomas; Hepner, George F.

    1995-03-01

    Maquiladoras, manufacturing plants that primarily assemble foreign components for reexport, are located in concentrations along the northern frontier of the US/Mexico border. These plants process a wide variety of materials using modern industrial technologies within the context of developing world institutions and infrastructure. Hazardous waste generation by maquiladoras represents a critical environmental management issue because of the spatial concentration of these plants in border municipalities where the infrastructure for waste management is nonexistent or poor. These border municipalities contain rapidly increasing populations, which further stress their waste handling infrastructure capacities while exposing their populations to greater contaminant risks. Limited empirical knowledge exists concerning hazardous waste types and generation rates from maquiladorsas. There is no standard reporting method for waste generation or methodology for estimating generation rates at this time. This paper presents a method that can be used for the rapid assessment of hazardous waste generation. A first approximation of hazardous waste generation is produced for maquiladoras in the three municipalities of Nogales, Sonora, Mexicali, Baja California, and Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, using the INVENT model developed by the World Bank. In addition, our intent is to evaluate the potential of the INVENT model for adaptation to the US/Mexico border industrial situation. The press of border industrial development, especially with the recent adoption of the NAFTA, make such assessments necessary as a basis for the environmental policy formulation and management needed in the immediate future.

  1. Effects of exposure to pesticides during pregnancy on placental maturity and weight of newborns: a cross-sectional pilot study in women from the Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Maldonado, Brenda; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2009-08-01

    It is known that pesticides cross the placental barrier and can cause alterations in the development of placental structures resulting in adverse effects in reproduction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pesticide exposure during pregnancy on placental maturity and to evaluate the relationship between placental maturity, gestational age and birth weight. We collected the placentas from singleton pregnancies from women exposed (n = 9) and non-exposed (n = 45 full-term and n = 31 preterm) to pesticides as evaluated geographically, by questionnaire and by acetylcholinesterase levels. Placental morphometry from the central and peripheral regions was examined by microscopy and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The placental maturity index (PMI) was estimated by dividing the number of epithelial plates in terminal villi to their thickness in 1 mm(2) of the placental parenchyma. Gestational age, birth weight and the following characteristics of the mother were also recorded: pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and hemoglobin concentrations. Birth weight and the gestational age were correlated with PMI (r = .54 and r = .44, respectively; p < .01). Pesticide exposure was associated with a higher PMI (beta = 7.38, p = .01) after adjusting by variables related to placental maturity. In conclusion, the results suggest a relationship between prenatal exposure to pesticides and placental maturity and may potentially affect the nutrient transport from the mother to the fetus.

  2. [Gnathostomiasis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, J M; Bravo-Zamudio, R; Aranda-Patraca, A; Martínez-Marañón, R

    1989-01-01

    Since 1975, increasing numbers of patients with inflammatory, migrant, recidivant nodules were observed in the towns of Temazcal, state of Oaxaca, Tierra Blanca, Veracruz and others along the Papaloapan river. Larvae of Gnathostoma sp. have been obtained from some of them. The local species, although not completely identified, must be very close to G. spinigerum. Infection is related to ingestion of "ceviche", a very popular mexican delicacy made with raw Cyclid fishes of the Miguel Aleman dam. Ecological and social changes provoked by the construction of the dam and hypotheticaly related to the dissemination of the parasite are described. As the Temazcal Fish Culture Center has delivered tilapia fishes to many secondary culture centers, it is feared that the infection could spread through the country, so signs and symptoms of the disease are described in order to help Mexican doctors make the diagnosis if they were to encounter the disease.

  3. Análisis sismoestratigráfico de paleocanales en el subsuelo marino del estuario de Bahía Blanca Seismostratigraphic analysis of paleochannels in the sub-bottom of the Bahía Blanca estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío A. Giagante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La configuración morfológica del estuario de Bahía Blanca, al sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires, es el resultado de los procesos hidrológicos y sedimentarios vinculados a las variaciones cuaternarias del nivel del mar. A partir de relevamientos sísmicos de alta resolución (3,5 kHz, se analizan estructuras de paleocanales halladas en el subsuelo marino de los canales principal y Vieja. Los antiguos cauces han sido identificados en secuencias sismoestratigráficas diferentes. Así, los paleocauces localizados en el canal principal, están caracterizados por una superficie erosiva basal en "V", con un ancho máximo de 40 m en su sección superior. Los mismos pertenecen a una antigua cuenca hídrica, posiblemente relacionada al río Colorado. Estos cauces fueron sepultados por sedimentos fluviales-deltaicos, los cuales componen una estructura sísmica progradante. Otro conjunto de paleocanales, ubicados en el subsuelo del canal Vieja, tienen un diseño similar a los anteriores pero su longitud transversal es considerablemente mayor (350 m, y son vinculados con antiguos tributarios del arroyo Napostá. Su secuencia de relleno se ha depositado bajo condiciones fluviales, culminando su colmatación en un ambiente estuarino-marino. La existencia de estos paleocauces, en los cuales son frecuentes las acumulaciones gasíferas someras (shallow gas, evidencia un nivel de base del antiguo sistema de drenaje ubicado por debajo del nivel del mar actual. La sedimentación marina, producida por el proceso transgresivo-regresivo del Holoceno, originó el soterramiento de los cauces fluviales cercanos al mar, e intervino en la modificación de la red de drenaje costera.The morphological configuration of the Bahía Blanca estuary (southern Buenos Aires province is the result of hydrologic and sedimentary events linked to Quaternary variations of the sea level. From high-resolution (3.5 kHz seismic surveys, an analysis is performed of structures of

  4. Análisis de fuentes y toxicidad equivalente de sedimentos contaminados con PAHs en el estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina Sources analysis and equivalent toxicity assessment of PAHs impacted sediments in Bahia Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés H. Arias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio exhaustivo de sedimentos del estuario de Bahía Blanca (Argentina para determinar su impacto por Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos (PAHs. Los sedimentos fueron procesados siguiendo protocolos de la Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, USA y analizados por Cromatografía Gaseosa-Espectrometría de Masas, hallándose un rango de concentraciones total, desde 103 a más de 2,000 ng.g-1 p.s. (p.s.= peso seco; Total PAHs = sumatoria de 17 PAHs, una concentración media de 527 ± 114 ng.g-1 y una mediana de 507 ng.g-1. Se demostró la existencia de un nivel dinámico de contaminación por PAHs, definido por valores bajos a moderados que incluyeron zonas puntuales con altos niveles. El análisis de origen mediante el uso de índices moleculares determinó un predominio de deposiciones pirolíticas sobre las de origen petrogénico, siendo dominantes las emisiones provenientes de la quema de biomasa durante los meses más cálidos. La calidad ecotoxicológica de los sedimentos se abordó utilizando el enfoque de niveles guía, hallándose para la mayoría de los sitios muestreados una predicción de efectos adversos infrecuentes sobre la biota adyacente, con sitios puntuales para los cuales se predijo la aparición frecuente de efectos. Utilizando el concepto de equivalentes de Benzo-a-pireno se calculó su carga total, la cual se halló en ocasiones por sobre los valores indicados en diversas regulaciones internacionales. Finalmente se evaluó la dosis carcinogénica aportada por los 7 PAHs carcinogénicos y su perfil de concentraciones se contrastó estadísticamente con otros sitios costeros del mundo utilizando análisis de grupos jerarquizados.This paper presents a comprehensive survey of PAHs in coastal sediments of Bahia Blanca, Argentina and provides useful information of their levels of concentration, sources, ecotoxicological assessment and carcinogenic PAHs profile of local emissions. Sediments were analyzed

  5. Drinking water: problems related to water supply in Bahía Blanca, Argentina Agua potable: problemas en el abastecimiento de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Echenique

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In April 2000, alterations in drinking water quality, such as turbidity and odors similar to those of organochloride pesticides, were detected at Bahía Blanca (Argentina. This fact was associated to reports of dermic reactions and respiratory problems in the population. Samples drawn from Paso de las Piedras reservoir, two water treatment plants of at inlet and outlet points and at several particular houses were analyzed. Total phytoplankton in the reservoir varied between 49440 and 84832 cells.ml-1, while dominant species was, Anabaena circinalis. Efficiency to remove microorganisms (ER by the treatment plants considering cell number of total phytoplankton was analyzed. Bacteriological analysis, qualitative and quantitative studies of phytoplankton, pesticides, THM (trihalomethanes and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene analysis were carried out in samples of domestic supply and in the treatment plants. Even though samples were bacteriological potable, Anabaena circinalis and Microcystis aeruginosa algae were found at high concentrations in some cases. No pesticides were detected. THM and BTEX were below guideline values into recommendations for drinking water. Geosmin was responsible for detected odors. Besides, Copaene, another volatile metabolite, which on account in its structure could be considered a Geosmin precursor, was also detected. In Argentina, this was the first report of Cyanobacteria presence in drinking water.En abril de 2000, en Bahía Blanca (Argentina, se detectaron alteraciones en el agua de bebida, turbidez y olor semejante a "Gamexane". Esto coincidió con la aparición de problemas dérmicos y respiratorios en la población. Para determinar el origen del problema, se analizaron muestras, tomadas en el embalse Paso de las Piedras, en las plantas potabilizadoras y en varios domicilios particulares. En el embalse, la densidad celular del fitoplancton, fluctuó entre 49440 y 84832 cél/ml-1, muy por encima de

  6. Geology of the area of Bahía Blanca, Darwin's view and the presentknowledge: a story of 10 million years Geología del área de Bahía Blanca, los comentarios de Darwin y elconocimiento actual: una historia de 10millones de años

    OpenAIRE

    Quattrocchio,Mirta E; Cecilia M. Deschamps; Carlos A. Zavala; Silvia C. Grill; Ana M. Borrome

    2009-01-01

    Theaim of this paper is to give an updated outlook of the scenery described byCharles Darwin when he visited Bahía Blanca and surrounding areas, following the itinerary during hisvoyage on board HMS Beagle. Such an outlook is a state of the art of thecurrent understanding of the Late Miocene-Holocene history in the southwestern Pampas (Argentina). Multidisciplinaryresults were integrated in a chronosequence chart synthesizing the suggestedspace-time correlation of the recognized events. Some ...

  7. Contribución al conocimiento del género Helvella (Ascomycota: Pezizales en México: descripción de especies poco conocidas Contribution to the study of the genus Helvella (Ascomycota: Pezizales in Mexico: description of poorly known species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mayela Vite-Garín

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión taxonómica de los ejemplares del género Helvella depositados en el Herbario FCME (UNAM, a partir de la cual se determinaron 14 especies. Se amplía el conocimiento de este género para los estados de Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Estado de México, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Querétaro y Tlaxcala. Se proporciona una clave sinóptica para las especies de México y la descripción morfológica de algunas poco estudiadas.A taxonomic review of the specimens of the genus Helvella housed at FCME (UNAM Herbarium was carried out; 14 species were determined. The knowledge of this genus in the states of Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Estado de Mexico, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Querétaro and Tlaxcala is widened. A sinoptical key is provided for the species cited from Mexico, as well as the morphological description of selected taxa.

  8. The Point Sal–Point Piedras Blancas correlation and the problem of slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault, central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Existing models for large-magnitude, right-lateral slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault system imply much more deformation of the onshore block in the Santa Maria basin than is supported by geologic data. This problem is resolved by a model in which dextral slip on this fault system increases gradually from 0–10 km near Point Arguello to ∼150 km at Cape San Martin, but such a model requires abandoning the cross-fault tie between Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas, which requires 90–100 km of right-lateral slip on the southern Hosgri fault. We collected stratigraphic and detrital zircon data from Miocene clastic rocks overlying Jurassic basement at both localities to determine if either section contained unique characteristics that could establish how far apart they were in the early Miocene. Our data indicate that these basins formed in the early Miocene during a period of widespread transtensional basin formation in the central Coast Ranges, and they filled with sediment derived from nearby pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. Although detrital zircon data do not indicate a unique source component in either section, they establish the maximum depositional age of the previously undated Point Piedras Blancas section to be 18 Ma. We also show that detrital zircon trace-element data can be used to discriminate between zircons of oceanic crust and arc affinity of the same age, a potentially useful tool in future studies of the California Coast Ranges. Overall, we find no characteristics in the stratigraphy and provenance of the Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas sections that are sufficiently unique to prove whether they were far apart or close together in the early Miocene, making them of questionable utility as piercing points.

  9. The role of the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and associated sediments in the heavy metal biogeochemical cycle within Bahia Blanca estuary salt marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, M. [Dept. of Environmental Process Engineering, International Graduate School Zittau, Zittau (Germany); Botte, S.E. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dept. de Biologia, Bioquimica y Farmacia (DBBF), Univ. Nacional del Sur (UNS), Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Negrin, V.L.; Chiarello, M.N. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Marcovecchio, J.E. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca (UTN-FRBB), Univ. Tecnologica Nacional, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Univ. FASTA, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2008-10-15

    Background, aim, and scope Bahia Blanca estuary is characterized by the occurrence of large intertidal areas, including both naked tidal flats and salt marshes densely vegetated with Spartina alterniflora. The estuary is strongly affected by human activities, including industrial and municipal discharges, harbor maintenance, cargo vessels and boat navigation, oil storage and processing, etc. Even numerous studies have reported the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in sediments and biota from this estuary, although the function of the halophyte vegetation on metals distribution was at present not studied. The main objective of the present study was to understand the potential role of the salt marshes as a sink or source of metals to the estuary, considering both the obtained data on metal levels within sediments and plants from the studied areas at naked tidal as well as vegetated flats. Conclusions and recommendations Considering the comments on the previous paragraphs, salt marshes from Bahia Blanca estuary are sources or sinks for metals? It can be sustained that both are the case, even if it is often stated that wetlands serve as sinks for pollutants, reducing contamination of surrounding ecosystems (Weis and Weis, Environ Int 30:685-700, 2004). In the present study case, the sediments (which tend to be anoxic and reduced) act as sinks, while the salt marshes can become a source of metal contaminants. This is very important for this system because the macrophytes have been shown to retain the majority of metals in the underground tissues, and particularly in their associated sediments. This fact agreed well with previous reports, such as that from Leendertse et al., (Environ Pollut 94:19-29, 1996) who found that about 50% of the absorbed metals were retained in salt marshes and 50% was exported. Thus, keeping in mind the large spreading of S. alterniflora salt marshes within Bahia Blanca estuary, it must be carefully considered as a redistributor of

  10. Caracterización morfológica y molecular de Leptochloa dubia (Poaceae en Chihuahua, México

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    Carlos Morales-Nieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El gigante [Leptochloa dubia(Kunth Nees.] es una importante gramínea forrajera nativa de México, cuyas poblaciones naturales se han reducido debido a malas prácticas de pastoreo. En este trabajo se analizó la variabilidad morfológica y genética de 32 poblaciones del gigante en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Nueve características morfológicas fueron evaluadas en estas poblaciones, después de dos años de trasplantadas y establecidos en un jardín de observación y bajo condiciones de temporal. La variabilidad genética se determinó utilizando los perfiles de amplificación de cuatro pares de iniciadores u oligonucleótidos. El análisis de componentes principales mostró que los tres primeros componentes explicaron el 75.3% de la variación morfológica. Los cuatro pares de iniciadores produjeron un total de 186 bandas, de las cuales el 56.45% presentó polimorfismo. La combinación de iniciadores EcoRI-AAC+MseI-CAG detectó el mayor porcentaje de polimorfismo (69.57% y 32 bandas polimórficas. El coeficiente de Dice y análisis de agrupamiento generaron cinco grupos. La variabilidad genética y morfológica encontrada en las diferentes poblaciones, podrían servir de base para la selección de ecotipos de gigante para diversos propósitos como producción de semilla, retención de suelo, restauración de ecosistemas y forraje para libre pastoreo o de corte, entre otros. Así también, los resultados de este trabajo son la base para iniciar programas de mejoramiento genético en esta especie.

