WorldWideScience

Sample records for blades machinery

  1. Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Bladings by Multilevel CFD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thum Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical design optimization for complex hydraulic machinery bladings requires a high number of design parameters and the use of a precise CFD solver yielding high computational costs. To reduce the CPU time needed, a multilevel CFD method has been developed. First of all, the 3D blade geometry is parametrized by means of a geometric design tool to reduce the number of design parameters. To keep geometric accuracy, a special B-spline modification technique has been developed. On the first optimization level, a quasi-3D Euler code (EQ3D is applied. To guarantee a sufficiently accurate result, the code is calibrated by a Navier-Stokes recalculation of the initial design and can be recalibrated after a number of optimization steps by another Navier-Stokes computation. After having got a convergent solution, the optimization process is repeated on the second level using a full 3D Euler code yielding a more accurate flow prediction. Finally, a 3D Navier-Stokes code is applied on the third level to search for the optimum optimorum by means of a fine-tuning of the geometrical parameters. To show the potential of the developed optimization system, the runner blading of a water turbine having a specific speed n q = 41 1 / min was optimized applying the multilevel approach.

  2. blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashishekara S. Talya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Design optimization of a gas turbine blade geometry for effective film cooling toreduce the blade temperature has been done using a multiobjective optimization formulation. Three optimization formulations have been used. In the first, the average blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint has been imposed on the maximum blade temperature. In the second, the maximum blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized with an upper bound constraint on the average blade temperature. In the third formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. Shape optimization is performed using geometric parameters associated with film cooling and blade external shape. A quasi-three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver for turbomachinery flows is used to solve for the flow field external to the blade with appropriate modifications to incorporate the effect of film cooling. The heat transfer analysis for temperature distribution within the blade is performed by solving the heat diffusion equation using the finite element method. The multiobjective Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser function approach has been used in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique for optimization. The results obtained using both formulations are compared with reference geometry. All three formulations yield significant reductions in blade temperature with the multiobjective formulation yielding largest reduction in blade temperature.

  3. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between the vesicu......SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between...

  4. Gender Machineries Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Dorothy; Mazur, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The term gender machineries usually refers to formal government structures assigned to promote gender equality and/or improve the status and rights of women. Examining these structures in many countries around the world shows that in practice the machineries take a wide variety of forms, from formal ministries to temporary councils and committees. They may be established by formal statute, executive decree, or bureaucratic rules, or there may be machineries in political parties that have a wi...

  5. Import of textile machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In 2007,the total importation of our textile machinery amounts to US$4.948 billion,increased by 20.62%over the same period of the previous year,which turns out to be a new high in the year of textile machinery.Among the imported produc ts in 2007,different impor ted produc ts witness growths of various degrees. The large-scale impor t increase of tex tile machiner y indicates the acceleration of textile technology and upgrading of textile industry,and demonstrates that our textile machinery industry still keeps distance from the international advanced technology in terms of product level,product stability as well as the product reliability although the rapid improvement was made in manufacturing in Chinese textile machinery industry in the last few years.In addition,the possibility of RMB appreciation still exists.Import increase of textile machinery brings a new historical high in 2007.

  6. Machinery Market Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JADEFU

    2004-01-01

    In late June, the buzz amongst Chinese machinery manufacturers was that the country's top construction equipment producer, Xuzhou Construction Machinerv Group (XCMG), was to be sold. XCMG's holding company, the Shenzhen-listed Xugong

  7. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  8. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...

  9. Export of textile machinery products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the export of textile machinery products continued to keep a rapidly increasing trend. In accordance with the statistics from the custom, as of December this year, the value of exported textile machinery products was USD1.528 billion, increased by 23.54% over the previous year. Except that the export of nonwoven cloth machinery products reduced to a certain degree compared with that in 2006, the export of other varieties of products increased greatly. The export of textile machinery products had been remaining relatively rapid growth since 2000. During this period, the structure of exported products has changed continuously, so do export enterprises. There are still many problems in export of textile machinery products, and manufacturers of textile machinery products should improve and advance continuously. However, on the whole, the integrated and international competitiveness of textile machinery products is enhanced, so is the internationalization level of manufacturers of textile machinery products.

  10. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  11. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  12. MACHINERY COSTS AND INFLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Myles J; Helmers, Glenn A.

    1981-01-01

    This article addresses (1) the differences in machinery cost estimating techniques, particularly for depreciation and opportunity cost, and (2) the necessary modifications in cost estimating techniques to account for the changing monetary base under inflation. The conditions under which capital budgeting and traditional budgeting differ are examined on a before tax and after tax basis, with and without inflation. The variations in cost estimates depending upon techniques, and with and without...

  13. Mathematical model of two blades system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    Gdaňsk : Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS , 2012 - (Rzadkowski, R.), s. 199-208 ISBN 978-83-88237-61-4. [VETOMAC /8./. Gdaňsk (PL), 03.09.2012-06.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbine blades * dry friction * vibration damping * torsion Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  14. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Crossley; Peter J. Schubel

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection ...

  15. Seismic-induced impeller/blade rubs in rotating power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During seismic or blade/impeller loss events, the potential for rubs in rotating nuclear and fossil fuel power plant components is quite high. Generally, such events involve interactions between blade/impeller tips and machinery components. This also includes the possibility of seal casing rubs. The paper develops methodologies to: evaluate the blade impeller-casing rub event; establish the associated stress, strain and force fields; enable signature analysis defining blade/impeller/seal participation; and establish procedure enabling evaluation of blade/impeller/seal fatigue life. Additionally, the paper presents benchmarking examples of prototypical power plant components

  16. Seismic-induced impeller/blade rubs in rotating power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovan, J.; Choy, F.K.; Batur, C.; Canilang, L. (Akron Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1988-11-01

    During seismic or blade/impeller loss events, the potential for rubs in rotating nuclear and fossil fuel power plant components is quite high. Generally, such events involve interactions between blade/impeller tips and machinery components. This also includes the possibility of seal casing rubs. The paper develops methodologies to: evaluate the blade impeller-casing rub event; establish the associated stress, strain and force fields; enable signature analysis defining blade/impeller/seal participation; and establish procedure enabling evaluation of blade/impeller/seal fatigue life. Additionally, the paper presents benchmarking examples of prototypical power plant components.

  17. Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Bingbing Hu; Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR) method to diagnose crack fault in cent...

  18. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte; Kruse, Torben; Nordström, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  19. Turbine blade cooling: the blade temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlock, J. [Cambridge University (United Kingdom). Whittle Laboratory; Torbidoni, L. [Ansaldo Energia, Genoa (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Air cooling of high-temperature gas turbines is a standard practice; the air first cools the blading by internal convection and then by external film cooling, after ejection through holes and slots in the blade surface. In some 'conventional' analyses of turbine blade cooling, a 'standard blade' is invoked, which has a uniform blade temperature equal to the average temperature of the real blade, and estimates are made of the cooling flow required to hold the standard blade temperature to a limit set by material considerations. However, early analytical work by Ainley (for convective cooling of thin-walled blades) showed that both the coolant and blade temperatures should increase along the blade span. The current paper develops Ainley's original analysis to allow for finite blade wall thickness and thermal barrier coatings, film cooling, and variation in the mainstream gas temperature along the span. This new analysis should enable more accurate estimates to be made of cooling air flow requirements. (author)

  20. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Crossley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection and optimal attack angles. A detailed review of design loads on wind turbine blades is offered, describing aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, gyroscopic and operational conditions.

  1. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  2. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  3. BLADED IMPELLER FOR TURBOBLOWERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, K.

    1949-10-01

    A means is given of holding open-sided impeller blades in a turbo-rotor. Two half blades, with dovetail roots of sufficient weight to contain the center of gravity, are fitted into slots cut in the rotor so as to form the desired angle between the blade faces. The adjoining edges of the half blades are welded to form one solid blade that is securely locked an the rotor. This design permits the manufacture of a V shaped impeller blade without the need of machining the entire V shaped contour from a single blank, and furthermore provides excellent locking characteristics for attachment to the rotor.

  4. Overview on the profile measurement of turbine blade and its development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhui; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Yanguang

    2010-10-01

    Turbine machinery has an extraordinary wide range of applications in the aviation, aerospace, automotive, energy and many other industries. The turbine blade is one of the most important parts of turbine machinery, and the characteristic parameters, pressure ratio of the engine and rotating speed of the turbine are all related to the shape and size of blades. Therefore, the profile measurement of turbine blade is an essential issue in the blade machining processing, however, it is difficult and particular to establish the profile measurement of turbine blade because of its complicated shapes and space angles of the blades, and the specific stringent environmental requirements need a more appropriate measurement method to the Turbine Blade profile measurement. This paper reviews the recent research and development on the Turbine Blade profile measurement methods, which mainly describes several common and advanced measurement methods, such as the traditional coordinate measuring machines, some optical measurement methods with the characteristics of non-contact like optical theodolite, three-dimensional photography, laser interferometry, as well as the laser triangulation method studied more recently and so on. Firstly, the measuring principles, the key technical issues and the applications in the Turbine Blade profile measurement of the methods which are mentioned above are described respectively in detail, and the characteristics of those methods are analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, the scope of application and limitations of those measurement methods are summed up. Finally, some views on the current research focus and perspective trend of the Turbine Blade profile measurement technology are presented.

  5. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  6. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  7. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  8. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  9. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  11. Blade by Blade Tip Clearance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Sheard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a capacitance-based tip clearance measurement system which engineers have used in the most demanding turbine test applications. The capacitance probe has survived extended use in a major European gas turbine manufacturer's high-temperature demonstrator unit, where it functioned reliably at a turbine entry temperature in excess of 1800 degrees Kelvin. This paper explores blade by blade tip clearance measurement techniques and examines probe performance under laboratory con...

  12. Rotor blade dynamic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The rotor dynamic design considerations are essentially limitations on the vibratory response of the blades which in turn limit the dynamic excitation of the fuselage by forces and moments transmitted to the hub. Quantities which are associated with the blade response and which are subject to design constraints are discussed. These include blade frequencies, vertical and inplane hub shear, rolling and pitching moments, and aeroelastic stability margin.

  13. Selection of the Most Appropriate Technology of Reparatory Hard Facing of Working Parts on Universal Construction Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marinkovic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the possibility to increase the service life of working parts on construction machinery exposed to intensive wear, such as steel blades of the rotary device for roadside vegetation maintenance and grass cutting. A special attention is paid to characteristic working conditions and complex wear mechanisms. In order to select the most appropriate reparation technology, both model and real investigations were conducted. The aim of the model investigations was to select the most appropriate procedure, filler materials and hard facing technology. Worn cutting edges of the blades were hard faced and sharpened by grinding to the shape and dimensions of new blades. Then, both new and repaired blades were alternately mounted on the rotor of the machine. Their wear was monitored under the same working and weather conditions. The repaired blades have proven more resistant to wear than the new ones, which is due to better properties of the hard faced layers.

  14. Production method of hydrogen jet plasma process in hydro machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of present paper is to the process of plasma formation in hydro machinery when a hydro turbine operates at various conditions and load rejection. By investigation the power, shock pressure , and impact effects of hydro machinery, it is revealed that energy and hydrogen are generated by the plasma process. The investigation on several turbines of various hydro power plants reveals that cold fusion process in hydro machinery generates hydrogen. The hypothesis concerning the participation of alkaline metals in river water and the atomic nuclei of the runner blade material in the formation of hydrogen are considered. It is possible to assume hydrogen, deuterium, helium, and tritium atoms (based on Dr. Mizuno and Dr. Kanarev theories) that are formed, diffuse into cavitation bubbles. The plasma is generated during the collapse of the bubble; thus, the quantity of burnt hydrogen determine the volume of generating hydrogen and the impact force caused by hydrogen explosion (noise).There are five main notions, which can determine hydrogen and plasma process: (1) turbine power effect, (2) high shock pressure, (3) crack on turbine parts, (4) impacts effects and (4) the lift of rotating parts. The frequency of the excitation lies in a range from 0.786 to 1.095 Hz.In future, it may be possible to design hydro turbines based on the plasma process that generates hydrogen; or there may exist turbines that rotate with a mixture of hydrogen explosion and water energies

  15. Non-contact methods of sensing vibrations of turbine blades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Pavel; Vaněk, František

    London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2012, s. 221-231. ISBN 978-0-85709-452-0. [International conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery /10./. London (GB), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : steam turbine * blade vibrations * monitoring system Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  16. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  17. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  18. Composite turbine blade design options for Claude (open) cycle OTEC power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, T R

    1985-11-01

    Small-scale turbine rotors made from composites offer several technical advantages for a Claude (open) cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system. Westinghouse Electric Corporation has designed a composite turbine rotor/disk using state-of-the-art analysis methods for large-scale (100-MW/sub e/) open cycle OTEC applications. Near-term demonstrations using conventional low-pressure turbine blade shapes with composite material would achieve feasibility and modern credibility of the open cycle OTEC power system. Application of composite blades for low-pressure turbo-machinery potentially improves the reliability of conventional metal blades affected by stress corrosion.

  19. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  20. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of machinery, fuel, and piping systems, including the following: (a) Operation...

  1. Blade attachment assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  2. Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, M.

    2014-08-01

    As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.

  3. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  4. Pressure measurement on rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Addison; Harris, Louis R.

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of pressure scanners for measuring multiple unknown pressures in rotating machinery. Pressure scanners consist of stepper driven selector valves, which sequentially connect unknown pressures and apply these pressures to a single pressure transducer. This generates analog voltage signals which can be computerized and plotted while a pressure test is in progress. When an electrical selector switch on the same stepper driven shaft is added, thermocouple signals can be brought out of a rotating machine synchronously with pressure data.

  5. Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR method to diagnose crack fault in centrifugal fan. The ASR method, which can utilize the optimization ability of the grid search method and adaptively realize the optimal stochastic resonance system matching input signals, may weaken the noise and highlight weak characteristic and thus can diagnose the fault accurately. A centrifugal fan test rig is established and experiments with three cases of blades are conducted. In comparison with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD analysis and the traditional Fourier transform method, the experiment verified the effectiveness of the current method in blade crack detection.

  6. History of rotating machinery dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, JS

    2011-01-01

    This book starts with the invention of the wheel nearly 5000 years ago, and via Archimedes, Aristotle and Hero describes the first practical applications such as water wheels and grinding wheels, pushing on to more rigorous scientific research by inquiring minds such as Leonardo da Vinci and Copernicus in later ages. Newton and Leibniz followed, and beam structures received maximum attention three centuries ago. As focus shifts and related disciplines such as mathematics and physics also develop, slowly turbomachines and rotor and blade dynamics as we know the subject now take shape. While the

  7. Blade dynamic stress analysis of rotating bladed disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellner J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of steady forced bladed disk vibrations and with dynamic stress calculation of the blades. The blades are considered as 1D kontinuum elastic coupled with three-dimensional elastic disk centrally clamped into rotor rotating with constant angular speed. The steady forced vibrations are generated by the aerodynamic forces acting along the blade length. By using modal synthesis method the mathematical model of the rotating bladed disk is condensed to calculate steady vibrations. Dynamic stress analysis of the blades is based on calculation of the time dependent reduced stress in blade cross-sections by using Hubert-Misses-Hencky stress hypothesis. The presented method is applied to real turbomachinery rotor with blades connected on the top with shroud.

  8. Method of Humanity Design for Food Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the humanity design problem of the existing food machinery, the author states her own personal design idea. So the author makes an exploration on method of humanity design for components of food machinery, including the monitor, the console, the control device and protection device. At last, several key points that must be followed by the humanity design of the color of food machinery have been pointed out.

  9. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  10. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  11. Blade lock for a rotor disk and rotor blade assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jerry H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rotor disk 18 and rotor blade 26 assembly is disclosed having a blade lock 66 which retains the rotor blade against axial movement in an axially extending blade retention slot 58. Various construction details are developed which shield the dead rim region D.sub.d and shift at least a portion of the loads associated with the locking device from the dead rim. In one detailed embodiment, a projection 68 from the live rim D.sub.1 of the disk 18 is adapted by slots 86 to receive blade locks 66.

  12. Vibrations of blades bunches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2014 - (Fuis, V.), s. 520-523 ISBN 978-80-214-4871-1. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2014 /20./. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2014-15.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : damping * dry friction * five-blades-bunch * harmonic excitation * response curve Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  13. Database about blade faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Ghadirian, Amin

    This report deals with the importance of measuring the reliability of the rotor blades and describing how they can fail. The Challenge is that very little non-confidential data is available and that the quality and detail in the data is limited....

  14. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD....804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of...

  15. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  16. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  17. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B4C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  18. Selection of the Most Appropriate Technology of Reparatory Hard Facing of Working Parts on Universal Construction Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    P. Marinkovic; B. Nedeljkovic; Aleksandrovic, S.; Milosavljevic, D; M. Mutavdzic; Lazic, V.; R. Cukic

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the possibility to increase the service life of working parts on construction machinery exposed to intensive wear, such as steel blades of the rotary device for roadside vegetation maintenance and grass cutting. A special attention is paid to characteristic working conditions and complex wear mechanisms. In order to select the most appropriate reparation technology, both model and real investigations were conducted. The aim of the model investigations was to...

  19. Rotor blade vortex interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yung H.

    2000-02-01

    Blade-vortex interaction noise-generated by helicopter main rotor blades is one of the most severe noise problems and is very important both in military applications and community acceptance of rotorcraft. Research over the decades has substantially improved physical understanding of noise-generating mechanisms, and various design concepts have been investigated to control noise radiation using advanced blade planform shapes and active blade control techniques. The important parameters to control rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and vibration have been identified: blade tip vortex structures and its trajectory, blade aeroelastic deformation, and airloads. Several blade tip design concepts have been investigated for diffusing tip vortices and also for reducing noise. However, these tip shapes have not been able to substantially reduce blade-vortex interaction noise without degradation of rotor performance. Meanwhile, blade root control techniques, such as higher-harmonic pitch control (HHC) and individual blade control (IBC) concepts, have been extensively investigated for noise and vibration reduction. The HHC technique has proved the substantial blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, up to 6 dB, while vibration and low-frequency noise have been increased. Tests with IBC techniques have shown the simultaneous reduction of rotor noise and vibratory loads with 2/rev pitch control inputs. Recently, active blade control concepts with smart structures have been investigated with the emphasis on active blade twist and trailing edge flap. Smart structures technologies are very promising, but further advancements are needed to meet all the requirements of rotorcraft applications in frequency, force, and displacement.

  20. Products Preview of Changzhou DIBA Textile Machinery Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Changzhou DIBA Textile Machinery Factory is ,one of the well-known professional warping and warping knitting machinery manufacturersin domestic Chinese market. Recently, the products occupies a share of 85% among the whole textile machinery market in China,

  1. Experimental Blade Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter;

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The proje...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report.......This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...

  2. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  3. Snubber assembly for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-03

    A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

  4. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  5. Textile Machinery:Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the year of 2006,the general situation of China’s textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago,with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD,an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005. Continuingly,the year of 2007 has witnessed a sustainable growth trend of textile machinery equipment imports in the first quarter and the trend definitely will be maintained through the whole year.According to statistics released from China Customs,the imports of textile machinery reached 1.098 billion USD in the first three months of 2007, up by 35.26% year-on-year. Then,why China’s textile machinery imports warm up again after two years’ cool down?

  6. Constructal blade shape in nanofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Bai Chao; Wang Liqiu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Blade configuration of nanofluids has been proven to perform much better than dispersed configuration for some heat conduction systems. The analytical analysis and numerical calculation are made for the cylinder--shaped and regular-rectangular-prism--shaped building blocks of the blade-configured heat conduction systems (using nanofluids as the heat conduction media) to find the optimal cross-sectional shape for the nanoparticle blade under the same composing materials, composition r...

  7. The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Bjornsson, Hans Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery are genetic disorders that involve disruption of the various components of the epigenetic machinery (writers, erasers, readers, and remodelers) and are thus expected to have widespread downstream epigenetic consequences. Studying this group may offer a unique opportunity to learn about the role of epigenetics in health and disease. Among these patients, neurological dysfunction and, in particular, intellectual disability appears to be a comm...

  8. Helicopter rotor blade design for minimum vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of blade design parameters in rotor vibratory response and the design of a minimum vibration blade based upon this understanding are examined. Various design approaches are examined for a 4 bladed articulated rotor operating at a high speed flight condition. Blade modal shaping, frequency placement, structural and aerodynamic coupling, and intermodal cancellation are investigated to systematically identify and evaluate blade design parameters that influence blade airloads, blade modal response, hub loads, and fuselage vibration. The relative contributions of the various components of blade force excitation and response to the vibratory hub loads transmitted to the fuselage are determined in order to isolate primary candidates for vibration alleviation. A blade design is achieved which reduces the predicted fuselage vibration from the baseline blade by approximately one half. Blade designs are developed that offer significant reductions in vibration (and fatigue stresses) without resorting to special vibration alleviation devices, radical blade geometries, or weight penalties.

  9. Inter-slip damping of twisted blades in opposed bundles under rotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, Luděk; Půst, Ladislav; Bula, Vítězslav; Vaněk, František; Cibulka, Jan

    London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2012, s. 293-302. ISBN 978-0-85709-452-0. [International conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery /10./. London (GB), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : dry-friction * damping * bladed wheel Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  10. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  11. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  12. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as...

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  15. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery... are operable from two positions, one of which must be outside the machinery space....

  16. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a... wheel in motion. (5) Excluded machinery. Natural sandstone wheels and metal, wooden, cloth, or...

  18. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  19. Low-Noise Rotorcraft Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Blades of helicopter rotors, tilt rotors, and like reshaped to reduce noise, according to proposal. Planform features combination of rearward and forward sweep. Forward sweep over large outer portion of blade constitutes primary noise-reduction feature. Relieves some of compressive effect in tip region, with consequent reduction of noise from compressive sources. Performance at high advance ratio improved. Cabin vibration and loading noise reduced by load-averaging effect of double-sweep planform. Aft-swept section provides balancing of aerodynamic and other dynamic forces on blade along 1/4-chord line of straight inboard section and along projection of line to outermost blade radius. Possible for hub-hinge forces and moments to remain within practical bounds. Provides stabilizing blade forces and moments to counteract any instability caused by forward sweep.

  20. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10 percent to 30 percent more energy than conventional blades.

  1. Design of centrifugal impeller blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, A; Flugge-Lotz, I

    1939-01-01

    This paper restricts itself to radial impellers with cylindrical blades since, as Prasil has shown, the flow about an arbitrarily curved surface of revolution may be reduced to this normal form we have chosen by a relatively simple conformal transformation. This method starts from the simple hypotheses of the older centrifugal impeller theory by first assuming an impeller with an infinite number of blades. How the flow is then modified is then investigated. For the computation of flow for a finite number of blades, the approximation method as developed by Munk, Prandtl and Birnbaum, or Glauert is found suitable. The essential idea of this method is to replace the wing by a vortex sheet and compute the flow as the field of these vortices. The shape of the blades is then obtained from the condition that the flow must be along the surface of the blade.

  2. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  3. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    OpenAIRE

    Tone Ploj

    2000-01-01

    We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural...

  4. Failure analysis of turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 20 MW gas turbines suffered damage in blades belonging to the 2nd. stage of the turbine after 24,000 hours of duty. From research it arises that the fuel used is not quite adequate to guarantee the blade's operating life due to the excess of SO3, C and Na existing in combustion gases which cause pitting to the former. Later, the corrosion phenomenon is presented under tension produced by working stress enhanced by pitting where Pb is its main agent. A change of fuel is recommended thus considering the blades will reach the operational life they were designed for. (Author)

  5. Rotating vibration behavior of the turbine blades with different groups of blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Gwo-Chung

    2004-04-01

    The rotating vibration behaviors of full cycle of 60 blades are studied in this report. The dynamic analysis of two different structures in one of which there are 10 groups of 6 blades and in the other 5 groups of 12 blades, is performed to investigate behavior deviation. In this research, the following jobs are considered: (1) collect the geometric dimensions and material properties of a single blade, (2) create the finite element model of a single blade, a group of 6 blades and 12 blades, and full cycle of 60 blades, (3) perform the vibration analyses of a single blade, a group of blades and a full circle of 60 blades, (4) perform the steady state stress analysis of the blade with different rotating speed; (5) get the Campbell diagram for the full circle of blades, and (6) make comparisons between a group of 6 blades and a group of 12 blades. The conclusions from the analyses are the following: (1) the contact elements are applied to groups of 6 and 12 blades systems and the highest stresses are observed at the location of the first neck of the blade root. These results completely agree very well with in-site observations. (2) The big differences were present in the Campbell diagram: resonant frequencies are observed in the first vibration group for the full system comprising the group of 6 blades and resonant frequencies are not found in the first vibration group of the full blade system made of the group of 12 blades. (3) The dynamic behavior of the full blade system comprised of a group of 6 blades was found much different from that of the full blade system made is of a group of 12 blades. (4) Excellent agreements for the vibration frequencies and mode shapes of a single blade and a full circle of blades are obtained between the FEA results and experimental data.

  6. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  7. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  8. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  9. Dental apoptosis machinery in the mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Sharpe, P. T.; Šetková, Jana; Míšek, Ivan; Tucker, A. S.

    Cold Spring: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2006. s. 1-1. [19th annual meeting on Mouse Molecular Genetics. 30.08.2006-03.09.2006, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/04/0101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dental apoptosis machinery Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  10. Spline for blade grids design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Andrei; Shershnev, Vladimir; Korshunova, Ksenia

    2015-08-01

    Methods of designing blades grids of power machines, such as equal thickness shape built on middle-line arc, or methods based on target stress spreading were invented long time ago, well described and still in use. Science and technology has moved far from that time and laboriousness of experimental research, which were involving unique equipment, requires development of new robust and flexible methods of design, which will determine the optimal geometry of flow passage.This investigation provides simple and universal method of designing blades, which, in comparison to the currently used methods, requires significantly less input data but still provides accurate results. The described method is purely analytical for both concave and convex sides of the blade, and therefore lets to describe the curve behavior down the flow path at any point. Compared with the blade grid designs currently used in industry, geometric parameters of the designs constructed with this method show the maximum deviation below 0.4%.

  11. Blade tip timing (BTT) uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russhard, Pete

    2016-06-01

    Blade Tip Timing (BTT) is an alternative technique for characterising blade vibration in which non-contact timing probes (e.g. capacitance or optical probes), typically mounted on the engine casing (figure 1), and are used to measure the time at which a blade passes each probe. This time is compared with the time at which the blade would have passed the probe if it had been undergoing no vibration. For a number of years the aerospace industry has been sponsoring research into Blade Tip Timing technologies that have been developed as tools to obtain rotor blade tip deflections. These have been successful in demonstrating the potential of the technology, but rarely produced quantitative data, along with a demonstration of a traceable value for measurement uncertainty. BTT technologies have been developed under a cloak of secrecy by the gas turbine OEM's due to the competitive advantages it offered if it could be shown to work. BTT measurements are sensitive to many variables and there is a need to quantify the measurement uncertainty of the complete technology and to define a set of guidelines as to how BTT should be applied to different vehicles. The data shown in figure 2 was developed from US government sponsored program that bought together four different tip timing system and a gas turbine engine test. Comparisons showed that they were just capable of obtaining measurement within a +/-25% uncertainty band when compared to strain gauges even when using the same input data sets.

