WorldWideScience

Sample records for blade-vortex interaction controller

  1. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  2. Blade vortex interaction noise reduction techniques for a rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bruce D. (Inventor); Hassan, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Tadghighi, Hormoz (Inventor); JanakiRam, Ram D. (Inventor); Sankar, Lakshmi N. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active control device for reducing blade-vortex interactions (BVI) noise generated by a rotorcraft, such as a helicopter, comprises a trailing edge flap located near the tip of each of the rotorcraft's rotor blades. The flap may be actuated in any conventional way, and is scheduled to be actuated to a deflected position during rotation of the rotor blade through predetermined regions of the rotor azimuth, and is further scheduled to be actuated to a retracted position through the remaining regions of the rotor azimuth. Through the careful azimuth-dependent deployment and retraction of the flap over the rotor disk, blade tip vortices which are the primary source for BVI noise are (a) made weaker and (b) pushed farther away from the rotor disk (that is, larger blade-vortex separation distances are achieved).

  3. Prediction of rotor blade-vortex interaction using Volterra integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, A.; Nitzsche, F. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Fred_Nitzsche@carleton.ca; Khalid, M. [National Research Council Canada, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The theory of Volterra integral equations for nonlinear system is applied to the prediction of the nonlinear aerodynamic response of an NACA 0012 airfoil experiencing blade-vortex interaction. The phenomenon is first modeled in two-dimensions using an Euler/Navier-Stoke code, and the resulting unsteady aerodynamic flow field sequences are appropriately combined to form a training dataset. The Volterra kernels are identified in the time-domain characteristics of the selected data, which is in turn used to predict the nonlinear aerodynamic response of the airfoil. The Volterra kernel based data is then compared against a standard airfoil response. The predicted lift time histories of the airfoil are shown to be in good agreement with the aerodynamic data. (author)

  4. Prediction of rotor blade-vortex interaction using Volterra integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.; Nitzsche, F.; Khalid, M.

    2004-01-01

    The theory of Volterra integral equations for nonlinear system is applied to the prediction of the nonlinear aerodynamic response of an NACA 0012 airfoil experiencing blade-vortex interaction. The phenomenon is first modeled in two-dimensions using an Euler/Navier-Stoke code, and the resulting unsteady aerodynamic flow field sequences are appropriately combined to form a training dataset. The Volterra kernels are identified in the time-domain characteristics of the selected data, which is in turn used to predict the nonlinear aerodynamic response of the airfoil. The Volterra kernel based data is then compared against a standard airfoil response. The predicted lift time histories of the airfoil are shown to be in good agreement with the aerodynamic data. (author)

  5. Helicopter Non-Unique Trim Strategies for Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2016-01-01

    An acoustics parametric analysis of the effect of fuselage drag and pitching moment on the Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiated by a medium lift helicopter (S-70UH-60) in a descending flight condition was conducted. The comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II was used for the calculation of vehicle trim, wake geometry and integrated air loads on the blade. The acoustics prediction code PSU-WOPWOP was used for calculating acoustic pressure signatures for a hemispherical grid centered at the hub. This paper revisits the concept of the X-force controller for BVI noise reduction, and investigates its effectiveness on an S-70 helicopter. The analysis showed that further BVI noise reductions were achievable by controlling the fuselage pitching moment. Reductions in excess of 6 dB of the peak BVI noise radiated towards the ground were demonstrated by compounding the effect of airframe drag and pitching moment simultaneously.

  6. A new look at sound generation by blade/vortex interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. C.; Mason, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    As a preliminary attempt to understand the dynamics of blade/vortex interaction, the two-dimensional problem of a rectilinear vortex filament interacting with a Joukowski airfoil is analyzed in both the lifting and nonlifting cases. The vortex velocity components could be obtained analytically and integrated to determine the vortex trajectory. With this information, the aeroacoustic low-frequency Green's function approach could then be employed to calculate the sound produced during the encounter. The results indicate that the vortex path deviates considerably from simple convection due to the presence of the airfoil and that a reasonably sharp sound pulse is radiated during the interaction whose fundamental frequency is critically dependent upon whether the vortex passes above or below the airfoil. Determination of this gross parameter of the interaction is shown to be highly nonlinearly dependent upon airfoil circulation, vortex circulation, and initial position.