  11. Origin and formation of neck in a basin landform: Examples from the Camargo volcanic field, Chihuahua (México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Housh, Todd B.; Luhr, James F.; Noyola-Medrano, Cristina; Rojas-Beltrán, Marco Antonio

    2010-11-01

    The term "neck in a basin" (NIB) landform is proposed for volcanic structures characterized by nearly circular to elliptical open basins, located near the headwater of small streams or drainages, which contain small volcanic necks and/or erosion remnants of one (or more) cinder cones. NIB landforms are typically 400-1000 m in diameter and 30-100 m deep and are invariably surrounded by steep walls cut into one or more basaltic lava flows. NIB landforms lack evidence for a primary volcanogenic origin through either collapse or youthful eruptive activity. In the Pliocene portion (4 - 2 Ma) of the Plio-Quaternary Camargo volcanic field of Chihuahua (México), they are relatively numerous and are best developed at the margins of a gently sloping (3-5°) basaltic lava plateau and near major fault scarps. Mature NIB landforms have ring-like circular drainage patterns and central elevations marked by small volcanic necks and associated radial dikes intruded into basaltic scoria-fall and /or agglutinate deposits. We interpret NIB landforms to be erosional in origin. They develop where a cinder cone is surrounded by one or more sheet-like lava flows from one or more separate subsequent vents. Once eruptive activity ceases at the younger volcano(es), fluvial erosion gradually produces a ring-like drainage pattern along the contact between the lava and the older cinder cone. As a response to a marked contrast in resistance to erosion between lava flows and unconsolidated or poorly lithified pyroclastic deposits, the older cinder cone is preferentially eroded. In this manner, a ring-shaped, steep sided erosional basin, preformed by the scoria cone, is produced; eventually fluvial erosion exposes the central neck and dikes. The volume, relief, and age of the volcanic field are key factors in the formation and preservation of a NIB landform. They form in volcanic fields where lava emissions are sufficiently vigorous to engulf earlier cinder cones. Relief and associated high rates

  12. Caracterización reproductiva de la raza caprina blanca andaluza : papel de la condición corporal, peso vivo y fotoperiodo

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Calvo, María Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    La raza caprina Blanca Andaluza es una raza autóctona calificada como en peligro de extinción y cuenta con un reducido número de criadores, así como con una carencia casi total de datos reproductivos. Por eso, el objetivo de este trabajo ha consistido en determinar las características reproductivas de esta raza. Para ello, se han llevado a cabo 5 experimentos. En el primer experimento el objetivo fue examinar el efecto de la condición corporal (CC) y del peso vivo (PV), independientemente ...

  13. Análisis preliminares de los materiales líticos provenientes de la Laguna Blanca Chica (Olavarría, Buenos Aires)

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo G. Messineo; Lázaro D'Augerot

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados preliminares sobre el estudio de los materiales líticos recuperado en la Laguna Blanca Chica (Partido de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires). El objetivo principal es conocer las estrategias relacionadas al aprovisionamiento y explotación de las materias primas presentes, como los procesos tecnológicos utilizados sobre las mismas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la ftanita (55,58%) y la cuarcita (43,23%) fueron las materias primas más utiliza...

  14. Una colección de relatos populares registrados en Bahía Blanca (Argentina), narrados por mujeres de origen mapuche y chileno

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Graciela B.

    2007-01-01

    Presentamos una colección inédita de relatos recopilados en sectores populares urbanos en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina). Dos de ellos fueron transmitidos por una mujer que los recuerda como parte de su herencia cultural mapuche; se trata de una nueva versión de las disputas del zorro y el león. El otro cuento señala las características de los gorriones que no pueden vivir en cautiverio. Los dos relatos restantes fueron narrados por una joven que recordó momentos de su pasado. En prime...

  15. DENSIDAD POBLACIONAL Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE HÁBITAT DEL VENADO COLA BLANCA EN UN BOSQUE TEMPLADO DE OAXACA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn PIÑA; Irma TREJO

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó la densidad poblacional y se caracterizó el hábitat del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus en un bosque templado de Santa María Yavesía, Sierra Norte de Oaxaca. Se realizaron dos muestreos temporales en 13 sitios pertenecientes a cinco asociaciones vegetales con el método de conteos de grupos fecales. Se calculó la densidad poblacional con el modelo de Eberhardt Van Etten (1956) usando dos tasas de defecación. Se registró la presencia de venados sólo en el bosque de conífer...

  16. Comportamiento de las relaciones hídricas en la albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L.) al ser irrigadas con diferentes volúmenes de agua

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), con el objetivo de estudiar los requerimientos hídricos de la albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L.). Para ello se establecieron diferentes niveles de humedad en el suelo, evaluándose el potencial hídrico, la conductancia estomática y el contenido relativo de agua, así como las masas fresca y seca de la parte aérea. Del análisis de los resultados se obtuvo que la aplicación del 75 % del balance de evapo...

  17. EFECTOS DE PERÍODOS CORTOS DE ESTRÉS E INOCULACIÓN MICORRÍZICA EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (O. basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de valorar el tiempo óptimo de suspensión del suministro de agua antes del corte y su efecto en la producción de aceites esenciales, así como la contribución que realiza la inoculación micorrízica sobre el estado hídrico y algunas variables del crecimiento, en plantas de albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L.) desarrolladas en recipientes de seis litros de capacidad, con un sustrato formado por suelo y materia orgánica del tipo cachaza en una relación 3:1 v...

  18. El color negro de la (sin) razón blanca : el lugar de las mujeres afrodescendientes en los procesos organizativos en Colombia [reseña

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El libro titulado: El color negro de la (sin) razón blanca : el lugar de las mujeres afrodescendientes en los procesos organizativos en Colombia, de la autoría de Doris Lamus Canavate, es el resultado de un proceso que ha venido adelantando desde hace algunos años con respecto al lugar político de la mujer en la sociedad contemporánea y, en particular, de las mujeres negras/afrocolombianas en Colombia. En este ejercicio investigativo se plantea una pregunta central, ¿cuál es el lugar de las ...

  19. Flora y vegetación de suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en la Cordillera Blanca, Ancash, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Entre los años 2006 y 2008, se llevaron a cabo estudios florístico y de vegetación de los suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en cuatro localidades de la Cordillera Blanca (Ancash, Perú) localizadas por encima de los 4500 m. Se realizaron recolectas botánicas además de transectos de intersección-línea, en los cuales se midió el espacio (en cm) ocupado por cada especie. Fueron determinadas 136 especies de plantas vasculares, agrupadas en 65 géneros y 26 familias. Las Magnoliópsi...

  20. Análisis del Clima Laboral a través de la Comunicación Interna: "Caso Industria de Línea Blanca"

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Ochoa, Melania Francisca

    2013-01-01

    La presente es una investigación de campo realizada en una empresa productora de línea blanca, la misma que cuenta con su matriz en la ciudad de Cuenca, La investigación está basada en el impacto de contar con un proceso de comunicación interna, inmersa en los procesos estratégicos de la organización, para conseguir un mejor resultado en el Clima Laboral organizacional. La investigación ha sido sustentado en un marco teórico práctico establecidos en lineamentos y políticas instituidas en la o...

  1. Apellidos e isonimia en la población blanca de la ciudad de Córdoba a fines del siglo XVIII y comienzos del XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Colantonio, Sonia Edith; Küffer, Claudio; Fuster Siebert, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    Una forma de estimar la consanguinidad y parentesco en poblaciones históricas es la isonimia. Este trabajo analiza la distribución de apellidos en la población blanca de la ciudad de Córdoba con datos extraídos de censos de 1795, 1813 y 1832. Se estiman indicadores de consanguinidad y parentesco por isonimia en los tres años mencionados, considerando por un lado la población adulta y por otro los matrimonios identificados. Se calculan, asimismo, indicadores de migración a partir de la dist...

  2. Assessing the variability of glacier lake bathymetries and potential peak discharge based on large-scale measurements in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian; Salazar, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Frey, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Over timescales of hundreds to thousands of years ice masses in mountains produced erosion in bedrock and subglacial sediment, including the formation of overdeepenings and large moraine dams that now serve as basins for glacial lakes. Satellite based studies found a total of 8355 glacial lakes in Peru, whereof 830 lakes were observed in the Cordillera Blanca. Some of them have caused major disasters due to glacial lake outburst floods in the past decades. On the other hand, in view of shrinking glaciers, changing water resources, and formation of new lakes, glacial lakes could have a function as water reservoirs in the future. Here we present unprecedented bathymetric studies of 124 glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Huallanca, Huayhuash and Raura in the regions of Ancash, Huanuco and Lima. Measurements were carried out using a boat equipped with GPS, a total station and an echo sounder to measure the depth of the lakes. Autocad Civil 3D Land and ArcGIS were used to process the data and generate digital topographies of the lake bathymetries, and analyze parameters such as lake area, length and width, and depth and volume. Based on that, we calculated empirical equations for mean depth as related to (1) area, (2) maximum length, and (3) maximum width. We then applied these three equations to all 830 glacial lakes of the Cordillera Blanca to estimate their volumes. Eventually we used three relations from the literature to assess the peak discharge of potential lake outburst floods, based on lake volumes, resulting in 3 x 3 peak discharge estimates. In terms of lake topography and geomorphology results indicate that the maximum depth is located in the center part for bedrock lakes, and in the back part for lakes in moraine material. Best correlations are found for mean depth and maximum width, however, all three empirical relations show a large spread, reflecting the wide range of natural lake bathymetries. Volumes of the 124 lakes with bathymetries amount to 0

  3. Comparación de Peso Entre Dos Protocolos de Crianza Artificial de venados cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus) en el Altiplano Central de México

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Montaño-Suárez

    2014-01-01

    En el altiplano central de México, el aprovechamiento sustentable del venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus) a través de la caza deportiva, ha permitido el desarrollo de nuevas empresas de prestación de servicios cinegéticos. Cuando se habla de los nuevos agronegocios se puede mencionar a los ranchos cinegéticos que son predios rústicos particulares, destinado a la producción ganadera o forestal y que se dedican a la reproducción y aprovechamiento económico de diferentes especies de la f...

  4. Calonema foliicola a new myxomycete from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Torres, A; Ramírez-Ortega, J M; Lado, C

    2003-01-01

    A new species of myxomycete, Calonema foliicola Estrada, J. M. Ramírez & Lado, recorded in the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Hidalgo and Tlaxcala is described. The most relevant characters of this species are the scattered, minute and stalked sporocarps, the red color of the sporotheca and the capillitium, with a faint and irregular reticulum.

  5. COMPORTAMIENTO DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimun basilicum L. ANTE REDUCCIONES DE LAS CANTIDADES DE AGUA APLICADA POR FASES DEL DESARROLLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jerez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de conocer qué fase del desarrollo de la albahaca blanca (Ocimun basilicum L. resulta más afectada por una deficiencia hídrica y las alteraciones que se producen en el crecimiento y las relaciones hídricas en esas condiciones. Se sembraron semillas en recipientes de seis litros de capacidad con un sustrato formado por suelo y materia orgánica del tipo cachaza en una relación 3:1 v/v. Los tratamientos se controlaron por el método gravimétrico y consistieron en variar las cantidades de agua aplicadas durante el ciclo del cultivo dividido en tres fases: siembra-primer par de hijos, del primer par de hijos a inflorescencia en el tallo principal y de aquí hasta inflorescencia en las ramas laterales (cosecha. Se determinó el consumo de agua por fase y total, y se realizaron evaluaciones del crecimiento en altura y biomasa y del estado hídrico de las plantas. Las respuestas en las distintas variables permitieron definir que la primera fase considerada en la que se aplicó el agua de forma diferenciada resultó la más afectada por el déficit hídrico, el cual provocó reducciones importantes en la altura, con una menor producción de masa seca y un potencial hídrico foliar más bajo con disminuciones en la conductancia estomática.

  6. Time-lapse and UAV Thermal Imaging of Glacial and Periglacial Environments in the Peruvian Andes (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Wigmore, O.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Mark, B. G.; Hellstrom, R. A.; Lautz, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the tropics, the acquisition of high-resolution geospatial data of high-mountain glacial and periglacial systems presents unique challenges due to remote site access and very high elevations. For glaciers and hydrologic systems, a key variable of interest is surface temperature as it constrains glacier melt rates, traces hydrologic processes, and is needed for the calibration of energy budget models. We present results from two studies that acquired high resolution temperature data from the Cuchillacocha Glacier, Peru (9.24°S, 77.21°W). The glacier resides on the western drainage of the Cordillera Blanca with an elevation range of 4700 to 6096 m. In the first study we use high resolution time-lapse infrared imagery (5-10 minute interval over 3 days; 0.6 m2 pixel size) to observe diel changes in the surface energy budget of the glacier and to demonstrate how radiation from bare rock adjacent to the glacier may affect melt rates. In the second study we use a newly developed, inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for high resolution multispectral mapping of the glacier (2 cm resolution orthomosaic and 5 cm resolution DEM). We present results showing how the time-lapse and the high-resolution UAV imagery can be combined to further strengthen our understanding of the Cuchillacocha Glacier's energy budget and possible insights about turbulent heat fluxes. While the new instruments provide unprecedented data acquisition capabilities, there is an outstanding need for proper data correction. Spatial/thermal control points and post-processing algorithms are needed to produce quantifiable datasets. For example, our post-processed time-lapse imagery has an r2 > 0.9 after emissivity, transmissivity and offset corrections.

  7. English Teaching Profile: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Mexico examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. It is noted that the extent to which English is used in Mexico is affected by the country's proximity to the United States. The educational system is described, with emphasis on English instruction which begins…

  8. Mexico: Venturing abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.B. [Occupational Health & Safety, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-09-01

    In a recent survey, the Environmental Technologies Export Council asked its members what they saw as the most promising market for business development in the environmental field over the next five to 10 years. The hands-down winner was Mexico. This paper discusses environmental problems and technology opportunities in Mexico.