  12. Resonant blade response in turbine rotor spin tests using a laser-light probe non-intrusive measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Mansisidor, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Procedures to qualify turbo-machinery components for a designed lifetime free of high cycle fatigue (HCF) failures have not yet evolved. As part of an initiative to address this issue, in the present study, laser-light probes were used in a Non- Intrusive Measurement System (NSMS) to measure the unsteady deflections created in the blades of a second-stage turbine rotor in an evacuated spin pit. Air-jet and eddy-current excitation (ECE) methods were used to stimulate blade resonance. The NSMS ...

  13. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  14. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's propulsion machinery. (a) Before work is performed on...

  15. 46 CFR 109.419 - Report of unsafe machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of unsafe machinery. 109.419 Section 109.419... OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.419 Report of unsafe machinery. If a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or other machinery on a unit is unsafe to operate, the...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.264 - Laundry machinery and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laundry machinery and operations. 1910.264 Section 1910.264..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.264 Laundry machinery... attached to, or forming an integral part of any machinery shall be removed or made ineffective except...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  18. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352 Section 185.352 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). No person may encounter a 24-hour effective noise level greater... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Woodworking machinery requirements. 1910.213 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so...

  1. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  2. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  3. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and...

  5. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  6. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  8. Present Situation of Petroleum Machinery Manufacturers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xilu

    2008-01-01

    Since China joined the WTO, the environment for the development of petroleum machinery industry in the country has changed a lot. As international petroleum machinery manufacturers enter into Chinese market, petroleum machinery manufacturers of the country are facing fierce competition both at home and abroad.

  9. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  10. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  11. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools....

  13. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  14. Vibration analysis techniques for rotating machineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this modem era, lives and standard of living are closely linked with machines. Today higher quality, reliability and operational safety in a machine in addition the demand for its long service life are expected. To meet these demands, one requires the knowledge of its dynamic behavior. This can be achieved by employing predictive maintenance strategy with regular condition inspection and early fault recognition in case of damage. Machine diagnosis by vibration analysis technique offers cost effective and reliable method of condition evaluation. The causes can be located and corrective measures can be planned long before severe, direct and consequential damage/breakdown can occur. Although this subject is multifarious, this paper provides some assistance in understanding the basics of vibration measurement, analysis and diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. Machinery diagnosis through vibration measurement is an integral part of in-service inspection programme practiced in nuclear power plants and research reactors

  15. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. F. Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL. The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  16. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  17. ROMADIS - A rotating machinery diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the PC-based software package ROMADIS developed for the rotating machinery diagnosis. It contains advanced signal processing techniques for extracting multi-features from the time records and uses a modified decision tree technique for the knowledge acquisition, the knowledge representation and the failure diagnosis process. It is user-friendly programmed and the diagnostic results are very easy to be verified. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  18. Hydrodynamic bearing for light loaded turbo machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotor of any turbo-machinery running in journal bearings is prone to two types of well-known vibrations. Synchronous Vibrations occur due to run out or forces resulting from unbalancing of the shaft. Sub synchronous vibrations are more serious, this phenomenon is commonly associated with oil film forces of the journal bearing. In order to avoid sub synchronous vibrations, different types of journal bearings having helical grooves were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. (author)

  19. Labour and machinery analysis in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, C.G.; Nielsen, V

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming is generally considered to require more labour than conventional farming, as the assumption is that chemical inputs are substituted by factors like new knowledge, practices and labour. However, the overall effect on labour and machinery usage when carrying out a transition from conventional to organic farming depends in a complex way of the type of production, different farm-specific factors, etc. In order to investigate the labour usage in organic farming as compared with con...

  20. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  1. Trade Patterns in Japan's Machinery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi Sasaki; Yuko Koga

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes trade patterns in Japan's machinery sector using disaggregated data of export and import commodities. It is found that the vertical intra-industry trade--the two-way trade of products differentiated by quality--with Asian countries expanded in the 1990s. According to the results of the empirical study, this trade pattern is closely related to differences in the capital/labor ratio between Japan and its trading partners, and to Japan's foreign direct investments. It suggest...

  2. Large, low cost composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    A woven roving E-glass tape, having all of its structural fibers oriented across the tape width was used in the manufacture of the spar for a wind turbine blade. Tests of a 150 ft composite blade show that the transverse filament tape is capable of meeting structural design requirements for wind turbine blades. Composite blades can be designed for interchangeability with steel blades in the MOD-1 wind generator system. The design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of the 150 ft blade are discussed.

  3. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Ploj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.

  4. Low Back Pain in Port Machinery Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOVENZI, M.; PINTO, I.; STACCHINI, N.

    2002-05-01

    The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift truck drivers, and 46 crane operators. The vector sum of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration of vibration measured on the seatpan of port vehicles and machines averaged 0·90 m/s2 for fork-lift trucks, 0·48 m/s2 for straddle carriers, 0·53 m/s2 for mobile cranes, and 0·22 m/s2 for overhead cranes. The 12-month prevalence of low back symptoms (LBP, sciatic pain, treated LBP, sick leave due to LBP) was significantly greater in the fork-lift truck drivers than in the controls and the other two groups of port machinery operators. After adjusting for potential confounders, the prevalence of low back symptoms was found to increase with the increase of WBV exposure expressed as duration of exposure (driving years), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), or cumulative vibration exposure (yr m2/s4). An excess risk for lumbar disc herniation was observed in the port machinery operators with prolonged driving experience. In both the controls and the port machinery operators, low back complaints were strongly associated with perceived postural load assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. Multivariate analysis showed that vibration exposure and postural load were independent predictors of LBP. Even though the cross-sectional design of the present study does not permit firm conclusions on the relationship between WBV exposure and low back disorders, the findings of this investigation provide additional epidemiological evidence that seated WBV exposure combined with non-neutral trunk postures, as while driving, is associated with an increased risk of long

  5. Use of blade lean in turbomachinery redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Moore, Joan G.; Lupi, Alex

    1993-07-01

    Blade lean is used to improve the uniformity of exit flow distributions from turbomachinery blading. In turbines, it has been used to control secondary flows by tailoring blade turning to reduce flow overturning and underturning and to create more uniform loss distributions from hub to shroud. In the present study, the Pump Consortium centrifugal impeller has been redesigned using blade lean. The flow at the exit of the baseline impeller had large blade-to-blade variations, creating a highly unsteady flow for the downstream diffuser. Blade lean is used to redesign the flow to move the high loss fluid from the suction side to the hub, significantly reducing blade-toblade variations at the exit.

  6. Noise aspects at aerodynamic blade optimisation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) has often been involved in industrial projects, in which blade geometries are created automatic by means of numerical optimisation. Usually, these projects aim at the determination of the aerodynamic optimal wind turbine blade, i.e. the goal is to design a blade which is optimal with regard to energy yield. In other cases, blades have been designed which are optimal with regard to cost of generated energy. However, it is obvious that the wind turbine blade designs which result from these optimisations, are not necessarily optimal with regard to noise emission. In this paper an example is shown of an aerodynamic blade optimisation, using the ECN-program PVOPT. PVOPT calculates the optimal wind turbine blade geometry such that the maximum energy yield is obtained. Using the aerodynamic optimal blade design as a basis, the possibilities of noise reduction are investigated. 11 figs., 8 refs

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  8. A high sensitivity inductive sensor for blade tip clearance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiplexed inductive sensor consisting of multiple mini-sized planar spiral coils for detecting multiple tip clearances of rotor blades is presented. The sensor measures the tip clearances by monitoring the inductance changes of planar spiral coils caused by the passage of the rotor blades. A resonance frequency division multiplexing technique and parallel LC resonance measurement were applied to the multiple sensor coils, making it feasible to measure multiple tip clearances using only one set of measurement electronics with high sensitivity and resolution. The results from tests conducted on a bench-top test rig have demonstrated that the sensor is capable of simultaneously measuring multiple tip clearances from 0 to 5 mm with a 10 μm resolution at a high rotary speed up to 80 000 RPM. With its high resolution, high sensitivity and capability of monitoring a large number of tip clearances simultaneously, this sensor can potentially be used for advanced active tip clearance control in turbine machinery. (papers)

  9. Forward sweep, low noise rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A forward-swept, low-noise rotor blade includes an inboard section, an aft-swept section and a forward-swept outboard section. The rotor blade reduces the noise of rotorcraft, including both standard helicopters and advanced systems such as tiltrotors. The primary noise reduction feature is the forward sweep of the planform over a large portion of the outer blade radius. The rotor blade also includes an aft-swept section. The purpose of the aft-swept region is to provide a partial balance to pitching moments produced by the outboard forward-swept portion of the blade. The rotor blade has a constant chord width; or has a chord width which decreases linearly along the entire blade span; or combines constant and decreasing chord widths, wherein the blade is of constant chord width from the blade root to a certain location on the rotor blade, then decreases linearly to the blade tip thereafter. The noise source showing maximum noise reduction is blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also reduced are thickness, noise, high speed impulsive noise, cabin vibration and loading noise.

  10. Dynamic response of active twist rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sang Joon; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2001-02-01

    Dynamic characteristics of active twist rotor (ATR) blades are investigated analytically and experimentally in this paper. The ATR system is intended for vibration and potentially for noise reductions in helicopters through individual blade control. An aeroelastic model is developed to identify frequency response characteristics of the ATR blade with integral, generally anisotropic, strain actuators embedded in its composite construction. An ATR prototype blade was designed and manufactured to experimentally study the vibration reduction capabilities of such systems. Several bench and hover tests were conducted and those results are presented and discussed here. Selected results on sensitivity of the ATR system to collective setting (i.e. blade loading), blade rpm (i.e. centrifugal force and blade station velocity), and media density (i.e. altitude) are presented. They indicated that the twist actuation authority of the ATR blade is independent of the collective setting up to approximately 10P, and dependent on rotational speed and altitude near the torsional resonance frequency due to its dependency on the aerodynamic damping. The proposed model captures very well the physics and sensitivities to selected test parameters of the ATR system. The numerical result of the blade torsional loads show an average error of 20% in magnitude and virtually no difference in phase for the blade frequency response. Overall, the active blade model is in very good agreement with the experiments and can be used to analyze and design future active helicopter blade systems.

  11. Computer Program Aids Design Of Impeller Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Galazin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Impeller blades for centrifugal turbopumps designed quickly with help of computer program. Generates blade contours and continually subjects them to evaluation. Checks physical parameters to ensure they are compatible with required performance and recycles design if criteria not met. Program written for centrifugal turbomachinery, also adapted to such axial pump components as inducer blades and stator vanes.

  12. Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th

  13. Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

  14. COBSTRAN - COMPOSITE BLADE STRUCTURAL ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    The COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctural ANalyzer) program is a pre- and post-processor that facilitates the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades, as well as composite wind turbine blades. COBSTRAN combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with a data base of fiber and matrix properties. As a preprocessor for NASTRAN or another Finite Element Method (FEM) program, COBSTRAN generates an FEM model with anisotropic homogeneous material properties. Stress output from the FEM program is provided as input to the COBSTRAN postprocessor. The postprocessor then uses the composite mechanics and laminate theory routines to calculate individual ply stresses, strains, interply stresses, thru-the-thickness stresses and failure margins. COBSTRAN is designed to carry out the many linear analyses required to efficiently model and analyze blade-like structural components made of multilayered angle-plied fiber composites. Components made from isotropic or anisotropic homogeneous materials can also be modeled as a special case of COBSTRAN. NASTRAN MAT1 or MAT2 material cards are generated according to user supplied properties. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77 and was implemented on a CRAY X-MP with a UNICOS 5.0.12 operating system. The program requires either COSMIC NASTRAN or MSC NASTRAN as a structural analysis package. COBSTRAN was developed in 1989, and has a memory requirement of 262,066 64 bit words.

  15. Running excitation of blades bunches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    Praha: Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, 2014 - (Zolotarev, I.; Pešek, L.), s. 45-52 ISBN 978-80-87012-54-3. [DYMAMESI 2014. Praha (CZ), 25.11.2014-26.11.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : damping * dry friction * five-blades-bunch * delayed harmonic excitation Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  16. Turbine blade tip gap reduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2012-09-11

    A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  17. The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Hans Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery are genetic disorders that involve disruption of the various components of the epigenetic machinery (writers, erasers, readers, and remodelers) and are thus expected to have widespread downstream epigenetic consequences. Studying this group may offer a unique opportunity to learn about the role of epigenetics in health and disease. Among these patients, neurological dysfunction and, in particular, intellectual disability appears to be a common phenotype; however, this is often seen in association with other more specific features in respective disorders. The specificity of some of the clinical features raises the question whether specific cell types are particularly sensitive to the loss of these factors. Most of these disorders demonstrate dosage sensitivity as loss of a single allele appears to be sufficient to cause the observed phenotypes. Although the pathogenic sequence is unknown for most of these disorders, there are several examples where disrupted expression of downstream target genes accounts for a substantial portion of the phenotype; hence, it may be useful to systematically map such disease-relevant target genes. Finally, two of these disorders (Rubinstein-Taybi and Kabuki syndromes) have shown post-natal rescue of markers of the neurological dysfunction with drugs that lead to histone deacetylase inhibition, indicating that some of these disorders may be treatable causes of intellectual disability. PMID:26430157

  18. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  19. Welding technologies for nuclear machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main welding methods applied to nuclear machinery and equipment are shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, MAG welding and TIG welding. But in the last 10 years, in order to improve the reliability required for the welding of nuclear machinery and equipment, the welding technologies aiming at the reduction of heat input, the decrease of the number of welding pass and the automatic control of welding factors have been applied for the main purpose of bettering the quality and excluding human errors. The merits and the technology of narrow gap, pulsed MAG welding and melt-through welding are explained. As the automation of TIG welding, image processing type narrow gap, hot wire TIG welding and remote control type automatic TIG welding are described. For the longitudinal welding of active metal sheet products, plasma key-hole welding is applied. Since the concentration of its arc is good, high speed welding with low heat input can be done. For the stainless steel cladding by welding, electroslag welding has become to be employed in place of conventional submerged arc welding. Arc is not generated in the electroslag welding, and the penetration into base metal is small. (K.I.)

  20. Evolution of the chloroplast division machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.

  1. Cepstrum Analysis: An Advanced Technique in Vibration Analysis of Defects in Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Satyam

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional frequency analysis in machinery vibration is not adequate to find out accurately defects in gears, bearings, and blades where sidebands and harmonics are present. Also such an approach is dependent on the transmission path. On the other hand, cepstrum analysis accurately identifies harmonics and sideband families and is a better technique available for fault diagnosis in gears, bearings, and turbine blades of ships and submarines. Cepstrum represents the global power content of a whole family of harmonics and sidebands when more than one family of sidebands are presents at the same time. Also it is insensitive to the transmission path effects since source and transmission path effects are additive and can be separated in cepstrum. The concept, underlying theory and the measurement and analysis involved for using the technique are briefly outlined. Two cases were taken to demonstrate advantage of cepstrum technique over the spectrum analysis. An LP compressor was chosen to study the transmission path effects and a marine gearbox having two sets of sideband families was studied to diagnose the problematic sideband and its severity.

  2. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  3. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  4. Numerical Noise Prediction in Fluid Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris PANTLE; Franco MAGAGNATO; Martin GABI

    2005-01-01

    Numerical methods successively became important in the design and optimization of fluid machinery. However,as noise emission is considered, one can hardly find standardized prediction methods combining flow and acoustical optimization. Several numerical field methods for sound calculations have been developed. Due to the complexity of the considered flow, approaches must be chosen to avoid exhaustive computing. In this contribution the noise of a simple propeller is investigated. The configurations of the calculations comply with an existing experimental setup chosen for evaluation. The used in-house CFD solver SPARC contains an acoustic module based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Acoustic Analogy. From the flow results of the time dependent Large Eddy Simulation the time dependent acoustic sources are extracted and given to the acoustic module where relevant sound pressure levels are calculated. The difficulties, which arise while proceeding from open to closed rotors and from gas to liquid are discussed.

  5. Curved Casimir Operators and the BGG Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Cap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the Casimir operator acting on sections of a homogeneous vector bundle over a generalized flag manifold naturally extends to an invariant differential operator on arbitrary parabolic geometries. We study some properties of the resulting invariant operators and compute their action on various special types of natural bundles. As a first application, we give a very general construction of splitting operators for parabolic geometries. Then we discuss the curved Casimir operators on differential forms with values in a tractor bundle, which nicely relates to the machinery of BGG sequences. This also gives a nice interpretation of the resolution of a finite dimensional representation by (spaces of smooth vectors in principal series representations provided by a BGG sequence.

  6. Curved Casimir Operators and the BGG Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cap, Andreas; Soucek, Vladimír

    2007-11-01

    We prove that the Casimir operator acting on sections of a homogeneous vector bundle over a generalized flag manifold naturally extends to an invariant differential operator on arbitrary parabolic geometries. We study some properties of the resulting invariant operators and compute their action on various special types of natural bundles. As a first application, we give a very general construction of splitting operators for parabolic geometries. Then we discuss the curved Casimir operators on differential forms with values in a tractor bundle, which nicely relates to the machinery of BGG sequences. This also gives a nice interpretation of the resolution of a finite dimensional representation by (spaces of smooth vectors in) principal series representations provided by a BGG sequence.

  7. The SNARE machinery in mast cell secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eLorentz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP Receptors (SNARE proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, SCAMPs, complexins or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

  8. Experimental Blade Research - phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter;

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The proje...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report.......This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...

  9. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  10. Model of turbine blades bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    Prague : Institute of Thermomechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 467-477 ISBN 978-80-87012-47-5. ISSN 1805-8256. [Engineering Mechanics 2013 /19./. Svratka (CZ), 13.05.2013-16.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : free and forced vibrations * eigenmodes * mathematical model * bundle of blades Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  11. Model of turbine blades bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    Praha : Insitute of Thermomechanics ASCR, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.). s. 125-126 ISBN 978-80-87012-46-8. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2013 /19./. 13.05.2013-16.05.2013, Svratka] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : free and forced vibrations * eigenmodes * bundle of blades Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  12. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  13. Towards Servitization in Finnish SME Machinery Companies Case: Finnish Mid-Sized Machinery Company

    OpenAIRE

    Hakamo, Henri-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: The purpose of this study is to explore the transition from product-oriented manufacturing to a service-orientation one. Thus research has following objectives (1) identify the reasons in a mid-sized Finnish manufacturer mowing towards servitization, and (2) identify the challenges facing the Finnish mid-sized machinery manufacturing company in transitioning from product-orientation to service-orientation. Academic background and methodology: In...

  14. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  15. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

  16. Recession Hits China’s Textile Machinery Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s textile machinery industry saw a continued decline intotaI profit and a hefty slump in imports and exports in the first twomonths this year.Analysts anticipated a continued weakening ofmomentum for China’s textile machinery markets owing to weakerconsumer spending and easing export growth.

  17. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 155.380. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from...

  18. Chinese Standards and Safe Use of Stage Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qi

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the domestic stage machinery standards and the situation of introducing foreign standards, as well as the connection between stage machinery safety and a plurality of links such as process conifgurations, third party monitoring, operation and maintenance, stage equipment and risk assessment.

  19. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  20. French Textile Machinery Hanufacturers Success Thanks to Tailor Nade Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bruno Ameline,the President and Evelyne Cholet, the Secretary General of UCMTF(French Textile Machinery Manufacturers Association)report on the French textile machinery sector and analyze the main trends which shape the market environment and its future developments.

  1. Cyclic Structural Analyses of SSME Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A.; Manderscheid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The problems of calculating the structural response of high-temperature space propulsion components such as turbine blades for the fuel turbopump are addressed. The first high-pressure-stage fuel turbine blade (HPFTB) in the liquid-hydrogen turbopump of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) was selected for this study. In the past these blades have cracked in the blade shank region and at the airfoil leading edge adjacent to the platform. To achieve the necessary durability, these blades are currently being cast by using directional solidification. Single-crystal alloys are also being investigated for future SSME applications. The study evaluated the utility of advanced structural analysis methods in assessing the low-cycle fatigue lives of these anisotropic components. The turbine blade airfoil of the high-pressure stage of the SSME fuel turbopump was analyzed because it has a history of rapid crack initiation.

  2. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  3. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means, such as...

  4. Fluttering Analysis in Wind Turbine Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Elangovan, Prabaharan

    2012-01-01

    The wind turbine blades often subjected by a phenomenon fluttering which leads to a structural damage. Therefore, it is necessary for design engineers to predict the fluttering behavior while designing the blades. The main scope of the thesis is to analyze and study the fluttering behavior by conducting structural analysis, modal analysis, Aeroelastic stability analysis and FSI of standard wind turbine blade. The analysis is carried out in ANSYS work bench and the preliminary results shows th...

  5. Dynamic Response of Flexible Wind Turbine Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-qiao Zheng; Rong-zhen ZHAO; Hong liu

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the non-stationary and stall flutter problems of wind turbine blade caused by transient load fluctuations, the dynamic properties of wind turbine were studied, the blade was simplify to a cantilever beam in case of the action of shear deformation and cross section rotating effect were considered in this analysis, equations of the blade were established based on D'Alemberts' principle and the principle of virtual displacement. The dynamic response of the wind turbine was solved by us...

  6. Experiments on sound radiation from propeller blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K.; Debruijn, A.

    1981-08-01

    The effect of blade damping and air bubbles on cavitation noise radiation, and the damping effect of an antisinging edge were studied. Completely flat cunial and aluminum blades were used. One cunial blade had a viscoelastic sandwich layer. Cavitation was simulated by steam injection. The antisinging edge and viscoelastic layer have little effect. Aluminum reduces total sound power. When the distance of the bubble screen to the steam injection source is less than half a wavelength, radiated sound power is greatly reduced.

  7. The BLADE Program as a diagnostic tool for turbine blade failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPRI BLADE Program has been developed by Stress Technology as a tool which will allow utility engineers undertake sophisticated studies of multiple blade designs with a minimum of training or expertise in finite element modeling or life prediction. A case study is presented where BLADE is used to assist in diagnosing the cause of an L-1 blade failure, and to assess the replacement options available through the manufacturer

  8. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers are...... unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...

  9. Study of Wear of Pitched Blade Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; F. Ambros; J. Medek

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the erosion of blades of pitched blade impellers in a suspension of solid particles in a liquid under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated charge. The wear of the impeller is described by an analytical approximation in exponential form, and the influence of the pitch angle on the impeller blade wear was studied experimentally. It follows from the results of the experiments made that the wear rate of the pitched blade impellers increases linearly with the decreasing pi...

  10. Impeller blade design method for centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, W.; Kirschner, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The design of a centrifugal impeller with blades that are aerodynamically efficient, easy to manufacture, and mechanically sound is discussed. The blade design method described here satisfies the first two criteria and with a judicious choice of certain variables will also satisfy stress considerations. The blade shape is generated by specifying surface velocity distributions and consists of straight-line elements that connect points at hub and shroud. The method may be used to design radially elemented and backward-swept blades. The background, a brief account of the theory, and a sample design are described.

  11. Structural tailoring of engine blades (STAEBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. W.; Pratt, T. K.; Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical optimization is applied to the design of gas turbine fan blades. The automated procedure replaces the current manual process which requires experience and intuition on the part of the designer to achieve successful blade designs. The optimization procedure that is developed utilizes the COPES/CONMIN optimization code. Approximate vibration and stress analyses are used for the optimization process. Analysis recalibrations are achieved through the application of more detailed, refined analysis. Optimizations of a hollow titanium fan blade with composite inlays and of a superhybrid composite blade are demonstrated.

  12. Free-form design of rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates an integrated free-form approach for the design of rotor blades, where airfoil shapes are treated as unknowns. This leads to the simultaneous optimization of the chord, twist and structural design variables, together with the airfoil shapes along the blade. As airfoils are automatically tailored to the evolution of the blade, this process results in a better exploration of the solution space and relieves the user from the burden of up-front choices, leading to better final designs. The proposed approach is demonstrated by sizing a 2 MW wind turbine blade

  13. Structural Testing of the Blade Reliability Collaborative Effect of Defect Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hughes, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paquette, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Two 8.3-meter (m) wind turbine blades intentionally constructed with manufacturing flaws were tested to failure at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) south of Boulder, Colorado. Two blades were tested; one blade was manufactured with a fiberglass spar cap and the second blade was manufactured with a carbon fiber spar cap. Test loading primarily consisted of flap fatigue loading of the blades, with one quasi-static ultimate load case applied to the carbon fiber spar cap blade. Results of the test program were intended to provide the full-scale test data needed for validation of model and coupon test results of the effect of defects in wind turbine blade composite materials. Testing was part of the Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) led by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The BRC seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the causes of unexpected blade failures (Paquette 2012), and to develop methods to enable blades to survive to their expected operational lifetime. Recent work in the BRC includes examining and characterizing flaws and defects known to exist in wind turbine blades from manufacturing processes (Riddle et al. 2011). Recent results from reliability databases show that wind turbine rotor blades continue to be a leading contributor to turbine downtime (Paquette 2012).

  14. Energy saving in a deep well pump with splitter blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goelcue, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Pamukkale University, 20017 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: mgolcu@pamukkale.edu.tr; Pancar, Yasar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osman Gazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Sekmen, Yakup [Karabuk Vocational Collage, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 78100 Karabuk (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    Design parameters, like blade number, blade outlet angle and impeller outlet diameter, affect pump performance and energy consumption. Deep well pumps with splitter blades (DWPwsb) are manufactured to achieve energy saving and improve efficiency. Splitter blades are generally located at the centerline of the main blades. Blade number and blade discharge angle should be conveniently determined when splitter blades are used on the impellers. In this study, impellers having different numbers of blades (z = 5, 6, 7) with and without splitter blades (35%, 60% and 80% of the main blade length) were tested in a deep well pump. Tests have been conducted on a total of 12 impellers, and the characteristics of deep well pumps without splitter blade (DWPwosb) and DWPwsb were obtained experimentally. These results show that splitter blades cause negative effects on pump performance in impellers with blade numbers of 6 and 7. When the splitter blade is added to the impeller with the blade number of 5, the efficiency increases with flow up to 10 l/s flow rate, after which it decreases as the splitter blade length increases. The highest efficiency and the lowest energy consumption were obtained in DWPwsb with 80% of the main blade length. At the best efficiency point (b.e.p), an energy saving of 6.6% and an improvement of 1.14% in efficiency were achieved. An analysis of the additional cost of the splitter blade and the application in an agricultural area were performed.

  15. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Tamura

    2011-12-01

    Proteins, the main players in current biological systems, are produced on ribosomes by sequential amide bond (peptide bond) formations between amino-acid-bearing tRNAs. The ribosome is an exquisite super-complex of RNA-proteins, containing more than 50 proteins and at least 3 kinds of RNAs. The combination of a variety of side chains of amino acids (typically 20 kinds with some exceptions) confers proteins with extraordinary structure and functions. The origin of peptide bond formation and the ribosome is crucial to the understanding of life itself. In this article, a possible evolutionary pathway to peptide bond formation machinery (proto-ribosome) will be discussed, with a special focus on the RNA minihelix (primordial form of modern tRNA) as a starting molecule. Combining the present data with recent experimental data, we can infer that the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) evolved from a primitive system in the RNA world comprising tRNA-like molecules formed by duplication of minihelix-like small RNA.