  7. Acoustic radiation due to gust-airfoil and blade-vortex interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, R.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). National Inst. for Aviation Research

    2001-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for computing acoustic radiation due to gust-airfoil and blade-vortex interactions is developed. In these types of problems, sound is generated as a result of interaction between the unsteadiness in the flow and the body. The acoustic governing equations are derived by linearizing the compressible unsteady Euler equations about the steady mean flow. From these equations, the frequency domain acoustic equations are obtained assuming a single frequency disturbance. The equations are solved by employing a multi-stage Runge-Kutta finite-volume time-stepping scheme with a fourth-order compact spatial discretization. In the farfield, both the Giles' nonreflecting boundary condition and the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions are employed. This report describes the technical approach and shows the results calculated for the interactions. (orig.)

  8. Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.

  9. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  10. New techniques for experimental generation of two-dimensional blade-vortex interaction at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E., Jr.; Yu, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two dimensional blade vortex interaction was held at NASA Langley Research Center. The first phase was a flow visualization study to document the approach process of a two dimensional vortex as it encountered a loaded blade model. To accomplish the flow visualization study, a method for generating two dimensional vortex filaments was required. The numerical study used to define a new vortex generation process and the use of this process in the flow visualization study were documented. Additionally, photographic techniques and data analysis methods used in the flow visualization study are examined.

  11. The HART-II Test: Rotor Wakes and Aeroacoustics with Higher-Harmonic Pitch Control (HHC) Inputs - The Joint German/French/Dutch/US Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Yung H; Tung, Chee; van der Wall, Berend; Pausder, Heinz-Juergen; Burley, Casey; Brooks, Thomas; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Mercker, Edzard; Pengel, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    ...). The main objective of the program is to improve the basic understanding and the analytical modeling capabilities of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise with and without higher harmonic pitch control (HHC...

  12. Interaction between production control and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bij, van der J.D.; Ekert, van J.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study on interaction between systems for production control and quality control within industrial organisations. Production control and quality control interact in a sense. Good performance for one aspect often influences or frustrates the performance of the other. As far as

  13. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  14. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  15. Interaction with control agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to the licensing and inspections that apply to all departments in a hospital, certain special requirements apply to the uses of radioactive materials in diagnosis, therapy, and research involving human subjects. In part this chapter discusses these special requirements and how they can be met. Some official sources of information pertinent to the measurement and safe handling of radioactive materials also are mentioned. Aspects of the legal control of the manufacture and transportation of radioactive substances that usually involve hospitals only indirectly will not be covered comprehensively. However, if physicians, clinics, or hospitals develop programs under which they supply radioactive substances to other individuals or institutions, they become subject to further controls, rules, and regulations concerning the manufacture and transportation of radioactive substances. Regulation of drug production and testing is the responsibility of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Shipment of radioactive materials is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation

  16. Interactivity in automatic control: foundations and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Dormido Bencomo, Sebastián; Guzmán Sánchez, José Luis; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Berenguel, M

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the concepts of interactivity and visualization and its essential role in learning the fundamentals and techniques of automatic control. More than 10 years experience of the authors in the development and design of interactive tools dedicated to the study of automatic control concepts are also exposed. The second part of the paper summarizes the main features of the “Automatic Control with Interactive Tools” text that has been recently published by Pea...