  9. Medición de la vulnerabilidad: el caso de la adicción a drogas ilícitas en Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto J. Córdova-Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se explora el modelo de Rogers para cuantificar la vulnerabilidad, pero sin pruebas empíricas de su utilidad. Éste usa un triángulo equilátero cuyos lados representan los recursos personales y el apoyo ambiental, y la base el grado de vulnerabilidad. Se comparan los datos de la Encuesta estatal de adicciones del estado de Chihuahua, del año 2000, con los resultados obtenidos con la visión tradicional de la epidemiología. El enfoque de la vulnerabilidad identificó a la población analizada como muy sensible. La comparación entre los métodos mostró diferencias importantes, pero no permiten inferir cuál es mejor. Estudios futuros podrán examinar la utilidad del modelo abordado aquí, en diversos contextos.

  10. El impacto de las viviendas deshabitadas en el incremento de delitos (robo a casa habitación y homicidios en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. FUENTES FLORES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available la crisis de las viviendas deshabitadas generó preocupación sobre sus posibles efectos enel incremento de la actividad delictiva en los fraccionamientos con una alta densidad devivienda deshabitada enciudadjuárez,chihuahua.la metodología empleada es el análisisde regresión múltiple estimado mediante la técnica de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios.lasvariables fueron construidas con información de lasecretaría deseguridad Pública deles-tado dechihuahua (ssPcH y elxIIICenso de población y vivienda(inegi a nivel deaGeB.el estudio encontró que los altos niveles de vivienda deshabitada contribuyen a la concentra-ción de crímenes violentos, sobre todo homicidios.

  11. Un acercamiento al concepto de representación: el caso de las mujeres políticas en el estado de Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Estela Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se reflexiona sobre el fenómeno de la representación simbólica y política de las mujeres en el estado de Chihuahua. Este caso se centra en la escasa representación del sexo femenino en la política institucional y, de igual forma, se hace un acercamiento a los esquemas culturales que siguen vigentes en la esfera pública, los cuales no sólo inciden en el quehacer político femenino y masculino, sino que también conllevan a generar espacios de discriminación e inequidad y obstaculizan el empoderamiento femenino.

  12. Contextualización reticular de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial global y el desarrollo bioregional en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua-El Paso, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Picard-Ami Vogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes to approach the phenomenon by providing a networking context to Corporate Social Responsibility, the influences it receives from globalization, and the way it influences the bioregional borderland development of Ciudad Juarez and El Paso. The lens of social responsibility serves to examine a return to the private and social contextualization which occurs when an enterprise proactively uses its capacity to invest its resources on the benefit of society. In doing so, it contributes to creating an environment for investment and sustainable socioeconomic and sociopo litical growth by tapping into the support of different stakeholders and by capitalizing on transnational and personal and institutional networks. This study will use social network analysis to analyze the civic, corporate and governmental sectors in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, and El Paso, Texas, and the proposed actions in the past decade to promote bioregional economic development.

  13. Diversidad de géneros de hongos del suelo en tres campos con diferente condición agrícola en La Laguna, México Diversity of soil fungi genera in three different condition agricultural fields in La Laguna, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En La Laguna, Coahuila-Durango, México (zona con una precipitación anual entre 80 a 250 mm se estudió la estructura de géneros de hongos del suelo en 3 campos de cultivo agrícola. Del suelo de Tierra Blanca, una huerta de nogal de 51 años, fueron aislados 23 géneros de hongos y de otros 2 suelos, una huerta de nogal de 14 años, nombrada El Chupón y un campo con cultivo de alfalfa, denominado San Jorge, se aislaron l2 géneros. Para cada género se calculó su valor índice de ímportancia (V I I. El género Fusarium tuvo el mayor V I I en los 3 suelos estudiados (71-98. La diversidad (calculada con el índice de Shannon de géneros fue diferente para cada suelo de acuerdo con intervalos de confianza (95%, con valores de 1.89, 1.72 y 1.19 para Tierra Blanca, El Chupón y San Jorge, respectivamente. Se calcularon índices ecológicos adicionales, como, Simpson, máxima riqueza (H' max y regularidad (J'. Los valores del índice de Simpson y de J' fueron similares en Tierra Blanca y San Jorge, pero sólo H' max fue similar entre El Chupón y San Jorge. El índice de similitud de Shøresen fue igual al comparar Tierra Blanca con El Chupón o Tierra Blanca con San Jorge (51.4, pero distinto entre el Chupón y San Jorge (58.3. El índice β para las combinaciones Tierra Blanca vs. San Jorge y Tierra Blanca vs. El Chupón fueron de 0.43, pero para San Jorge vs. El Chupón fue de 0.83. Los géneros de hongos del suelo que se encontraron en La Laguna coinciden en 67-75% con los encontrados en suelos desérticos de Israel, pero en La Laguna la estructura de los géneros de hongos es distinta; aquí domina Fusarium y aparecen nuevos géneros, como Trichoderma. Los cambios en la micobiota del suelo pueden haber ocurrido por la actividad agrícola en los últimos 50 años.This study was carried out in agricultural soils in La Laguna, Coahuila - Durango, Mexico (annual precipitation 80-250 mm. The structure of soil fungal genera of three field soil

  14. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  15. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LOS COMPUESTOS VOLÁTILES DE TRES VARIEDADES DE GUAYABA BLANCA (Psidium guajava L. DURANTE SU MADURACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Cantillo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional Blanca (RB y Ráquira (RQ. Seutilizó el método Headspace-Microextracciónen Fase Sólida (HS-MEFS paracomparar los perfiles olfativos de tres variedadesde guayaba blanca de la regiónde la hoya del río Suárez (Santander, Colombiadurante tres etapas de maduración(verde, pintón y maduro. En las tresvariedades se presentó un comportamientosimilar, los aldehídos C-6 (hexanal,(Z-3-hexenal y (E-2-hexenal responsablesde la nota verde disminuyen durantela maduración, mientras que el contenidode ésteres (acetato de hexilo y acetato de(Z-3-hexenilo aumenta produciéndoselas notas dulce y frutal características dela fruta madura. Los compuestos ácidos,furánicos y alcoholes se observan en bajasproporciones durante las tres etapas.El análisis de los compuestos volátilesmediante HS-MEFS permitió estableceruna relación entre la transformación decompuestos aldehídos C6, responsablesde la nota verde, en ésteres análogos, alos cuales se les atribuye la nota frutalcaracterística durante el proceso demaduración.

  16. "LOS TECHOS DEL VECINO": ANÁLISIS ANTRACOLÓGICO DE RESTOS DE CONSTRUCCIÓN CARBONIZADOS DE LOS SITIOS "IGLESIA DE LOS INDIOS" Y "PIEDRAS BLANCAS" (CATAMARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. Marconetto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El registro arqueológico del Valle de Ambato en el Noroeste argentino presenta la particularidad de preservar las maderas empleadas en la construcción de los asentamientos, debido a incendios ocurridos en la zona hacia el siglo XI d.C. Esta peculiaridad ha permitido recuperar hasta el momento abundante material. Se realizó la identificación taxonómica de muestras correspondientes a 105 troncos utilizados como postes y vigas en la construcción de los sitios "Iglesia de los Indios" y "Piedras Blancas". Los análisis antracológicos presentaron resultados sensiblemente diferentes, habiéndose empleado para la Iglesia de los Indios materias primas alóctonas al valle, contrariamente a lo que ocurre en el sitio Piedras Blancas. Sobre esta base se discuten las correspondencias entre ambos sitios en torno a la selección, usos y significados de los distintos recursos forestales.

  17. El impacto socio-económico del Complejo Petroquímico de Bahía Blanca (Argentina sobre su entorno local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Odisio Oliva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia el impacto que la creación y el funcionamiento del Complejo Petroquímico de Bahía Blanca (Argentina tuvo sobre su espacio local. Repasa su historia regional, empresarial y económica desde la década de 1970, cuando empezó a planearse su implantación, para continuar con su complicada puesta en marcha, y así posteriormente analizar los distintos procesos de reconversión que se realizaron para llegar a la situación de importante adelanto productivo en que se halla el polo en la actualidad. El autor también expone ciertos presupuestos teóricos que guiaron la investigación sobre los problemas de la economía del espacio. Por último, articula la teoría económica y el análisis histórico buscando establecer hasta qué punto ha avanzado el proceso de desarrollo local de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca en torno al desempeño de ese enorme complejo industrial durante los últimos años.

  18. El impacto socio-económico del Complejo Petroquímico de Bahía Blanca (Argentina sobre su entorno local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Odisio Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia el impacto que la creación y el funcionamiento del Complejo Pe - troquímico de Bahía Blanca (Argentina tuvo sobre su espacio local. Repasa su his - toria regional, empresarial y económica desde la década de 1970, cuando empezó a planearse su implantación, para continuar con su complicada puesta en marcha, y así posteriormente analizar los distintos procesos de reconversión que se realizaron para llegar a la situación de importante adelanto productivo en que se halla el polo en la actualidad. El autor también expone ciertos presupuestos teóricos que guia ron la investigación sobre los problemas de la economía del espacio. Por último, articula la teoría económica y el análisis histórico buscando establecer hasta qué punto ha avanzado el proceso de desarrollo local de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca en torno al desempeño de ese enorme complejo industrial durante los últimos años.

  19. SITUACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BOVINOS DE CARNE EN EL ESTADO DE CHIHUAHUA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol\\u00E1s Callejas-Ju\\u00E1rez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la situación microeconómica de Unidades Representativas de Producción (URP del sistema de producción vaca-becerro en el estado de Chihuahua, Mé - xico. Se analizaron cuatro escalas de producción (20, 40, 200 y 500 vientres en edad productiva en cuatro regiones del es - tado de Chihuahua, México. Con la metodología de panel se obtuvieron costos e ingresos en 2009, con la participación de cinco a diez productores por panel. Se utiliz ó el modelo de simulación económica MEXSIM de la Universidad de Texas A&M, adaptado para México por la Red Nacional de Inves - tigación en Política Pública. La viabilidad económica medi - da a través de la probabilidad de obtener reservas finales de efectivo negativas y perder capital, fue buena para CHBC20, CHBC200 y CHBC500 y moderada para CHBC40. La uti - lidad neta más baja por vientre fue para CHBC40 ($ 27,76 dólares y la más alta para CHBC20 ($ 403,42 dólares. La relación beneficio-costo fue de 2,16 y 1,78 para CHBC500 y CHBC200, respectivamente. Todas las URP obtuvieron el ingreso neto suficiente para cubrir sus gastos familiares, ex - cepto CHBC20 que generó 70%. Las URP con mayor escala fueron más rentables que las pequeñas y todas trabajaron so - bre su punto de equilibrio. El margen de ganancia fue mayor cuanto más grande fue la escala de producción, con lo que se mostró evidencia de economía de escala.

  20. Comportamiento temporal de la radiación solar global en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La energía que irradia el Sol es la principal causa de las diferencias climáticas en nuestro planeta y sustenta todos los procesos vitales. Si bien dicha emisión es prácticamente constante para escalas temporales breves, la radiación incidente en cada sitio es variable y depende en gran medida de los estados atmosféricos. En este sentido, la cantidad de cielo cubierto por nubes es un factor primordial, ya que por su capacidad de absorción y reflexión estas pueden reducir sustancialmente la radiación que alcanza la superficie terrestre. El objetivo del presente trabajo es caracterizar el comportamiento de la radiación solar global en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina para el período 2001-2011 y comparar los valores radiativos registrados en los años 2007-2011 con datos referidos a coberturas nubosas a fin de establecer relaciones entre ambas variables. La radiación promedio para el intervalo analizado fue de 187,36 W/m 2 . En enero y en diciembre todos los días se registraron radiaciones mayores a 227,4 W/m 2 y en junio y julio la radiación siempre osciló entre 51,5 W/m 2 y 110,1 W/m 2 . En el transcurso del día la radiación alcanza su máximo valor entre las 13:00 h y 13:30 h. En lo que respecta a la relación entre la cobertura nubosa y la radiación global se observaron reducciones de hasta un 10,86 % entre cielos despejados (0 octas y parcialmente nublados (1-5 octas y de hasta 44,35 % entre cielos despejados y cubiertos (6-8 octas. En término medio, los días claros reciben alrededor de un 16 % más de radiación que todos los días en conjunto.

  1. Spatio-temporal assessment of WRF, TRMM and in situ precipitation data in a tropical mountain environment (Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mourre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of precipitation over the broad range of scales of interest for climatologists, meteorologists and hydrologists is challenging in high altitudes of tropical regions, where the spatial variability of precipitation is important while in situ measurements remain scarce largely due to operational constraints. Three different types of rainfall products – ground based, satellite derived, RCM outputs – are compared here during the hydrological year 2012/13 in order to retrieve rainfall patterns at time scales ranging from sub-daily to annual over a watershed of approximately 10 000 km2 in Peru. It is a high altitude catchment, located in the region of the Cordillera Blanca, with 41 % of its area above 4000 m a.s.l. and 340 km2 glaciated. Daily in situ data are interpolated using a kriging with external drift (KED algorithm; the satellite product is TRMM 3B42, which incorporates monthly gauge data; RCM outputs are obtained from WRF run with a Thompson microphysical scheme at three nested resolutions: 27, 9 and 3 km. The performances of each product are assessed from a double perspective. A local comparison with gauge data is first carried out when relevant (diurnal and seasonal cycles, statistics of rainfall occurrence; then the ability of each product to reproduce some well-known spatial features of rain fields at various time scales (from annual down to daily is analysed. WRF simulations largely overestimate the annual totals, especially at low spatial resolution, while reproducing correctly the diurnal cycle and locating the spots of heavy rainfall more realistically than either the ground-based KED or the TRMM products. The main weakness of the KED data is the production of annual rainfall maxima over the summit rather than on the slopes, induced by a lack of in situ data above 3800 m a.s.l. One main limitation of the TRMM product is its poor performance over ice-covered areas because ice on the ground behaves in a similar way as

  2. Modelling cascading and erosional processes for glacial lake outburst floods in the Quillcay catchment, Huaraz, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Patrick; Huggel, Christian; Frey, Holger; Chisolm, Rachel; McKinney, Daene; McArdell, Brian; Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    Huaraz as the largest city in Cordillera Blanca has faced a major disaster in 1941, when an outburst flood from Lake Palcacocha killed several thousand people and caused widespread destruction. Recent studies on glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) modelling and early warning systems focussed on Lake Palcacocha which has regrown after the 1941 event, from a volume of half a million m3 in 1974 to a total volume of more than 17 million m3 today. However, little research has been conducted so far concerning the situation of other lakes in the Quillcay catchment, namely Lake Tullparaju (12 mill. m3) and Cuchillacocha (2.5 mill. m3), which both also pose a threat to the city of Huaraz. In this study, we modelled the cascading processes at Lake Tullparaju and Lake Cuchillacocha including rock/ice avalanches, flood wave propagation in the lake and the resulting outburst flood and debris flows. We used the 2D model RAMMS to simulate ice avalanches. Model output was used as input for analytical 2D and 3D calculations of impact waves in the lakes that allowed us to estimate dam overtopping wave height. Since the dimension of the hanging glaciers above all three lakes is comparable, the scenarios in this study have been defined similar to the previous study at Lake Palcacocha. The flow propagation model included sediment entrainment in the steeper parts of the catchment, adding up to 50% to the initial flow volume. The results for total travel time as well as for inundated areas and flow depth and velocity in the city of Huaraz are comparable to the previous studies at Lake Palcacocha. This underlines the importance of considering also these lakes within an integral hazard analysis for the city of Huaraz. A main challenge for modelling GLOFs in the Quillcay catchment using RAMMS is the long runout distance of over 22 km combined with the very low slope gradient of the river. Further studies could improve the process understanding and could focus on more detailed investigations