  16. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  17. Robotic Hot-Blade Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Feringa, Jelle; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for cost-effective, robotic production of double curved formwork in Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) for in situ and prefabricated concrete construction. A rationalization and segmentation procedure is developed, which allows for the transliteration of double curved...... NURBS surfaces to Euler elastica surface segments, while respecting various constraints of production. An 18 axis, tri-robot system approximates double curved NURBS surfaces by means of an elastically deformed and heated blade, mounted on the flanges of two manipulators. Re-orienting or translating...

  18. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Mengal Ali Nawaz; Karuppanan Saravanan; Wahab Azmi Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP) wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP). Finite element analysis (FEA) of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength co...

  19. Pressure Pulsation Signal Analysis for Centrifugal Compressor Blade Crack Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Hongkun Li; Xuefeng Zhang; Xiaowen Zhang; Shuhua Yang; Fujian Xu

    2014-01-01

    Blade is a key piece of component for centrifugal compressor. But blade crack could usually occur as blade suffers from the effect of centrifugal forces, gas pressure, friction force, and so on. It could lead to blade failure and centrifugal compressor closing down. Therefore, it is important for blade crack early warning. It is difficult to determine blade crack as the information is weak. In this research, a pressure pulsation (PP) sensor installed in vicinity to the crack area is used to d...

  20. Research on Blade Thickness Influencing Pump as Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Sheng Yang; Chao Wang; Kai Chen; Xin Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Research on the efficiency improvement of pump as turbine (PAT) is inadequate. Blade thickness is an important geometry parameter in blade design. To explore effects of blade thickness on the influence of PAT, numerical research on three different specific speeds of PATs with different blade thickness was carried out. Their performance changes with blade thickness were presented. Besides, the variations of hydraulic loss distribution with increasing blade thickness were performed. Theoretical...

  1. Transport and machinery accidents in South African underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouws, M.J.; Owen-Thomas, D.; Stewart, J.M. [Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    A significant proportion of the total injuries and fatalities in underground coal mines in South African are related to transport and machinery. Data are presented to show that, over the past decade, the injury rate has not declined significantly and that 29% of injuries and 17% of fatalities occurred in the area of transport and machinery. An analysis of transport and machinery accident data is provided, in which accidents are classified by equipment and tasks. A new strategy to improve health and safety in mines is described. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  2. Development and improvement: Status of Textile Machinery Manufacturing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The past over 20 years of reform & open-door practices has witnessed an amazingly rapid development in China’s textile machinery manufacturing.1. The change in the production scale: the number oftextile machinery manufacturers grew from over 150 plants listed exceptionally in the category of textile industrial system in the old traditional planned economy to the over 500 plants that come from all sectors of industries engaged in textile machinery manufacturing in the new socialist market-driven economy. The production output value grew from 870 million RMB(Chinese Yuan) in 1987 to 14.7 billion RMB, 18

  3. Safe design and construction of machinery regulation, practice and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bluff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The origin of this book is the compelling evidence that a high proportion of machinery-related deaths and injuries are attributable to genuine and serious risks originating within machine design and construction. This trend continues despite significant legal obligations, notably the European regulatory regime giving effect to the Machinery Directive (among others), and a substantial body of specialist knowledge originating in the disciplines of human factors and safety engineering. Grounded in empirical research with machinery manufacturers, this book aims to elucidate the factors and process

  4. Study on Design Method of New Age Food Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study purpose is to investigate an effective design method for food machinery, thereby raising the external appearance quality and pleasant of food machinery, strengthening additional value and whole shape effect of product, satisfying the demand of market competition and creating higher economic efficiency. The study elaborates on the green design, optimal design, concurrent design and bionics design, including the shape bionics, structure bionics, interface bionics and texture bionics, to introduce the great significance of researching food machinery, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  5. A new type of boundary blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long steam turbine blades are always made as massive blades cut from the solid. For a given blade material and given rotational speed of the steam turbine, the maximum permissible blade length depends on a tapering factor which expresses the ratio of the centrifugal force of the real blade, always twisted and tapered, to the centrifugal force of the theoretical cylindrical blade of the same flow cross-section. This factor can be further reduced to a considerable degree, due to a better approximation to the shape having uniform srength, if the blade is constructed as a hollow blade. (orig./LH)

  6. Massachusetts Large Blade Test Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahul Yarala; Rob Priore

    2011-09-02

    Project Objective: The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (CEC) will design, construct, and ultimately have responsibility for the operation of the Large Wind Turbine Blade Test Facility, which is an advanced blade testing facility capable of testing wind turbine blades up to at least 90 meters in length on three test stands. Background: Wind turbine blade testing is required to meet international design standards, and is a critical factor in maintaining high levels of reliability and mitigating the technical and financial risk of deploying massproduced wind turbine models. Testing is also needed to identify specific blade design issues that may contribute to reduced wind turbine reliability and performance. Testing is also required to optimize aerodynamics, structural performance, encourage new technologies and materials development making wind even more competitive. The objective of this project is to accelerate the design and construction of a large wind blade testing facility capable of testing blades with minimum queue times at a reasonable cost. This testing facility will encourage and provide the opportunity for the U.S wind industry to conduct more rigorous testing of blades to improve wind turbine reliability.

  7. Study of Wear of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the erosion of blades of pitched blade impellers in a suspension of solid particles in a liquid under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated charge. The wear of the impeller is described by an analytical approximation in exponential form, and the influence of the pitch angle on the impeller blade wear was studied experimentally. It follows from the results of the experiments made that the wear rate of the pitched blade impellers increases linearly with the decreasing pitch angle within the interval a Î á15°; 45° ń. The proposed form of radial profile of the leading edge of the impeller blade enables us to calculate the surface of the worn blade. This quantity significantly decreases with the length of the period when the blades are affected by the solid particles, and its values calculated according to the suggested profile of the worn blade fit fairly well with the experimentally determined values. The results of the experiments performed are valid for homogeneous distribution of solid particles in an agitated suspension.

  8. Modeling of turbulent flows in cooling channels of turbo-machineries; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents dans des canaux de refroidissement de turbomachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidart, A.; Caltagirone, J.P.; Parneix, S. [Laboratoire MASTER-ENSCPB, 33 - Talence (France)

    1997-12-31

    The MASTER laboratory has been involved since several years in the creation and utilization of modeling tools for the prediction of 3-D turbulent flows and heat transfers in turbine blades in order to optimize the cooling systems of turbo-machineries. This paper describes one of the test-cases that has been used for the validation of the `Aquilon` calculation code developed in this aim. Then, the modeling performed with the `Fluent` industrial code in order to evaluate the possible improvements of the Aquilon code, is presented. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  9. Design optimization for active twist rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ji Won

    This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to

  10. Ice-impact analysis of blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Singhal, S. N.; Reddy, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    A computational capability is described for evaluating the ice-impact on engine blades made from composites. The ice block is modeled as an equivalent spherical object and has the velocity opposite to that of the aircraft with direction parallel to the engine axis. A finer finite element mesh is used for a portion of the blade near the impact region compared to the course mesh for the rest of the blade. The effects of ice size and velocity on the average leading edge strain are evaluated for a simulated unswept composite propfan blade. Parametric studies are performed to assess the blade structural responses due to the ice-impact at various locations along the span. It is found that: (1) for a given engine speed, a critical ice speed exists that corresponds to the maximum strain; and (2) the tip bending type frequencies increase after impact while the torsion frequencies decrease.

  11. Lightning transient analysis in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find

    2013-01-01

    The transient behavior of lightning surges in the lightning protection system of wind turbine blades has been investigated in this paper. The study is based on PSCAD models consisting of electric equivalent circuits with lumped and distributed parameters involving different lightning current...... waveforms. The aim of the PSCAD simulations is to study the voltages induced by the lightning current in the blade that may cause internal arcing. With this purpose, the phenomenon of current reflections in the lightning down conductor of the blade and the electromagnetic coupling between the down conductor...... and other internal conductive elements of the blade is studied. Finally, several methods to prevent internal arcing are discussed in order to improve the lightning protection of the blade....

  12. Failure analysis of air fan blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; JI Zhe; CUI Yong-li; CUI Chun-zhi; SUN Zhi

    2008-01-01

    The failure of all 12 blades of an air fan was investigated by metallurgical and mechanical experiments and an examina-tion of the fracture surface. The experimental results show that the cast aluminium-silicon alloy without any modification had a number of material defects, such as coarse grains, a loose structure, a large number of shrinkage holes, a long and thin bold-pin shaped silicon-phase, poor material strength and serious brittleness. In addition, installed on the spindle without elastic conjunction,blade No. 10 vibrated and inevitably.spun off due to the large centrifugal force. Therefore, blade No. 10 first cracked at the locking handle, then broke at the root, which caused all the other 11 blades to be broken by the crack of blade No.10.

  13. Preliminary blade design using integrated computer codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Arve

    1988-12-01

    Loads on the root of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) rotor blade were analyzed. A design solution for the root area is presented. The loads on the blades are given by different load cases that are specified. To get a clear picture of the influence of different parameters, the whole blade is designed from scratch. This is only a preliminary design study and the blade should not be looked upon as a construction reference. The use of computer programs for the design and optimization is extensive. After the external geometry is set and the aerodynamic loads calculated, parameters like design stresses and laminate thicknesses are run through the available programs, and a blade design optimized on basis of facts and estimates used is shown.

  14. Wave-induced dynamics of flexible blades

    CERN Document Server

    Luhar, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study that describes the motion of flexible blades, scaled to be dynamically similar to natural aquatic vegetation, forced by wave-induced oscillatory flows. For the conditions tested, blade motion is governed primarily by two dimensionless variables: (i) the Cauchy number, $Ca$, which represents the ratio of the hydrodynamic forcing to the restoring force due to blade stiffness, and (ii) the ratio of the blade length to the wave orbital excursion, $L$. For flexible blades with $Ca \\gg 1$, the relationship between drag and velocity can be described by two different scaling laws at the large- and small-excursion limits. For large excursions ($L \\ll 1$), the flow resembles a unidirectional current and the scaling laws developed for steady-flow reconfiguration studies hold. For small excursions ($L \\gg 1$), the beam equations may be linearized and a different scaling law for drag applies. The experimental force measurements suggest that the small-excursion scaling applies...

  15. Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POORE, ROBERT Z.

    1999-08-01

    The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

  16. A Two-Bladed Concept Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong

    This article shows the potential for reducing extreme loads with an innovative design of wind turbine, a partial pitch two-bladed concept turbine. The most extreme conditions to test a turbine are considered to be stand-still combined with a grid failure in which the wind comes from all directions...... from 0 to 360 degrees. All aeroelastic load simulations are done by using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. From the load comparisons between the partial pitch two-bladed turbine and a conventional three-bladed turbine it is observed that the partial pitch two-bladed turbine can reduce the extreme tower...... bottom bending moment by approximately 33% compared to the three-bladed turbine....

  17. Navigation of Construction and Agriculture Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempfhuber, Werner

    2008-09-01

    Over the last two decades terrestrial and global 3D measurement sensors in the field of engineering geodesy have seen a significant upturn. With modern measurement techniques, a 3D trajectory of a moving object can be determined within a few centimetres (mostly with Global Navigation Satellite Systems, GNSS), under certain circumstances and with an overall understanding of the applied method accuracies of within 5 to 10 millimetres can be achieved (tracking total station). New application areas have been now created in the fields of construction, mining and agriculture. The guidance or control of heavy machinery demands a navigation sensor with an appropriate measurement rate and accuracy, as well as stable and reliable performance. The 3D position, together with the orientation as well as the long and cross inclination information is hereby just one part of the absolute machine guidance or control unit. Data collection, verification, management and interaction of the position information with the 6 degrees of freedom, together and the machine controller, are needed for the overall system. Rotation ring sensors for height control or height guidance are well-known amongst construction jobs and have been in use for more than 20 years. The first GPS-based guidance system for yield mapping was used 15 years ago (Auernhammer 1995). Optimization and improvements in efficiency are the principal reasons for the current developments in the area of 3D-based machine control and guidance. This paper will describe the state-of-the-art and general approaches as well as the real-time 3D measurement techniques in construction and agriculture environment.

  18. White-Paper Report: Textile Machinery Industry (2005-2009) Economic Performance in Chinese Textile Machinery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Internal Impacts on Textile Machinery Sector 1.Industrial Scale Like many other industrial sectors,the textile machinery industry was also affected by global financial crisis that led to credit crunch in the important markets where consumers'spending plummeted.The textile machinery manufacturers ran into a lot of problems in the balance sheets when international markets were structured in a way that is different from domestic market in terms of consumers'demand.It is very hard for these manufacturers to gain some market share simply by shifting their export-oriented products to local clients in hope to overcome difficulties.

  19. Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurbanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The failure of the first stage blade in a steam turbine of 55 MW was investigated. The blade was made of 17-4 PH stainless steel and has been used for 12 years before failure. The current work aims to find out the main cause of the first stage blade failure. The methods for investigation were metallurgical analysis, chemical composition test, and hardness measurement. The result showed that there was no evidence the blade failure was due to material. The damage found on the blade namely crack on the blade root. Two locations of the crack observed at the blade root, which was at the tang and the fillet, with different failure modes. In general, the damage of the blade was started by the corrosion occurred on the blade root. The crack at the blade root tang was due to corrosion fatigue and the crack occurred at the blade root fillet owing to stress corrosion cracking.

  20. Taihang Machinery-Growing Steadily amid Economic Gloom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With much of Chinese textile industry reeling from marketplace shrinkage,it’s great to report on a company that is thriving—Hebei Taihang Machinery Industries Co.,ltd. and its strategies for success.

  1. Capital formation in machinery and industrialization. Chile 1844-1938

    OpenAIRE

    Ducoing, Cristi??n

    2011-01-01

    The present paper revisits an old theme in Latin American and Chilean economic history; the early industrialization in the XIX - XX centuries. The difference with previous approaches is the elaboration of new quantitative series of Chilean machinery investment in the long run and its relative prices and composition, in the period when some authors have sited the beginning of the industrialization in the continent. Initial findings, based on the participation of capital formation in machinery ...

  2. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Cansee1,

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  3. Study on Design Method of New Age Food Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to investigate an effective design method for food machinery, thereby raising the external appearance quality and pleasant of food machinery, strengthening additional value and whole shape effect of product, satisfying the demand of market competition and creating higher economic efficiency. The study elaborates on the green design, optimal design, concurrent design and bionics design, including the shape bionics, structure bionics, interface bionics and texture bionics, ...

  4. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu;

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... manufacturing systems, sensors and materials, CAD/CAM/CAE for precision machinery, computation/numerical method, intelligent system and ap- proach, vibration engineering, mechanism design, and fluid- dynamics/thermodynamics....

  5. Interactions between Shigella flexneri and the Autophagy Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Krokowski, Sina; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process, is increasingly recognized as having important roles in host defense. Interactions between Shigella flexneri and the autophagy machinery were first discovered in 2005. Since then, work has shown that multiple autophagy pathways are triggered by S. flexneri, and autophagic responses can have different roles during Shigella infection. Here, we review the interactions between S. flexneri and the autophagy machinery, highlighting that studies using...

  6. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. (au)

  7. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Influence of blade motion on mass flux to a model seagrass blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiarui; Nepf, Heidi

    2015-11-01

    Seagrass and other freshwater macrophytes can acquire nutrients from surrounding water through their blades. While we anticipate that blade motion and reconfiguration may impact mass flux at the blade surface, this topic is an area of open discussion and research. We seek to better understand the interaction of individual blades with both unidirectional and oscillatory flows and how this interaction impacts mass flux. The degree of reconfiguration can be quantified by two dimensionless numbers, the Cauchy number, Ca, and the buoyancy parameter, B. For unidirectional currents (U) , a theoretical model for the transfer velocity (K) was constructed assuming the boundary layer on the blade surface remained laminar and developed like that over a flat plate, which predicts K ~U 0 . 5 . When the blades were bent-over, the model predicted the measured flux well; when the blades remained upright, the flux to the blade diminished relative to the model. Preliminary wave experiments show that blade motion increased with wave amplitude, and that there are two distinct regimes. In the first regime (Ca15. In this regime, the phase difference was approximately zero and the blade moved passively with the wave. NSF.

  9. Blade Deterioration in a Gas Turbine Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tabakoff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to predict blade erosion of gas turbine engines. The blade material erosion model is based on three dimensional particle trajectory simulation in the three-dimensional turbine flow field. The trajectories provide the special distribution of the particle impact parameters over the blade surface. A semi-empirical erosion model, derived from erosion tests of material samples at different particulate flow conditions, is used in the prediction of blade surface erosion based on the trajectory impact data. To improve the blade erosion resistance and to decrease the blade deterioration, the blades must be coated. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of rhodium platinum aluminide coating exposed to erosion by fly ash particles. New protective coatings are developed for erosion and thermal barrier. Chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD was used to apply the ceramic TiC coatings on INCO 718 and stainless steel 410. The erosive wear of the coated samples was investigated experimentally by exposing them to particle laden flow at velocities from 180 to 305m/s and temperatures from ambient to 538°C in a specially designed erosion wind tunnel. Both materials (INCO 718 and stainless steel 410 coated with CVD TiC showed one order of magnitude less erosion rate compared to some commercial coatings on the same substrates.

  10. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ceres; T. Jirout; Rieger, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel ...

  11. Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element....... The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes....

  12. Rotating blade vibration analysis using shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissa, A. W.; Lee, J. K.; Wang, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow shell theory and the Ritz method are employed to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of turbomachinery blades having both camber and twist, rotating with non-zero angles of attack. Frequencies obtained for different degrees of shallowness and thickness are compared with results available in the literature, obtained from finite element analyses of nonrotating blades. Frequencies are also determined for a rotating blade, showing the effects of changing the (1) angular velocity of rotation, (2) disk radius and (3) angle of attack, as well as the significance of the most important body force terms.

  13. Forced response of turbomachinery part span shrouds-linked blading; Reponse forcee des aubages de turbomachines liaisonnes par nageoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravoux, J.

    2003-06-15

    This work treats of the design of blading systems fitted with part span shrouds (snubber) for turbo-machineries. The first chapter makes a status of the existing calculation techniques for blading systems. The second chapter presents the experimental system developed for the study, the different implementations of its exploitation and its potentialities. The third chapter presents the numerical and experimental results linked with a linear approach: this approach allows the validation of the experimental system and the adjustment of numerical models. The fourth chapter sets up and validates the numerical and experimental tools and techniques linked with the exhaustive exploitation of the system. Finally, a synthesis of the main results is presented with their perspectives for future works. (J.S.)

  14. Studies of blade-vortex interaction noise reduction by rotor blade modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is one of the most objectionable types of helicopter noise. This impulsive blade-slap noise can be particularly intense during low-speed landing approach and maneuvers. Over the years, a number of flight and model rotor tests have examined blade tip modification and other blade design changes to reduce this noise. Many times these tests have produced conflicting results. In the present paper, a number of these studies are reviewed in light of the current understanding of the BVI noise problem. Results from one study in particular are used to help establish the noise reduction potential and to shed light on the role of blade design. Current blade studies and some new concepts under development are also described.

  15. Numerical simulation on the aerodynamic effects of blade icing on small scale Straight-bladed VAWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fang; Li, Shengmao; Li, Yan; Tian, Wenqiang

    To invest the effects of blade surface icing on the aerodynamics performance of the straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT), wind tunnel tests were carried out on a static straight blade using a simple icing wind tunnel. Firstly, the icing situations on blade surface at some kinds of typical attack angle were observed and recorded under different cold water flow fluxes. Then the iced blade airfoils were combined into a SB-VAWT model with two blades. Numerical simulations were carried out on this model, and the static and dynamic torque coefficients of the model with and without icing were computed. Both the static and dynamic torque coefficients were decreased for the icing effects.

  16. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengal Ali Nawaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP. Finite element analysis (FEA of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength compared to GFRP wind turbine blade.

  17. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  18. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery... requirements for minimally attended machinery plants. Note: Minimally attended machinery plants include vessel machinery plants and spaces that are automated, but not to a degree where the plant could be left...

  19. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.631 Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  20. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  1. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  2. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1725 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and....1725 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition and machinery or equipment in unsafe...

  4. Simulation of Flexible Mechanisms in a Rotating Blade for Smart-Blade Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paternoster, A.R.A.; Loendersloot, R.; Boer; Akkerman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The active Gurney flap technology is investigated to improve the performance of rotorblades by allowing helicopter blades to further control the lift unbalance that rises at high speed and by damping vibration loads on the rotor hub. This technology needs validation by wind tunnel testing of a scaled model blade under rotational loading. An optimised geometry of a flexible actuation system has been designed to provide motion for the deployment of the Gurney flap for a Mach-scale model blade [...

  5. Numerical and Experimental Study of Friction Damping Blade Attachments of Rotating Bladed Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Charleux, D.; Gibert, C; Thouverez, F.; Dupeux, J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to mitigate high cycle fatigue risks in bladed disks, the prediction of the vibration levels early in the design process is important. Therefore, the different sources of damping need to be modeled accurately. In this paper the impact of friction in blade attachments on forced response is investigated both numerically and experimentally. An efficient multiharmonic balance method is proposed in order to compute the forced response of bladed disks with contact and friction nonlineariti...

  6. Wind wheel with a single bladed or two blade rotor arranged on a tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laussermair, F.; Kaiba, K.

    1980-02-14

    The invention concerns a wind wheel (impeller) with a single bladed or two blade rotor arranged on a tower. The wind speed, with which the air flows over wind wheels, is normally different over the rotor circle area. This leads to the creation of cyclic torques, which will try to turn the rotor head cyclically around the tower axis and cause torsional oscillations. It is therefore the purpose of the invention to create a wind wheel, in which the tendency of the rotor head to turn around the tower axis is reduced, without incurring losses of output. The problem of the invention is solved, by having one or more auxiliary blades in addition to the main blade or blades, which lie in the rotor plane and are cyclically adjustable around their longitudinal axis, so that their aerodynamic up thrust produces a torque around the tower axis, which practically compensates for the torque resulting from the different flow over the main blade or blades. One example of the invention achieves the adjustment of the auxiliary blades around their longitudinal axis by means of one or more levers, each of which is connected at its end to one auxiliary blade, and has a roller on its other end, which can roll around a fixed curved disc, where the roller is pressed by a spring against the curved disc.

  7. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  8. Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry: Online blade damage identification on a multi-blade test rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, A. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometry enables the telemetry-free measurement of online turbomachinery blade vibration. Specifically, the Eulerian or fixed reference frame implementation of laser vibrometry provides a practical solution to the condition monitoring of rotating blades. The short data samples that are characteristic of this measurement approach do however negate the use of traditional frequency domain signal processing techniques. It is therefore necessary to employ techniques such as time domain analysis and non-harmonic Fourier analysis to obtain useful information from the blade vibration signatures. The latter analysis technique allows the calculation of phase angle trends which can be used as indicators of blade health deterioration, as has been shown in previous work for a single-blade rotor. This article presents the results from tests conducted on a five-blade axial-flow test rotor at different rotor speeds and measurement positions. With the aid of artificial neural networks, it is demonstrated that the parameters obtained from non-harmonic Fourier analysis and time domain signal processing on Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry signals can successfully be used to identify and quantify blade damage from among healthy blades. It is also shown that the natural frequencies of individual blades can be approximated from the Eulerian signatures recorded during rotor run-up and run-down.

  9. Research overview on vibration damping of mistuned bladed disk assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Tiejian; Li, Xin; Xuyao HUO

    2016-01-01

    Bladed disk assemblies are very important parts in auto engine and gas turbine, and is widely used in practical engineering. The mistuning existing commonly in the bladed disk assemblies can destroy the vibration characteristics of the bladed disk assemblies, which is one of the reasons for the high cycle fatigue failure of bladed disk assemblies, so it is necessary to research how to reduce the vibration of the bladed disk assemblies. On the basis of the review of relevant research at home a...

  10. Helicopter Rotor Blade With Free Tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroub, Robert H.; Young, Larry; Cawthorne, Matthew; Keys, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Free-tip rotor blades improve fuel efficiency and performance characteristics of helicopters. Outermost portion of blade pivots independently with respect to inboard portion about pitch axis parallel to blade axis, located forward of aerodynamic center. Centrifugal force acts on tension/torsion strap and biases tip nose-up. Airstream turns tip nose-down, other torques cause tip to "weathervane" to intermediate angular position resulting in net lift. Reduces fluctuations in lift, with two effects: flapwise vibratory loads on blade and vibratory loads on pitch-control mechanism reduced; negative lift produced by advancing fixed tip eliminated, reducing power required to achieve same overall lift. Applies to tilt rotors and tail rotors as well.

  11. Composite blade structural analyzer (COBSTRAN) user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The installation and use of a computer code, COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctrual ANalyzer), developed for the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades and also for composite wind turbine blades was described. This code combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with an internal data base of fiber and matrix properties. Inputs to the code are constituent fiber and matrix material properties, factors reflecting the fabrication process, composite geometry and blade geometry. COBSTRAN performs the micromechanics, macromechanics and laminate analyses of these fiber composites. COBSTRAN generates a NASTRAN model with equivalent anisotropic homogeneous material properties. Stress output from NASTRAN is used to calculate individual ply stresses, strains, interply stresses, thru-the-thickness stresses and failure margins. Curved panel structures may be modeled providing the curvature of a cross-section is defined by a single value function. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Composite Blade Structural Analyzer (COBSTRAN) demonstration manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The input deck setup is described for a computer code, composite blade structural analyzer (COBSTRAN) which was developed for the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades and also for composite wind turbine blades. This manual is intended for use in conjunction with the COBSTRAN user's manual. Seven demonstration problems are described with pre- and postprocessing input decks. Modeling of blades which are solid thru-the-thickness and also aircraft wing airfoils with internal spars is shown. Corresponding NASTRAN and databank input decks are also shown. Detail descriptions of each line of the pre- and post-processing decks is provided with reference to the Card Groups defined in the user's manual. A dictionary of all program variables and terms used in this manual may be found in Section 6 of the user's manual.

  13. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, William

    2014-01-01

    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  14. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  15. Shape Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Chen, Jin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design tool for optimizing wind turbine blades. The design model is based on an aerodynamic/aero-elastic code that includes the structural dynamics of the blades and the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. To model the main aero-elastic behaviour of a real wind turbine, the...... rotor. The design variables used in the current study are the blade shape parameters, including chord, twist and relative thickness. To validate the implementation of the aerodynamic/aero-elastic model, the computed aerodynamic results are compared to experimental data for the experimental rotor used in...... the European Commision-sponsored project Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions, (MEXICO) and the computed aero-elastic results are examined against the FLEX code for flow post the Tjereborg 2 MW rotor. To illustrate the optimization technique, three wind turbine rotors of different sizes (the...