  17. Non interacting control by measurement feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der J.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we shall solve the problem of non interacting control by measurement feedback for systems that in addition to a control input and a measurement output have two exogenous inputs and two exogenous outputs. That is, we shall derive necessary and sufficient conditions that can actually be

  18. Applying interactive control to waste processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasz, E.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1992-08-01

    At present waste and residue processing includes steps that require human interaction. The risk of exposure to unknown hazardous materials and the potential for radiation contamination motivates the desire to remove operators from these processes. Technologies that facilitate this include glove box robotics, modular systems for remote and automated servicing, and interactive controls that minimize human intervention. LLNL is developing an automated system which is designed to supplant the operator for glove box tasks, thus protecting the operator from the risk of radiation exposure and minimizing operator-associated waste. Although most of the processing can be automated with minimal human interaction, there are some tasks where intelligent intervention is both desirable and necessary to adapt to Enexpected circumstances and events. These activities require that the operator interact with the process using a remote manipulator which provides or reflects a natural feel to the operator. The remote manipulation system which was developed incorporates sensor fusion and interactive control, and provides the operator with an effective means of controlling the robot in a potentially unknown environment. This paper describes recent accomplishments in technology development and integration, and outlines the future goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for achieving this integrated interactive control capability

  19. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites.

  20. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L.

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak

  1. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  2. Java interface for asserting interactive telerobotic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Peter; Lewis, John; Stein, Matthew R.

    1997-12-01

    Many current web-based telerobotic interfaces use HyperText Markup Language (HTML) forms to assert user control on a robot. While acceptable for some tasks, a Java interface can provide better client-server interaction. The Puma Paint project is a joint effort between the Department of Computing Sciences at Villanova University and the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Wilkes University. THe project utilizes a Java applet to control a Unimation Puma 1760 robot during the task of painting on a canvas. The interface allows the user to control the paint strokes as well as the pressure of a brush on the canvas and how deep the brush is dipped into a paint jar. To provide immediate feedback, a virtual canvas models the effects of the controls as the artist paints. Live color video feedback is provided, allowing the user to view the actual results of the robot's motions. Unlike the step-at-a-time model of many web forms, the application permits the user to assert interactive control. The greater the complexity of the interaction between the robot and its environment, the greater the need for high quality information presentation to the user. The use of Java allows the sophistication of the user interface to be raised to the level required for satisfactory control. This paper describes the Puma Paint project, including the interface and communications model. It also examines the challenges of using the Internet as the medium of communications and the challenges of encoding free ranging motions for transmission from the client to the robot.

  3. Interaction and control in wearable computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Ole Morten; Johansen, Paal; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Reigstad, Magnus; Olsen, Asle; Helgar, Stein

    2004-03-01

    This report presents the status of Halden Virtual Reality Centre (HVRC) work with technological solutions for wearable computing to support operations where interaction and control of wearable information and communication systems for plant floor personnel are of importance. The report describes a framework and system prototype developed for testing technology, usability and applicability of eye movements and speech for controlling wearable equipment while having both hands free. Potentially interesting areas for further development are discussed with regard to the effect they have on the work situation for plant floor personnel using computerised wearable systems. (Author)

  4. Interaction control of a redundant mobile manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.H.; Velinsky, S.A.; Hess, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and control of a spatial mobile manipulator that consists of a robotic manipulator mounted on a wheeled mobile platform. The Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation is used to obtain a concise description of the dynamics of the system, which is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The complexity of the model is increased by introducing kinematic redundancy, which is created when a multilinked manipulator is used. The kinematic redundancy is resolved by decomposing the mobile manipulator into two subsystems: the mobile platform and the manipulator. The redundancy resolution scheme employs a nonlinear interaction-control algorithm, which is developed and applied to coordinate the two subsystems' controllers. The subsystem controllers are independently designed, based on each subsystem's dynamic characteristics. Simulation results show the promise of the developed algorithm