  3. Can cosmic ray exposure dating reveal the normal faulting activity of the Cordillera Blanca Fault, Peru? ¿Dataciones por exposición de rayos cósmicos revelan fallamiento activo normal en la falla de la Cordillera Blanca, Perú?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The build-up of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be within bedrock scarps and escarpments associated to the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, Peru, was measured to evaluate, through Cosmic Ray Exposure dating, its normal faulting activity. The highest mountain peaks in Peru belong to the 210 km-long, NW- striking, Cordillera Blanca. Along its western border, the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault is responsible for a vertical relief over 4.4 km, whose prominent 2 km high escarpment is characterized by ~1 km-high triangular facets corresponding to vertical displacements cumulated during the last 1-2 million years. At a more detailed scale, this fault system exhibits continuous geomorphic evidence of repeated displacements, underlined by 2 to 70 m-high scarps, corresponding to vertical displacements cumulated since Late Pleistocene and Holocene periods. Although microseismicity occurs along the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, no major historical or instrumental earthquake has been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish settlement in the 16th century. To evaluate the vertical slip rate along the major 90 km-long central segment of the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, the Quaternary fault escarpment (i.e., triangular facet, as well as the bedrock fault scarp, have been sampled for 10Be Cosmic Ray Exposure dating. Even if the uppermost part of the triangular facets have been resurfaced by the Last Glacial Maximum glaciers, our results allow to estimate a vertical slip-rate of 3±1 mm/yr, and suggest at least 2 seismic events during the last 3000 years.La acumulación in situ de 10Be cosmogénico en las rocas intrusivas de las escarpas de la falla normal de la Cordillera Blanca del Perú han sido medidas para evaluar, su actividad de fallamiento normal., con edades de exposición a los rayos cósmicos. Los más altos picos en el Perú conforman la Cordillera Blanca que se extiende con una longitud de 210 km según una orientación NO. A lo largo de su l

  4. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de

  5. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  6. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  7. 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  8. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  9. A Strategy for Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    3 smallwarsjournal.com Carlos Salinas de Gortari the former President of Mexico.13 The report suggests that as President, Mr. Salinas had...Frontline, “ Carlos Salinas ,” Frontline, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/mexico/family/carlossalinas.html (accessed March 21, 2011). 16...13 Tim Golden, “ Salinas : Plenty of Smoke, No Smoking Gun,” The New York Times, July 11, 1997, http://www

  10. Feasibility of electricity generation from sawmill biomass residues in the north of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderrama, S.; Ortega, J.A.; Lujan, C. (Univ. Autonoma de Chihuahua (Mexico)), e-mail: sbelderr@uach.mw, e-mail: clujan@uach.mx; Lewis, D.K. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States)), e-mail: david.lewis@okstate.edu; Jong, B.H.J. de (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)), e-mail: bjong@vhs.ecosur.mx; Najera, T. (Inst. Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Chihuahua (Mexico)), e-mail: tonatiuh.najera@itesm.mx

    2010-07-01

    The feasibility of converting sawmill residues to electricity through gasification was evaluated in two sawmills in Chihuahua State, Northern Mexico. The area has temperature and precipitation annual means of 10,6 deg C and 800 mm, respectively; the tree cover is dominated by pine and pine-oak communities with Pinus arizonica and P. duranguensis being the main species used for logging. The selected technology was the fixed bed downdraft gasifier; the costs and specifications data were provided by a Chinese supplier. The financial viability was evaluated through the configuration of 100, 200, 400 and 800 kW systems and three scenarios: base, optimistic and pessimistic. The effect of additional revenues from carbon credits sold in the voluntary market at 4,5 and 6 US dollars /{sub t}CO{sub 2} was also assessed. The internal rate of return (IRR) increased consistently with increasing the systems' capacity with the 800 kW being the most economically attractive. Without carbon credits, the 100 kW system showed no positive values at any scenario whereas the 800 kW system had positive IRR in all the scenarios with a range of 3 to 13 %. Carbon credits revenues added 2,3 % to the pessimistic and optimistic scenarios, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma Carmen E; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María Del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-06-16

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  12. Mineralogical composition of the meteorite El Pozo (Mexico): a Raman, infrared and XRD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail; Hernández-Bernal, Maria del Sol

    2011-12-01

    The Raman (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of El Pozo meteorite (an ordinary chondrite L5 type; village Valle of Allende, founded in State of Chihuahua, Mexico: 26°56'N and 105°24'W, 1998). RMP measurements in the range of 100-3500 cm(-1) revealed principal characteristic bands of the major minerals: olivine, two polymorph modifications of pyroxene (OPx and CPx) and plagioclase. Some bands of the minor minerals (hematite and goethite) were also identified. All these minerals were clearly distinguished using IR and XRD techniques. XRD technique has shown the presence of some metallic phases such as kamacite and taenite as well as troilite and chromite. These minerals do not have characteristic Raman spectra because Fe-Ni metals have no active modes for Raman spectroscopy and troilite is a weak Raman scatterer. Raman mapping microspectroscopy was a key part in the investigation of El Pozo meteorite's spatial distribution of the main minerals because these samples are structurally and chemically complex and heterogeneous. The mineral mapping by Raman spectroscopy has provided information for a certain spatial region on which a spatial distribution coexists of the three typical mineral assemblages: olivine; olivine+orthopyroxene; and orthopyroxene.

  13. Chemical Environment of Unusually Ge- and Pb-Rich Willemite, Tres Marias Mine, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Saini-Eidukat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tres Marias carbonate-hosted Zn-Ge deposit in Chihuahua, Mexico contains willemite [Zn2SiO4] with unusually high concentrations of minor and trace elements (e.g., Pb, Ge, As, P, V; Pb concentrations are as high as 2 wt %, and Ge may reach 4000 ppm (average 900 ppm. Electron microprobe analyses and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence maps show that Zn and Ge, as well as Zn and Pb are negatively correlated, whereas Ge and Pb are positively correlated across zoned willemite crystals. In cathodoluminescence (CL images, those areas of willemite having high trace element concentrations have no, or low CL intensities, whereas zones low in trace elements (except for P display bright blue CL colors. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical nature of Ge and Pb in willemite. Comparisons to reference spectra of natural and artificial substances points to the presence of Ge4+ and Pb2+ in Tres Marias willemite. No evidence for Pb4+ was detected. Oscillatory zonation reflects trace element incorporation into willemite from the oxidation of primary Ge-bearing sphalerite and galena (PbS by siliceous aqueous fluids.

  14. MASA TOTAL Y CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES EN RAÍCES FINAS DE ECOSISTEMAS FORESTALES (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill y Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA TOTAL FINE ROOT MASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) FROM PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (£ 5 mm) en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham), ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50- 80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida ...

  15. Historic Seismicity, Computed Peak Ground Accelerations, and Seismic Site Conditions for Northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Arriet, J. C.; Galván-Ramírez, I. N.; Ramos-Zuñiga, L. G.; Navarro de León, I.; Ramírez-Fernández, J. A.; Quintanilla-López, Y.; Cavazos-Tovar, N. P.

    2007-05-01

    In this study we present the historic seismicity, computed peak ground accelerations, and mapping of seismic site conditions for northeast Mexico. We start with a compilation of the regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24- 31°N, 87-106°W) for the 1787-2006 period. Our study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift, Sierra Madre Oriental and Gulf Coastal Plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua (MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas (MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila (MW = 6.5). Ground acceleration values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range province. The hypothetical earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because the majority of the buildings were constructed without allowance for seismic accelerations. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo and Monclova range from 30 to 70 cm/s2 (0.03 to 0.07g). This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located (e.g. suburbs of Monterrey). Additionally, the Vs30 distribution for the state of Nuevo Leon and the cities of Linares and Monterrey are presented. The Vs30 data was obtained using seismic refraction profiling correlated with borehole information. According to NEHRP soil classification, sites classes A, B and C are dominant. Sites with class D occupy minor areas in both cities. Due to the semi-arid conditions in northeast Mexico, we obtained the highest values of Vs30 in Quaternary deposits (alluvium) cemented by caliche. Similar values of Vs30 were obtained in Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. This work constitutes the first attempt at understanding and

  16. Efficiency analysis in the application of indicators LEED-ND, the arid zone of the north of Mexico, case of study: Parajes del Sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua; Analisis de la eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores LEED-ND, en la zona arida del norte de Mexico, caso de estudio: parajes del sur, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Barrera, Leticia [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    This article presents the analysis realized to the urban design of a colony applying the indicators of The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). The advantages that represent as far as impact are established and also the limits are pointed out, evaluating their efficiency in the application of indicators to improve performance and energy saving. Based on the analysis applied to the colony under study, some right solutions in the urban design are obtained that should be established as a part of the in force standardization. Nevertheless, the follow up to this same company in other developments, reflects that the proposals are not determined as a strategy of self planning but only to fulfill the asked requirements, obtaining a result with smaller impact and as an index that allows offering residential alternatives in the city tending to the sustained development. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el analisis realizado al diseno urbano de un fraccionamiento aplicando los indicadores de The Leadership in Energy (LEED-ND). Se establecen las ventajas que presenta en cuanto a impacto y tambien se senalan las limitantes, evaluando su eficiencia en la aplicacion de indicadores para mejorar desempeno y ahorro energetico. Con base en el analisis aplicado al fraccionamiento en estudio, se tienen algunas soluciones acertadas en el diseno urbano que debieran establecerse como parte de la normatividad vigente, sin embargo, el seguimiento a esta misma empresa en otros desarrollos, refleja que las propuestas no estan determinadas como una estrategia de planeacion propia sino unicamente para cumplir con los requerimientos solicitados, obteniendo un resultado con menor impacto y como indice que permitan ofrecer alternativas habitacionales en la ciudad tendientes al desarrollo sostenido.

  17. Belonging out of Context: the Intersection of Place, Networks and Ethnic Identity among Retired British Migrants Living in the Costa Blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-European migration is now a well-documented phenomenon among older people and for UK retirees, Spain is the most popular choice. ‘Belonging’ is particularly important when attempting to understand experiences of migration since often people become aware that they need to belong precisely when they realise that they do not. However, although belonging is a recurrent theme in identity and migration discourse it is rarely defined. This paper explores the concept of belonging in relation to the experiences of a group of retired women living in the Costa Blanca in Spain and considers its multiple and overlapping representations. The myriad forms of belonging that these ‘lifestyle migrants’ construct through narrative in relation to place, networks and ethnic identity and the central intersecting role of language are considered and discussed.

  18. El rururbano: un espacio de vulnerabilidad y riesgo. Estudio cualitativo en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Sereno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo caracteriza el rururbano -límite externo del periurbano- de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, como un espacio expuesto al crecimiento urbano y como un ámbito de fragilidad y vulnerabilidad para quienes habitan estas zonas. Para ello se puntualiza en el riesgo que corren los residentes del borde frente a la amenaza de modificar sus modos de vida y de perder sus propiedades ante el avance urbano. Los resultados permiten precisar las fortalezas y debilidades de los propietarios rurales y sus modalidades de acción de acuerdo con la exposición a esta expansión y con su arraigo al lugar. La técnica de recopilación es la entrevista semiestructurada a residentes del rururbano.

  19. El rururbano: un espacio de vulnerabilidad y riesgo. Estudio cualitativo en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santarelli Serer Silvia Alicia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo caracteriza el rururbano —límite externo del periurbano— de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, como un espacio expuesto al crecimiento urbano y como un ámbito de fragilidad y vulnerabilidad para quienes habitan estas zonas. Para ello se puntualiza en el riesgo que corren los residentes del borde frente a la amenaza de modificar sus modos de vida y de perder sus propiedades ante el avance urbano. Los resultados permiten precisar las fortalezas y debilidades de los propietarios rurales y sus modalidades de acción de acuerdo con la exposición a esta expansión y con su arraigo al lugar. La técnica de recopilación es la entrevista semiestructurada a residentes del rururbano.

  20. IMPLANTACIÓN DE ENERGIAS RENOVABLES Y ESTIMACIÓN DE LA HUELLA DE CARBONO EN EL MUNICIPIO DE BLANCA (MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Molina Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La introducción del concepto de sostenibilidad en el mercado energético implica la potenciación de las energías renovables activando políticas que fomenten su implantación. El éxito de estas políticas se plasmará en el incremento de participación de las energías renovables en el mix energético, en la reducción de emisiones de CO2 y en el cumplimiento de los compromisos internacionales. Este trabajo analiza el grado de implantación de las energías renovables en un municipio de la Región de Murcia (Blanca, valorando la incidencia de la legislación sectorial energética y estimando la huella de carbono derivada del consumo de energía eléctrica.

  1. Reducing risks from hazardous glacier lakes in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru): Six decades of experience and perspectives for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo; Frey, Holger; González, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Outbursts from glacier lakes at various spatial and temporal scales have had marked geomorphological effects in many mountain ranges. In many glacierized Andean mountain regions substrates of human settlements made out of flood and debris-flow deposits are testimonies of such events. Examples in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, are the towns of Caraz, Carhuaz or parts of Huaraz. Continued glacier shrinking since the end of the Little Ice Age caused the formation or enlargement of numerous lakes. The outburst of Laguna Palcacocha, destroying the centre of Huaraz and causing more than 1800 losses of life in December 1941, marked the beginning of systematic risk reduction work in Peru. Corresponding efforts included glacier and lake inventories, hazard assessments, definition of high-risk situations, and completion of engineering work for lake-level lowering in more than 30 cases. The latter comprises outlet reinforcements on morainic dams as well as artificial tunnels in bedrock thresholds. This work has been remarkably efficient as documented in the latest case of the Laguna Huallcacocha (Carhuaz-Ancash), where the earlier made installations withstood the erosive power of an impact wave from an ice avalanche in 2015. In the case of the Laguna 513, the impact wave and far-reaching flood caused by a rock/ice avalanche from Nevado Hualcán in April 2010 showed that the risk had been essentially reduced by the preventive lake-level lowering in the early 1990s but not to zero. Risk assessments, planning, construction and non-structural risk reduction efforts continue. Work is in progress to increase the safety of Laguna Palcacocha where extensive assessments and model calculations had been carried out. Risks related to rock/ice avalanches into lakes from steep icy slopes and related to de-buttressing processes as well as long-term permafrost degradation increases. Based on morphological indications and numerical modelling (GlabTop) an inventory of possible future lakes

  2. Análisis preliminares de los materiales líticos provenientes de la Laguna Blanca Chica (Olavarría, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo G. Messineo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados preliminares sobre el estudio de los materiales líticos recuperado en la Laguna Blanca Chica (Partido de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. El objetivo principal es conocer las estrategias relacionadas al aprovisionamiento y explotación de las materias primas presentes, como los procesos tecnológicos utilizados sobre las mismas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la ftanita (55,58% y la cuarcita (43,23% fueron las materias primas más utilizadas. Los instrumentos (formales e informales presentan mayores frecuencias de ftanita. Los altos porcentajes de esta materia prima en la laguna se asemejan a otros sitios del área (e.g., Laguna La Barrancosa 2, Arroyo Tapalqué 1, lo cual puede deberse a su alta disponibilidad y excelente calidad para la talla. Por otro lado, se observa una gran variabilidad entre las rocas cuarcíticas, proponiéndose la explotación de distintas formaciones geológicas.In this paper we report some preliminary results of the study of lithic material recovered from Laguna Blanca Chica, Olavarría district, Buenos Aires Province. The main aim of the study is to gain knowledge of aspects related to the acquisition of, and technological process involved in, raw material exploitation. The results obtained show that more than 50% of the principal lithic resource used consisted of chert. Formal and informal artefacts were also made using mainly chert as the raw material. The high frequency of this raw material in the lagoon is similar to other sites in the area (e.g., Laguna La Barrancosa 2, Arroyo Tapalqué 1, and may be due to its high natural availability and good chipping quality. Even so, a great variability of quartzite rocks was observed, showing that different geological formations were exploited.