  16. Probabilistic performance analysis of eroded compressor blades

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A.; Nair, P.B.; Keane, A. J.; Shahpar, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic analysis of the effect of erosion on the performance of compressor fan blades. A realistic parametric CAD model is developed to represent eroded blades. Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques are employed to generate a set of candidate points, which are combined with a parametric geometry modeling and grid generation routine to produce a hybrid mesh. A multigrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solver HYDRA with Spalart Allmaras turbulence model is us...

  17. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  18. Why did Wicksell change his mind about the machinery question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Boianovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates Wicksell's change of mind about the machinery question between 1890 and 1900/1901. Wicksell at first sided with the so-called “compensation theory” that workers are not harmed by the introduction of machinery. In his lecture notes of April 1900, made available here for the first time, Wicksell deployed marginal productivity theory to discuss the effects of labour-saving technical progress, with inconclusive results. Finally, in his published 1901 Lectures and in his 1900 article about marginal productivity, Wicksell claimed that the introduction of machinery increases output and reduces wages. His analysis was based on the demonstration that free competition maximizes output, but not total utility. It is argued that Wicksell's change of mind and his mature formulation of the machinery question result from his critical assessment of the then new concept of Pareto optimality, together with his reinterpretation and rejection of Ricardo's (1821 contention that the introduction of machinery may diminish output and employment.

  19. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered

  20. Sandwich materials for wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thybo Thomsen, O. [Aalborg Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    Wind turbine blades are being manufactured using polymer matrix composite materials (PMC), in a combination of monolithic (single skin) and sandwich composites. Present day designs are mainly based on glass fibre reinforced composites (GFRP), but for very large blades carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRP) are being used increasingly, in addition to GFRP by several manufacturers to reduce the weight. The size of wind turbines have increased significantly over the last 25 years, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Thus, it is anticipated that wind turbines with a rated power output in the range of 8-10 MW and a rotor diameter about 170-180 m will be developed and installed within the next 10-15 years. The paper presents an overview of current day design principles and materials technology applied for wind turbine blades, and it highlights the limitations and important design issues to be addressed for up-scaling of wind turbine blades from the current maximum length in excess of 61 m to blade lengths in the vicinity of 90 m as envisaged for future very large wind turbines. In particular, the paper discusses the potential advantages and challenges of applying sandwich type construction to a larger extent than is currently being practiced for the load carrying parts of wind turbine blades. (au)

  1. Eddy current inspection of stationary blade rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stationary turbine blade rings in a US power plant have experienced chloride-induced cracking. Failure analysis determined two types of cracking mechanisms: corrosion fatigue cracking confined to the leading edge of the outer shroud; and stress corrosion cracking present all over the blade surface. Fluorescent dye penetrant is typically used to detect and size cracks. However, it requires cleaning the blade rings by sandblasting to obtain reliable inspection results. Sand blasting in turn requires sealing the lower half of the turbine housing to prevent sand from contaminating the rest of the power plant components. Furthermore, both the penetrant examination and the removal of the sand are time consuming and costly. An alternative NDE technique is desirable which requires no pre-cleaning of the blade and a quick go/no-go inspection with the capability of estimating the crack length. This paper presents an innovative eddy current technique which meets the desired objectives by incorporating the use of specially designed contoured scanners equipped with an array of pancake coils. A set of eddy current pancake coils housed in three different scanners is used to manually scan and inspect the convex side of the stationary blade rings. The pancake coils are operated in a transmit/receive mode using two separate eddy current instruments. This paper presents the inspection concept, including scanner and probe designs, and test results from the various stages of multiple blade rings

  2. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcio@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  3. Recent Development in Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Chin Han

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and industrial applications. Thermal efficiency and power output of gas turbines increase with increasing turbine rotor inlet temperature (RIT. The current RIT level in advanced gas turbines is far above the .melting point of the blade material. Therefore, along with high temperature material development, a sophisticated cooling scheme must be developed for continuous safe operation of gas turbines with high performance. Gas turbine blades are cooled internally and externally. This paper focuses on external blade cooling or so-called film cooling. In film cooling, relatively cool air is injected from the inside of the blade to the outside surface which forms a protective layer between the blade surface and hot gas streams. Performance of film cooling primarily depends on the coolant to mainstream pressure ratio, temperature ratio, and film hole location and geometry under representative engine flow conditions. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine film cooling research and this paper is limited to review a few selected publications to reflect recent development in turbine blade film cooling.

  4. Eddy current turbocharger blade speed detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickman, J. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    A commercially available magnetic reluctance sensor is used to determine the angular velocity of turbocharger impeller blades from outside the aluminum housing. Eddy currents are induced in the aluminum blades by blade motion through the magnetic field projected by an externally mounted samarium-cobalt permanent magnet. Experiments show that secondary eddy currents and associated ac magnetic fields generated in the aluminum housing provide the prime excitation for a sensor coil located outside the housing. The coil output voltage spectrum shows a strongly peaked structure with peak locations at multiples of the blade passage frequency in the range 1-10 kHz. The sensor output signal decreases with increasing frequency above 2 kHz because of increasingly effective attenuation by the housing. Test results show that a circuit designed to track the blade signal gives an analog voltage output proportional to the frequency of blade passage over the operating range of the Cummins VT-903 and Detroit 8V-71T turbocharged diesel engines. Suggestions are made for the design of a sensor appropriate for both magnetic reluctance and eddy current sensing applications.

  5. Atmospheric icing on large wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad S. Virk, Matthew C. Homola, Per J. Nicklasson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of atmospheric ice accretion on a large horizontal axis ‘NREL 5 MW’ wind turbine blade has been carried out using the computational fluid dynamics based technique. Numerical analyses were carried out at five different sections along the wind turbine blade for both rime and glaze ice conditions. Based upon the flow field calculation and the droplet collision efficiency, the rate and shape of accreted ice was simulated at different atmospheric temperatures. Results indicate that the icing is less severe near the blade root sections, where the blade profiles are larger and thicker, both in terms of local ice mass and accreted ice thickness. Change in accreted ice growth with the atmospheric temperature is significant along the blade sections from centre to tip. The research work also highlighted that the ice accretion on wind turbine blades can also be controlled by optimizing its geometric design features instead of only using the energy consuming anti icing and de-icing systems.

  6. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  7. Instability of a penetrating blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigoni, D.; Bosi, F.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.

    2014-03-01

    Application of a dead compressive load at the free end of an elastic rod (the ‘blade') induces its penetration into a sliding sleeve ending with a linear elastic spring. Bifurcation and stability analysis of this simple elastic system shows a variety of unexpected behaviors: (i) an increase of buckling load at decreasing of elastic stiffness; (ii) a finite number of buckling loads for a system with infinite degrees of freedom (leading to a non-standard Sturm-Liouville problem); (iii) more than one bifurcation load associated to each bifurcation mode; (iv) a restabilization of the straight configuration after the second bifurcation load associated to the first instability mode; (v) the presence of an Eshelby-like (or configurational) force, deeply influencing stability. Only the first of these behaviors was previously known, the second and third ones disprove common beliefs, the fourth highlights a sort of ‘island of instability', and the last one shows surprising phenomena and effects on stability.

  8. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...... different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important...... and optimize the settings of the suspension systems. In general for machinery that is relative complex to operate such as the backhoe loader education carries the highest potential for improving comfort and reduce the vibrations. A dump truck on the other hand is very easy to drive and requires proper...

  9. Structural Insights Into The Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov

    Phosphonate compounds act as a nutrient source for some microorganisms when phosphate is limiting but require a specialised enzymatic machinery due to the presence of the highly stable carbon-phosphorus bond. Despite the fundamental importance to microbial metabolism, the details of how the prote......Phosphonate compounds act as a nutrient source for some microorganisms when phosphate is limiting but require a specialised enzymatic machinery due to the presence of the highly stable carbon-phosphorus bond. Despite the fundamental importance to microbial metabolism, the details of how...... the reaction. Our results delineate the overall architecture of the carbon-phosphorus lyase machinery and give detailed insight into the mechanism underlying microbial phosphonate breakdown....

  10. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  11. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  12. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use phosphonate compounds, which require specialized enzymatic machinery to break the stable carbon......–phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero...

  13. On line diagnostics of rotating machinery using expert system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last years it became apparent that on line diagnostics will become more and more important for increasing safety in nuclear power plants and the availability of machinery. Expert system technology in combination with conventional methods for pattern recongnition and data preparation turned out to be a favorite candidate for automatic on line diagnostics of rotating machinery and related diagnostical problems. The article describes the conceptual design of an on line diagnostic system for a liquid sodium pump in a nuclear power plant. An overview on the system design, the system parameters, the user interface, and an example for the construction of the knowledge base will be given. (orig.)

  14. Densification of chipper harvested SRC using on-farm machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, M.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to density wood chips using on-farm machinery in order to avoid problems encountered in bulk handling and storage of low density short rotation cultivation (SRC) wood chips - especially as some customers can only accept baled material. Trials using different lengths of chips produced by a standard SRC harvester are described, and the failure to produce acceptable bales is reported. The potential cost of modifying equipment is deemed to make the baling of SRC chips using standard farm machinery currently not viable.

  15. A block coupled solver development for hydraulic machinery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a fully coupled block algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows for use in hydraulic machinery is presented. Due to the simultaneous solution of momentum and continuity equations, implicit block coupling of pressure and velocity variables leads to faster convergence in respect to classical, loosely coupled, segregated algorithms of the SIMPLE family of algorithms. Special linear solver developments were also performed in order to extend the new fully coupled solver to high efficiency HPC simulations. These modifications allow the coupled solver to retain its improved performance and robustness in addition to mesh size scalability while solving hydraulic machinery type applications

  16. Method of calculating blade-to-blade plane flow in centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. D.

    1970-01-01

    Steam filament solution determines velocity distribution due to potential flow in the blade-to-blade plane of the radial impeller. This is used to determine the mass-averaged relative fluid angle, which is in turn used in an axisymmetric program to obtain steam surfaces of the assumed axisymmetric flow.

  17. Bistable devices for morphing rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terrence

    This dissertation presents two bistable concepts for morphing rotor blades. These concepts are simple and are composed of bistable devices that act as coupling structures between an actuator and the rotor blade. Bistable or "snap-through" mechanisms have two stable equilibrium states and are a novel way to achieve large actuation output stroke at relatively modest effort for gross rotor morphing applications. This is because in addition to the large actuation stroke associated with the snap-through (relative to conventional actuator/ amplification systems) coming at relatively low actuation effort, no locking is required in either equilibrium state (since they are both stable). The first concept that is presented in this dissertation is a that is composed of a bistable twisting device that twists the tip of helicopter rotor blades. This work examines the performance of the presented bistable twisting device for rotor morphing, specifically, blade tip twist under an aerodynamic lift load. The device is analyzed using finite element analysis to predict its load carrying capability and bistable behavior. The second concept that is presented is a concept that is composed of a bistable arch for rotor blade chord extension. The bistable arch is coupled to a thin flat plate that is supported by rollers. Increasing the chord of the rotor blade is expected to generate more lift-load and improve helicopter performance. In this work, a methodology is presented to design the bistable arches for chord morphing using the finite element analysis and pseudo-rigid body model method. This work also examines the effect of different arches, arch hinge size and shape, inertial loads and rigidity on arch performance. Finally, this work shows results from an experiment that was conducted to validate the developed numerical model and demonstrates how the arch can be actuated using a Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire to extend the chord of a helicopter rotor blade.

  18. The SNL100-01 blade : carbon design studies for the Sandia 100-meter blade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2013-02-01

    A series of design studies to investigate the effect of carbon on blade weight and performance for large blades was performed using the Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Blade design as a starting point. This document provides a description of the final carbon blade design, which is termed as SNL100-01. This report includes a summary of the design modifications applied to the baseline all-glass 100-meter design and a description of the NuMAD model files that are made publicly available. This document is intended primarily to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-01.

  19. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. PMID:25583871

  20. Successful Solutions to SSME/AT Development Turbine Blade Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump/Alternate Turbopump (HPFTP/AT) turbine blade development program, unique turbine blade design features were implemented to address 2nd stage turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and improve turbine robustness. Features included the addition of platform featherseal dampers, asymmetric blade tip seal segments, gold plating of the blade attachments, and airfoil tip trailing edge modifications. Development testing shows these features have eliminated turbine blade high cycle fatigue distress and consequently these features are currently planned for incorporation to the flight configuration. Certification testing will begin in 1999. This presentation summarizes these features.

  1. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades...... fatigue resistance of wind turbine blades. The final part of the book describes advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing, including biobased composites, surface protection and coatings, structural performance testing and the design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine...... materials scientists and engineers, wind turbine blade manufacturers and maintenance technicians, scientists, researchers and academics....

  2. Rotor blade full-scale fatigue testing technology and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Berring, Peter; Pavese, Christian; Branner, Kim

    Full scale fatigue test is an important part of the development and design of wind turbine blades. Testing is also needed for the approval of the blades in order for them to be used on large wind turbines. However, usually only one prototype blade is tested. Fatigue test of wind turbine blades was...... presented in this report giving the blade test facility operator a guide to choose the method that best fit the needs and economic constraints. The state of the art method is currently dual axis mass resonance, where the purpose of the test is to emulate the loads the blades encounter in operation....

  3. Determination of HART I Blade Structural Properties by Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung N.; Lau, Benton H.

    2012-01-01

    The structural properties of higher harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART I) blades were measured using the original set of blades tested in the German-dutch wind tunnel (DNW) in 1994. the measurements include bending and torsion stiffness, geometric offsets, and mass and inertia properties of the blade. the measured properties were compared to the estimated values obtained initially from the blade manufacturer. The previously estimated blade properties showed consistently higher stiffness, up to 30 percent for the flap bending in the blade inboard root section.

  4. Single and Twisted Blades Digital Simulation and Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benretem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work represents a comparative study of a numerical simulation of frequencies and fundamental modes of flapping vibration, drag and torsion of the two blades of a small wind turbine, a single one and another with optimum blade design. The objective of this study is to understand the behavior of two types of blades subjected to various canvassing. The results reveal that the various canvassing and maximum displacements are located at the end of the two blades; in fact, the results show that a single blade has higher frequencies than twisted one but does not undergo large displacements in comparison to twisted blade.

  5. Structural optimization study of composite wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong; Wang, Quan; Pang, Xiaoping; Li, Songlin; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the initial layout of a 2. MW composite wind turbine blade is designed first. The new airfoils families are selected to design a 2. MW wind turbine blade. The finite element parametric model for the blade is established. Based on the modified Blade Element Momentum theory, a new one...... the structural design and optimization of wind turbine blades. © 2012.......-way fluid-structure interaction method is introduced. A procedure combining finite element analysis and particle swarm algorithm to optimize composite structures of the wind turbine blade is developed. The procedure proposed not only allows thickness variation but also permits the spar cap location...

  6. Further development of the swinging-blade Savonius rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoss, T. K.; Najjar, Y. S. H.

    Savonius rotor performance is improved by allowing both downwind and upwind rotor blades to swing back through an optimum angle. This will minimize the drag on the upwind blade and maximize the drag on the down-wind blade. A combination of 50 degrees upwind blade swing angle and 13.5 degrees downwind blade swing angle have been found experimentally to be the optimum swing angles that increased the rotor maximum power coefficient to about 23.5 percent compared with 18 percent with optimum upwind blade swing alone.

  7. 3X-100 blade field test.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose R.; Johnson, Wesley D.

    2008-03-01

    In support of a Work-For-Other (WFO) agreement between the Wind Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories and 3TEX, one of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas, has been used to test a set of 9 meter wind turbine blades, manufactured by TPI composites using the 3TEX carbon material for the spar cap. Data collected from the test has been analyzed to evaluate both the aerodynamic performance and the structural response from the blades. The blades aerodynamic and structural performance, the meteorological inflow and the wind turbine structural response has been monitored with an array of 57 instruments: 15 to characterize the blades, 13 to characterize inflow, and 15 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For the test, data was sampled at a rate of 40 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow, as well as both modeling and field testing results.

  8. Dynamic Response of Flexible Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qiao Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-stationary and stall flutter problems of wind turbine blade caused by transient load fluctuations, the dynamic properties of wind turbine were studied, the blade was simplify to a cantilever beam in case of the action of shear deformation and cross section rotating effect were considered in this analysis, equations of the blade were established based on D'Alemberts' principle and the principle of virtual displacement. The dynamic response of the wind turbine was solved by using the finite element method under the transient load environment. A 29.2 m rotor blade, previously reported in specialized literature, was chosen as a case study to validate dynamic behaviour predicted by a Timoshenko beam model. It is concluded that despite its simplicity, The cross-sectional shear-deformation  has great influence on  dynamic response of the blade.Dynamic model is sufficiently accurate to serve as a design tool for the recursive analyses required during design and optimization stages of wind turbines using only readily available computational tools.

  9. Modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, M.H.; Baumgart, A.; Carlen, I.

    2002-02-01

    The modal analysis technique has been used to identify essential dynamic properties of wind turbine blades like natural frequencies, damping characteristics and mode shapes. Different experimental procedures have been considered, and the most appropriate of these has been selected. Although the comparison is based on measurements on a LM 19 m blade, the recommendations given are believed to be valid for other wind turbine blades as well. The reliability of the selected experimental analysis has been quantified by estimating the unsystematic variations in the experimental findings. Satisfactory results have been obtained for natural frequencies, damping characteristics and for the dominating deflection direction of the investigated mode shapes. For the secondary deflection directions, the observed experimental uncertainty may be considerable - especially for the torsional deflection. The experimental analysis of the LM 19 m blade has been compared with results from a state-of-the-art FE-modeling of the same blade. For some of the higher modes substantial discrepancies between the natural frequencies originating from the FE-modeling and the modal analysis, respectively, are observed. In general the qualitative features of measured and computed modes shapes are in good agreement. However, for the secondary deflection directions, substantial deviations in the absolute values may occur (when normalizing with respect to the primary deflection direction). Finally, suggestions of potential future improvements of the experimental procedure are discussed. (au)

  10. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame of reference, the yaw error of a turbine can be appended to generate IPC actions that are able to achieve turbine yaw control for a turbine in free yaw. In this paper, IPC for yaw control is tested on a high-fidelity numerical model of a commercially produced wind turbine in free yaw. The tests show that yaw control using IPC has the distinct advantage that the yaw system loads and support structure loading are substantially reduced. However, IPC for yaw control also shows a reduction in IPC blade load reduction potential and causes a slight increase in pitch activity. Thus, the key contribution of this paper is the concept demonstration of IPC for yaw control. Further, using IPC for yaw as a tuning parameter, it is shown how the best trade-off between blade loading, pitch activity and support structure loading can be achieved for wind turbine design

  11. Rapid Growth of China Petroleum Machinery Manufacturing (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian; Sun Zuchen; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Technology for petroleum machinery design and manufacturing upgraded remarkably The basic research on rock bit. drilling pump. pump valve, piston, flooding pumps, derrick, shale shaker.hydraulic blowout preventer, torque converter, pumping unit. sucker rod. submersible pump. fracturing pump centrifugal pump. pneumatic parts, geophone and acquisition station has reached the advanced international level.

  12. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315 Section 169.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than...

  13. Mechatronics Applied to Fluid Film Bearings: Towards More Efficient Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier

    Film Bearings: Towards more Efficient Machinery" was aimed at improving the state of the art regarding the usage of fluid film bearings as "smart" machine elements. Specifically, this project dealt with a tilting pad journal bearing design that features a controllable lubrication system, capable...

  14. Design and modelling of innovative machinery systems for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik

    power outputs with a much simpler process layout in comparison. The toxic ammonia-water working fluid of the Kalina cycle is problematic for the use in marine machinery rooms, and so are the highly flammable ORC working fluids. Based on the analyses, no configuration of the Kalina cycle is recommended...

  15. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew;

    2010-01-01

    STAM2 specifically suppressed Akt activation, and a phosphorylation-deficient STAM2 mutant displayed prolonged localization on endosomes following EGF stimulation. These results reveal a novel link between the dephosphorylation and endocytic machinery and suggest that PTP1B can affect RTK signaling...

  16. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian;

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...

  17. An Automated Control System for Machinery Parts Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreshin, D. I.; Handozhko, A. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the problem of creating an automated system for controlling surface layer quality characteristics of machinery parts during machining. An automated system structure, its operation algorithm, mathematical support and work results are provided. The paper proves the necessity of using a self-learning mode in technological systems for providing set values of surface layer quality characteristics.

  18. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  19. Modulation of intracellular caspase machinery using organ culture approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Fleischmannová, Jana; Norek, Adam; Míšek, Ivan

    Brno : Fyziologický ústav LF MU, 2007, 8P. [Fyziologické dny /83./. Brno (CZ), 06.02.2007-08.02.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : caspase machinery Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  1. Market demand analysis of textile machinery industry in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Textile machinery industry is one important part concerning the development of textile industry,and its developing technical level symbolizes the advanced production force of textile industry and its advanced technology and independent innovation have much to do with the structural adjustment and technical progress of textile industry as well as the further improvement of labor capacity.

  2. The Architectural Organization of Human Stem Cell Cycle Regulatory Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lian, Jane B.; Montecino, Martin; Medina, Ricardo(Instituto de Matemática e Computação, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil); Kapinas, Kristie; Ghule, Prachi; Grandy, Rodrigo; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Becker, Klaus A.

    2012-01-01

    Two striking features of human embryonic stem cells that support biological activity are an abbreviated cell cycle and reduced complexity to nuclear organization. The potential implications for rapid proliferation of human embryonic stem cells within the context of sustaining pluripotency, suppressing phenotypic gene expression and linkage to simplicity in the architectural compartmentalization of regulatory machinery in nuclear microenvironments is explored. Characterization of the molecular...

  3. Diabetic Retinopathy and Damage to Mitochondrial Structure and Transport Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Qing; Kowluru, Renu A.

    2011-01-01

    Retinal mitochondria fusionγÇôfission and protein import machinery are severely affected in diabetes, and reversal of hyperglycemia fails to provide any benefit to these abnormalities, suggesting their role in the development and in the continued progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  4. A finite element diagnostic tool for turbine blade failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors initiated the development of a diagnostic tool for evaluating the reliability of low pressure steam turbine blades. Designated BLADE (Blade Life Algorithm for Design Evaluation), the program is developed specifically for use by utility engineers to assess and correct blade failures - providing details on stresses, natural frequencies and blade life which traditionally are proprietary to the turbine blade manufacturers. Developed as a stand alone, finite element based program, BLADE requires no previous expertise in modeling or analysis of blade designs. The user is prompted to provide basic blade and root dimensions, including any applicable cover and tiewire information. The program then utilizes this information to automatically generate a complete finite element model of the blade or blade group configuration, and calculate static and dynamic stresses in the airfoil, root, tenon and cover sections of the blade. Natural frequency and mode shapes are also calculated and available to the user. To assist the utility engineer interpret this information, the static and dynamic stress components are combined with the high and low cycle material properties using the BLADE-FATIGUE program to predict the time to fatigue crack initiation, using the local strain approach

  5. Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Resonant vibrations of aircraft engine blades cause blade fatigue problems in engines, which can lead to thicker and aerodynamically lower performing blade designs, increasing engine weight, fuel burn, and maintenance costs. In order to mitigate undesirable blade vibration levels, active piezoelectric vibration control has been investigated, potentially enabling thinner blade designs for higher performing blades and minimizing blade fatigue problems. While the piezoelectric damping idea has been investigated by other researchers over the years, very little study has been done including rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. The particular objectives of this study were: (a) to develop and analyze a multiphysics piezoelectric finite element composite blade model for harmonic forced vibration response analysis coupled with a tuned RLC circuit for rotating engine blade conditions, (b) to validate a numerical model with experimental test data, and (c) to achieve a cost-effective numerical modeling capability which enables simulation of rotating blades within the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. A numerical and experimental study for rotating piezoelectric composite subscale fan blades was performed. It was also proved that the proposed numerical method is feasible and effective when applied to the rotating blade base excitation model. The experimental test and multiphysics finite element modeling technique described in this paper show that piezoelectric vibration damping can significantly reduce vibrations of aircraft engine composite fan blades.

  6. Pressure Pulsation Signal Analysis for Centrifugal Compressor Blade Crack Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongkun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blade is a key piece of component for centrifugal compressor. But blade crack could usually occur as blade suffers from the effect of centrifugal forces, gas pressure, friction force, and so on. It could lead to blade failure and centrifugal compressor closing down. Therefore, it is important for blade crack early warning. It is difficult to determine blade crack as the information is weak. In this research, a pressure pulsation (PP sensor installed in vicinity to the crack area is used to determine blade crack according to blade vibration transfer process analysis. As it cannot show the blade crack information clearly, signal analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD are investigated for feature extraction and early warning. Firstly, signal filter is carried on PP signal around blade passing frequency (BPF based on working process analysis. Then, envelope analysis is carried on to filter the BPF. In the end, EMD is carried on to determine the characteristic frequency (CF for blade crack. Dynamic strain sensor is installed on the blade to determine the crack CF. Simulation and experimental investigation are carried on to verify the effectiveness of this method. The results show that this method can be helpful for blade crack classification for centrifugal compressors.

  7. Thermal-barrier-coated turbine blade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, P. A.; Hillig, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of coating TBC on a CF6-50 stage 2 high-pressure turbine blade were analyzed with respect to changes in the mean bulk temperature, cooling air requirements, and high-cycle fatigue. Localized spallation was found to have a possible deleterious effect on low-cycle fatigue life. New blade design concepts were developed to take optimum advantage of TBCs. Process and material development work and rig evaluations were undertaken which identified the most promising combination as ZrO2 containing 8 w/o Y2O3 applied by air plasma spray onto a Ni22Cr-10Al-1Y bond layer. The bond layer was applied by a low-pressure, high-velocity plasma spray process onto the base alloy. During the initial startup cycles the blades experienced localized leading edge spallation caused by foreign objects.

  8. Worn blades may have caused turbine failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroit Edison Co.'s decision not to replace eighth-stage blades in low-pressure turbine number three may have caused the event that damaged the turbine, generator, and exciter at Fermi-2 on December 25, 1993. This finding is included in the February 7 report of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Augmented Inspection Teams (AIT). GEC Turbine Generations Ltd. of England, manufacturer of the turbine, had recommended replacing the blades during the plant's third refueling outage in September 1992. Detroit Edison chose not to do so, stating in its report, open-quotes This wear is of the same magnitude as that noticed in RF01 [refueling outage 1] and it is not necessary to record this wear since all blades will be changed in RF04 [refueling outage 4].close quotes

  9. Aerodynamics of Rotor Blades for Quadrotors

    CERN Document Server

    Bangura, Moses; Naldi, Roberto; Mahony, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present the theory on aerodynamics of quadrotors using the well established momentum and blade element theories. From a robotics perspective, the theoretical development of the models for thrust and horizontal forces and torque (therefore power) are carried out in the body fixed frame of the quadrotor. Using momentum theory, we propose and model the existence of a horizontal force along with its associated power. Given the limitations associated with momentum theory and the inadequacy of the theory to account for the different powers represented in a proposed bond graph lead to the use of blade element theory. Using this theory, models are then developed for the different quadrotor rotor geometries and aerodynamic properties including the optimum hovering rotor used on the majority of quadrotors. Though this rotor is proven to be the most optimum rotor, we show that geometric variations are necessary for manufacturing of the blades. The geometric variations are also dictated by a desired th...