  5. Central control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edwin W; Leite, Cleo A C; Levings, Jennifer J

    2009-01-01

    Fish control the relative flow rates of water and blood over the gills in order to optimise respiratory gas exchange. As both flows are markedly pulsatile, close beat-to-beat relationships can be predicted. Cardiorespiratory interactions in fish are controlled primarily by activity in the parasympathetic nervous system that has its origin in cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons. Recordings of efferent activity in the cardiac vagus include units firing in respiration-related bursts. Bursts of electrical stimuli delivered peripherally to the cardiac vagus or centrally to respiratory branches of cranial nerves can recruit the heart over a range of frequencies. So, phasic, efferent activity in cardiac vagi, that in the intact fish are respiration-related, can cause heart rate to be modulated by the respiratory rhythm. In elasmobranch fishes this phasic activity seems to arise primarily from central feed-forward interactions with respiratory motor neurones that have overlapping distributions with cardiac neurons in the brainstem. In teleost fish, they arise from increased levels of efferent vagal activity arising from reflex stimulation of chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the orobranchial cavity. However, these differences are largely a matter of emphasis as both groups show elements of feed-forward and feed-back control of cardiorespiratory interactions.

  6. Tools for controlling protein interactions with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Chandra L.; Vrana, Justin D.; Kennedy, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically-encoded actuators that allow control of protein-protein interactions with light, termed ‘optical dimerizers’, are emerging as new tools for experimental biology. In recent years, numerous new and versatile dimerizer systems have been developed. Here we discuss the design of optical dimerizer experiments, including choice of a dimerizer system, photoexcitation sources, and coordinate use of imaging reporters. We provide detailed protocols for experiments using two dimerization systems we previously developed, CRY2/CIB and UVR8/UVR8, for use controlling transcription, protein localization, and protein secretion with light. Additionally, we provide instructions and software for constructing a pulse-controlled LED light device for use in experiments requiring extended light treatments. PMID:25181301

  7. Plasma Surface interaction in Controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The subjects presented in the 9th conference on plasma surface interaction in controlled fusion devices were: the modifications of power scrape-off-length and power deposition during various configurations in Tore Supra plasmas; the effects observed in ergodic divertor experiments in Tore-Supra; the diffuse connexion induced by the ergodic divertor and the topology of the heat load patterns on the plasma facing components in Tore-Supra; the study of the influence of air exposure on graphite implanted by low energy high density deuterium plasma

  8. Air pollution control technologies and their interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandian, H. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    A large number of coal-fired power stations have been fitted/retrofitted with dedicated air pollutant control technologies. Experience shows that these technologies can have complex interactions and can impact each other as well as balance of plant, positively and/or negatively. Particulate matter (PM) is usually captured with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and fabric filters (FF). These technologies are efficient and reliable but their performance may be affected by modifying operating conditions and introducing primary measures for NOx reduction. Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems for SO{sub 2} control have been installed in many facilities with the most popular technology being the wet limestone/gypsum scrubber. FGD use can decrease particulate matter and mercury emissions which is a major issue in the USA, cause an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and in solids by-product. Primary measures such as low NOx burners (LNBs) and overfire air (OFA) minimise NOx formation but can increase carbon in ash (CIA) which can cause problems with fly ash sales but may also improve mercury capture. Reducing NOx emissions with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can result in a decrease in particulate matter, an increase in SO{sub 3} emissions and trace increase in NH{sub 3}. This can cause fouling and loss of performance of the air preheater, due to the formation of ammonium sulphates. One way of alleviating this is improved soot-blowing and other cleaning capabilities. This report studies these and other interactions between existing air pollution control technologies in pulverised coal fired power plants. 249 refs., 13 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Plasmonic hybrid nanostructure with controlled interaction strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Justyna K.; Krajnik, Bartosz; Thoreson, Mark D.; Nyga, Piotr; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Mackowski, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    In this report we discuss the influence of plasmon excitations in a silver island film on the fluorescence of photosynthetic complex, peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP). Control of the separation between these two components is obtained by fabricating a wedge layer of silica across the substrate, with a thickness from 0 to 46 nm. Continuous variation of the silica thickness allows for gradual change of interaction strength between plasmon excitations in the metallic film and the excited states of pigments comprising photosynthetic complexes. While the largest separation between the silver film and photosynthetic complexes results in fluorescence featuring a mono-exponential decay and relatively narrow distribution of intensities, the PCP complexes placed on thinner silica spacers show biexponential fluorescence decay and significantly broader distribution of total fluorescence intensities. This broad distribution is a signature of stronger sensitivity of fluorescence enhancement upon actual parameters of a hybrid nanostructure. By gradual change of the silica spacer thickness we are able to reproduce classical distance dependence of fluorescence intensity in plasmonic hybrid nanostructures on ensemble level. Experiments carried out for different excitation wavelengths indicate that the interaction is stronger for excitations resonant with plasmon absorption in the metallic layer.