  3. Derroteros feministas en la Argentina a principios del siglo XX: Una aproximación desde la prensa de Bahía Blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Bracamonte

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general del presente artículo es analizar las manifestaciones que adquiere el feminismo en un ámbito urbano del sudoeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, como la ciudad de Bahía Blanca. Más específicamente, se estudian las concepciones de quienes adhieren a ideas feministas, vehiculizadas por la prensa periódica local en las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX. Se abordan las características que asume la presencia del tema del feminismo en el campo periodístico, así como los debates que genera su definición y las posturas de sus adherentes en torno a los tres tópicos que integran la denominada cuestión de la mujer: la educación, la participación política y el trabajo.The main objective of this paper is to analyze the different manifestations of the feminism in an urban area in the southwest of Buenos Aires Province like Bahía Blanca. In particular, the study is center on the conceptions of those that are in favor of the feminist ideas, and that are present in the local media, periodical journals, in the first three decades of the XXth Century. The characteristics that has the feminism presence as a subject in the press field, and the debates that the different positions generate around its definition and the three topics that form part of the women question: education, political participation and work, are analyzed.

  4. La construcción televisiva de la identidad valenciana contemporánea: memoria y costumbrismo regionalista en l’Alqueria Blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àlvar Peris Blanes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar de qué modo la ficción valenciana L’Alqueria Blanca, uno de los grandes fenómenos de la televisión pública autonómica de los últimos años, ha consolidado la “naturalización” de una identidad valenciana regionalista que, desde la Transición democrática, es aceptada por una mayoría social como la identidad colectiva preferente. Observaremos cómo la serie elabora un discurso memorístico sobre el pasado que entronca con el relato sobre la identidad valenciana surgido en el siglo XIX y lo lanza al presente, reforzando proyectos políticos e ideológicos concretos.Palabras clave: identidad valenciana, nacionalismo banal, ficción televisiva, Canal 9, memoria._______________________Abstract: This article aims to analyze how Valencian fiction L'Alqueria Blanca, one of the great phenomena of the regional public television in recent years, has naturalized a Valencian regionalist identity which, since the democratic Transition, is accepted by most as the preferred social collective identity. We’ll try to observe how the series develops a rote speech about the past that connects with the story of the Valencian identity emerged in the nineteenth century which has been thrown to the present, strengthening political and ideological concrete projects.Keywords: Valencian identity, banal nationalism, TV drama, Canal 9, memory.

  5. La norma y la práctica en el centro socialista de Bahía Blanca: afiliaciones, cotizaciones, bajas y renuncias (1911-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas, Gonzalo Ezequiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo es un estudio de caso en clave microanalítica, que analiza las prácticas de afiliación, cotización, baja y renuncia en el centro socialista de Bahía Blanca en 1911-1919, contrastando cómo debía ser el procedimiento formal según las normas y/o costumbres establecidas en el partido y cómo era el habitual, junto con las razones de los afiliados para justificar que la práctica se alejara de la norma. Proponemos entender las prácticas dentro del continuum que va de lo formal a lo informal (de las reglas a los procedimientos cotidianos, en un intento por trascender la dicotomía entre accionar “tradicional y moderno” (signo del atraso y del progreso respectivamente, común en los estudios sobre partidos políticos en general y sobre socialismo en particular. Abstract This article is a case study in microanalytical key, which analyzes the practices of affiliation, contribution, unenlisting and resignation in the socialist center of Bahía Blanca in 1911- 1919, contrasting how should be the formal procedure according to the rules and/or costumes established in the party and how was the usual one, along with the reasons of the affiliates to justify that the practice moved away from the norm. We propose to understand the practices within the continuum that goes from formal to informal (from the rules to the usual procedures, in an attempt to transcend the dichotomy between “traditional and modern” action (sign of backwardness and progress respectively, common in studies of political parties in general and of socialism in particular.

  6. Fenología de la floración de Ulmus pumila L. (Ulmaceae en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Saveanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la fl oración deUlmus pumilaL. para la ciudad de Bahía Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008 se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares deU. pumilapresentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La fl oración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias.

  7. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  8. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  9. New Mexico Voting Precincts (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Voting Precinct Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage for...

  10. Securitization of narcotraffic in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez Rosales, Sergio Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The war on drugs has being a major issue for Mexico. In this thesis we follow how narcotraffic became to be an extraordinary threat for Mexico. How some of the presidential administrations have shifted the discourse on drugs in different directions, which have resulted in a variety of outcomes. Mexico first began securitizing narcotraffic as a response to foreign policy, but at the same time distributed responsibilities to drug’ consumer countries. Later on, the government of Mexico declared ...

  11. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  12. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  13. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  14. Geology of the area of Bahía Blanca, Darwin's view and the presentknowledge: a story of 10 million years Geología del área de Bahía Blanca, los comentarios de Darwin y elconocimiento actual: una historia de 10millones de años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta E. Quattrocchio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Theaim of this paper is to give an updated outlook of the scenery described byCharles Darwin when he visited Bahía Blanca and surrounding areas, following the itinerary during hisvoyage on board HMS Beagle. Such an outlook is a state of the art of thecurrent understanding of the Late Miocene-Holocene history in the southwestern Pampas (Argentina. Multidisciplinaryresults were integrated in a chronosequence chart synthesizing the suggestedspace-time correlation of the recognized events. Some of the studied localitiescovering the whole time interval represented in the area were arranged in thischart in a hypothetical E-W line crossing the Río Sauce Grande basin and thesurrounding highlands. This line is also approximately the one followed in partby Darwin when riding from Bahía Blanca to Tapalqué (Tapalguenas he crossed the region toward the Río Sauce. Paleoenviromental andpaleoclimatic inferences for the last 10m.y. are also given. Paleontologicalstudies included vertebrates, ostracods and palynomorphs. Many of the resultsof these investigations are the answers to Darwin's question when he first visitedthe area.El objetivo de estetrabajo es brindar una actualización del escenario descrito por Charles Darwincuando visitó Bahía Blanca y sus alrededores, siguiendo el itinerario de suviaje alrededor del mundo a bordo del Beagle. Se trata de una puesta al día delconocimiento de la historia del sudoeste de la región pampeana (Argentinadesde el Mioceno tardío hasta el Holoceno y tiempos históricos. Lasinvestigaciones multidisciplinarias llevadas a cabo por el grupo deinvestigación del Laboratorio de Palinología, UNS, Bahía Blanca, se integraronen una carta cronoestratigráfica secuencial, en la cual se sintetizaron lascorrelaciones espacio-temporales de los eventos reconocidos. En esta carta,algunas de las localidades estudiadas que cubren todo el lapso representado enel área, se ordenaron en una línea hipotética E-O que corta la

  15. [Dermatophytoses in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Roberto

    2002-06-01

    The dermatophytic infections are superficial mycoses common in Mexico, they have an estimated frequency of 5% in dermatological outpatients. In this review we present a global view of these mycoses as well as their etiological agents in tinea capitis, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris and onychomycosis and also uncommon infections such as tinea imbricata and epidermophytosis of the diaper area. We also analyze these infections in diabetic patients, healthy carriers and dermatophytic infections in pets and laboratory animals. The most important publications about dermatophytosis in Mexico in the dermatological, epidemiological or mycological area are reviewed, specially those published in the last ten years.

  16. Elaboración del duelo de una madre cuyo hijo trabajaba como sicario en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Delgado Durán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es parte de una investigación cualitativa sobre el proceso de ela - boración de duelo de la madre de un sicario en el contexto de una terapia Gestalt. Se utilizó para su análisis la perspectiva de las etapas del duelo de Kübler-Ross (2006:59- 119. La exacerbación de la violencia generada en buena medida por pugnas entre gru - pos del crimen organizado en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Martínez, 2008, ha dado como resultado una gran cantidad de muertes, una de ellas es el caso que nos ocupa. Si bien uno de los objetivos iniciales de la investigación era documentar y analizar las etapas en el desarrollo del duelo de una madre a partir del fallecimiento de su hijo, este se replanteó durante el transcurso de la misma, ya que una de las características del duelo de esta madre es que inició justo cuando se enteró del trabajo que él realizaba.

  17. “El marketing turístico del patrimonio cultural como alternativa de desarrollo del centro histórico de Bahía Blanca (Argentina. Diagnóstico de situación.”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Pinassi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte del Proyecto General de Investigación: “Turismo y desarrollo: nuevos escenarios en la gestión integral de destinos turísticos en el Sudoeste bonaerense. Parte II”, que se lleva a cabo en el Departamento de Geografía y Turismo de la Universidad Nacional del Sur (Bahía Blanca, Argentina. El mismo tiene como objetivo: presentar un diagnóstico integral acerca de la utilización del centro histórico de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca como espacio de ocio, concentrador del patrimonio cultural local. Dicho análisis forma parte del Plan de Marketing Turístico desarrollado para el sector urbano bajo estudio, con el fin de dotarlo de mayor dinamismo y consolidarlo como lugar de encuentro, tanto para residentes como visitantes.

  18. Los recreacionistas culturales y la valoración turístico recreativa de áreas patrimoniales. El caso del centro histórico de Bahía Blanca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Pinassi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte del Proyecto General de Investigación: “Turismo y desarrollo: nuevos escenarios en la gestión integral de destinos turísticos en el Sudoeste bonaerense. Parte II”, que se lleva a cabo en el Departamento de Geografía y Turismo de la Universidad Nacional del Sur (Bahía Blanca, Argentina. El mismo tiene como objetivo: indagar acerca del consumo recreativo del centro histórico de Bahía Blanca, como espacio aglutinador del patrimonio cultural local, a la vez de presentar una serie de resultados obtenidos a partir del trabajo campo y de la aplicación de la “Técnica de afloramiento de significados”, como herramienta representativa para la recolección de información en el terreno.

  19. Algunos debates intelectuales en torno a lo político y lo cultural: el Colegio Libre de Estudios Superiores en Bahía Blanca, Argentina (1940- 1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lopez Pascual

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1941, un grupo de intelectuales liberales creó el Colegio Libre de Estudios Superiores en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Asociada a la entidad central en la Capital Federal, la institución desarrolló cursos y disertaciones sobre temas económicos, literarios e históricos.Los temas tratados en las clases y las personalidades que para ello fueron invitadas se entrelazaron en torno a dos representaciones claras: Bahía Blanca fue concebida como ciudad central de la región sur del país y guía de su desarrollo mientras la oposición al fascismo y, luego, al peronismo conformó el perfil ideológico generalizado de quienes participaron de la institución.

  20. Estudio de la posible infección de artemia con el virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca y su transmisión vertical

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Estudio de la posible infección de Artemia con el virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca y su transmisión vertical Artemia es el principal alimento en larvicultura y reproducción de peces y crustáceos. Su producción esta limitada a unos pocos países mientras que su comercialización se presenta a escala mundial.

  1. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  2. Port of Altamira, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, K.; Froeling, D.; Marbus, G.; Van Bemmel, M.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. The Port of Altamira is one of the fast growing ports in the world and is together with Veracruz and Coatzacoalcos one of the biggest ports of Mexico at the Gulf coast. It is an industrial Port with a lot of potential for expanding. However, the breakwaters of the Port extendi

  3. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  4. Educational Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Bertha Orozco; Elizando Y Carr, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1970s, each presidential regime has presented an educational modernization reform program for Mexico. Although the various reforms have widened educational opportunities, the quality of education has continued to deteriorate because of student and teacher desertion, a low scholastic progress index, accessibility problems, lack of an…

  5. Aquacultuur in Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Ortega, A.; Leenstra, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    In Mexico is visteelt nog een jonge bedrijfstak. Pas in de tweede helft van deze eeuw werden de eerste commerciële viskwekerijen opgezet. Vanwege de economische voordelen van de visteelt werden veel extensieve visteeltprojecten opgezet als een alternatief voor de visserij. Vanaf de jaren '80 wordt m

  6. Development of the TLALOCNet GPS-Met Network in Northwestern Mexico: Supporting Continuous Water Vapor Observations of the North American Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Cabral, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Serra, Y. L.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a combined atmospheric and tectonic cGPS-Met network in Mexico designed for the investigation of climate, atmospheric processes, the earthquake cycle, and tectonics. While EarthScope-Plate Boundary Observatory (conterminous US, Alaska, Puerto Rico) is among the networks poised to become a nucleus for hemisphere-scale GPS observations, the completion of TLALOCNet at the end of 2015 will close a gap between PBO and other Latin American GPS networks that include COCONet (Central America, Caribbean, and Northern South America), CAnTO, CAP, and IGS extending from Alaska to Patagonia. The National Science Foundation funded the construction and operation of TLALOCNet, with significant matching funds and resources provided by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The project will involve the construction or refurbishment of 38 cGPS-Met stations in Mexico built to PBO standards. The first three TLALOCNet stations were installed in the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua in July 2014, following the North American Monsoon GPS Transect Experiment 2013. Together these observations better characterize critical components of water transport in the region. Data from these stations are now available through the UNAVCO data archive and can be downloaded from http://facility.unavco.org/data/dai2/app/dai2.html#. By the end of 2014, TLALOCNet data, together with complementary data from other regional cGPS networks in Mexico, will also be openly available through a Mexico-based data center. We will present the status of the project to date, including an overview of the station hardware, data communications, data flow, construction schedule, and science objectives. We will also present some of the challenges encountered, including regional logistics, shipping and importation, site security, and other issues associated with the construction and operation of a large continuous GPS network.