  10. Microtextured Surfaces for Turbine Blade Impingement Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc., has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of microstructured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system then can be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

  11. Methods of making wind turbine rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Jamie T. (Pensacola, FL); Burke, Arthur H. E. (Gulf Breeze, FL); Bakhuis, Jan Willem (Nijverdal, NL); Van Breugel, Sjef (Enschede, NL); Billen, Andrew (Daarlerveen, NL)

    2008-04-01

    A method of manufacturing a root portion of a wind turbine blade includes, in an exemplary embodiment, providing an outer layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, providing an inner layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, and positioning at least two bands of reinforcing fibers between the inner and outer layers, with each band of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers. The method further includes positioning a mat of randomly arranged reinforcing fibers between each pair of adjacent bands of reinforcing fibers, introducing a polymeric resin into the root potion of the wind turbine blade, infusing the resin through the outer layer, the inner layer, each band of reinforcing fibers, and each mat of random reinforcing fibers, and curing the resin to form the root portion of the wind turbine blade.

  12. Spreading granular material with a blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Singh, Vachitar; Grimaldi, Emma; Sauret, Alban

    2015-11-01

    The spreading of a complex fluid with a blade is encountered in applications that range from the bulldozing of granular material in construction projects to the coating of substrates with fluids in industrial applications. This spreading process is also present in everyday life, when we use a knife to turn a lump of peanut butter into a thin layer over our morning toast. In this study, we rely on granular media in a model experiment to describe the three-dimensional spreading of the material. Our experimental set-up allows tracking the spreading of a sandpile on a translating flat surface as the blade remains fixed. We characterize the spreading dynamics and the shape of the spread fluid layer when varying the tilt of the blade, its spacing with the surface and its speed. Our findings suggest that it is possible to tune the spreading parameters to optimize the coating.

  13. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  14. Computational method for the design of wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7.5, CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    Zeus Disenador was developed to design low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbine blades, by means of an iterative algorithm. With this software, it is possible to obtain the optimum blade shape for a wind turbine to satisfy energy requirements of an electric system with optimum rotor efficiency. The number of blades, the airfoil curves and the average wind velocity can be specified by the user. The user can also request particular edge conditions for the width of the blades and for the pitch angle. Results are provided in different windows. Two- and three-dimensional graphics show the aspect of the resultant blade. Numerical results are displayed for blade length, blade surface, pitch angle variation along the blade span, rotor angular speed, rotor efficiency and rotor output power. Software verifications were made by comparing rotor power and rotor efficiency for different designs. Results were similar to those provided by commercial wind generator manufacturers. (author)

  15. Research overview on vibration damping of mistuned bladed disk assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang ZHANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bladed disk assemblies are very important parts in auto engine and gas turbine, and is widely used in practical engineering. The mistuning existing commonly in the bladed disk assemblies can destroy the vibration characteristics of the bladed disk assemblies, which is one of the reasons for the high cycle fatigue failure of bladed disk assemblies, so it is necessary to research how to reduce the vibration of the bladed disk assemblies. On the basis of the review of relevant research at home and abroad, the mistuning vibration mechanism of the bladed disk assemblies is introduced, and the main technical methods of the vibration damping of bladed disk assemblies are reviewed, such as artificially active mistuning, collision damping, friction damping and optimization of the blade position. Some future research directions are presented.

  16. Linearization of friction effects in vibration of two rotating blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajžman M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of friction effects in blade shrouding which are realized by means of friction elements placed between blades. In order to develop a methodology of modelling, two blades with one friction element in between are considered only. Flexible blades fixed to a rotating disc are discretized by FEM using 1D Rayleigh beam elements derived in rotating space as well as the friction element modelled as a rigid body. The blades and the friction element are connected through two concurrent friction planes, where the friction forces arise on the basis of centrifugal force acting on the friction element. The linearization of friction is performed using the harmonic balance method to determine equivalent damping coefficients in dependence on the amplitudes of relative slip motion between the blades and the friction element. The methodology is applied to a model of two real blades and will be extended for the whole bladed disc with shrouding.

  17. Steel fiber composites for tidal turbine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen a drastic increase in focus on several types of renewable energy, including a still increasing interest in tidal power. This method of harnessing energy and the technology required to do so are relatively new, and even though a number of prototypes have been built during the last years, none have yet emerged as a standard or definite solution. As of today, all the prototypes have based their turbine blade technology on that of wind turbines, thus producing the blades ...

  18. New airfoil sections for straight bladed turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical investigation of aerodynamic performance for vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine with new airfoils sections is carried out. The blade section aerodynamics characteristics are determined from turbomachines cascade model. The model is also adapted to the vertical Darrieus turbine for the performance prediction of the machine. In order to choose appropriate value of zero-lift-drag coefficient in calculation, an analytical expression is introduced as function of chord-radius ratio and Reynolds numbers. New airfoils sections are proposed and analyzed for straight-bladed turbine

  19. Distribution of Defects in Wind Turbine Blades and Reliability Assessment of Blades Containing Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper two stochastic models for the distribution of defects in wind turbine blades are proposed. The first model assumes that the individual defects are completely randomly distributed in the blade. The second model assumes that the defects occur in clusters of different size based...... on the assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models additional information about number, type and size of the defects is included as stochastic variables. The probability of failure for a wind turbine blade will not only depend on variations in...

  20. Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. A series of analysis tasks were completed in support of the design effort. We began with a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology. This was followed by an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport and install large blades. Subsequently we identified several innovative design approaches that showed potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. The final stage of the project was used to develop several preliminary 50m blade designs. The key design impacts identified in this study are: (1) blade cross-sections, (2) alternative materials, (3) IEC design class, and (4) root attachment. The results show that thick blade cross-sections can provide a large reduction in blade weight, while maintaining high aerodynamic performance. Increasing blade thickness for inboard sections is a key method for improving structural efficiency and reducing blade weight. Carbon/glass hybrid blades were found to provide good improvements in blade weight, stiffness, and deflection when used in the main structural elements of the blade. The addition of carbon resulted in modest cost increases and provided significant benefits, particularly with respect to deflection. The change in design loads between IEC classes is quite significant. Optimized blades should be designed for each IEC design class. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of blade fasteners has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness.

  1. Premature failure of low pressure turbine blade of an aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low pressure turbine blade failed during the ground run of an aircraft engine. The failed blade was analyzed to find out the cause of failure. The material of the blade was Udimet -500, a high strength Ni-base super alloy. Low cycle fatigue was observed during fractography. Fatigue crack was originated from an ejected grain. When the crack reached to a critical size, the blade failed under overload condition. (author)

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades Using Radial Basis Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hung Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbine blades play important roles in wind energy generation. The dynamic problems associated with wind turbine blades are formulated using radial basis functions. The radial basis function procedure is used to transform partial differential equations, which represent the dynamic behavior of wind turbine blades, into a discrete eigenvalue problem. Numerical results demonstrate that rotational speed significantly impacts the first frequency of a wind turbine blade. Moreover, the...

  3. Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesauro, Angelo; Pavese, Christian; Branner, Kim

    Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology is an important way to find blade failure mechanisms and thereby improve the blade design. Condition monitoring of rotor blades is necessary in order to ensure the safe operation of the wind turbine, make the maintenance more economical......, unbalancing of the rotor, icing and lightning. Research is done throughout the world in order to develop and improve such measurement systems. Commercial hardware and software available for the described purpose is presented in the report....

  4. Reconstruction of Vital Blade Signal from Unsteady Casing Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Hee Lim; Leong, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Some important information pertaining to blade fault is thought to be concealed in highly unsteady casing vibration. This paper explores suitable methods to best reconstruct blade related signals from raw casing vibration, which could be used for diagnosis of blade fault. The feasibility of translation invariant wavelet transform and cycle spinning (TIWT-CS) technique in reconstruction of these signals is investigated in this paper. Subsequently, a new parameter for blade fault diagnosis, nam...

  5. Experimental Investigation On Design Of High Pressure Steam Turbine Blade

    OpenAIRE

    SUBRAMANYAM PAVULURI, DR. A. SIVA KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental investigation on design of high pressure steam turbine blade addresses the issue of steam turbine efficiency. A specific focus on aerofoil profile for high pressure turbine blade, and it evaluates the effectiveness of certain Chromium and Nickel in resisting creep and fracture in turbine blades. The capable of thermal and chemical conditions in blade substrate from to prevent the corrosion when exposed to wet steam. The efficiency of the steam turbine is a key factor in both ...

  6. Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchford, Corey

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is a fast-growing source of non-polluting, renewable energy with vast potential. However, current wind technology must be improved before the potential of wind power can be fully realized. One of the key components in improving wind turbines is their blades. Blade failure is very costly because blade failure can damage other blades, the wind turbine itself, and possibly other wind turbines. A successful structural health monitoring (SHM) system incorporated into wind turbines c...

  7. Design and Analysis of Composite Propeller Blade for Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhan BM; Dr P.V Srihari

    2014-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composites is used for twin blade propeller because of its high strength, low temperature applications. Fiber has to be oriented in the loading direction while designing the composite propeller blade. The blade geometry and design are more complex involving many controlling parameters. In the present work a methodology to design a composite propeller to analyze its strength and deformation using ANSYS software. The weight of the composite blade is reduced comp...

  8. Application of circulation controlled blades for vertical axis wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Velissarios Kourkoulis; Andrew Shires

    2013-01-01

    The blades of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor see an inconsistent angle of attack through its rotation. Consequently, VAWT blades generally use symmetrical aerofoils with a lower lift-to-drag ratio than cambered aerofoils tailored to maximise horizontal axis wind turbine rotor performance. This paper considers the feasibility of circulation controlled (CC) VAWT blades, using a tangential air jet to provide lift and therefore power augmentation. However CC blade sections require a hi...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  10. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  11. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  12. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  13. Multidisciplinary design optimization of film-cooled gas turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Shashishekara S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Design optimization of a gas turbine blade geometry for effective film cooling toreduce the blade temperature has been done using a multiobjective optimization formulation. Three optimization formulations have been used. In the first, the average blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint has been imposed on the maximum blade temperature. In the second, the maximum blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized with an upper bound constraint on the average blade temperature. In the third formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. Shape optimization is performed using geometric parameters associated with film cooling and blade external shape. A quasi-three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver for turbomachinery flows is used to solve for the flow field external to the blade with appropriate modifications to incorporate the effect of film cooling. The heat transfer analysis for temperature distribution within the blade is performed by solving the heat diffusion equation using the finite element method. The multiobjective Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser function approach has been used in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique for optimization. The results obtained using both formulations are compared with reference geometry. All three formulations yield significant reductions in blade temperature with the multiobjective formulation yielding largest reduction in blade temperature.

  14. Controller Design for Blade Load Reduction Using Synthetic Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    strain gauges along the blade and the tower to estimate the contribution of each blade modal state to the vibration of the tower and the blades. The synthetic jet actuators are then controlled, such that the desired vibration modes are damped effectively. Designed estimator and controller are implemented...

  15. Digital radiographic technology; non-destructive testing of tubine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Penumadu, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Inspection of turbine blades has always been a big challenge. Any irregularities in the blade have a huge impact on the gas turbine, so these blades have to be manufactured and inspected in the most sophisticated way possible. The evolution of digital radiographic technology took a leap forward to solve these problems in the industry environment which also enhances production quality and reduce rework.

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  17. Structural experiment of wind turbine blades; Fushayo blade no zairyo rikigakuteki jikken kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Kuroyanagi, H. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Aluminum, GFRP and composite of aluminum coated with carbon as structural materials for wind turbine blades were bending-tested, to improve blade bending stiffness, understand stress conditions at each position, and clarify structural dynamic strength by the bending-failure test. It is possible to estimate stress conditions at each position from the test results of displacement and strain at each load. The test results with GFRP are well explained qualitatively by the boundary theory, known as a theory for composite materials. The test gives reasonable material strength data, useful for designing wind turbines of high functions and safety. The results of the blade bending-failure test are in good agreement with the calculated structural blade strength. It is also found that GFRP is a good material of high structural strength for wind turbines. 8 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Effects of Blade to Blade Dissimilarities on Rotor Body Lead Lag Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Small blade-to-blade property differences are investigated to determine how they affect the behavior of a simple rotor-body system. An analytical approach is used which emphasizes the significance of these effects from the experimental point of view. It is found that the primary effect of blade-to-blade dissimilarities is the appearance of additional peaks in the frequency spectrum which are separated from the conventional response peaks by multiples of the rotor speed. These additional responses are potential experimental problems because when they occur near a mode of interest they act as contaminant frequencies which can make damping measurements difficult. Increased rotor-body coupling and a rotor shaft degree of freedom act to improve the situation by altering the frequency separation of the modes.

  19. Effects of blade-to-blade dissimilarities on rotor-body lead-lag dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnulty, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Small blade-to-blade property differences are investigated to determine their effects on the behavior of a simple rotor-body system. An analytical approach is used which emphasizes the significance of these effects from the experimental point of view. It is found that the primary effect of blade-to-blade dissimilarities is the appearance of additional peaks in the frequency spectrum which are separated from the convention response modes by multiples of the rotor speed. These additional responses are potential experimental problems because when they occur near a mode of interest they act as contaminant frequencies which can make damping measurements difficult. The effects of increased rotor-body coupling and a rotor shaft degree of freedom act to improve the situation by altering the frequency separation of the modes.

  20. 30 CFR 57.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Surface Only § 57.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and...

  1. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a nautical school ship to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly, and if he finds any...

  2. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing... December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing...

  3. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  4. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T/ALL....

  5. 46 CFR 174.200 - Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. 174... Vessels § 174.200 Damaged stability in machinery spaces for all OSVs. Each OSV must be shown by design... case of damage between any two watertight bulkheads in each machinery space....

  6. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  8. 9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../bone separation machinery; process control. 318.24 Section 318.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD.../bone separation machinery; process control. (a) General. Meat, as defined in § 301.2 of this subchapter... this subchapter, using advances in mechanical meat/bone separation machinery (i.e., AMR systems)...

  9. 30 CFR 57.3460 - Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance between machinery or equipment and... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Underground Only § 57.3460 Maintenance between machinery or equipment and ribs. Persons shall not perform maintenance work between machinery or equipment and...

  10. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous materials in machinery or apparatus are excepted from the specification packaging requirements of...

  11. 76 FR 67181 - Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Windsor Machinery Co., Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Windsor Machinery Co., Inc. filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... an annual generation of 1,600 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Sarah L. Bower, Windsor Machinery...

  12. 33 CFR 150.620 - What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... machinery through the use of guard devices or other measures that comply with 29 CFR 1910.212, or through... protecting personnel from machinery? 150.620 Section 150.620 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Machine Guards § 150.620 What are the requirements for protecting personnel from machinery?...

  13. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-40 Category A machinery spaces: Insulation—T/ALL. Structural...

  14. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment and machinery? 393.130 Section 393.130 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front...

  15. 46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section 4-6-4/13.5 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1). (d... machinery plants. 62.50-30 Section 62.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants. Note: Periodically unattended machinery...

  16. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and... containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter....

  17. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  18. 46 CFR 153.233 - Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of tanks from machinery, service and other... Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.233 Separation of tanks from machinery, service and... joint: (1) Machinery spaces. (2) Service spaces. (3) Accommodation spaces. (4) Spaces for...

  19. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  20. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  1. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.404 Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. (a) Mobile and stationary machinery and equipment shall be maintained in...

  2. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... machinery. Except as otherwise provided by law or regulations in this subpart, the following standards shall... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  3. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  4. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC H-32 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements §...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Machinery Sectors A Appendix A to Part 438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL PRODUCTS AND MACHINERY POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors AEROSPACE...

  6. Effect of blade outlet angle on radial thrust of single-blade centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y.; Fukutomi, J.; Fujiwara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Single-blade centrifugal pumps are widely used as sewage pumps. However, a large radial thrust acts on a single blade during pump operation because of the geometrical axial asymmetry of the impeller. This radial thrust causes vibrations of the pump shaft, reducing the service life of bearings and shaft seal devices. Therefore, to ensure pump reliability, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the radial thrust and clarify the behavior and generation mechanism. This study investigated the radial thrust acting on two kinds of single-blade centrifugal impellers having different blade outlet angles by experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Furthermore, the radial thrust was modeled by a combination of three components, inertia, momentum, and pressure, by applying an unsteady conservation of momentum to this impeller. As a result, the effects of the blade outlet angle on both the radial thrust and the modeled components were clarified. The total head of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases more than the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8 degrees at a large flow rate. In this case, since the static pressure of the circumference of the impeller increases uniformly, the time-averaged value of the radial thrust of both impellers does not change at every flow rate. On the other hand, since the impeller blade loading becomes large, the fluctuation component of the radial thrust of the impeller with the blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases. If the blade outlet angle increases, the fluctuation component of the inertia component will increase, but the time-averaged value of the inertia component is located near the origin despite changes in the flow rate. The fluctuation component of the momentum component becomes large at all flow rates. Furthermore, although the time-averaged value of the pressure component is almost constant, the fluctuation component of the pressure component becomes large at a large flow rate

  7. Wind turbine blades condition assessment based on vibration measurements and the level of an empirically decomposed feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We used finite element method to model wind turbine induced vibration characteristics. ► We developed a technique for eliminating wind turbine’s vibration modulation problems. ► We use empirical mode decomposition to decompose the vibration into its fundamental elements. ► We show the area under shaft speed is a good indicator for assessing wind blades condition. ► We validate the technique under different wind turbine speeds and blade (cracks) conditions. - Abstract: Vibration based monitoring techniques are well understood and widely adopted for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery. However, in the case of wind turbines the measured vibration is complex due to the high number of vibration sources and modulation phenomenon. Therefore, extracting condition related information of a specific element e.g. blade condition is very difficult. In the work presented in this paper wind turbine vibration sources are outlined and then a three bladed wind turbine vibration was simulated by building its model in the ANSYS finite element program. Dynamic analysis was performed and the fundamental vibration characteristics were extracted under two healthy blades and one blade with one of four cracks introduced. The cracks were of length (10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm and 40 mm), all had a consistent 3 mm width and 2 mm depth. The tests were carried out for three rotation speeds; 150, 250 and 360 r/min. The effects of the seeded faults were revealed by using a novel approach called empirically decomposed feature intensity level (EDFIL). The developed EDFIL algorithm is based on decomposing the measured vibration into its fundamental components and then determines the shaft rotational speed amplitude. A real model of the simulated wind turbine was constructed and the simulation outcomes were compared with real-time vibration measurements. The cracks were seeded sequentially in one of the blades and their presence and severity were determined by decomposing

  8. Structural characterization of rotor blades through photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Giovanni; Serafini, Jacopo; Enei, Claudio; Mattioni, Luca; Ficuciello, Corrado; Vezzari, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the use of photogrammetry for the experimental identification of structural and inertial properties of helicopter rotor blades4. The identification procedure is based upon theoretical/numerical algorithms for the evaluation of mass and flexural stiffness distributions which are an extension of those proposed in the past by Larsen, whereas the torsional properties (stiffness and shear center position) are determined through the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The identification algorithms require the knowledge of the blade displacement field produced by known steady loads. These data are experimentally obtained through photogrammetric detection technique, which allows the identification of 3D coordinates of labeled points (markers) on the structure through the correlation of 2D digital photos. Indeed, the displacement field is simply evaluated by comparing the markers positions on the loaded configuration with those on the reference one. The proposed identification procedure, numerically and experimentally validated in the past by the authors, has been here applied to the structural characterization of two main rotor blades, designed for ultra-light helicopters. Strain gauges measurements have been used to assess the accuracy of the identified properties through natural frequencies comparison as well as to evaluate the blades damping characteristics.

  9. Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The present paper analyses the possibility of reducing the expected damage accumulation during tower passage by modifying the wind turbine tower design from a traditional mono-tower to a tripod. Due to a narrow stagnation zone the stress reversals and hence the damage accumulation in the blades i...

  10. Modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, M.H.; Baumgart, A.; Carlén, I.

    2002-01-01

    The modal analysis technique has been used to identify essential dynamic properties of wind turbine blades like natural frequencies, damping characteristics and mode shapes. Different experimental procedures have been considered, and the most appropriateof these has been selected. Although the co...

  11. Mathematical Model of Two Blades System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2014), s. 361-369. ISSN 2321-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : turbine blades * dry friction * vibration damping * torsion Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  12. The trend of German packaging machinery design%德国包装机械设计趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Germany, the US, Japan and Italy are among the world big packaging machinery countries. The German packaging machinery takes the lead in the fields of design, manufacture and technical performance. German packaging machinery valued at Euro 3.4 billion in 2002.70%of the European packaging machinery is made by Germany. Germany exports 77% packaging machinery; amounting to 29% of the export market of the world packaging machinery.

  13. DEM Simulations of Granular Secondary Flow in Cylindrical Vertical Bladed Mixer – Effect of Blade Rake.

    OpenAIRE

    Trávníčková, T. (Tereza); Havlica, J. (Jaromír); Kohout, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mixing of granular systems is one of the most used chemical engineering unit operations. However, detailed description of the dynamics of granular flows through experiments is difficult. Therefore, usage of mathematical modeling increases. In this paper we deal with DEM (Discreet Element Method) simulations of mixing glass beads in a cylindrical vertical bladed mixer. The aim of this work is to describe the influence of blade rake on the development of granular secondary flows for different s...

  14. Separated Pitch Control at Tip: Innovative Blade Design Explorations for Large MW Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a separated pitch control at blade tip (SePCaT control strategy for large megawatt (MW wind turbine blade and explorations of innovative blade designs as a result of such deployment. SePCaT configurations varied from five to thirty percent of the blade length in 5 percentage increments (SePCaT5, SePCaT10, SePCaT15, SePCaT20, SePCaT25, and SePCaT30 are evaluated by comparing them to aerodynamical responses of the traditional blade. For low, moderate, high, and extreme wind speed variations treated as 10, 20, 30, and 40 percent of reference wind speeds, rotor power abatement in region 3 of the wind speed power curve is realized by feathering full length blade by 6, 9, 12, and 14 degrees, respectively. Feathering SePCaT30, SePCaT25, SePCaT20, and SePCaT15 by 14, 16, 26, and 30 degrees, respectively, achieves the same power abatement results when compared to traditional blade at low wind speeds. Feathering SePCaT30, SePCaT25, and SePCaT20 by 18, 26, and 30 degrees on the other hand has the same effect at high wind speeds. SePCaT30 feathered to 26 and 30 degrees has the same abatement effects when compared to traditional blade at high and extreme wind speeds.

  15. How Polyomaviruses Exploit the ERAD Machinery to Cause Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupzyk, Allison; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    To infect cells, polyomavirus (PyV) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it hijacks elements of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus transports to the nucleus, enabling transcription and replication of the viral genome that leads to lytic infection or cellular transformation. How PyV exploits the ERAD machinery to cross the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step, remains enigmatic. However, recent studies have slowly unraveled many aspects of this process. These emerging insights should advance our efforts to develop more effective therapies against PyV-induced human diseases. PMID:27589785

  16. Intermetallic blades for fabric cutting. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Blue, C.A.; Sklad, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shih, H.R. [Jackson State Univ., MS (United States); Off, J.W.A. [Textile/Clothing Technology Corp., Cary, NC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the evaluation of nickel- and iron-aluminide blades for cutting fabric as opposed to conventional steel blades. The aluminides were selected as blade material because of their extremely high work-hardening rate and the possibility of forming aluminum oxide on the surface to further enhance the wear resistance. Unlike steel blades, they do not require heat treating to become strong. A testing facility using an Eastman cutter was designed and built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing of blades. Denim fabric supplied by Levi Strauss was used. For lack of sufficient fabric, heavy paper was also used. Extensive testing revealed that there were several issues in getting the true comparison between various blades. The most important issue was the consistent sharpening of the blade edge. With all of the effort and precautions, identical edges could not be put on the blades of all the different materials. The second issue was the limited availability of fabric to evaluate the end-of-life limit for the blade edges. Two nickel- and three iron-aluminide compositions were evaluated. Under test conditions, the iron-aluminide alloy (PM-60), based on FeAl, was found to outperform other aluminides and the steel blade. Based on the data presented in this report, the authors recommend that additional testing be carried out on both the steel and aluminide blades to determine the number of times each blade can be sharpened prior to its replacement. However, the recommended testing needs to be conducted on blades for which the identical cutting edges and sharpening are incorporated. They further recommend that if the iron-aluminide blade is truly superior, a cost analysis be performed to determine its commercial feasibility. The best aluminide blades should be tested by commercial textile companies.

  17. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER316L austenitic stainless steel filler wire and ER410 martensitic stainless steel filler wire. The repair welding procedure with austenitic filler wire was developed to avoid preheating of the blade as also hydrogen induced cold cracking, and involved evaluation of three different austenitic filler wires, viz. ER309L, ER316L and ERNiCr-3. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microstructural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld, was found to give the most satisfactory results. A similar procedure was used for preheating while using ER410 filler metal. Mechanical testing of weldments before and after PWHT involved tensile tests at room temperature, face and root bend tests, and microhardness measurements across the fusion line and heat affected zone. During procedure qualification, mock-ups and actual repair welding, dye penetrant testing was used at different stages and where ever possible radiography was carried out. These procedures were developed for repair welding of cracked blades in the low-pressure (LP) steam turbines of Indian nuclear power plants. The procedure with ER316 L filler wire has so far been applied for repair welding of 2 cracked blades (made of AISI 410 SS) of LP steam turbines, while the procedure

  18. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)]|[Nuclear Power Corp., Mumbai (India)

    1999-07-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER316L austenitic stainless steel filler wire and ER410 martensitic stainless steel filler wire. The repair welding procedure with austenitic filler wire was developed to avoid preheating of the blade as also hydrogen induced cold cracking, and involved evaluation of three different austenitic filler wires, viz. ER309L, ER316L and ERNiCr-3. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microstructural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld, was found to give the most satisfactory results. A similar procedure was used for preheating while using ER410 filler metal. Mechanical testing of weldments before and after PWHT involved tensile tests at room temperature, face and root bend tests, and microhardness measurements across the fusion line and heat affected zone. During procedure qualification, mock-ups and actual repair welding, dye penetrant testing was used at different stages and where ever possible radiography was carried out. These procedures were developed for repair welding of cracked blades in the low-pressure (LP) steam turbines of Indian nuclear power plants. The procedure with ER316 L filler wire has so far been applied for repair welding of 2 cracked blades (made of AISI 410 SS) of LP steam turbines, while the procedure

  19. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu; Tzou, Gow-Yi; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Hwang, Yunn-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate the latest advancements of relevant fundamental and applied research works of high quality to the inter- national community. The topics of the accepted articles in the special issue include precision...

  20. Pictet–Spengler reaction-based biosynthetic machinery in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei; Ge, Hui Ming; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Nan; Mei, Ya Ning; Jiang, Rong; Li, Sui Jun; Chen, Chao Jun; Jiao, Rui Hua; Xu, Qiang; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The Pictet–Spengler (PS) reaction constructs many important phytochemicals such as morphine and camptothecin, but it has not yet been noticed in the fungal kingdom. Here, the startup of the PS reaction-based silent fungal biosynthetic machinery is presented to generate unforeseeably “unnatural” natural products of unprecedented carbon skeletons with antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. The gene-implied enzyme inhibition strategy is introduced to facilitate understandi...