  10. Computer utility for interactive instrument control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, P.

    1975-08-01

    A careful study of the ANL laboratory automation needs in 1967 led to the conclusion that a central computer could support all of the real-time needs of a diverse collection of research instruments. A suitable hardware configuration would require an operating system to provide effective protection, fast real-time response and efficient data transfer. An SDS Sigma 5 satisfied all hardware criteria, however it was necessary to write an original operating system; services include program generation, experiment control real-time analysis, interactive graphics and final analysis. The system is providing real-time support for 21 concurrently running experiments, including an automated neutron diffractometer, a pulsed NMR spectrometer and multi-particle detection systems. It guarantees the protection of each user's interests and dynamically assigns core memory, disk space and 9-track magnetic tape usage. Multiplexor hardware capability allows the transfer of data between a user's device and assigned core area at rates of 100,000 bytes/sec. Real-time histogram generation for a user can proceed at rates of 50,000 points/sec. The facility has been self-running (no computer operator) for five years with a mean time between failures of 10 []ays and an uptime of 157 hours/week. (auth)

  11. A Modular Approach to Model Oscillating Control Surfaces Using Navier Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Lee, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The use of active controls for rotorcraft is becoming more important for modern aerospace configurations. Efforts to reduce the vibrations of helicopter blades with use of active-controls are in progress. Modeling oscillating control surfaces using the linear aerodynamics theory is well established. However, higher-fidelity methods are needed to account for nonlinear effects, such as those that occur in transonic flow. The aeroelastic responses of a wing with an oscillating control surface, computed using the transonic small perturbation (TSP) theory, have been shown to cause important transonic flow effects such as a reversal of control surface effectiveness that occurs as the shock wave crosses the hinge line. In order to account for flow complexities such as blade-vortex interactions of rotor blades higher-fidelity methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations are used. Reference 6 presents a procedure that uses the Navier-Stokes equations with moving-sheared grids and demonstrates up to 8 degrees of control-surface amplitude, using a single grid. Later, this procedure was extended to accommodate larger amplitudes, based on sliding grid zones. The sheared grid method implemented in EulerlNavier-Stokes-based aeroelastic code ENS AERO was successfully applied to active control design by industry. Recently there are several papers that present results for oscillating control surface using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. References 9 and 10 report 2-D cases by filling gaps with overset grids. Reference 9 compares integrated forces with the experiment at low oscillating frequencies whereas Ref. 10 reports parametric studies but with no validation. Reference II reports results for a 3D case by modeling the gap region with a deformed grid and compares force results with the experiment only at the mid-span of flap. In Ref. II grid is deformed to match the control surface deflections at the section where the measurements are made. However, there is no

  12. Interactive Control System, Intended Strategy, Implemented Strategy dan Emergent Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubagus Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between management control system (MCS and strategy formation processes, namely: intended strategy, emergent strategy and impelemented strategy. The focus of MCS in this study was interactive control system. The study was based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM as its multivariate analyses instrument. The samples were upper middle managers of manufacturing company in Banten Province, DKI Jakarta Province and West Java Province. AMOS Software 16 program is used as an additional instrument to resolve the problem in SEM modeling. The study found that interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on Intended strategy; interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on implemented strategy; interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on emergent strategy. The limitation of this study is that our empirical model only used one way relationship between the process of strategy formation and interactive control system.