  7. Redes empresariales en el sector turismo y servicios para la mejora de competitividad en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México: caso Parque Central Hermanos Escobar y PYMES aledañas

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación, muestra la cooperación y relación que existe entre las pequeñas y medianas empresas (Pymes) del sector turismo y servicios circunvecinos al Parque Central Hermanos Escobar (PCHE) en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (CJS), y su colaboración con este último. Se destacan las relaciones derivadas entre empresas y actores de la zona bajo el marco de la competitividad. En los resultados se presenta la red informal existente, así como la red que se generaría si estas empr...

  8. Diferencias en el proceso de innovación en empresas pequeñas y medianas de la industria manufacturera de la ciudad de Chihuahua, México

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Óscar Ollivier Fierro; Patricia Irene Thompson

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis comparativo de las principales variables que intervienen en el proceso de innovación entre las empresas pequeñas y medianas (Pyme1). El método se basó en una encuesta a 87 empresas Pyme manufactureras de la ciudad de Chihuahua, México, en 2007. Los principales resultados muestran una relación negativa entre la dinámica innovadora y el tamaño de la empresa, lo cual permite probar la hipótesis que postula una mayor eficiencia del proceso de in...

  9. TOXICIDAD AGUDA Y LESIONES HISTOPATOLÓGICAS EN CACHAMA BLANCA (Piaractus brachypomus EXPUESTAS A LA MEZCLA DE HERBICIDA ROUNDUP® MÁS SURFACTANTE COSMOFLUX® 411F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eslava M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 y lesiones anatomopatológicas inducidas por la exposición a la mezcla del herbicida Roundup® más el surfactante Cosmoflux® 411F en juveniles de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus. Materiales y métodos. Ejemplares de 44.5 ± 3.7 g de peso fueron expuestos por 96 h a varias concentraciones de la mezcla herbicida más surfactante. Se registró la mortalidad al cabo de las 96 h y se tomaron muestras de tejidos para evaluación histopatológica. Resultados. La CL50 fue de 23.42 mg.l-1 para el Roundup® y de 0.19 mg.l-1 para el Cosmoflux® 411F (p<0.05 en la mezcla. En las branquias se hallaron lesiones necróticas proliferativas, y aneurismas y hemorragias en las lamelas. En el hígado se observaron procesos apoptóticos y necróticos de los hepatocitos, vacuolización lipídica y gotas hialinas citoplasmáticas en los mismos. En el telencéfalo se halló necrosis y apoptosis de cuerpos neuronales asociados y no asociados a células granulares eosinofílicas/células mast, y gliosis. En el intestino se evidenció vacuolización del borde apical de los enterocitos, e infiltración leucocitaria en la lámina propia. En la piel se halló hiperplasia e hipertrofia de células pavimentosas y células de moco, infiltración leucocitaria epidermal y acumulación subepidermal de pigmentos. En el riñón caudal se observaron hemorragias y lesiones necróticas multifocales. Conclusiones. La mezcla Roundup® más Cosmoflux® 411F ocasiona lesiones histopatológicas en branquias, piel, cerebro, hígado, intestino anterior y riñón caudal en juveniles de cachama blanca expuestos a las concentraciones y proporción evaluadas.

  10. Degradación biológica de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes por hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Luis Domínguez-Guilarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las causas más importantes que han alterado el medio ambiente de manera significativa es la acumulación en varios ecosistemas de sustancias de difícil degradación, entre las que destacan los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (bifenilos policlorados, plaguicidas, pesticidas y compuestos no intencionales. Estos son compuestos químicos extremadamente estables, propensos a viajar distancias considerables y resistentes a los procesos de degradación natural. La mayoría de ellos se utilizan como plaguicidas y como productos químicos en procesos industriales o como subproductos que se generan de manera no intencional a partir de ciertas actividades humanas, tales como los procesos de combustión o generación de energía. En el caso del dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano (DDT, se ha encontrado en lugares donde no ha sido aplicado, tal y como ocurre en las zonas árticas. Los hongos de la podredumbre blanca son un grupo de microorganismos que desempeñan un papel clave como reguladores del ciclo del carbono. Son activos transformadores de la lignina. Sus enzimas ligninolíticas están directamente involucradas no solo en la degradación de la lignina, sino también, en la biotrasformación de una diversidad de polímeros orgánicos complejos de los cuales algunos constituyen contaminantes ambientales, con una estructura química similar a la lignina. Esto se debe a la inespecificidad de su sistema multienzimático, lo que abre el espacio para su incorporación en procesos de biorremediación. En este trabajo, se presentan resultados preliminares de la inducción de las enzimas ligninolíticas lacasa y MnP con la utilización del DDT como inductor de las actividades enzimáticas mediante cepas nativas de hongos de la podredumbre blanca.

  11. A ~20,000 year history of glacial variability in the tropical Andes recorded in lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansell, N.; Rodbell, D. T.; Moy, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Pro-glacial lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru contain continuous records of climate variability spanning the Last Glacial Maximum to present day. Here we present results from two alpine lake basins in the Queshgue Valley (9.8°S, 77.3°W) that contain high-resolution records of clastic sediment deposition for the last ~20,000 years. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores were scanned at 0.5 to 1.0 cm resolution using a profiling x-ray fluorescence scanner for major and minor element distributions. In addition, we measured down-core variations in magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcium carbonate. Samples of bedrock and sediments from glacial moraines in the Queshgue watershed were analyzed using an ICP-MS in order to fingerprint and trace the source of glacial sediments deposited in the lakes. The bedrock is dominated by a combination of granodiorite with high Sr concentrations and meta-sedimentary rocks with high Zr values. Because the glacial sediments proximal to the modern glacier terminus are composed mostly of the granodiorite end-member, we interpret changes in Sr and clastic sediment concentrations in the lake sediment profiles as proxies for past glacial variability. Preliminary results indicate that glaciers retreated soon after ~14,500 cal yr BP and remained less extensive during the remaining late Glacial Stage and early Holocene. Gradually increasing clastic sediments through the middle and late Holocene indicate that glaciers became progressively larger, or more erosive towards present day. However, this overall Holocene trend of increasing glacier extent was interrupted by multiple periods of centennial- to millennial-scale ice margin retreat. For example, relative peaks in clastic sediments occurred from ~14,500 to 6000, 5600 to 5000, 4600 to 4200, 3600 to 3200, 2800 to 2700, 2400 to 2200, 1750 to 1550, 1100 to 900 cal yr BP, and during the Little Ice Age (~700 to 50 cal yr BP), while periods of low clastic

  12. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  13. , Recorded at Ladron Peak, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J. W.; Kelley, S.; Read, A. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ladron Peak, situated on the western flank of the Rio Grande rift ~30 miles NW of Socorro, NM, is composed of Precambrian granitic and metamorphic assemblages that have been faulted and uplifted during the late Tertiary formation of the rift. The area is bounded on three sides by normal faults, including the anomalously low-angle (~26°) Jeter fault to the east, which places Precambrian rocks in the footwall against Paleozoic and Mesozoic fault slivers, and mainly Cenozoic Santa Fe Group basin fill in the hanging wall. New apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronological data collected at 22 locations along the NE and SE margins of Ladron Peak give a range of ages from 10.9 ± 1.9 to 20.4 ± 8.6 Ma. Samples within the footwall include granitic and metasedimentary rocks that have mean track lengths of 13.1 to 14.1 μm; one quartzite sample has a mean track length of 12.5 μm, suggesting time in the partial annealing zone. Within the hanging wall block, new AFT ages from the Permian Bursum and Abo Formations give cooling ages of 23.1 ± 3.3 Ma. and 59.9 ± 12.4 Ma., respectively. The Bursum Formation sample, with a track length of 13.7 μm, cooled below the 110°C isotherm during the Miocene, while the Abo Formation sample, with a track length of 11.2 μm, was only partially reset prior to rift-related deformation. Mylonitized granitic and metamorphic rocks in the immediate footwall preserve dip-slip lineations that are parallel to slip on the Jeter fault. This suggests that strain associated with exhumation was recorded by both brittle and ductile deformation. Although this type of deformation is common within metamorphic core complexes in highly extended terranes, ductile normal faulting has not been recognized within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, though there is some suggestion of ductile deformation around Blanca Peak in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. These observations imply one or both of the following: (1) Ductile deformation at Ladron Peak was

  14. Defeating Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations: The Range of Military Operations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    California; Culiacan, Sinaloa; and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua.2 Ciudad Juarez had the highest rate of DTO related deaths; this is significant for the U.S...drug demand is the reason drugs flow into the United States, addressing the U.S. market for drugs would greatly increase the size and scope of this...Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence, which provides insight into the United States drug market and the

  15. Relationship with multiple partners in university women: a comparative study in two institutions from the northwest of Mexico

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    Julio Alfonso Piña

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify what variables influence having multiple sexual partners.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 542 women of two higher education institutions from the northwest of Mexico, who answered a questionnaire measuring psychological variables underlying high-risk sexual behaviors. The data were analyzed with T-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and with a multiple linear regression.Results: A multiple linear regression analysis showed the following results: for women from Hermosillo, Sonora, the predictors of high-risk sexual behaviors were biological age, age of sexual debut, and one biological state - «I was physically excited»-, with those variables explaining 53.4% of the total variance; for women from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, the predictors were biological age, and two types of biological states -«I was physically excited» and «I was under the influence of alcohol», explaining 20.8% of the total variance.Conclusions: The results underscore the need to design prevention programs directed to avoid HIV infection based on behavioral competencies training.

  16. Using evidence on violence and injury prevention for policy development and decision making in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Pacheco, Sergio; Juárez, Alethia Yurithzi; Palacios, Luis Alexandro; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the implementation process and functional structure of the Observatory of Security and Citizen Conviviality of the Juarez Municipality (Observatorio de Seguridad y Convivencia Ciudadanas del Municipio de Juárez) in Chihuahua, Mexico, and discusses the most relevant lessons learned and main challenges in the near future. The Observatory, created in 2008, is a joint effort of the Juarez Municipal Government, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez), and the Pan American Health Organization. The Observatory's main objective is to propose strategies and public policy recommendations to prevent and control violence and injuries in the Juarez Municipality. Most key federal, state, and local agencies have joined this independent autonomous citizen-based initiative, feed the databases, and benefit from the information produced by a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach. The Observatory contributes far more than the technical data provided and its facilitating functions. The clear results obtained in such a short time-as seen in the preliminary results of the case study on road injuries from January 2009 to July 2011-demonstrate the appropriateness of this course of action and should stimulate the creation of new observatories whenever and wherever needed. Lessons learned, as discussed here, can open the way to new endeavors, and current challenges show how much work remains to be done.

  17. Relación entre consultas a urgencias por enfermedad respiratoria y contaminación atmosférica en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

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    Hernández-Cadena Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre las concentraciones ambientales de partículas de diámetro <=10 µm (PM10 y de ozono con el número diario de consultas al servicio de urgencias por enfermedades respiratorias agudas y asma en niños menores de 15 años, residentes de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este estudio se realizó durante los años de 1998 y 1999, utilizando un diseño de tipo ecológico. Los datos atmosféricos se obtuvieron de la base de datos de la Agencia de Protección al Ambiente (EPA, provenientes de ocho estaciones de monitoreo ubicadas en Ciudad Juárez y en El Paso, Texas. Los datos de consultas al servicio de urgencias por causas respiratorias se obtuvieron de los registros médicos de dos hospitales del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, de julio de 1997 a diciembre de 1998. Los diagnósticos se clasificaron en dos grupos: a asma, y b infecciones respiratorias altas, conforme a la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-9 o CIE-10. El análisis se realizó con la utilización de la metodología de series de tiempo que emplea regresión Poisson. RESULTADOS: Durante el periodo de estudio la media de 24 horas de PM10 fue de 34.46 µg/m³ (DE=17.99 y la media de los niveles de ozono fue de 51.60 partes por billón (ppb (DE=20.70. El modelo propuesto estima que un incremento de 20 µg/m³ en el promedio de 24 horas, en la exposición a PM10, se relaciona con un incremento de 4.97% (IC 95% 0.97-9.13 en las consultas por asma con un retraso de cinco días y con un incremento de 9% (IC 95% 1.8-16.8 cuando se considera a la exposición acumulada de cinco días anteriores. Respecto a enfermedades respiratorias altas se encontró un aumento de 2.95% en las consultas a urgencias por cada 20 µm/m³ de incremento en el promedio de 24 horas en la exposición a PM10. Se observó que el impacto de PM10 sobre las visitas de urgencia por asma fue más severo en

  18. Mexico and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-25

    social turmoil will continue. Labor unrest, rural violence, and terrorism are likely to get worse. Middle-class protest movements will grow. Elections...Labor unrest, guerrilla activity, and terrorism are likely to get worse. Middle-class protest movements, composed of small and medium businessmen... Fujimori -style autogolpe (self-coup) with the support of the military. The United States, Mexico and the Future: The Uneasy Symbiosis. The United

  19. Independent candidates in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Gonzalo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of independent candidates in Mexico, because through the so-called political reform of 2012 was incorporated in the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States the right of citizens to be registered as independent candidates. Also, in September 2013 was carried out a reform of Article 116 of the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States in order to allow independent candidates in each state of the Republic. However, prior to the constitutio...

  20. Seismology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  1. Propuesta de Rehabilitación Urbana para la Colonia Tarahumara en Ciudad Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, México.

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    Leticia Peña Barrera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de la historia de la fundación de las ciudades ha sido posible identificar diversas situaciones de vulnerabilidad, ocasionadas ya sea por la condición geográfica, la dependencia al centro (factores de lejanía, la toma de decisiones ajenas a la región o el desequilibrio sociopolítico derivado de una propuesta de desarrollo que no responde a las necesidades de la sociedad y provoca condiciones insostenibles. Esta problemática se agudiza en regiones con diferentes minorías (indígenas, que subsisten en las ciudades, y cuyos usos y costumbres no son considerados en los programas dirigidos para otorgarles beneficios, de manera que son ajenos a su idiosincrasia y modo de vida. El gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua, interesado en apoyar a comunidades tarahumaras o rarámuris, promueve la creación de la Colonia Tarahumara en la ciudad de Cuauhtémoc, donando en 2001 el terreno y el financiamiento para las primeras 50 viviendas en propiedad común, y así lograr su arraigo. En este trabajo se presenta la propuesta de reequipamiento urbano-ecológico de la Colonia Tarahumara, la cual fue presentada a la Fundación Tarahumara para la construcción de otras 50 unidades de vivienda, teniendo en cuenta factores determinantes de localización e identificación de las costumbres de la comunidad rarámuri, como también soluciones urbano-bioclimáticas, con el fin de que ésta pueda tener acceso a la financiación federal de la Sedesol y, por último, de contribuir al desarrollo sostenible de la comunidad tarahumara.