  1. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  2. Selling Machinery to China: Chinese Perceptions of Strategies and Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Norman McGuinness; Nigel Campbell; James Leontiades

    1991-01-01

    Chinese perceptions of machinery suppliers from six countries are used to evaluate supplier strategies and the customer relationships formed. Strategies based on product quality and service had the greatest impact on preferences. The relationship formed seemed to reflect mainly the perceived value of the product service-package offered. “Friendship” in the traditional Chinese sense did not seem to be a strong characteristic of these relationships.© 1991 JIBS. Journal of International Business...

  3. The Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery by Bayesian Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A Bayesian Network is a reasoning tool based on probability theory and has many advantages that other reasoning tools do not have. This paper discusses the basic theory of Bayesian networks and studies the problems in constructing Bayesian networks. The paper also constructs a Bayesian diagnosis network of a reciprocating compressor. The example helps us to draw a conclusion that Bayesian diagnosis networks can diagnose reciprocating machinery effectively.

  4. The protein machinery of vesicle budding and fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, J E

    1996-01-01

    A general protein machinery that buds and fuses transport vesicles is harnessed to generate the complex web of intracellular transport pathways critical for such diverse processes as cell growth, endocytosis, hormone release, and neurotransmission. With this appreciation, the challenge of understanding the precise molecular mechanisms of these many facets of cell biology has been reduced to a series of problems in protein structure and chemistry.

  5. CFD Analysis of Cavitation Erosion Potential in Hydraulic Machinery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlář, M.; Zima, Patrik; Müller, M.

    Brno : University of Technology, 2009 - (Rudolf, P.), s. 205-214 ISBN 978-80-214-3947-4. [IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems /3./. Brno (CZ), 14.10.2009-16.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/1612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cavitation erosion * bubble dynamics * CFD analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  6. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  7. Architecture and regulation of negative-strand viral enzymatic machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Kranzusch, Philip J.; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses initiate infection with a unique polymerase complex that mediates both mRNA transcription and subsequent genomic RNA replication. For nearly all NS RNA viruses, distinct enzymatic domains catalyzing RNA polymerization and multiple steps of 5′ mRNA cap formation are contained within a single large polymerase protein (L). While NS RNA viruses include a variety of emerging human and agricultural pathogens, the enzymatic machinery driving viral replication and gen...

  8. Wireless Condition-based Maintenance System for Rotating Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Van Tung

    2011-01-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) presently plays an important role in avoiding unexpected failures, improving machine reliability, and providing accurate maintenance records and activities for rotating machinery. Traditional wired sensors commonly used for gathering data are costly and of limited value in industry. Recently, together with the advancement of sensor technology and communication networks, sensors have been virtually metamorphosed into smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent ones...

  9. Rotating machinery prognostics: State of the art, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Aiwina; Zhang, Sheng; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph

    2009-04-01

    Machinery prognosis is the forecast of the remaining operational life, future condition, or probability of reliable operation of an equipment based on the acquired condition monitoring data. This approach to modern maintenance practice promises to reduce downtime, spares inventory, maintenance costs, and safety hazards. Given the significance of prognostics capabilities and the maturity of condition monitoring technology, there have been an increasing number of publications on rotating machinery prognostics in the past few years. These publications covered a wide spectrum of prognostics techniques. This review article first synthesises and places these individual pieces of information in context, while identifying their merits and weaknesses. It then discusses the identified challenges, and in doing so, alerts researchers to opportunities for conducting advanced research in the field. Current methods for predicting rotating machinery failures are summarised and classified as conventional reliability models, condition-based prognostics models and models integrating reliability and prognostics. Areas in need of development or improvement include the integration of condition monitoring and reliability, utilisation of incomplete trending data, consideration of effects from maintenance actions and variable operating conditions, derivation of the non-linear relationship between measured data and actual asset health, consideration of failure interactions, practicability of requirements and assumptions, as well as development of performance evaluation frameworks.

  10. Wavy-Planform Helicopter Blades Make Less Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    Wavy-planform rotor blades for helicopters have been investigated for the first time in an effort to reduce noise. Two of the main sources of helicopter noise are blade/vortex interaction (BVI) and volume displacement. (The noise contributed by volume displacement is termed thickness noise.) The reduction in noise generated by a wavyplanform blade, relative to that generated by an otherwise equivalent straight-planform blade, affects both main sources: (1) the BVI noise is reduced through smoothing and defocusing of the aerodynamic loading on the blade and (2) the thickness noise is reduced by reducing gradients of thickness with respect to listeners on the ground.

  11. New Design of Blade Untwisting Device of Cyclone Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Misiulia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new design of a blade untwisting device where blades are considered as a main element of the device. A profile of the blades corresponds to a circular arch. An inlet angle of  the blades is determined by stream aerodynamics in an exhaust pipe, and an exit angle is determined by rectilinear gas motion. Optimum geometrical parameters of the untwisting device have been determined and its application allows to reduce a pressure drop in the ЦН-15 cyclones by 28–30 % while screw-blade untwisting device recovers only 19–20 % of energy.

  12. Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  13. Vibration-based SHM System: Application to Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, D.; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2015-01-01

    propagate along the blade and are measured by an array of accelerometers. Unsupervised learning is applied to the data: the vibration patterns corresponding to the undamaged blade are used to create a statistical model of the reference state. During the detection stage, the current vibration pattern is......This study presents an vibration-based system designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades. Mechanical energy is introduced by means of an electromechanical actuator mounted inside the blade. The actuator's plunger periodically hits the blade structure; the induced vibrations...

  14. An alternative simple method in laryngoscope blade decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Mehmet Emin; Saygun, Onur; Güzeldemir, M Erdal

    2002-06-01

    The cleaning and disinfection of laryngoscope blades is controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of two different chemical disinfectant agents and tap water where the laryngoscope blades were contaminated by different microorganisms and try to create a simple, effective and easy decontamination method. The results of our study demonstrate that the decontamination of the laryngoscope blades, which are cleansed with tap water, is not a reliable approach. In conclusion, mechanical cleaning of blades with water and the immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 10% polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine for 10 minutes is an effective method for decontamination of laryngoscope blades. PMID:12138517

  15. Alternate blade cavitation on inducer; Inducer no kogoyoku cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, M. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Huang, J.; Zhang, J.

    1996-08-25

    Concerning a flat-helical inducer with two blades, examinations on suction performance, cavitation development and internal flow conditions of the impeller were performed. As the suction pressure is reduced, the balanced cavity development on both blades is destroyed. Alternate blade cavitation, in which cavity development evolves on one blade while weakens on the other, can occur. When the alternate blade cavitation occurs, the theoretical and actual pump heads can decrease quickly. The following investigations were conducted to determine how this phenomenon develops. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Thermal Imaging of Medical Saw Blades and Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Steffner, Thomas E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Better Than New, LLC., has developed a surface treatment to reduce the friction and wear of orthopedic saw blades and guides. The medical saw blades were thermally imaged while sawing through fresh animal bone and an IR camera was used to measure the blade temperature as it exited the bone. The thermal performance of as-manufactured saw blades was compared to surface-treated blades, and a freshly used blade was used for temperature calibration purposes in order to account for any emissivity changes due to organic transfer layers. Thermal imaging indicates that the treated saw blades cut faster and cooler than untreated blades. In orthopedic surgery, saw guides are used to perfectly size the bone to accept a prosthesis. However, binding can occur between the blade and guide because of misalignment. This condition increases the saw blade temperature and may result in tissue damage. Both treated ad untreated saw guides were also studied. The treated saw guide operated at a significantly lower temperature than untreated guide. Saw blades and guides that operate at a cooler temperature are expected to reduce the amount of tissue damage (thermal necrosis) and may reduce the number of post-operative complications.

  17. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2013-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) TMF, (2) Oxidation/erosion (O/E), and (3) Other. From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L10 blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to O/E equaled that attributed to TMF. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were no blade failures attributed to O/E and TMF, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  18. Application of optimization methods to helicopter rotor blade design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Walsh, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for the minimum weight design of helicopter rotor blades with constraints on multiple coupled flap-lag natural frequencies, autorotational inertia, and centrifugal stress is presented. Optimum designs are obtained for blades with both rectangular and tapered planforms and are compared within a reference blade. The effects of higher-frequency constraints and stress constraints on the optimum blade designs are assessed. The results indicate that there is an increase in blade weight and a significant change in the design variable distributions with an increase in the number of frequency constraints. The inclusion of stress constraints has different effects on the wall thickness distributions of rectangular and tapered blades, but tends to increase the magnitude of the nonstructural segment weight distributions for both blade types.

  19. Structural Analysis and Design of the Composite Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Young, Wen-Bin

    2012-06-01

    The wind turbine blade sustains various kinds of loadings during the operation and parking state. Due to the increasing size of the wind turbine blade, it is important to arrange the composite materials in a sufficient way to reach the optimal utilization of the material strength. Most of the composite blades are made of glass fibers composites while carbon fibers are also employed in recent years. Composite materials have the advantages of high specific strength and stress. This study develops a GUI interface to construct the blade model for the stress analysis using ANSYS. With the aid of visualization interface, the geometric model of the blade can be constructed by only a few data inputs. Based on the numerical stress analysis of the turbine blade, a simple iterative method was proposed to design the structure of the composite blade.

  20. Study on Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Turbomachinery Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naixing CHEN; Hongwu ZHANG; Weiguang HUANG; Yanji XU

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the study on aerodynamics design optimization of turbomachinery blading developed by the authors at the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, during the recent few years. The present paper describes the aspects mainly on how to use a rapid approach of profiling a 3D blading and of grid generation for computation, a fast and accurate viscous computation method and an appropriate optimization methodology_ including a blade parameterization algorithm to optimize turbomachinery blading aerodynamically. Any blade configuration can be expressed by three curves, they are the camber lines, the thickness distributions and the radial stacking line, and then the blade geometry can be easily parameterized by a number of parameters with three polynomials. A gradient-based parameterization analytical method and a response surface method were applied herein for blade optimization. It was found that the optimization process provides reliable design for turbomachinery with reasonable computing time.

  1. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  2. Deflection estimation of a wind turbine blade using FBG sensors embedded in the blade bonding line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the deflection of flexible composite wind turbine blades is very important to prevent the blades from hitting the tower. Several researchers have used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors—a type of optical fiber sensor (OFS)—to monitor the structural behavior of the blades. They can be installed on the surface and/or embedded in the interior of composites. However, the typical installation positions of OFSs present several problems, including delamination of sensing probes and a higher risk of fiber breakage during installation. In this study, we proposed using the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap as a new installation position of embedded OFSs for estimating the deflection of the blades. Laboratory coupon tests were undertaken preliminarily to confirm the strain measuring capability of embedded FBG sensors in adhesive layers, and the obtained values were verified by comparison with results obtained by electrical strain gauges and finite element analysis. We performed static loading tests on a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade to evaluate its deflections using embedded FBG sensors positioned in the bonding line. The deflections were estimated by classical beam theory considering a rigid body rotation near the tip of the blade. The evaluated tip deflections closely matched those measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Therefore, we verified the capability of embedded FBG sensors for evaluating the deflections of wind turbine blades. In addition, we confirmed that the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap is a practical location to embed the FBG sensors. (paper)

  3. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yang; Ouyang Hua; Du Zhao-Hui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA), the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pres...

  4. Manufacturing of ceramic cutting blades by PIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rak, Z.S.; Snijders, G. [ECN Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    Ceramic cutting blades of differing size and thickness varying between 0.15-0.60 mm are manufactured by powder injection moulding (PIM) using a feedstock based on the yttria partially stabilised zirconia (TZ-3YS) powder and polyacetal-based system. The injection process ensures a high production efficiency, and is followed by a short catalytic debinding process (1 -3 h) at the temperatures of 105-115C. The sintered blades are machined to the final thickness, and if necessary, undergo an additional heat treatment in reducing conditions to improve the mechanical properties of the product. The influence of the manufacturing procedure on the quality of the final product is discussed. A comparison of the degree of densification, micro-structure and mechanical properties of ceramic knives manufactured by PIM, uniaxial pressing and tape casting is reviewed. 11 refs.

  5. An aerodynamic study on flexed blades for VAWT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Daniel; Farrugia, Russell; Sant, Tonio; Mollicone, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    There is renewed interest in aerodynamics research of VAWT rotors. Lift type, Darrieus designs sometimes use flexed blades to have an 'egg-beater shape' with an optimum Troposkien geometry to minimize the structural stress on the blades. While straight bladed VAWTs have been investigated in depth through both measurements and numerical modelling, the aerodynamics of flexed blades has not been researched with the same level of detail. Two major effects may have a substantial impact on blade performance. First, flexing at the equator causes relatively strong trailing vorticity to be released. Secondly, the blade performance at each station along the blade is influenced by self-induced velocities due to bound vorticity. The latter is not present in a straight bladed configuration. The aim of this research is to investigate these effects in relation to an innovative 4kW wind turbine concept being developed in collaboration with industry known as a self-adjusting VAWT (or SATVAWT). The approach used in this study is based on experimental and numerical work. A lifting line free-wake vortex model was developed. Wind tunnel power and hot-wire velocity measurements were performed on a scaled down, 60cm high, three bladed model in a closed wind tunnel. Results show a substantial axial wake induction at the equator resulting in a lower power generation at this position. This induction increases with increasing degree of flexure. The self-induced velocities caused by blade bound vorticity at a particular station was found to be relatively small.

  6. Design and Analysis of Composite Propeller Blade for Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan BM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced composites is used for twin blade propeller because of its high strength, low temperature applications. Fiber has to be oriented in the loading direction while designing the composite propeller blade. The blade geometry and design are more complex involving many controlling parameters. In the present work a methodology to design a composite propeller to analyze its strength and deformation using ANSYS software. The weight of the composite blade is reduced compared to wooden blade by adopting the shell model. The present work is to carryout the static analysis of composite propeller which is a combination CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics and epoxy resin materials. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the composite blade over wooden stress analysis is performed on both the blades. To define the orientation and number of layers in the composite blade ANSYS classic software is used. From the results, the stresses of composite propeller obtained in static analysis are within the allowable stress limit. The deflection of the composite blade is less compared to the wooden blade.

  7. Influence of delayed excitation on vibrations of turbine blades couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, the computational model of the turbine blade couple is investigated with the main attention to the influence two harmonic excitation forces, having the same frequency and amplitude but with moderate delay in time. Time delay between the exciting harmonic forces depends on the revolutions of bladed disk, on the number of blades on a rotating disk and on the number of stator blades. The reduction of resonance vibrations realized by means of dry friction between the shroud blade-heads increases roughly proportional to the difference of stator and rotor blade-numbers and also to the magnitude of dry friction force. From the analysis of blade couple with direct contact it was proved that the increase of friction forces causes decrease of resonance peaks, but the influence of elastic micro-deformations in the contact surfaces (modeled e.g. by the modified Coulomb dry friction law is rather small. Analysis of a blade couple with a friction element shows that the lower number of stator blades has negligible influence on the amplitudes of both blades, but decreases amplitudes of the friction element oscillations. Similarly the increase of friction forces causes a decrease of resonance peaks, but an increase of friction element amplitudes.

  8. Blade System Design Studies Volume I: Composite Technologies for Large Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, DAYTON A.; ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2002-07-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC) is performing a study concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The project team for this work includes experts in all areas of wind turbine blade design, analysis, manufacture, and testing. Constraints to cost-effective scaling-up of the current commercial blade designs and manufacturing methods are identified, including self-gravity loads, transportation, and environmental considerations. A trade-off study is performed to evaluate the incremental changes in blade cost, weight, and stiffness for a wide range of composite materials, fabric types, and manufacturing processes. Fiberglass/carbon fiber hybrid blades are identified as having a promising combination of cost, weight, stiffness and fatigue resistance. Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding, resin film infision, and pre-impregnated materials are identified as having benefits in reduced volatile emissions, higher fiber content, and improved laminate quality relative to the baseline wet lay-up process. Alternative structural designs are identified, including jointed configurations to facilitate transportation. Based on the results to date, recommendations are made for further evaluation and testing under this study to verify the predicted material and structural performance.

  9. Control of LP Turbine Rotor Blade Underloading Using Stator Blade Compound Lean at Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiotrLampart

    2000-01-01

    Due to a large gradient of reaction,LP rotor blades remain underloaded at the root over some range of volumetric flow rates.An interesting design to control the flow through the root passage of the overloaded stator and underloaded moving blade row is compound lean at the root of stator blades.The paper describes results of numerical investigations from a 3D NS solver FlowER conducted for several configurations of stator blade compund lean.The computations are carried out for a wide range of volumetric flow rates.accounting for the nominal operating regime as well as low and high load.It is found that compund lean induces additional blade force.streamwise curature and redistribution of flow parameters in the stage,including pressure and mass flow rate spanwise that can improve the flow conditions in both the stator and the rotor.The obtained efficiency improvements depend greatly on the flow regime,with the highest gains in the region of low load.

  10. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  11. Recent Development in Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Chin Han; Srinath Ekkad

    2001-01-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and industrial applications. Thermal efficiency and power output of gas turbines increase with increasing turbine rotor inlet temperature (RIT). The current RIT level in advanced gas turbines is far above the .melting point of the blade material. Therefore, along with high temperature material development, a sophisticated cooling scheme must be developed for continuous safe operation of gas turbines with h...

  12. Turbine blade with tuned damping structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Christian X.; Messmann, Stephen J.

    2015-09-01

    A turbine blade is provided comprising: a root; an airfoil comprising an external wall extending radially from the root and having a radially outermost portion; and a damping structure. The external wall may comprise first and second side walls joined together to define an inner cavity of the airfoil. The damping structure may be positioned within the airfoil inner cavity and coupled to the airfoil so as to define a tuned mass damper.

  13. Challenges for large wind turbine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Höyland, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    With global climate problems receiving increasingly international political attention,most European nations are looking for sources of renewable energy. Wind turbines area promising source of renewable energy and their numbers have steadily increasedsince the introduction of the modern wind turbine in the 1970s. The largest units todayhave a rated power of 7 MW and blades ranging up to 62.5 m in length. Offshore windturbines have access to stronger winds with less turbulence, thereby increasi...

  14. Failure analysis of a steam turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons of failure of a steam turbine blade made of Polish steel 23H12MNF (DIN X22Cr11MoV121), exploited 20000 h at temperature 350 oC were considered. Study on: chemical composition, mechanical properties, microstructure with the use of optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with microanalyser (EDS) have shown, that the reason of fatigue fracture were macro- and microsegregation, presence of δ ferrite, untempered martensite and intermetallic phases (probably σ phase). (author)

  15. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  16. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  17. Unsteady flow over disc turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek, Z.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    Measurements are presented of the mean and turbulence structure of the trailing vortices produced over disc turbine blades in stirred vessels. The results were obtained by ensemble-averaging the velocities measured by laser-Doppler anemometry over intervals of one degree of revolution and are compared with results obtained by ensemble-averaging over the whole 360 deg cycle. A vortical pattern was permanently present up to 20 degrees behind each blade, and was subjected to an erratic motion due to the formation of a whirlpool type of vortex in the free surface of the water. The velocities in the vortices were of the order of 0.25 of the blade tip velocity, V(tip). The measured kinetic energy of turbulence reached maxima of 0.19 V(tip)squared and the fluctuating quantities measured indicated that strong anisotropy prevails in the impeller stream. Comparison of turbulence results with those obtained by sampling over the whole 360 degrees of revolution shows that the former can be overestimated by as much as four times.

  18. Noise aspects at aerodynamic blade optimisation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, J.G. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    This paper shows an example of an aerodynamic blade optimisation, using the program PVOPT. PVOPT calculates the optimal wind turbine blade geometry such that the maximum energy yield is obtained. Using the aerodynamic optimal blade design as a basis, the possibilities of noise reduction are investigated. The aerodynamic optimised geometry from PVOPT is the `real` optimum (up to the latest decimal). The most important conclusion from this study is, that it is worthwhile to investigate the behaviour of the objective function (in the present case the energy yield) around the optimum: If the optimum is flat, there is a possibility to apply modifications to the optimum configuration with only a limited loss in energy yield. It is obvious that the modified configurations emits a different (and possibly lower) noise level. In the BLADOPT program (the successor of PVOPT) it will be possible to quantify the noise level and hence to assess the reduced noise emission more thoroughly. At present the most promising approaches for noise reduction are believed to be a reduction of the rotor speed (if at all possible), and a reduction of the tip angle by means of low lift profiles, or decreased twist at the outboard stations. These modifications were possible without a significant loss in energy yield. (LN)

  19. Wind turbine blade tip comparison using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of wind turbine blade tip geometry is numerically analysed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Three different rotating blade tips are compared for attached flow conditions and the flow physics around the geometries are analysed. To this end, the pressure coefficient (Cp) is defined based on the stagnation pressure rather than on the inflow dynamic pressure. The tip geometry locally modifies the angles of attack (AOA) and the inflow dynamic pressure at each of the studied sections. However not all 3D effects could be reduced to a change of these two variables. An increase in loadings (particularly the normal force) towards the tip seem to be associated to a spanwise flow component present for the swept-back analysed tip. Integrated loads are ranked to asses wind turbine tip overall performance. It results from the comparison that a better tip shape that produced better torque to thrust ratios in both forces and moments is a geometry that has the end tip at the pitch axis. The work here presented shows that CFD may prove to be useful to complement 2D based methods on the design of new wind turbine blade tips

  20. Application of fiber-reinforced polymers to rotating superconducting machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of superconductors in rotating electrical machinery results in high rotor stresses at cryogenic temperatures, and requires the availability of structural materials that must meet stringent performance requirements. This paper discusses the potential advantages of composite materials for such applications, the range of properties that may be achieved, and some preliminary experimental data that help define that potential. Some of the factors that arise due to anisotropy in terms of a particular design problem are considered. These are related to the example of a torque tube suitable for use in a superconducting ac generator

  1. Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宇; 吴玉林

    2003-01-01

    Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.

  2. Flutter control of incompressible flow turbomachine blade rows by splitter blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splitter blades as a passive flutter control technique are investigated by developing a mathematical model to predict the stability of an aerodynamically loaded splittered-rotor operating in an incompressible flow field. The splitter blades, positioned circumferentially in the flow passage between two principal blades, introduce aerodynamic and/or combined aerodynamic-structural detuning into the rotor. The two-dimensional oscillating cascade unsteady aerodynamics, including steady loading effects, are determined by developing a complete first-order unsteady aerodynamic analysis together with an unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The torsion mode flutter of both uniformly spaced tuned rotors and detuned rotors are predicted by incorporating the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficients into a single-degree-of-freedom aeroelastic model. This model is then utilized to demonstrate that incorporating splitters into unstable rotor configurations results in stable splittered-rotor configurations. (orig.)

  3. A parametric study of blade vortex interaction noise for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at moderate tip speeds Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, K. P.; Harris, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) has been conducted. This investigation consisted of an examination of BVI blade slap for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.20 to 0.50. Blade slap contours have been obtained for each configuration tested. Differences in blade slap contours, peak sound pressure level, and directivity for each configuration tested are noted. Additional fundamental differences, such as multiple interaction BVI, are observed and occur for only specific rotor blade configurations. The effect of increasing the Mach number on the BVI blade slap for various rotor blade combinations has been quantified. A peak blade slap Mach number scaling law is proposed. Comparison of measured BVI blade slap with theory is made.

  4. KNOW-BLADE task-3.3 report. Rotor blade computations with 3D vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, J.; Soerensen, N.N.; Reck, M. (and others)

    2005-01-01

    The present report describes the work done in work package WP3.3: Aerodynamic Accessories in 3D in the EC project KNOW-BLADE. Vortex generators (VGs) are modelled in 3D Navier-Stokes solvers and applied on the flow around an airfoil and a wind turbine blade. Three test cases have been investigated. They are: 1) A non-rotating airfoil section with VGs. 2) A rotating airfoil section with VGs. 3) A non-rotating wind turbine blade with VGs. The airfoil section was the FFA-W3-241 airfoil, which has been measured in the VELUX wind tunnel with and without VGs placed at different chord wise positions. Three of the partners have modelled the airfoil section as a thin airfoil section with symmetry boundary conditions in the span wise direction to simulate an array of VGs. The wind turbine blade is the LM19.1 blade equipped with one pair of VGs placed at radius = 8.5 m. In general all partners have successfully modelled vortex generators in 3D, which eventually generates vortices and mixes the boundary layer. A large effort has been on generating the numerical meshes since this is a relatively complex configuration and a large variation of length and time scales is present. Even though the quantitative agreement with measurements is not acceptable the effort spend in the present project indicate that it is possible to investigate the effect of vortex generators on wind turbine blades using 3D Navier-Stokes solvers. Much further work within independence of mesh resolution and time step as well as turbulence modelling has to be carried out in future projects before parametric variations can be investigated. (au)

  5. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  6. Resonant vibration control of three-bladed wind turbine rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2012-01-01

    Rotors with blades, as in wind turbines, are prone to vibrations due to the flexibility of the blades and the support. In the present paper a theory is developed for active control of a combined set of vibration modes in three-bladed rotors. The control system consists of identical collocated...... actuator-sensor pairs on each of the blades, and targets aset of three modes constituting a collective mode with identical motion of all the blades, and two independent whirling modes, in which a relative motion pattern moves forward or backward over the rotor. The natural frequency of the collective mode...... is typically lower than the frequency of the whirling modes due to support flexibility. The control signals from the blades are combined into a mean signal, addressing the collective mode, and three components from which the mean signal has be subtracted, addressing the pair of whirling modes. The...

  7. Digital Manufacture Techniques for Large Hydro Turbine's Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xide; ZHANG Qinghua; ZHOU Yunfei; YAN Sijie

    2006-01-01

    Blades are one of the vital components and most difficulty in manufacturing of large hydro turbines. In order to cost-effectively and productively manufacture these kinds of blades, a series of digital techniques in manufacturing have been developed, which includes digital design of hydro turbine blades based on manufacture' requirements, Computer-aided location and the machined error evaluation by using 3-dimensional digitized measuring, tool path generation strategy to meet requirements of enhancing machining efficiency and controlling deviation in NC machining, tool path generation and NC machining simulation by establishing a virtual NC machining environment for blades, and reasonable and feasible strategy and the systematic scheme for manufacturing of large blades by using 5-axis simultaneous CNC machining. The developed digital manufacture techniques have been successfully applied in manufacturing of both the large Kaplan and Francis hydraulic turbine blades; it shows that higher efficiency and the better surfaces finish accuracy can be achieved.

  8. Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-02-01

    Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.