  13. Control of grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, distributed energy resources (DER) technology has undergone a fast development. Increased penetration of DER units and wide spread use of renewable energy sources challenge the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, characterizing higher flexibility......, microgrid controls and power management strategies are presented. Future trends of microgrid are discussed pointing out how this concept can be a key to achieve a more intelligent and flexible AC grid....

  14. Interaction framework for loosely-coupled controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Simon

    2011-01-01

    terminology provide a common grounding for new work in the field of robotic controllers, whereas the TosNet framework allows researchers to focus on the actual functionality of robotic systems, and keeps them from wasting time implementing redundant, ad-hoc communication and infrastructure. It has been......Implementing communication and interfacing in research and prototype embedded systems is often done ad-hoc rather than in a standardized way. This leads to much time wasted due to redundantly implementing the same functionality in slightly different ways for each new project. This PhD project...... will aim to present both theoretical and practical work that can help reduce this waste by fostering reuse, simplicity and the use of a consistent, common terminology. Through a quick analysis of a few ad-hoc systems already implemented at the university, a number of undesirable characteristics...

  15. The Interaction between Negative Emotionality and Effortful Control in Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lyndsey R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children's adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children's social competence, internalizing, and…

  16. Controlling Second Harmonic Efficiency of Laser Beam Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling second harmonic efficiency of laser beam interactions. A laser system generates two laser beams (e.g., a laser beam with two polarizations) for incidence on a nonlinear crystal having a preferred direction of propagation. Prior to incidence on the crystal, the beams are optically processed based on the crystal's beam separation characteristics to thereby control a position in the crystal along the preferred direction of propagation at which the beams interact.

  17. Fiscal Interactions and the Costs of Controlling Pollution from Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This paper quantifies the costs of controlling SO2, carbon, and NOx emissions from power generation, accounting for interactions between environmental policies and the broader fiscal system. We distinguish a dirty technology (coal) that satisfies baseload demand and a clean technology (gas) that is used during peak periods, and we distinguish sectors with and without regulated prices. Estimated emissions control costs are substantially lower than in previous models of fiscal interactions that...

  18. To the Problem of Electromechanical Interaction in Elevators with Controlled Electric Drive and Fuzzy Speed Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Koval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning electromechanical interaction in elevators with an adjustable asynchronous electric drive equipped with the vector control systems under direct torque control and direct torque control with pulse-width modulator. A mathematical description of electromechanical elevator system with due account of nonlinearity of the worm gear is given in the paper. The paper presents a simplified circuit design of a control system with a fuzzy speed controller. It has been established that the factor of electromechanical interaction in electromechanical system with the adjustable asynchronous electric drive and an fuzzy speed controller is within the range which corresponds to existence of the essential electromechanical interaction.

  19. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-02

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions.

  20. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  1. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human-like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context-aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long-term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  2. Vesicle fusion with bilayer lipid membrane controlled by electrostatic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Oshima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of proteoliposomes is a promising approach for incorporating membrane proteins in artificial lipid membranes. In this study, we employed an electrostatic interaction between vesicles and supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs to control the fusion process. We combined large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs containing anionic lipids, which we used instead of proteoliposomes, and s-BLMs containing cationic lipids to control electrostatic interaction. Anionic LUVs were never adsorbed or ruptured on the SiO2 substrate with a slight negative charge, and selectively fused with cationic s-BLMs. The LUVs can be fused effectively to the target position. Furthermore, as the vesicle fusion proceeds and some of the positive charges are neutralized, the attractive interaction weakens and finally the vesicle fusion saturates. In other words, we can control the number of LUVs fused with s-BLMs by controlling the concentration of the cationic lipids in the s-BLMs. The fluidity of the s-BLMs after vesicle fusion was confirmed to be sufficiently high. This indicates that the LUVs attached to the s-BLMs were almost completely fused, and there were few intermediate state vesicles in the fusion process. We could control the position and amount of vesicle fusion with the s-BLMs by employing an electrostatic interaction.