  2. Cuatro siglos de variabilidad hidroclimática en el noroeste de Chihuahua, México, reconstruida con anillos de árboles

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    José Villanueva Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de Chihuahua, sitio Mesa de las Guacamayas, catalogada como “Área Natural Protegida” ( ANP para anidamiento de la cotorra serrana, se desarrolló una serie dendrocronológica con abeto Douglas ( Pseudotsuga menziesii con una extensión de 409 años (1600-2008. La cronología de anillo total mostró asociaciones signi - ficativas (r>0.40, p=0.000 con cronologías vecinas (no separadas más de 200 km, particularmente las ubicadas en la misma vertiente de la Sierra Madre Occidental ( SMO , lo que implica la influencia de patrones climáticos comunes, cuyos frentes húmedos impactan simultáneamente una extensa área del noroeste de México. Un análisis espectral de potencia indicó que los índices dendrocronológicos estuvieron afectados por ENSO y por otros patrones circuatorios, como se deduce de los picos espectrales dominantes (<10 años presentes en la cronología; también mostraron asociación significativa (r=0.52, n=111, p<0.000 con registros del PDSI para el suroeste de los Estados Unidos. Una reconstrucción de precipitación acumulada enero- julio para la misma región, mostró sequías prolongadas en los periodos 1772-1782, 1793-1803, 1999-2008 y perio - dos húmedos en 1742-1751 y 1809-1818. La proporción de años secos detectados en la reconstrucción, sugiere que existe 50% de probabilidad de su ocurrencia a nivel anual.

  3. Prevalencia de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas en niños escolares de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

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    Barraza-Villarreal Albino

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, de la rinitis y del eczema en escolares. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre abril de 1998 y mayo de 1999 en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, a una muestra aleatoria de 6 174 niños de 53 escuelas. Se aplicó la metodología propuesta por el International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC (etapas 1 y 2 para determinar la prevalencia y severidad del asma, rinitis y eczema. La información de prevalencia, tanto actual como acumulada para dichos padecimientos, se obtuvo mediante un cuestionario ya estandarizado y contestado por los padres de los niños. El diseño de la muestra se hizo por un muestreo mixto, en el cual se estratificó por nivel de contaminación ambiental. Se estimaron prevalencias actual y acumulada estratificando por grupo de edad, sexo, área e historia familiar de asma. Resultados. La prevalencia acumulada de asma por diagnóstico médico y sibilancia (silbidos fue de 6.8% (IC95% 6.2-7.4 y 20.% (IC95% 19.7-21.8, respectivamente; la prevalencia de sibilancia en los últimos 12 meses fue mayor en el grupo de 6-8 años que en el de 11-14 años(9.7% contra 5.8% (phttp://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  4. La estructura urbana y las diferencias espaciales en el tiempo de traslado del viaje al trabajo en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

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    César M. Fuentes Flores

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las diferencias intraurbanas en los tiempos de traslado del viaje al trabajo en transporte público y privado, asociado a variables de uso del suelo (razón empleo/viviendas, densidad de población, valor del suelo, a características socioeconómicas (proporción de población con ingreso bajo y alto, y a la tenencia de la vivienda (proporción de viviendas propias y rentadas en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. Las variables fueron construidas con información de la Encuesta de Origen-Destino 1997 (IMIP, el XII Censo de Ppoblación y Vivienda 2000 (INEEGI y el XIII Censo Económico 1999 (INEEGI a nivel de AGEB. El análisis se realizó mediante la construcción de cuatro modelos de regresión que se estimaron mediante la técnica de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios. Los resultados muestran que las variables razón empleo/viviendas, valor del suelo, y proporción de viviendas rentadas son estadísticamente significativas para explicar menores tiempos de traslado en transporte público. En contraste, la densidad de población y la proporción de viviendas propias son estadísticamente significativas para explicar menores tiempos de traslado en transporte público. La proporción de población de bajos ingresos es estadísticamente significativa para explicar los cambios en los tiempos de traslado en transporte privado.

  5. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  6. Rodados bioerosionados en depósitos marinos holocenos del estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina: consideraciones paleoambientales y procedencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O Spagnuolo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En la costa norte del estuario de Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, se presentan cordones litorales compuestos por arena conchilífera y elevada proporción de rodados de origen sedimentario. Muchos de estos clastos muestran importantes signos de bieorosión. La procedencia de este material se vincula con las extensas plataformas de abrasión presentes al este del estuario (costas de Pehuén Co. Se determinaron dos icnofacies: la icnofacies de Trypanites integrada por Gastrochaenolites, Maeandropolydora, Trypanites, Gnathichnus y Radulichnus, propia de sustratos duros y la icnofacies de Skolithos representada por galerías de Ophiomorpha desarrollada en sustratos blandos. Ambas, caracterizan un ambiente litoral somero. Durante la transgresión holocena, los sustratos costeros se vieron afectados por el avance marino y los fragmentos erosionados fueron transportados por deriva litoral hacia el interior del estuario. Finalmente, eventos de tormenta depositaron en los cordones litorales el material con signos de bioerosión. En la actualidad, muchos de estos rodados que presentan gradación en tamaño hacia el interior del estuario, se hallan en tránsito en las playas por deriva litoral este-oeste.

  7. Abundance and species composition of planktonic Ciliophora from the wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

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    María Sonia Barría de Cao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific composition and abundance variation of the ciliate community from a wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, were studied all throughout a year, from June 1995 to May 1996. The polluted area exhibited high values of particulate organic matter and nutrients, particularly phosphates. Aloricate ciliates were represented by 15 species belonging to the genera Strombidium Claparède & Lachmann, 1859; Strombidinopsis Kent, 1881; Cyrtostrombidium Lynn & Gilron, 1993; Strobilidium Schewiakoff, 1983; Lohmmanniella Leegaard, 1915 and Tontonia Fauré-Fremiet, 1914. Tintinnids were represented by nine species belonging to the genera Tintinnidium Kent, 1881, Tintinnopsis Stein, 1867 and Codonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924. The total abundance of aloricate ciliates reached a peak of 1,800 ind. 1-1 and the total abundance of tintinnids reached a peak of 9,400 ind. 1-1. Tintinnidium balechi Barría de Cao, 1981 was the most abundant ciliate in the community. Considerations on the presence and abundance of ciliates are made in relation to physicochemical and biochemical parameters.

  8. Responsabilidad Social Matriz de indicadores sustentables que refleja el impacto de la forestación en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

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    Regina del Carmen Durán Durán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, se han empezado a considerar otras obligaciones que tienen las empresas para con su comunidad; se trata de aspectos vinculados con las dimensiones sociales y ambientales. Desde este contexto, nuestro trabajo tiene como punto de partida el concepto de responsabilidad social desde la noción de sustentabilidad. El objetivo es evaluar la forestación como instrumento para mejorar la sostenibilidad de los sistemas productivos tradicionales en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, mitigando los impactos del desarrollo no responsable de la producción primaria. Para ello, se han identificado técnicas de manejo generadoras de externalidades positivas en otras actividades agropecuarias complementarias, donde existen limitantes edafológicas, apoyándose en las tres dimensiones del concepto de sustentabilidad: ecológica, económica, sociopolítica y cultural. De igual forma, se diseñó una matriz de evaluación y ponderación de impactos, que contempla indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos, de cuya aplicación surge la forestación como una alternativa sustentable

  9. Población de mosca blanca en tomate cultivado a campo con pantallas de sombreamiento Whitefly population in shaded tomato field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sánchez

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la población de mosca blanca Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate de verano en cultivos con sombreado, en Santa Fe, Argentina. Se transplantó tomate en hileras cubriendo un sector con malla negra de polipropileno, realizándose cada tres días, en 30 plantas un recuento de adultos en una hoja superior y de ninfas en diez folíolos al azar. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar analizándose la correlación entre la temperatura y la evolución de adultos y ninfas. El sombreado disminuyó la temperatura, pero incrementó diez veces la densidad de adultos y cinco veces la de ninfas respecto al cultivo al aire libre.In Santa Fe, Argentina, whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Westowood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae populations were monitored during summer in shaded and non shaded tomato field. Tomato was transplanted in rows and half of crop surface was shaded with a black polypropilen layer. Whitefly population was monitored at three-day intervals in 30 plants. Adult whiteflies were surveyed in the highest developed leaf and immature stages in 10 random leaflets in each plant. Experimental design was in randomized blocks and the correlation was calculated among temperature and number of adults and nymphs. In shaded tomato, temperature was lower but whitefly adult populations increased ten times and immature stages increased five times.

  10. Influencia sobre parámetros biológicos de Tagosodes orizicolus relacionados con el Virus Hoja Blanca y su permanencia en invernaderos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la influencia que ejerce el Virus Hoja Blanca (VHB sobre el insecto, se estudiaron tres colonias de T. orizicolus, procedentes de diferentes zonas arroceras de Colombia (Tolima, Costa y Jamundí En las colonias de Costa (3 años y Tolima, (9 meses, de multiplicación en condiciones semicontroladas de invernadero, no se encontró influencia negativa del virus en la longevidad de machos y hembras, y la fecundidad diaria, no ocurriendo de modo semejante en los insectos de Jamundí (4 meses que si se manifestaron efectos deletéreos en todos los parámetros antes señalados; aspecto éste muy importante en la interacción entre entomólogos, virólogos y mejoradores, en la calidad de las evaluaciones de resistencia a esta plaga y al VHB de las líneas de arroz, depende el grado de resistencia o susceptibilidad de la nuevas variedades comerciales y éste es el principal factor en el Manejo Integrado de T. orizicolus y del VHB.

  11. Facies analysis of a Toarcian-Bajocian shallow marine/coastal succession (Bardas Blancas Formation) in northern Neuquén Basin, Mendoza province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Graciela S.; Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Strata of the Bardas Blancas Formation (lower Toarcian-lower Bajocian) are exposed in northern Neuquén Basin. Five sections have been studied in this work. Shoreface/delta front to offshore deposits predominate in four of the sections studied exhibiting a high abundance of hummocky cross-stratified, horizontally bedded and massive sandstones, as well as massive and laminated mudstones. Shell beds and trace fossils of the mixed Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies appear in sandstone beds, being related with storm event deposition. Gravel deposits are frequent in only one of these sections, with planar cross-stratified, normal graded and massive orthoconglomerates characterizing fan deltas interstratified with shoreface facies. A fifth outcrop exhibiting planar cross-stratified orthoconglomerates, pebbly sandstones with low-angle stratification and laminated mudstones have been interpreted as fluvial channel deposits and overbank facies. The analysis of the vertical distribution of facies and the recognition of stratigraphic surfaces in two sections in Río Potimalal area let recognized four transgressive-regressive sequences. Forced regressive events are recognized in the regressive intervals. Comparison of vertical distribution of facies also shows differences in thickness in the lower interval among the sections studied. This would be related to variations in accommodation space by previous half-graben structures. The succession shows a retrogradational arrangement of facies related with a widespread transgressive period. Lateral variation of facies let recognize the deepening of the basin through the southwest.

  12. Integration of Design Patterns and Mobile Applications in a Management System for Monitoring Maintenance Cathode Plates of Mining Company Quebrada Blanca SA

    CERN Document Server

    Carlos, Oscar Sandoval

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the integration of design patterns and mobile applications, in the development of software management of plates (SIGEP) that allows to support in the solutions to problematics that they appear in the process of maintaining of plates copper cathodes of a Mining Company, in our case for Quebrada Blanca S.A. (CMQB S.A.). These problematics mainly are related to the little control over the tasks carried out in the maintaining to the cathodic plates, and the lack of information that leads to this practice, originates a deficient management and it does not allow to make opportune decisions referring to these elements, and therefore it does to project and to administer the life utility of the plates of cathodes, generating lifted costs associated to this process. As the process of maintaining a cathode plates constantly changing process, with respect to maintenance strategies in the system design SIGEP recognizing the flexibility and reuse in the design of system components, this achieved thro...

  13. ESTANDARIZACIÓN DE LAS TÉCNICAS DE CULTIVO DE LINFOCITOS Y BANDEO CROMOSÓMICO EN VENADO COLA BLANCA (Odocoileus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La variación de las técnicas de cultivo de linfocitos y de bandeo cromosómico, según las especies y condiciones de laboratorio, hace que sea indispensable estandarizarlas para la especie objeto de estudio, con el fin de obtener mejores resultados. Se realizaron 71 cultivos de linfocitos de 10 venados cola blanca en cautiverio con diferentes variables para realizar la estandarización del cultivo de linfocitos (siembra y cosecha a partir de la técnica de Moorehead et al. (1960, adaptada a linfocitos bovinos, para la estandarización de las técnicas de bandeo cromosómico. La valoración de los protocolos se realizó mediante la evaluación del índice mitótico (IM, la eficiencia del mitógeno (EM y la morfología más adecuada de las metafases. Se estableció que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con un período de incubación de 70 horas, temperatura de 37,5ºC y tiempo de hipotónica de 38 minutos. El resto de condiciones fueron similares a las del bovino. Con los protocolos para bandas G, C, R y NOR adaptados en el Laboratorio de Citogenética se obtuvieron buenos resultados, con algunas modificaciones.

  14. OSL age and stratigraphy of the Strauss sand sheet in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stephen A.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2015-07-01

    The Strauss sand sheet occurs in south-central New Mexico, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, covering an area of about 4740 km2. Its chronology is determined by 19 OSL ages. The sand sheet formed primarily during three phases of eolian deflation and deposition, each phase with a separate sand source and under different climatic and environmental circumstances. The first phase of eolian sedimentation occurred 45 to 15 ka with the deposition of unit 1. The sand source for the first phase was beach-related features along the eastern shoreline of pluvial Lake Palomas in Mexico. The glacial-age climate was cool, wet, and windy because of the southern path of the jet stream at that time. After 15 ka, with the onset of warmer conditions of the Bølling-Allerød, the shutting down of the Palomas sand source, and wet conditions of the Younger Dryas, the sand sheet stabilized with weak soil development in unit 1. By 11 ka, the climate shifted to Holocene drying conditions and the second phase of sand accumulation began, forming unit 2; the sand source was the local deflation of the previously deposited unit 1 sand. The sand sheet stabilized again by 1.9 ka with slightly wetter late Holocene climate; a weak soil formed in unit 2 sand. About A.D. 1500 and extending to about A.D. 1850 or later, an A horizon formed on the sand sheet, probably in response to a desert grassland vegetation during the period of wet climate of the Little Ice Age. In an anthropogenic third phase of eolian activity, after A.D. 1850, the vegetation was likely disturbed by overgrazing; and the unit 2 and A horizon (unit 3) sands were deflated, resulting in the deposition of a thin layer of massive eolian sand (unit 4) across the sand sheet. By about A.D. 1900 mesquite shrubs had increased in abundance; and deflated sand, largely from unit 2, began to accumulate around the shrubs, forming coppice dunes (unit 5). Mesquite coppice dunes continued to increase in number and volume during the twentieth

  15. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  16. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  17. Earthquake Damage in Mexico City, Mexico, September 19, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On September 19, 1985, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 km2 area of Mexico City, 350 km from...

  18. Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Ghezzehei; P.F. Dobson; J.A. Rodriguez; P.J. Cook

    2006-06-20

    The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit.