  9. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  10. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, legal representative, Carol (Burbank, CA); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Tijeras, NM); Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  11. Flow Characteristics Study of Wind Turbine Blade with Vortex Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The blade root flow control is of particular importance to the aerodynamic characteristic of large wind turbines. The paper studies the feasibility of improving blade pneumatic power by applying vortex generators (VGs to large variable propeller shaft horizontal axis wind turbines, with 2 MW variable propeller shaft horizontal axis wind turbine blades as research object. In the paper, three cases of VGs installation are designed; they are scattered in different chordwise position at the blade root, and then they are calculated, respectively, with CFD method. The results show that VGs installed in the separation line upstream, with the separation line of the blade root as a benchmark, show a better effect. Pneumatic power of blades increases by 0.6% by installing VGs. Although the effect on large wind turbines is not obvious, there is a space for optimization.

  12. On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)

  13. Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2012-10-23

    A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

  14. Aeroelastic stability predictions for a MW-sized blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobitz, Don W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Classical aeroelastic flutter instability historically has not been a driving issue in wind turbine design. In fact, rarely has this issue even been addressed in the past. Commensurately, among the wind turbines that have been built, rarely has classical flutter ever been observed. However, with the advent of larger turbines fitted with relatively softer blades, classical flutter may become a more important design consideration. In addition, innovative blade designs involving the use of aeroelastic tailoring, wherein the blade twists as it bends under the action of aerodynamic loads to shed load resulting from wind turbulence, may increase the blade's proclivity for flutter. With these considerations in mind it is prudent to revisit aeroelastic stability issues for a MW-sized blade with and without aeroelastic tailoring. Focusing on aeroelastic stability associated with the shed wake from an individual blade turning in still air, the frequency domain technique developed by Theodorsen for predicting classical flutter in fixed wing aircraft has been adapted for use with a rotor blade. Results indicate that the predicted flutter speed of a MW-sized blade is slightly greater than twice the operational speed of the rotor. When a moderate amount of aeroelastic tailoring is added to the blade, a modest decrease (12%) in the flutter speed is predicted. By comparison, for a smaller rotor with relatively stiff blades the predicted flutter speed is approximately six times the operating speed. When frequently used approximations to Theodorsen's method are implemented, drastic underpredictions result, which, while conservative, may adversely impact blade design. These underpredictions are also evident when this MW-sized blade is analysed using time domain methods. (Author)

  15. Stress analysis and life prediction of gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, H. C.; Dunn, A. J.; Woodling, D. R.; Loh, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A stress analysis procedure is presented for a redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blades. The analysis consists of the one-dimensional scoping analysis to support the design layout and the follow-on three-dimensional finite element analysis to confirm the blade design at operating loading conditions. Blade life is evaluated based on high-cycle fatigue and low-cycle fatigue.

  16. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for understanding the rotor performance and blade condition. A discussion on the dual character of blades as rotating structures results in two different interrogation strategies for external and internal dynamic...

  17. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.

    1982-05-01

    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  18. Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of tests conducted on a root end section of a laminated wood wind turbine blade are reported. The blade to hub transition of the wood blade uses steel studs cast into the wood D spar with a filled epoxy. Both individual studs and a full scale, short length, root section were tested. Results indicate that the bonded stud concept is more than adequate for both the 30 year life fatigue loads and for the high wind or hurricane gust loads.

  19. Study of the Blending Efficiency of Pitched Blade Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; T. Jirout; Rieger, F.; Allner, R.; R. Sperling

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the blending efficiency of pitched blade impellers under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated low viscous liquid. The conductivity method is used to determine of the blending (homogenization) time of miscible liquids in pilot plant mixing equipment with standard radial baffles. For the given homogeneity degree (98 %) a three-blade pitched blade impeller is tested with various off-bottom clearances, vessel/ impeller diameter ratios and various impeller p...

  20. Flow Characteristics Study of Wind Turbine Blade with Vortex Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Hu; Xin-kai Li; Bo Gu

    2016-01-01

    The blade root flow control is of particular importance to the aerodynamic characteristic of large wind turbines. The paper studies the feasibility of improving blade pneumatic power by applying vortex generators (VGs) to large variable propeller shaft horizontal axis wind turbines, with 2 MW variable propeller shaft horizontal axis wind turbine blades as research object. In the paper, three cases of VGs installation are designed; they are scattered in different chordwise position at the blad...

  1. Optimal design of wind turbine blades equipped with flaps

    OpenAIRE

    Wiratama, I. Kade; Maheri, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the significant growth of wind turbines in size, blade load control has become the main challenge for large wind turbines. Many advanced techniques have been investigated aiming at developing control devices to ease blade loading. Amongst them, trailing edge flaps have been proven as effective devices for load alleviation. The present study aims at investigating the potential benefits of flaps in enhancing the energy capture capabilities rather than blade load alleviation. A so...

  2. Investigating for failure of central ventilation fan blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation, central ventilation fan stopped when switch 'on' condition. When central ventilation fan disassemble, ten blades of fan fractured. We have searched cause of failure. We had modeling one of the fan blades and analysis with computer programs. Thus we have find that fracture of central ventilation fan blades is alternative stress and vibration at hub. In this paper, we have described cause of failure

  3. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  4. Countermeasure for Construction Machinery Produced using 5Why Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Gil SHIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of perspectives and opinions on the causes of construction machinery-related accidents were collected through a questionnaire survey and direct interviews with management supervisors, operators, etc. The accident causes will be analyzed using 5Whys technique for major construction machinery disaster case. Improvement ideas will be suggested with an aspect of technical training, management system in the study. In the case of tower cranes, some of the risk factors are being neglected in formal inspections. The reliability of the maintenance performed by rental companies is low. Moreover, in the case of big cranes, unsatisfactory installation and dismantling teams with insufficient expertise can be assigned to sites. There is no process for checking this onsite and management supervisors may just neglect the safety supervision of the installation/dismantling work due to insufficient experience. Excavator accidents cannot be eradicated, e.g. with buckets falling due to the lack of fixing of the bucket's safety device during operation. Crashing and jamming accidents involving workers and excavators have occurred due to the lack of placement of full-time guiders and the lack of excavator control around the sites.

  5. Intelligent condition-based prediction of machinery reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Aiwina; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph; Montgomery, Neil; Banjevic, Dragan; Jardine, Andrew K. S.

    2009-07-01

    The ability to forecast machinery failure is vital to reducing maintenance costs, operation downtime and safety hazards. Recent advances in condition monitoring technologies have given rise to a number of prognostic models that attempt to forecast machinery health based on condition data. This paper presents a novel approach for incorporating population characteristics information and suspended condition trending data of historical units into prognosis. The population characteristics information extracted from statistical failure distribution enables longer-range prognosis. The accurate modelling of suspended data is also found to be of great importance, since in practice machines are rarely allowed to run to failure and hence data are commonly suspended. The proposed model consists of a feed-forward neural network whose training targets are asset survival probabilities estimated using a variation of the Kaplan-Meier estimator and a degradation-based failure probability density function (PDF) estimator. The trained network is capable of estimating the future survival probabilities of an operating asset when a series of condition indices are inputted. The output survival probabilities collectively form an estimated survival curve. Pump vibration data were used for model validation. The proposed model was compared with two similar models that neglect suspended data, as well as with a conventional time series prediction model. The results support our hypothesis that the proposed model can predict more accurately and further ahead than similar methods that do not include population characteristics and/or suspended data in prognosis.

  6. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  7. Towards a comprehensive understanding of brain machinery by correlative microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-06-01

    Unraveling the complexity of brain structure and function is the biggest challenge of contemporary science. Due to their flexibility, optical techniques are the key to exploring this intricate network. However, a single imaging technique can reveal only a small part of this machinery due to its inherent multilevel organization. To obtain a more comprehensive view of brain functionality, complementary approaches have been combined. For instance, brain activity was monitored simultaneously on different spatiotemporal scales with functional magnetic resonance imaging and calcium imaging. On the other hand, dynamic information on the structural plasticity of neuronal networks has been contextualized in a wider framework combining two-photon and light-sheet microscopy. Finally, synaptic features have been revealed on previously in vivo imaged samples by correlative light-electron microscopy. Although these approaches have revealed important features of brain machinery, they provided small bridges between specific spatiotemporal scales, lacking an omni-comprehensive view. In this perspective, we briefly review the state of the art of correlative techniques and propose a wider methodological framework fusing multiple levels of brain investigation.

  8. Stochastic methods of machinery enterprise endogenous innovative potential realization management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosin Oleksandr Oleksandrovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The goal of the article is definition of effective stochastic methods of management of realization of the endogenous innovative potential (EIP of machine-building enterprise through forecasting of enterprise’s level of gross profit on the basis of values of its reserves which constitute EIP. The results of the analysis. Theoretical approaches to management of the machinery enterprise’s innovative development need to be verified by empirical researches. Evaluation of the enterprise’s innovative potential may become crucial for R&D management. Systematization and comparing methods were used to generalize ongoing approaches to enterprise innovative potential determination; deduction method was used for defining the characteristics of the machinery enterprise innovative potential. Various methods of the enterprise innovative potential development management are considered in the article. Special attention is paid to classification of approaches to definition an essence of innovative process. Development of comprehensive approach to choosing the methods of innovative potential management is based on the classification of innovations by their types. Some of the given methods can be applied to management of several types of innovations. So method of the assessment of investment efficiency indicators can be used both for management of product and technological innovations, and method of definition of a stage of innovative development can be applied for both organizational and product innovations. Thus, the scientific novelty of the research is the application of comprehensive approach to enterprise innovative potential development on the basis of allocation of types of introduced innovations and respective methods of management. At the same time further research should consider a problem of definition of an optimum ratio of quantity of introduced technological, product and organizational innovations. It is necessary to

  9. Defect distribution and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard Toft, Henrik; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two stochastic models for the distribution of defects in wind turbine blades are proposed. The first model assumes that the individual defects are completely randomly distributed in the blade. The second model assumes that the defects occur in clusters of different size, based on the...... assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models, additional information, such as number, type, and size of the defects, is included as stochastic variables. In a numerical example, the reliability is estimated for a generic wind turbine blade model both...... the reliability for the wind turbine blade using Bayesian statistics....

  10. Study of the helicopter blade running elevation measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Helicopter blade running elevation measurement is an important measure target in helicopter blade dynamic balance experimentation. The elevation influences the helicopter's security and other performance capabilities. In testing, however, it has been difficult to measure the elevation when the rotor reaches high speeds. To get a simple, fast and highly accurate measurement system, photo electricity technology was applied to measuring the blade running elevation. Discussed is the measurement principle of blade running elevation, the design of the measurement system and analysis of the measurement precision.

  11. Reliability analysis of rotor blades of tidal stream turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidal stream turbines are used for converting kinetic energy of tidal currents into electricity. There are a number of uncertainties involved in the design of such devices and their components. To ensure safety of the turbines these uncertainties must be taken into account. The paper shows how this may be achieved for the design of rotor blades of horizontal-axis tidal stream turbines in the context of bending failure due to extreme loading. Initially, basic characteristics of such turbines in general and their blades in particular are briefly described. A probabilistic model of tidal current velocity fluctuations, which are the main source of load uncertainty, is then presented. This is followed by the description of reliability analysis of the blades, which takes into account uncertainties associated with tidal current speed, the blade resistance and the model used to calculate bending moments in the blades. Finally, the paper demonstrates how results of the reliability analysis can be applied to set values of the partial factors for the blade design. - Highlights: • A probabilistic model of the maximum of tidal current velocity fluctuations is proposed. • Reliability analysis of rotor blades of a tidal stream turbine is described. • Influence of pitch control system on the blade reliability is investigated. • Partial safety factors for the design of tidal turbine rotor blades are calibrated

  12. Growian rotor blades: Production development, construction and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Development and construction of three 50 m rotor blades for a 3 MW wind turbine are described. A hybrid concept was chosen, i.e., a load carrying inflexible steel spar and a glass fiber reinforced plastic skin. A test blade was constructed and static loading tests, dynamic vibration tests and fatigue tests on critical welds as well as at the connection between spar and blade skin were performed. All test results show good accordance with calculated values, and were taken into consideration during the construction of two rotor blades.

  13. Aerodynamic investigation of winglets on wind turbine blades using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2006-01-01

    The present report describes the numerical investigation of the aerodynamics around a wind turbine blade with a winglet using Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD. Five winglets were investigated with different twist distribution and camber. Four of them were pointing towards the pressure side...... (upstream) and one was pointing towards the suction side (downstream). Additionally, a rectangular modification of the original blade tip was designed with the same planform area as the blades with winglets. Results show that adding a winglet to the existing blade increase the force distribution on the...

  14. Heat Transfer on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-block, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute heat transfer coefficient on the blade, hub and shroud for a rotating high-pressure turbine blade with 172 film-cooling holes in eight rows. Film cooling effectiveness is also computed on the adiabatic blade. Wilcox's k-omega model is used for modeling the turbulence. Of the eight rows of holes, three are staggered on the shower-head with compound-angled holes. With so many holes on the blade it was somewhat of a challenge to get a good quality grid on and around the blade and in the tip clearance region. The final multi-block grid consists of 4784 elementary blocks which were merged into 276 super blocks. The viscous grid has over 2.2 million cells. Each hole exit, in its true oval shape, has 80 cells within it so that coolant velocity, temperature, k and omega distributions can be specified at these hole exits. It is found that for the given parameters, heat transfer coefficient on the cooled, isothermal blade is highest in the leading edge region and in the tip region. Also, the effectiveness over the cooled, adiabatic blade is the lowest in these regions. Results for an uncooled blade are also shown, providing a direct comparison with those for the cooled blade. Also, the heat transfer coefficient is much higher on the shroud as compared to that on the hub for both the cooled and the uncooled cases.

  15. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  16. Wind Tunnel Test and Numerical Computation on Ice Accretion on Blade Airfoil for Straight-bladed VAWT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shengmao; LI Yan; FENG Fang; WANG Lijun; CHI Yuan

    2010-01-01

    To invest the condition of ice accretion on the blade used for straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine(SB-VAWT),wind tunnel tests were carded out on a blade with NACA0015 airfoil by using a small simple icing wind tunnel.Tests were carried out at some typical attack angles under different wind speeds and flow discharges of a water spray with wind.The icing shape and area on blade surface were recorded and measured.Then the numerical computation was carried out to calculate the lift and drag coefficients of the blade before and after ice accretion according to the experiment result,the effect of icing on the aerodynamic characteristics of blade were discussed.

  17. Studies on the Future of the Standardization for Tropical Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tropical crops mainly represented by natural rubber,sisal hemp, sugarcane, cassava, coffee, pepper and coconut, and tropical fruits represented by pineapple,mango, banana, longan, litchi are special economical crops in tropical and subtropical regions in our country. Tropical agricultural machinery is the machinery used for planting, managing, harvesting and processing tropical crops and fruits. In recent years, tropical agricultural machinery has been growing very fast,and has a significantly positive effect on the growth of agricultural economy in tropical regions.

  18. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss mecha...... coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....

  19. Component Analysis of Unsteady Hydrodynamic Force of Closed-Type Centrifugal Pump with Single Blades of Different Blade Outlet Angles

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuyuki Nishi; Junichiro Fukutomi

    2015-01-01

    Single-blade centrifugal impellers for sewage systems undergo both unsteady radial and axial thrusts. Therefore, it is extremely important for the improvement of pump reliability to quantitatively grasp these fluctuating hydrodynamic forces and determine the generation mechanism behind them. In this study, we conducted component analyses of radial and axial thrusts of closed, single-blade centrifugal pumps with different blade outlet angles by numerical analysis while considering leakage flow...

  20. Experimental investigation of the influence of blade height and blade number on the performance of low head axial flow turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz [Institute for Water and River Basin Management (IWG), University of Karlsruhe, Kaiser Str. 12, D 76128, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Investigations regarding the influence of design parameters in low head axial flow turbines like blade profiles, blade height and blade number for micro-hydro application continue to be inadequate, even though there is a need and potential for the application of such turbines. This inadequacy provides a good ground to make a detailed experimental study to characterize these influences. The paper presents a holistic theoretical model that attempts to bring out a functionality of the internal performance parameters of the runner and attempts to establish a physical relationship between the two design parameters (blade height and blade number) and the performance parameters. The experimental results on 3 runners showed that with an increase in the number of blades, the efficiency of the runner dropped drastically due to the change in direction of the relative flow vector at the runner exit, which decreased the net rotational momentum and increased the axial flow velocity. The decrease of blade height on the other hand decreased the overall runner loss coefficient quite drastically but this could not result in major performance gains. The study concluded that the influence of blade number is more dominating compared to that of the blade height and that choice of blade number should be carefully made. On the hydraulic level, the study found interesting effects like the slip phenomenon and loss mechanisms within the runner. The paper also looks into the possible errors within the theoretical model developed and the extent of their influence on the conclusions. The paper suggests more experimental studies to separately study the effects of blade number and blade height. It further makes a strong case to initiate a computational work to validate all the experimental findings, fill the gaps in the theoretical model and use it as an optimization and standardization tool for axial flow turbines in the specialized application of micro-hydro. (author)

  1. The SNL100-03 Blade: Design Studies with Flatback Airfoils for the Sandia 100-meter Blade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Daniel; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-09-01

    A series of design studies were performed to inv estigate the effects of flatback airfoils on blade performance and weight for large blades using the Sandi a 100-meter blade designs as a starting point. As part of the study, the effects of varying the blade slenderness on blade structural performance was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of blad e slenderness with respect to tip deflection, flap- wise & edge-wise fatigue resistance, panel buckling capacity, flutter speed, manufacturing labor content, blade total weight, and aerodynamic design load magn itude are quantified. Following these design studies, a final blade design (SNL100-03) was prod uced, which was based on a highly slender design using flatback airfoils. The SNL100-03 design with flatback airfoils has weight of 49 tons, which is about 16% decrease from its SNL100-02 predecessor that used conventional sharp trailing edge airfoils. Although not systematically optimized, the SNL100 -03 design study provides an assessment of and insight into the benefits of flatback airfoils for la rge blades as well as insights into the limits or negative consequences of high blade slenderness resulting from a highly slender SNL100-03 planform as was chosen in the final design definition. This docum ent also provides a description of the final SNL100-03 design definition and is intended to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-03, which are made publicly available. A summary of the major findings of the Sandia 100-meter blade development program, from the initial SNL100-00 baseline blade through the fourth SNL100-03 blade study, is provided. This summary includes the major findings and outcomes of blade d esign studies, pathways to mitigate the identified large blade design drivers, and tool development that were produced over the course of this five-year research program. A summary of large blade tec hnology needs and research opportunities is also presented.

  2. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade...

  3. Smart actuation mechanisms for helicopter blades: design case for a mach-scaled model blade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternoster, A.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of the European project “Clean Sky”, which aims at improving the efficiency and the global transport quality of aircraft. The research, in this project, is currently focussing on active flap systems for helicopters to adapt the blade aerodynamic properties to local aerodynamic cond

  4. Aerodynamics tests of a transonic turbine blade cascade model consisting of low number of blades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimurda, David; Luxa, Martin; Šafařík, Pavel; Synáč, J.

    Plzeň: Západočeská univerzita Plzeň, 2012, s. 1-10. [Turbostroje 2012. Plzeň (CZ), 26.09.2012-27.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/10/1329 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : transonic flow * flow field periodicity * turbine blade cascade Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. Simulation of Flexible Mechanisms in a Rotating Blade for Smart-Blade Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternoster, A.R.A.; Loendersloot, R.; Boer, de A.; Akkerman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The active Gurney flap technology is investigated to improve the performance of rotorblades by allowing helicopter blades to further control the lift unbalance that rises at high speed and by damping vibration loads on the rotor hub. This technology needs validation by wind tunnel testing of a scale

  6. Output-only cyclo-stationary linear-parameter time-varying stochastic subspace identification method for rotating machinery and spinning structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Economical maintenance and operation are critical issues for rotating machinery and spinning structures containing blade elements, especially large slender dynamic beams (e.g., wind turbines). Structural health monitoring systems represent promising instruments to assure reliability and good performance from the dynamics of the mechanical systems. However, such devices have not been completely perfected for spinning structures. These sensing technologies are typically informed by both mechanistic models coupled with data-driven identification techniques in the time and/or frequency domain. Frequency response functions are popular but are difficult to realize autonomously for structures of higher order, especially when overlapping frequency content is present. Instead, time-domain techniques have shown to possess powerful advantages from a practical point of view (i.e. low-order computational effort suitable for real-time or embedded algorithms) and also are more suitable to differentiate closely-related modes. Customarily, time-varying effects are often neglected or dismissed to simplify this analysis, but such cannot be the case for sinusoidally loaded structures containing spinning multi-bodies. A more complex scenario is constituted when dealing with both periodic mechanisms responsible for the vibration shaft of the rotor-blade system and the interaction of the supporting substructure. Transformations of the cyclic effects on the vibrational data can be applied to isolate inertial quantities that are different from rotation-generated forces that are typically non-stationary in nature. After applying these transformations, structural identification can be carried out by stationary techniques via data-correlated eigensystem realizations. In this paper, an exploration of a periodic stationary or cyclo-stationary subspace identification technique is presented here for spinning multi-blade systems by means of a modified Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) via

  7. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Frąś

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  8. Proximal Blade Twist Feedback Control for Heliogyro Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah Mitchell

    A heliogyro spacecraft is a specific type of solar sail that generates thrust from the reflection of solar photons. It consists of multiple long (200 to 600 meters), thin blades, similar to a helicopter. The heliogyro's blades remain in tension by spinning around the central hub of the spacecraft. The individual blades are pitched collectively or cyclically to produce the desired maneuver profile. The propellant-free heliogyro is a long-duration sustainable spacecraft whose maneuverability allows it to attain previously inaccessible orbits for traditional spacecraft. The blades are constructed from thin Mylar sheets, approximately 2.5 ?m thick, which have very little inherent damping making it necessary to include some other way of attenuating blade vibration caused by maneuvering. The most common approach is to incorporate damping through the root pitch actuator. However, due to the small root pitch control torques required, on the order of 2 ?Nm, compared to the large friction torques associated with a root pitch actuator, it is challenging to design a root control system that takes friction into account and can still add damping to the blade. The purpose of this research is to address the limitations of current control designs for a heliogyro spacecraft and to develop a physically realizable root pitch controller that effectively damps the torsional structural modes of a single heliogyro blade. Classical control theory in conjunction with impedance control techniques are used to design a position-source root pitch controller to dominate friction with high gains, wrapped with an outer loop that adds damping to the blade by sensing differential twist outboard of the blade root. First, modal parameter characterization experiments were performed on a small-scale heliogyro blade in a high vacuum chamber to determine a damping constant to be used in the membrane ladder finite element model of the blade. The experimental damping ratio of the lowest frequency torsional

  9. Blade profile optimization of kaplan turbine using cfd analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of hydro-power as renewable energy source is of prime importance in the world now. Hydropower energy is available in abundant in form of falls, canals rivers, dams etc. It means, there are various types of sites with different parameters like flow rate, heads, etc. Depending upon the sites, water turbines are designed and manufactured to avail hydro-power energy. Low head turbines on runof-river are widely used for the purpose. Low head turbines are classified as reaction turbines. For runof-river, depending upon the variety of site data, low head Kaplan turbines are selected, designed and manufactured. For any given site requirement, it becomes very essential to design the turbine runner blades through optimization of the CAD model of blades profile. This paper presents the optimization technique carried out on a complex geometry of blade profile through static and dynamic computational analysis. It is used through change of the blade profile geometry at five different angles in the 3D (Three Dimensional) CAD model. Blade complex geometry and design have been developed by using the coordinates point system on the blade in PRO-E /CREO software. Five different blade models are developed for analysis purpose. Based on the flow rate and heads, blade profiles are analyzed using ANSYS software to check and compare the output results for optimization of the blades for improved results which show that by changing blade profile angle and its geometry, different blade sizes and geometry can be optimized using the computational techniques with changes in CAD models. (author)

  10. Active Blade Vibration Control Being Developed and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dexter

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are currently being designed to have increased performance, lower weight and manufacturing costs, and higher reliability. Consequently, turbomachinery components, such as turbine and compressor blades, have designs that are susceptible to new vibration problems and eventual in-service failure due to high-cycle fatigue. To address this problem, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing and testing innovative active blade vibration control concepts. Preliminary results of using an active blade vibration control system, involving a rotor supported by an active magnetic bearing in Glenn's Dynamic Spin Rig, indicate promising results (see the photograph). Active blade vibration control was achieved using feedback of blade strain gauge signals within the magnetic bearing control loop. The vibration amplitude was reduced substantially (see the graphs). Also, vibration amplitude amplification was demonstrated; this could be used to enhance structural mode identification, if desired. These results were for a nonrotating two-bladed disk. Tests for rotating blades are planned. Current and future active blade vibration control research is planned to use a fully magnetically suspended rotor and smart materials. For the fully magnetically suspended rotor work, three magnetic bearings (two radial and one axial) will be used as actuators instead of one magnetic bearing. This will allow additional degrees of freedom to be used for control. For the smart materials work, control effectors located on and off the blade will be considered. Piezoelectric materials will be considered for on-the-blade actuation, and actuator placement on a stator vane, or other nearby structure, will be investigated for off-the-blade actuation. Initial work will focus on determining the feasibility of these methods by performing basic analysis and simple experiments involving feedback control.

  11. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    OpenAIRE

    Corten, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine blades could be controlled fully, the generation efficiency and thus the energy production would increase by 9%. Power Control To avoid damage to wind turbines, they are cut out above 10 Beaufort (25...

  12. Torsional Performance of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Berggreen, Christian;

    2007-01-01

    The present work investigates how well different finite element modeling techniques can predict bending and torsion behavior of a wind turbine blade. Two shell models are investigated. One model has element offsets and the other has the elements at the mid-thickness surfaces of the model. The last...... the combined shell/solid models and the shell model with element offsets are found to give reliable bending results. For the combined shell/solid models, convergence tests show that it is necessary to have 3 solid elements through the thickness of the sandwich cores and the adhesive bonds....

  13. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    The constructions of advanced architectural designs are presently very labour intensive, time consuming, and expensive. They are therefore only applied to a few prestige projects, and it is a major challenge for the building industry to bring the costs down and thereby offer the architects more....... The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...

  14. Multiple piece turbine blade/vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2013-02-05

    An air cooled turbine blade or vane of a spar and shell construction with the shell made from a high temperature resistant material that must be formed from an EDM process. The shell and the spar both have a number of hooks extending in a spanwise direction and forming a contact surface that is slanted such that a contact force increases as the engaging hooks move away from one another. The slanted contact surfaces on the hooks provides for an better seal and allows for twisting between the shell and the spar while maintaining a tight fit.