  3. Multi-model Simulation for Optimal Control of Aeroacoustics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Chen, Guoquan

    2005-05-01

    Flow-generated noise, especially rotorcraft noise has been a serious concern for bothcommercial and military applications. A particular important noise source for rotor-craft is Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI)noise, a high amplitude, impulsive sound thatoften dominates other rotorcraft noise sources. Usually BVI noise is caused by theunsteady flow changes around various rotor blades due to interactions with vorticespreviously shed by the blades. A promising approach for reducing the BVI noise isto use on-blade controls, such as suction/blowing, micro-flaps/jets, and smart struc-tures. Because the design and implementation of such experiments to evaluate suchsystems are very expensive, efficient computational tools coupled with optimal con-trol systems are required to explore the relevant physics and evaluate the feasibilityof using various micro-fluidic devices before committing to hardware.In this thesis the research is to formulate and implement efficient computationaltools for the development and study of optimal control and design strategies for com-plex flow and acoustic systems with emphasis on rotorcraft applications, especiallyBVI noise control problem. The main purpose of aeroacoustic computations is todetermine the sound intensity and directivity far away from the noise source. How-ever, the computational cost of using a high-fidelity flow-physics model across thefull domain is usually prohibitive and itmight also be less accurate because of thenumerical diffusion and other problems. Taking advantage of the multi-physics andmulti-scale structure of this aeroacoustic problem, we develop a multi-model, multi-domain (near-field/far-field) method based on a discontinuous Galerkin discretiza-tion. In this approach the coupling of multi-domains and multi-models is achievedby weakly enforcing continuity of normal fluxes across a coupling surface. For ourinterested aeroacoustics control problem, the adjoint equations that determine thesensitivity of the cost

  4. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García JoséAPérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  5. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  6. Web-based interactive drone control using hand gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenfei; Luo, Hao; Song, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zhou; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a drone control prototype based on web technology with the aid of hand gesture. The uplink control command and downlink data (e.g., video) are transmitted by WiFi communication, and all the information exchange is realized on web. The control command is translated from various predetermined hand gestures. Specifically, the hardware of this friendly interactive control system is composed by a quadrotor drone, a computer vision-based hand gesture sensor, and a cost-effective computer. The software is simplified as a web-based user interface program. Aided by natural hand gestures, this system significantly reduces the complexity of traditional human-computer interaction, making remote drone operation more intuitive. Meanwhile, a web-based automatic control mode is provided in addition to the hand gesture control mode. For both operation modes, no extra application program is needed to be installed on the computer. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system, including control accuracy, operation latency, etc. This system can be used in many applications such as controlling a drone in global positioning system denied environment or by handlers without professional drone control knowledge since it is easy to get started.

  7. Web-based interactive drone control using hand gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenfei; Luo, Hao; Song, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zhou; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a drone control prototype based on web technology with the aid of hand gesture. The uplink control command and downlink data (e.g., video) are transmitted by WiFi communication, and all the information exchange is realized on web. The control command is translated from various predetermined hand gestures. Specifically, the hardware of this friendly interactive control system is composed by a quadrotor drone, a computer vision-based hand gesture sensor, and a cost-effective computer. The software is simplified as a web-based user interface program. Aided by natural hand gestures, this system significantly reduces the complexity of traditional human-computer interaction, making remote drone operation more intuitive. Meanwhile, a web-based automatic control mode is provided in addition to the hand gesture control mode. For both operation modes, no extra application program is needed to be installed on the computer. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system, including control accuracy, operation latency, etc. This system can be used in many applications such as controlling a drone in global positioning system denied environment or by handlers without professional drone control knowledge since it is easy to get started.

  8. Interactive Control System, Intended Strategy, Implemented Strategy dan Emergent Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tubagus Ismail; Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between management control system (MCS) and strategy formation processes, namely: intended strategy, emergent strategy and impelemented strategy. The focus of MCS in this study was interactive control system. The study was based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as its multivariate analyses instrument. The samples were upper middle managers of manufacturing company in Banten Province, DKI Jakarta Province and West Java Province. AM...