  19. "CEZAC 06": nueva variedad de ajo tipo Jaspeado para la región norte centro de México "CEZAC 06": new Jaspeado garlic cultivar for the northem-central region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Reveles-Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Alrededor de 5 200 hectáreas de ajo son cultivadas en México donde la región norte centro, es una de las principales áreas productoras de esta hortaliza. La falta de variedades de ajo localmente adaptadas es una seria desventaja para los productores de ajo. En este reporte se mencionan las principales características agronómicas de "CEZAC 06", una nueva variedad de ajo disponible para los productores de los estados de Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Durango, Chihuahua y Coahuila. Las principales ventajas de esta variedad son rendimientos más altos, bulbos consistentemente redondos, menor número de dientes por bulbo y maduración homogénea. En parcelas comerciales el rendimiento se ha mejorado en 9-17% y se han alcanzado rendimientos de hasta 30 t ha-1 con el uso de "CEZAC 06".About 5 200 hectares of garlic are cultivated in Mexico; the north-central region is one of the main producing areas of this vegetable. The lack of locally adapted varieties of garlic is a serious disadvantage for garlic producers. In this paper are mentioned the main agronomic characteristics of "CEZAC 06", a new garlic variety available for producers of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila. The main advantages of this variety are higher yield, consistently round bulbs, fewer numbers of cloves per bulb and homogeneous maturation. In commercial plots, yield has improved in 9-17% and there have been achieved yields of up to 30 t ha-1 using "CEZAC 06".

  20. The Struggle of Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva, Gustavo; And Others

    Diverse aspects of rural problems and the social organization of Mexican labor are explored in this summary of Mexican rural history. Achnowledging Mexico's rich, unexhausted, and unexplored natural resources, Mexico is described as a poverty-stricken, hungry nation, with high degrees of malnutrition, deprivation, and illiteracy heavily…

  1. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  2. Mexico's National Educational Videoconferencing Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanty, Alejandro

    This paper begins with background on the National University of Mexico (UNAM) and its networks. Other distance education projects in Mexico are described, including projects of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), the National Distance Education Program operated by the Secretary of Education, and the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios…

  3. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  4. [Health technology in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C; Faba, G; Martuscelli, J

    1992-01-01

    The features of the health technology cycle are presented, and the effects of the demographic, epidemiologic and economic transition on the health technology demand in Mexico are discussed. The main problems of science and technology in the context of a decreasing scientific and technological activity due to the economic crisis and the adjustment policies are also analyzed: administrative and planning problems, low impact of scientific production, limitations of the Mexican private sector, and the obstacles for technology assessment. Finally, this paper also discusses the main support strategies for science and technology implemented by the Mexican government during the 1980s and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

  5. Ferric Tourmaline from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B; Donnay, G; Hardie, L A

    1964-04-03

    Dark brown crystals, up to 10 mm long, occur in rhyolite at Mexquitic, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. They are short prismatic, showing {1120}, {3030}, {1011}, {0221}, with c/a 0.4521, measured with a goniometer, and distinct {1120} cleavage. With an unusual combination of cell dimensions, high density, high refractive indices, and extreme birefringence, this tourmaline falls outside the known elbaite-schorl and schorl-dravite series. A chemical analysis, recalculated on the basis of cell volume and density, gives close to the theoretical 150 atoms per cell, whether the iron is ferrous or ferric, but the physical properties indicate a ferric tourmaline.

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma. Carmen E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05) and fecal (p < 0.001) coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. PMID:27322297

  7. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Carmen E. Delgado-Gardea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05 and fecal (p < 0.001 coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009, whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates, Escherichia coli (2/7, and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3. In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  8. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  9. Insights from analyzing and modelling cascading multi-lake outburst flood events in the Santa Cruz Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Perú)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin; Juřicová, Anna; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Little Ice Age, the Cordillera Blanca of Perú has experienced tens of lake outburst floods (LOFs), resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant material damages. Most commonly involving glacial lakes, such events are often directly or indirectly related to glacier retreat. Here we analyze an event on 8th February 2012 involving four lakes and affecting two valleys (Santa Cruz and Artizón) in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca. Using the combination of field data, satellite images, digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS-based modelling approaches, the main objectives are: (i) to better understand complex multi-lake outburst flood and related foregoing and induced geomorphological processes; and (ii) to evaluate and discuss the suitability, potentials and limitations of the r.avaflow model for modelling such complex process chains. Analyzing field geomorphological evidence and remotely-sensed images, we reconstruct the event as follows: a landslide from the recently deglaciated left lateral moraine of Lake Artizón Alto (4 639 m a.s.l.), characterized by steep slopes and a height of more than 200 m produced a displacement wave which overtopped the bedrock dam of the lake. The resulting flood wave breached the dam of the downstream moraine-/landslide-dammed Lake Artizón Bajo (4 477 m a.s.l.), decreasing the lake level by 10 m and releasing 3 x 105 m3 of water. Significant amounts of material were eroded from the steeper parts of the Artizón Valley (mean slope >15°) and deposited further downstream in the flatter part of the Santa Cruz Valley (mean slope Santa Cruz Valley. Some minor damages to the dam of Lake Jatuncocha were documented. Geomprohological evidence of the event was observed more than 20 km downstream from Lake Artizón Alto. The described multi-LOF event was employed as a particularly challenging test case for the currently developed, GIS-based two-phase dynamic mass flow model r.avaflow. Whilst the test

  10. Terrorism in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Yannick; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Roman, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Even though Mexico is considered internationally as a pacifist country, its economic, social, and geopolitical characteristics during the last half of the 20th century have resulted in internal events that can be considered acts of terrorism. Most of the acts of terrorism during the last 15 years have had to do either with political movements or drug-dealing actions. After the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States, Mexican Health Authorities have strengthened the epidemiological surveillance system. More than 1,372 calls asking for information or reporting suspicious envelopes were received between 16 October and 21 October 2001. Following the earthquake in 1985 that caused great damage and many deaths in Mexico, the National Civil Protection System was created in 1986. This protection system is led by the President and the Secretary of Government. It was developed to improve preparedness for disaster coordination more than for terrorism responses. In addition, the emergency medical systems continue to lack organization, even though some states have shown significant progress in their emergency medical system.

  11. Aprovechamiento de escorias blancas (LFS) y negras (EAFS) de acería eléctrica en la estabilización de suelos y en capas de firmes de caminos rurales

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega López, Vanesa

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo que recoge la presente Tesis Doctoral estudia la idoneidad de un aprovechamiento integral de las escorias blancas de horno de cuchara (LFS) y de las escorias negras de horno eléctrico de arco (EAFS) en la estabilización de suelos arcillosos de mala calidad y en la formación de las capas del firme de caminos rurales. Para conseguir las propiedades resistentes adecuadas en terrenos naturales arcillosos sobre los que se construyen obras civiles, es preciso mezclarlos con materiale...

  12. Pável Valenzuela Arámburo, Santísima muerte : Niña blanca, niña bonita. El culto popular a la Santa Muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Le Luherne, Moran

    2015-01-01

    El documental Santísima muerte : Niña blanca, niña bonita. El culto popular a la Santa Muerte de Pável Valenzuela Arámburo forma parte de un proyecto de investigación titulado « Mística popular transfronteriza. Tradiciones y santos populares en la frontera México-Estados Unidos », coordinado por el Doctor José Manuel Valenzuela Arce y publicado en el Colegio de la Frontera Norte. Se enfoca en el culto de la Santa Muerte, culto religioso que emergió desde principios del siglo veinte en México,...

  13. Aplicabilidad de los aportes de Elton Mayo en la gestión de las pequeñas y medianas organizaciones de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Cecilia; Schwerdt, Fabio Adrián

    2014-01-01

    La presente ponencia se orienta a identificar los aportes más significativos de la Escuela de Relaciones Humanas iniciada por el psicólogo austríaco Elton Mayo, y compararlos con su actual aplicabilidad en la gestión de Pequeñas y Medianas organizaciones de la localidad de Bahía Blanca. Se intenta averiguar cuáles de los aportes de este autor se emplean en el contexto actual, signado por cambiantes circunstancias políticas, económicas, sociales y culturales, que generan un ambiente externo...

  14. BLANCA LÓPEZ DE MARISCAL, La figura femenina en los narradores testigos de la conquista. México, El Colegio de México-Consejo para la Cultura de Nuevo León, 1997

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En esta obra Blanca López de Mariscal se propone, a través de las crónicas de los narradores testigos de la conquista, presentar una imagen de la figura femenina, tanto indígena como española, de aquellos días, aunque debo decir que la mayor parte del libro se enfoca a la primera. Como la autora misma declara en el epilogo, la imagen de la mujer en la época de la conquista es como un caleidoscopio conformado por figuras complejas, es decir, mujeres valientes capaces de enfrentarse a los invas...

  15. Análisis sismoestratigráfico de paleocanales en el subsuelo marino del estuario de Bahía Blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío A. Giagante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La configuración morfológica del estuario de Bahía Blanca, al sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires, es el resultado de los procesos hidrológicos y sedimentarios vinculados a las variaciones cuaternarias del nivel del mar. A partir de relevamientos sísmicos de alta resolución (3,5 kHz, se analizan estructuras de paleocanales halladas en el subsuelo marino de los canales principal y Vieja. Los antiguos cauces han sido identificados en secuencias sismoestratigráficas diferentes. Así, los paleocauces localizados en el canal principal, están caracterizados por una superficie erosiva basal en "V", con un ancho máximo de 40 m en su sección superior. Los mismos pertenecen a una antigua cuenca hídrica, posiblemente relacionada al río Colorado. Estos cauces fueron sepultados por sedimentos fluviales-deltaicos, los cuales componen una estructura sísmica progradante. Otro conjunto de paleocanales, ubicados en el subsuelo del canal Vieja, tienen un diseño similar a los anteriores pero su longitud transversal es considerablemente mayor (350 m, y son vinculados con antiguos tributarios del arroyo Napostá. Su secuencia de relleno se ha depositado bajo condiciones fluviales, culminando su colmatación en un ambiente estuarino-marino. La existencia de estos paleocauces, en los cuales son frecuentes las acumulaciones gasíferas someras (shallow gas, evidencia un nivel de base del antiguo sistema de drenaje ubicado por debajo del nivel del mar actual. La sedimentación marina, producida por el proceso transgresivo-regresivo del Holoceno, originó el soterramiento de los cauces fluviales cercanos al mar, e intervino en la modificación de la red de drenaje costera.

  16. Estudio del comportamiento de los recargues multicapas de depósitos soldados de fundición blanca al cromo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Collazo-Carceller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determina la influencia de los parámetros Energía introducida (Hi, Número de capas (Nc y Ancho del depósito (Ad, en la morfología y el incremento de la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo de capas depositadas sobre acero 1020 utilizando el electrodo de fundición blanca al cromo UTP Ledurit – 61. Empleando la microscopia óptica se identificaron y cuantificaron las fases presentes, analizando su efecto en el desgaste. Siendo determinante la influencia de la inclinación de las dendritas y su posición con respecto a 90° en el incremento de la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo. Se caracterizaron los posibles mecanismos de daño superficial provocado por desgaste abrasivo empleando la microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se propusieron modelos lineales para correlacionar la influencia de la cantidad, tamaño, dispersión de los carburos y el ángulo de inclinación de las dendritas, en el incremento de la resistencia al desgaste.The influence of different parameters in layer morphology and abrasion resistance of Fe-Cr-C electrodes UTP Ledurit – 61 on steel 1020 was studied. Introduced Energy (Hi, Number of Layers (Nc, and Deposit Width (Ad were the main parameters considered. The metallographic identification and quantification of metal phases and the determination of their effect in abrasion resistance were made with optical microscopy. The abrasive wear test characterized by scanning electron microscopy, defines a possible mechanism of surface damage. It was found that the angle formed between a normal line to the surface and the dendrite inclination is directly related with the increment of wear resistance. Lineal models that correlate wear resistance with quantity, size, and carbide dispersion and dendrite angle inclination were also developed.

  17. Flora y vegetación de suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en la Cordillera Blanca, Ancash, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Cano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 2006 y 2008, se llevaron a cabo estudios florístico y de vegetación de los suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en cuatro localidades de la Cordillera Blanca (Ancash, Perú localizadas por encima de los 4500 m. Se realizaron recolectas botánicas además de transectos de intersección-línea, en los cuales se midió el espacio (en cm ocupado por cada especie. Fueron determinadas 136 especies de plantas vasculares, agrupadas en 65 géneros y 26 familias. Las Magnoliópsida (dicotiledóneas fueron las más diversas con 97 especies, seguidas de las Liliópsidas (Monocotiledóneas con 36. La mayor diversidad está concentrada en las familias Asteraceae y Poaceae (40,63%. Los géneros con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Senecio (18 y Calamagrostis (12. Se registraron 76 especies (54,82% en suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados; mientras que 60 especies (44,11% fueron colectadas en la vegetación adyacente. El 95,56% de las especies reportadas fueron hierbas perennes. Se caracterizaron cuatro tipos de comunidades vegetales: a comunidad de suelos crioturbados propiamente dicha, b comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociada a pajonal, c comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociada a roquedal seco y d comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociadas a roquedal húmedo. Se indícan las especies características de cada comunidad.

  18. Desarrollo en armonía ambiental: El caso de la Vereda Peñas Blancas del municipio de Arcabuco, Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gómez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de generar un conocimiento aproximado (holístico a la realidad, de un territorio claramente definible, por constituirse en un ecosistema estratégico dentro del conjunto andino; se eligió profundizar en sus condiciones biofísicas, ambientales y antrópicas bajo una mirada construida a través de diálogo de saberes de disciplinas de conjunto y orgánicas. Además, para una valoración metodológica conjunta, y así prospectar un escenario de futuro. El proyecto de investigación busca garantizar su sostenibilidad y evolución en un orden consecuente con la permanencia de la vida diversa, donde el hombre se conforme con ser interventor positivo de la naturaleza y a estar encadenado a la vida como una sola (Odum, 1972. Este artículo ayuda a identificar la problemática y las potencialidades del conjunto, en la relación naturaleza-cultura (Gómez:2009, lo que corresponde sólo a la fase diagnostica y parte de la propuesta metodológica. El fin es propiciar la concreción de acciones en proyectos que sirvan para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los habitantes, con un uso racional del entorno. El artículo presenta resultados preliminares de un primer acercamiento con trabajo de campo, del proyecto piloto titulado “Diagnostico sobre prácticas histórico-sociales y culturales, tecnológicas agropecuarias y participación de la mujer en la Vereda de Peñas Blancas del municipio de Arcabuco. Boyacá”.

  19. MEXICO Wants to Attract Chinese Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Though last year many countries were affected by the global financial crisis,tourism in Mexico enjoyed an increase of 5% in 2008.Aiming at attracting more Chinese tourists to Mexico,on April 7,2009,Ambassador Jorge Guajardo together with Mr.Eligio Serna,China Director of the Mexico Tourism Board,held a conference to introduce Mexico Travel in Mexico Embassy to China,Beijing.

  20. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.