  15. OPTIMAT Blades. Reliable Optimal Use of Materials for Wind Turbine Rotor Blades. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, L.G.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Van Wingerde, A.M.; Nijssen, R.P.L. [Knowledge Centre Wind Trubine Materials and Constructions, Delft (Netherlands); Philippidis, T.P. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Broendsted, P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Dutton, A.G. [Council for the Central Laboratory of Research Councils CCLRC, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Kensche, C.W. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    As the required financial investments to achieve the expansion of the installed capacity of wind turbine grow, the economical pressure on reliable and structurally optimised blades, that are fit for their designed life, will increase. Very large blades may even become practically impossible without further knowledge of the material behaviour since the dominating loads on the material are caused by the blade mass. Therefore, a sound and accurate understanding of the structural behaviour of the material under all for wind turbine applications possible loading conditions is necessary. The project aims to provide accurate design recommendations for the optimised use of materials within wind turbine rotor blades and to achieve improved reliability. The major deliverable of the project will be improved design recommendations for the next generation of rotor blades. With the accurate and reliable design recommendations resulting from this project, reliable blades with optimised use of materials can be designed. The increased reliability and weight reduction of the blades will stimulate further the offshore exploitation with large capacity wind turbines. This supports the increase in wind energy and by that helps to reach the White Paper target of 40GW of installed power by 2010. The possible reduction of the material use will lower the impact on earth's resources and environment. The reduction can result from direct weight saving and from the increased reliability which prevents the need for replacements and waste of material. To execute the research activities a consortium was formed consisting of 10 research institutes from 7 EU countries; 5 wind turbine and/or blade manufactures from 3 EU countries; and the two leading certification bodies that carry out wind turbine certification throughout the world today. Over 3000 individual tests have been carried out on epoxy GFRP coupons, with numerous technical reports being issued to analyse and understand this data. The

  16. AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified

  17. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  18. Cell surface recycling in yeast: mechanisms and machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Chris; Piper, Robert C

    2016-04-15

    Sorting internalized proteins and lipids back to the cell surface controls the supply of molecules throughout the cell and regulates integral membrane protein activity at the surface. One central process in mammalian cells is the transit of cargo from endosomes back to the plasma membrane (PM) directly, along a route that bypasses retrograde movement to the Golgi. Despite recognition of this pathway for decades we are only beginning to understand the machinery controlling this overall process. The budding yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae, a stalwart genetic system, has been routinely used to identify fundamental proteins and their modes of action in conserved trafficking pathways. However, the study of cell surface recycling from endosomes in yeast is hampered by difficulties that obscure visualization of the pathway. Here we briefly discuss how recycling is likely a more prevalent process in yeast than is widely appreciated and how tools might be built to better study the pathway. PMID:27068957

  19. Segmented infrared image analysis for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lixiang; Yao, Mingchao; Wang, Jinjiang; Bai, Tangbo; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-07-01

    As a noncontact and non-intrusive technique, infrared image analysis becomes promising for machinery defect diagnosis. However, the insignificant information and strong noise in infrared image limit its performance. To address this issue, this paper presents an image segmentation approach to enhance the feature extraction in infrared image analysis. A region selection criterion named dispersion degree is also formulated to discriminate fault representative regions from unrelated background information. Feature extraction and fusion methods are then applied to obtain features from selected regions for further diagnosis. Experimental studies on a rotor fault simulator demonstrate that the presented segmented feature enhancement approach outperforms the one from the original image using both Naïve Bayes classifier and support vector machine.

  20. Ultra-short pulses to signal neuronal growth cone machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Manoj; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Andres, Rosa; Cormack, Iain G.; Artigas, David; Soriano, Eduardo; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2007-02-01

    Measurable change in the sensory motor machinery of growth cones are induced by non contact femtosecond laser. The focused laser beam with an average power of 3 mW was positioned at some distance away from the closest fillopodia of cortical neurons from primary cell cultures (mice E15). By identifying a set of preliminary parameters we were able to statistically analyze the phenomenological behavior of the fillopodia and classify the effects different conditions of laser light has on the growth cone. Results show that fillopodia become significantly biased towards the focused femtosecond laser light. The same experiment performed with continuous wave (CW) produced results which were indistinguishable from the case where there is no laser light present (placebo condition) indicating no clear effects of the CW laser light on the fillopodia at a distance. These findings show the potential for ultrashort pulsed light to become a new type of pathfinding cue for neuronal growth cones.

  1. Hormonal control of the metabolic machinery of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen Chak-Lui; Wong, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal malignancies worldwide. It is an aggressive cancer with low cure rate, frequent metastasis, and highly resistant to conventional chemotherapies. Better knowledge regarding the molecular and metabolic alterations in HCC will be instrumental to the development of novel therapeutic interventions against HCC. In the August 2015 issue of Hepatology, Nie et al. reports an important molecular pathway that contributes to the Warburg Effect in HCC. They have beautifully demonstrated that the loss of a component of a hormonal system, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), reprogrammed the metabolic machinery of HCC cells to aerobic glycolysis through the miR-338-3p-PKL/R axis. The implication could be that in addition to drugs that directly target the metabolic enzymes in cancer cells, more translational efforts could be focused on the development of drugs that involve the activation of the MR-aldosterone system or other hormonal systems to target the Warburg effect.

  2. Ubiquitin is part of the retrovirus budding machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Akash; Chau, Vincent; Wills, John W.

    2000-11-01

    Retroviruses contain relatively large amounts of ubiquitin, but the significance of this finding has been unknown. Here, we show that drugs that are known to reduce the level of free ubiquitin in the cell dramatically reduced the release of Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus. This effect was suppressed by overexpressing ubiquitin and also by directly fusing ubiquitin to the C terminus of Gag, the viral protein that directs budding and particle release. The block to budding was found to be at the plasma membrane, and electron microscopy revealed that the reduced level of ubiquitin results in a failure of mature virus particles to separate from each other and from the plasma membrane during budding. These data indicate that ubiquitin is actually part of the budding machinery.

  3. Vibration analysis for trending ageing in rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for condition monitoring system for important equipment and machinery is a growing requirement in every industry and more so in the nuclear power plants because of stringent safety requirements. This is largely because of the inherent benefit of being able to promote predictive maintenance practice rather than uneconomical preventive maintenance practice in the plant. Forerunner among the condition monitoring parameter is vibration signatures measured on a rotating machine. It is known that every moving element in a rotating machine generates vibration signal that is uniquely its own. Detection of such signals and monitoring the changing conditions in a machine through vibration analysis is a technique involving the knowledge of engineering art and the mathematical theory. This blend of sound engineering judgement and vibration data interpretation skill is in fact the basis of vibration diagnostic techniques. (author)

  4. Monitoring of vibrating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary source of vibration in complex engineering systems is rotating machinery. Vibration signatures collected from these components render valuable information about the operational state of the system and may be used to perform diagnostics. For example, the low frequency domain contains information about unbalance, misalignment, instability in journal bearing and mechanical looseness; analysis of the medium frequency range can render information about faults in meshing gear teeth; while the high frequency domain will contain information about incipient faults in rolling-element bearings. Trend analysis may be performed by comparing the vibration spectrum for each machine with a reference spectrum and evaluating the vibration magnitude changes at different frequencies. This form of analysis for diagnostics is often performed by maintenance personnel monitoring and recording transducer signals and analyzing the signals to identify the operating condition of the machine. With the advent of portable fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzers and ''laptop'' computers, it is possible to collect and analyze vibration data an site and detect incipient failures several weeks or months before repair is necessary. It is often possible to estimate the remaining life of certain systems once a fault has been detected. RMS velocity, acceleration, displacements, peak value, and crest factor readings can be collected from vibration sensors. To exploit all the information embedded in these signals, a robust and advanced analysis technique is required. Our goal is to design a diagnostic system using neural network technology, a system such as this would automate the interpretation of vibration data coming from plant-wide machinery and permit efficient on-line monitoring of these components

  5. Nonlinear aeroelastic modelling for wind turbine blades based on blade element momentum theory and geometrically exact beam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing size and flexibility of large wind turbine blades, accurate and reliable aeroelastic modelling is playing an important role for the design of large wind turbines. Most existing aeroelastic models are linear models based on assumption of small blade deflections. This assumption is not valid anymore for very flexible blade design because such blades often experience large deflections. In this paper, a novel nonlinear aeroelastic model for large wind turbine blades has been developed by combining BEM (blade element momentum) theory and mixed-form formulation of GEBT (geometrically exact beam theory). The nonlinear aeroelastic model takes account of large blade deflections and thus greatly improves the accuracy of aeroelastic analysis of wind turbine blades. The nonlinear aeroelastic model is implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics and validated with a series of benchmark calculation tests. The results show that good agreement is achieved when compared with experimental data, and its capability of handling large deflections is demonstrated. Finally the nonlinear aeroelastic model is applied to aeroelastic modelling of the parked WindPACT 1.5 MW baseline wind turbine, and reduced flapwise deflection from the nonlinear aeroelastic model is observed compared to the linear aeroelastic code FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). - Highlights: • A novel nonlinear aeroelastic model for wind turbine blades is developed. • The model takes account of large blade deflections and geometric nonlinearities. • The model is reliable and efficient for aeroelastic modelling of wind turbine blades. • The accuracy of the model is verified by a series of benchmark calculation tests. • The model provides more realistic aeroelastic modelling than FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence)

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Vibrating Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama N. Alshroof

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI modelling of a vibrating turbine blade using the commercial software ANSYS-12.1. The study has two major aims: (i discussion of the current state of the art of modelling FSI in gas turbine engines and (ii development of a “tuned” one-way FSI model of a vibrating turbine blade to investigate the correlation between the pressure at the turbine casing surface and the vibrating blade motion. Firstly, the feasibility of the complete FSI coupled two-way, three-dimensional modelling of a turbine blade undergoing vibration using current commercial software is discussed. Various modelling simplifications, which reduce the full coupling between the fluid and structural domains, are then presented. The one-way FSI model of the vibrating turbine blade is introduced, which has the computational efficiency of a moving boundary CFD model. This one-way FSI model includes the corrected motion of the vibrating turbine blade under given engine flow conditions. This one-way FSI model is used to interrogate the pressure around a vibrating gas turbine blade. The results obtained show that the pressure distribution at the casing surface does not differ significantly, in its general form, from the pressure at the vibrating rotor blade tip.

  7. Design of helicopter rotor blades for optimum dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D. A.; Ko, T.; Korn, A.; Rossow, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The mass and stiffness distributions for helicopter rotor blades are tailored in such a way to give a predetermined placement of blade natural frequencies. The optimal design is pursued with respect of minimum weight, sufficient inertia, and reasonable dynamic characteristics. Finite element techniques are used as a tool. Rotor types include hingeless, articulated, and teetering.

  8. Transonic blade flutter: A survey of new developments

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review of current work in transonic blade flutter research. Aerodynamic analyses for the prediction of attached flow flutter, choke flutter, and stall flutter are described. Also reviewed are unsteady aerodynamic measurement and flutter test programs that have recently been completed or are in progress to investigate transonic blade flutter phenomena.

  9. Damage detection in wind turbine blades using acoustic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juengert, A., E-mail: anne.juengert@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Univ. of Stuttgart, Materialpruefungsanstalt Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Facing climate change, the use of renewable energy gains importance. The wind energy sector grows very fast. Bigger and more powerful wind turbines will be built in the coming decades and the safety and reliability of the turbines will become more important. Wind turbine blades have to be inspected at regular intervals, because they are highly stressed during operation and a blade breakdown can cause big economic damages. The turbine blades consist of fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP/CFRP) and sandwich areas containing wood or plastic foam. The blades are manufactured as two halves and glued together afterwards. Typical damages are delaminations within the GFRP or the sandwich and missing adhesive or deficient bond at the bonding surfaces. The regular inspections of wind turbine blades are performed manually by experts and are limited to visual appraisals and simple tapping tests. To improve the inspections of wind turbine blades non-destructive testing techniques using acoustic waves are being developed. To detect delaminations within the laminates of the turbine blade, a local resonance spectroscopy was used. To detect missing bond areas from the outside of the blade the impulse-echo-technique was applied. This paper is an updated reprint of an article published on ndt.net in 2008. (author)

  10. IEC-TC88WG8 testing of rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delft, D.R.V. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, STEVIN Lab., Delft (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    In 1994 the TC88 of IEC installed a working group (WG8) to draft a guideline on blade testing. This paper gives a description of the task of the working group. Furthermore it gives a report of the progress of the work and summarizes the possible contents of the working group document on blade testing. (au)

  11. Development of smart blade technology - trailing edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2014-01-01

    With blade lengths presently up to 80+ m there is a need for a supplement to the standard pitch system for control of power and loads. Distributed load control along the blade span with trailing edge flaps is a promising concept where numerical simulations have shown considerable load alleviation...

  12. Contactless diagnostics of turbine blade vibration and damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Pavel; Vaněk, František

    London: IOP Institute of Physics, 2011. s. 62-62. ISBN N. [International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures /9./. 11.07.2011-13.07.2011, Oxford] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : blade vibration * blade damage assessment * non-contact sensors Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  13. Damage detection in wind turbine blades using acoustic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing climate change, the use of renewable energy gains importance. The wind energy sector grows very fast. Bigger and more powerful wind turbines will be built in the coming decades and the safety and reliability of the turbines will become more important. Wind turbine blades have to be inspected at regular intervals, because they are highly stressed during operation and a blade breakdown can cause big economic damages. The turbine blades consist of fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP/CFRP) and sandwich areas containing wood or plastic foam. The blades are manufactured as two halves and glued together afterwards. Typical damages are delaminations within the GFRP or the sandwich and missing adhesive or deficient bond at the bonding surfaces. The regular inspections of wind turbine blades are performed manually by experts and are limited to visual appraisals and simple tapping tests. To improve the inspections of wind turbine blades non-destructive testing techniques using acoustic waves are being developed. To detect delaminations within the laminates of the turbine blade, a local resonance spectroscopy was used. To detect missing bond areas from the outside of the blade the impulse-echo-technique was applied. This paper is an updated reprint of an article published on ndt.net in 2008. (author)

  14. Velocity vector LDA measurement inside a pitched blade impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacnik, Michal; Lamka, Jaromir; Fort, Ivan

    1993-02-01

    The integral quantities of flow in a mixing system with a pitched blade impeller are generally known, but the flow pattern inside and in the close neighborhood of the impeller is not well documented. This paper describes results of pitched blade impeller synchronous measurements obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry.

  15. Efficient Beam-Type Structural Modeling of Rotor Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The present paper presents two recently developed numerical formulations which enable accurate representation of the static and dynamic behaviour of wind turbine rotor blades using little modeling and computational effort. The first development consists of an intuitive method to extract fully cou...... application to a composite section with bend-twist coupling and a real wind turbine blade....

  16. Optimizing the Tip Section Profiles of a Steam Turbine Blading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Rudolf; Šafařík, P.; Luxa, Martin; Šimurda, David

    Hamburg, 2013. [ASME 2013 Turbine Blade Tip Symposium and Course Week. Hamburg (DE), 30.09.2013-03.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03020277 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : tip section * blade cascade * optimization * supersonic flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. Structural response of fiber composite fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minich, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    A fiber composite airfoil, typical for high-tip speed compressor applications, is subjected to load conditions anticipated to be encountered in such applications, and its structural response is theoretically investigated. The analysis method used consists of composite mechanics embedded in pre- and post-processors and coupled with NASTRAN. The load conditions examined include thermal due to aerodynamic heating, pressure due to aerodynamic forces, centrifugal, and combinations of these. The various responses investigated include root reactions due to various load conditions, average composite and ply stresses, ply delaminations, and the fundamental modes and the corresponding reactions. The results show that the thermal and pressure stresses are negligible compared to those caused by the centrifugal forces. Also, the core-shell concept for composite blades is an inefficient design (core plies not highly stressed) and appears to be sensitive to interply delaminations. The results are presented in graphical and tabular forms to illustrate the types and amount of data required for such an analysis, and to provide quantitative data of the various responses which can be helpful in designing such composite blades.

  18. Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki

    The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.

  19. Calculation of Drops Distribution in Steam Turbines Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda Martinez, F.; Toledo Velazquez, M.; Sanchez Silva, F.; Aldo Rueda Martinez, A. [SEPI-ESIME-IPN Unidad Professional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the calculation of the drops distribution in the exit of blades that have flow conditions of wet steam, in order to understand the causes that originate the erosion on the blades of the last stages in the low pressure section of steam turbines. Into the calculation of the velocity distribution for the stream frictionless, the boundary layer on the blade surfaces and the drops in the flow line, on the basis of the stationary, frictionless, two-dimensional, transonic and homogenous flow is found. In this work an approximate movement of the droplets in the blade cascades, flowing through the steam and, in particular, the accumulation of droplets on the stator blades is identified.

  20. Composite Blade Structural Analyzer (COBSTRAN) theoretical/programmer's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Robert A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    This manual describes the organization and flow of data and analysis in the computer code, COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctural ANalyzer). This code combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with an internal data base of fiber and matrix properties and was developed for the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades and composite wind turbine blades. Inputs to the code are constituent fiber and matrix material properties, factors reflecting the fabrication process, composite geometry and blade geometry. COBSTRAN performs the micromechanics and laminate analyses of these fiber composites and generates a NASTRAN finite element model of the blade. This manual describes the equations formulated and solved in the code and the function of each of the seventy-two subroutines. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77.

  1. A Long-Period Grating Sensor for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Lars

    blade material, where a suitable process and recoating material were investigated. The sensor was implemented and tested on a full scale wind turbine blade placed on a test rig. This first prototype has demonstrated the capability of the sensor for wind turbine blade monitoring, particular the......This PhD project concerns the applied research for providing a novel sensor for measurements on wind turbine blades, based on Long-Period Gratings. The idea is based on the utilization of a special asymmetrical optical fibre with Long-Period Gratings for directional sensitive bend sensing. The...... project involves the processes from feasibility study of fibre grating technology to full scale test on a wind turbine blade. The project has involved the design and manufacturing of a D-shape optical fibre. The project includes the process of embedding the optical fibre directly into the wind turbine...

  2. Blade-tip heat transfer in a transonic turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, S.; Yoshino, S.; Thomas, G.; Ainsworth, R. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science; Harvey, N. [Rolls-Royce plc., Derby (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-15

    The blade-tips of high-pressure turbine blades in a gas turbine engine are subjected to strong convective heat transfer and continued to present a significant design challenge to manufacturers. This paper is concerned with developing an understanding of the unsteady flow physics that influences the blade-tip heat transfer. Experimental investigations of bladetip heat transfer and aerodynamics have been conducted in a transonic turbine stage test facility. The data reveal the effect of vane-rotor interactions on the unsteady heat transfer along the blade-tip mean camber line. In particular, the vane shock and potential field interaction establish characteristic unsteady heat transfer signatures at different axial positions along the blade-tip. The fluctuations in heat transfer are discussed in terms of vane-periodic changes in both relative total temperature and aerodynamic conditions. (author)

  3. Methods for testing of geometrical down-scaled rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    requirements for experimental facilities are very demanding and furthermore the time for performing the experimental test campaign and the cost are not well suitable for most research projects. This report deals with the advantages, disadvantages and open questions of using down-scaled testing on wind turbine......Full scale fatigue test is an important part of the development and design of wind turbine blades. Testing is also needed for the approval of the blades in order for them to be used on large wind turbines. Fatigue test of wind turbine blades was started in the beginning of the 1980s and has been...... scale MW wind turbine blade are very time consuming and expensive. For the industry that means that the tests, both static and fatigue, are not a tool in or a part of the design process. In the academic community, full scale testing of modern and future wind turbine blades are even more challenging as...

  4. Effect of the number of blades on propeller wake evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felli, Mario; Guj, Giulio; Camussi, Roberto [University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Rome (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    The effect of the number of blades on wake evolution was investigated on three propellers having the same blade geometry but different numbers of blades. The experiments concerned velocity measurements along nine transversal planes of the wake by LDV phase-sampling techniques. The study was performed with all the propellers having the same tip vortex intensity. In addition, high-speed visualizations were carried out to analyze the main features of propeller wake evolution in the transition and in the far wake. Aspects concerning wake evolution were pointed out, with particular emphasis on the instability mechanism of the propeller slipstream and on its correlation with the blade-to-blade interaction phenomenon. (orig.)

  5. Turbine blades and systems with forward blowing slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Zalusky, Leigh; Lees, Paul

    2015-09-15

    A blade for use in a wind turbine comprises a pressure side and suction side meeting at a trailing edge and leading edge. The pressure side and suction side provide lift to the turbine blade upon the flow of air from the leading edge to the trailing edge and over the pressure side and suction side. The blade includes one or more openings at the suction side, in some cases between the leading edge and the trailing edge. The one or more openings are configured to provide a pressurized fluid towards the leading edge of the blade, in some cases at an angle between about 0.degree. and 70.degree. with respect to an axis oriented from a centerline of the blade toward the leading edge.

  6. Blade Bearing Friction Estimation of Operating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Blade root bearing on a wind turbine (WTG) enables pitching of blades for power control and rotor braking and is a WTG critical component. As the size of modern WTGs is constantly increasing, this leads to relatively less rigid bearings, more sensitive to deformations, thus WTG operational...... reliability can be increased by continuous monitoring of blade bearing. High blade bearing friction is undesirable, as it may be associated with excessive heating of the surfaces, damage and/or inefficient operation. Thus, continuous observation of bearing friction level is crucial for blade bearing health...... monitoring systems. A novel algorithm for online monitoring of bearing friction level is developed combining physical knowledge about pitch system dynamics with state estimator, i.e. observer theory and signal processing assuming realistic sensor availability. Results show estimation of bearing friction...

  7. Updating the model TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM); Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Hinrich; Lambrecht, Udo; Knoerr, Wolfram [ifeu - Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In the context of the project ''Development of a model for the computation of the air pollutant emissions and the fuel consumption of combustion engines in mobile devices and machines'', the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research GmbH (Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany) has created the model TREMOD-MM (TREMOD Mobile Machinery). Thus a detailed computation of the emissions from mobile devices and machines in the agriculture, construction industry, forestry and gardening as well as the sport shipping and passenger shipping can be accomplished. Strongly differentiated data are considered to the age structure, engine performance, use and emission behaviour. Thus it is possible to compute the emissions for different scenarios in high degree of detail.

  8. An aerodynamic study on flexed blades for VAWT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is renewed interest in aerodynamics research of VAWT rotors. Lift type, Darrieus designs sometimes use flexed blades to have an 'egg-beater shape' with an optimum Troposkien geometry to minimize the structural stress on the blades. While straight bladed VAWTs have been investigated in depth through both measurements and numerical modelling, the aerodynamics of flexed blades has not been researched with the same level of detail. Two major effects may have a substantial impact on blade performance. First, flexing at the equator causes relatively strong trailing vorticity to be released. Secondly, the blade performance at each station along the blade is influenced by self-induced velocities due to bound vorticity. The latter is not present in a straight bladed configuration. The aim of this research is to investigate these effects in relation to an innovative 4kW wind turbine concept being developed in collaboration with industry known as a self-adjusting VAWT (or SATVAWT). The approach used in this study is based on experimental and numerical work. A lifting line free-wake vortex model was developed. Wind tunnel power and hot-wire velocity measurements were performed on a scaled down, 60cm high, three bladed model in a closed wind tunnel. Results show a substantial axial wake induction at the equator resulting in a lower power generation at this position. This induction increases with increasing degree of flexure. The self-induced velocities caused by blade bound vorticity at a particular station was found to be relatively small

  9. Managing the exploitation life of the mining machinery for a limited duration of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the theoretical concept and illustrates the practical application of models with limited interval based on dynamic programming, suitable for optimization of exploitation life of mining machinery that have a shorter life cycle such as: bulldozers, scrapers, dumpers, excavators equipped by a smaller capacity operating element, as well as some others machinery.

  10. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section 28.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit...

  11. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL. 35.25-1 Section 35.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.98 - Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 12111-12117), the regulations implementing Title I (29 CFR Part 1630), and the Technical Assistance... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory... General Working Conditions. § 1918.98 Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training....

  13. 49 CFR 1242.47 - Machinery (account XX-27-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery (account XX-27-40). 1242.47 Section 1242.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-Equipment § 1242.47 Machinery (account XX-27-40). Separate common expenses on the basis of the...

  14. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  15. The Influence of Auto-Steer on Machinery Selection and Land Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Shockley, Jordan; Dillon, Carl R.; Stombaugh, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    With the growing advancements in technology increasingly available to farmers, there is a need to recognize this influence when making farm management decisions. This study investigated the influence of auto-steer navigation on machinery selection and land investment decisions by developing a multifaceted machinery management model.

  16. THE LEVEL OF DEALERS’ SATISFACTION WITH THE PRODUCERS OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY: GERMAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenenko K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a current state of the agricultural machinery market in Germany and presents data of the conducted at the University of Hohenheim analysis of the German dealers’ satisfaction with the producers of agricultural machinery based on a developed questionnaire

  17. User's Guide to MBC3: Multi-Blade Coordinate Transformation Code for 3-Bladed Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bir, G. S.

    2010-09-01

    This guide explains how to use MBC3, a MATLAB-based script NREL developed to perform multi-blade coordinate transformation of system matrices for three-bladed wind turbines. In its current form, MBC3 can be applied to system matrices generated by FAST.2.

  18. Definition of a 5MW/61.5m wind turbine blade reference model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resor, Brian Ray

    2013-04-01

    A basic structural concept of the blade design that is associated with the frequently utilized %E2%80%9CNREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine%E2%80%9D is needed for studies involving blade structural design and blade structural design tools. The blade structural design documented in this report represents a concept that meets basic design criteria set forth by IEC standards for the onshore turbine. The design documented in this report is not a fully vetted blade design which is ready for manufacture. The intent of the structural concept described by this report is to provide a good starting point for more detailed and targeted investigations such as blade design optimization, blade design tool verification, blade materials and structures investigations, and blade design standards evaluation. This report documents the information used to create the current model as well as the analyses used to verify that the blade structural performance meets reasonable blade design criteria.

  19. A Method of Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on the Close Degree of Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Jun-bao; HUANG Shu-hong; JIN Jia-shan; CHEN Fei; LIU Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on the close degree of information entropy. In the view of the information entropy, we introduce four information entropy features of the rotating machinery, which describe the vibration condition of the machinery. The four features are, respectively, denominated as singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, wavelet space state feature entropy and wavelet power spectrum entropy. The value scopes of the four information entropy features of the rotating machinery in some typical fault conditions are gained by experiments, which can be acted as the standard features of fault diagnosis. According to the principle of the shorter distance between the more similar models, the decision-making method based on the close degree of information entropy is put forward to deal with the recognition of fault patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in an instance involving the fault pattern recognition of some rotating machinery.

  20. The effect of blade outlet angle on performance and internal flow condition of mini turbo-pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, T.; Fukutomi, J.; Nasada, R.; Kaji, K.

    2011-03-01

    Mini turbo-pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields; automobile radiator pump, ventricular assist pump, cooling pump for electric devices, washing machine pump and so on. Further, the needs for mini turbo-pumps would become larger with the increase of the application of it for electrical machines. It is desirable that the mini turbo-pump design is as simple as possible due to restriction to make precise manufactures. But the design method for the mini turbo-pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machineries is not clarified and conventional theory is not conductive for small-sized pumps. Three types of rotors with different outlet angles are prepared for an experiment and a numerical analysis. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the blade outlet angle on performance and internal flow condition of mini turbo-pumps. It is clarified from the experimental results that head of the mini turbo-pump increases and maximum efficiency flow rate shifts to larger flow rate according to the increase of the blade outlet angle, however the maximum efficiency decreases with the increase of it. In the present paper, the performance of the mini turbo-pump is shown and the internal flow conditions are clarified with the results of the experiment and the numerical flow analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the blade outlet angle on the performance are investigated and high performance design with simple structure for the mini turbo-pump would be considered.