  9. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  10. Interactive animated displayed of man-controlled and autonomous robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, C.D. III; Duffy, J.

    1986-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics program has been developed which allows an operator to more readily control robot motions in two distinct modes; viz., man-controlled and autonomous. In man-controlled mode, the robot is guided by a joystick or similar device. As the robot moves, actual joint angle information is measured and supplied to a graphics system which accurately duplicates the robot motion. Obstacles are placed in the actual and animated workspace and the operator is warned of imminent collisions by sight and sound via the graphics system. Operation of the system in man-controlled mode is shown. In autonomous mode, a collision-free path between specified points is obtained by previewing robot motions on the graphics system. Once a satisfactory path is selected, the path characteristics are transmitted to the actual robot and the motion is executed. The telepresence system developed at the University of Florida has been successful in demonstrating that the concept of controlling a robot manipulator with the aid of an interactive computer graphics system is feasible and practical. The clarity of images coupled with real-time interaction and real-time determination of imminent collision with obstacles has resulted in improved operator performance. Furthermore, the ability for an operator to preview and supervise autonomous operations is a significant attribute when operating in a hazardous environment

  11. Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the areas of plasma physics, atomic physics, surface physics, bulk material properties and fusion experiments and theory, the following topics are presented: the plasma sheath; plasma flow in the sheath and presheath of a scrape-off layer; probes for plasma edge diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion devices; atomic and molecular collisions in the plasma boundary; physical sputtering of solids at ion bombardment; chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation of carbon; ion backscattering from solid surfaces; implantation, retention and release of hydrogen isotopes; surface erosion by electrical arcs; electron emission from solid surfaces;l properties of materials; plasma transport near material boundaries; plasma models for impurity control experiments; neutral particle transport; particle confinement and control in existing tokamaks; limiters and divertor plates; advanced limiters; divertor tokamak experiments; plasma wall interactions in heated plasmas; plasma-wall interactions in tandem mirror machines; and impurity control systems for reactor experiments

  12. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However, to d...... management is aware of this shortcoming they use the cybernetic controls more interactively to overcome this shortcoming, whereby the cybernetic controls are also used as a learning platform and not just for performance control....

  13. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G; Khademhosseini, Ali; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness these interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behavior. Here, we review two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3D) nanoscale tissue engineering technologies, and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffold technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D. However, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and that can control the temporal changes in the cellular microenvironment. (topical review)

  14. Interactional Organization and Topic Control in Conciliation Hearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia Terezinha Ladeira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyse discursive topic in talk-in-interaction within the institutional setting of three conciliation hearings held in a kind of small claims court for consumption conflict resolution. This research is based on Interactional Sociolinguistics and Conversation Analysis theories. The analysis shows that the participants of those meetings have asymmetric rights regarding the choice of discussion topics. Thus, the mediator is the one who has the right to suggest and control the discursive topics of the conversation. This topic control is the most important institutional procedure that can cause a reduction in accusations and adjacent replies. Consequently, the chance of mediators achieving their institutional task of reaching an agreement between parts in conflict is increased.

  15. Simulation of Fuzzy Adaptive PI Controlled Grid Interactive Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmi ALTIN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a voltage source grid interactive inverter is modeled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. Inverter is designed as current controlled and a fuzzy-PI current controller used for the generation of switching pattern to shape the inverter output current. The grid interactive inverter consists of a line frequency transformer and a LC type filter. Galvanic isolation between the grid and renewable energy source is obtained by the line frequency transformer and LC filter is employed to filter the high frequency harmonic components in current waveform due to PWM switching and to reduce the output current THD. Results of the MATLAB/Simulink simulation show that inverter output current is in sinusoidal waveform and in phase with line voltage, and current harmonics are in the limits of international standards (

  16. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  17. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G.; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness the interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behaviors. Here, we review the nanoscale tissue engineering technologies for both two- and three-dimensional studies (2- and 3D), and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffolds technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D, however, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and the temporal changes in cellular microenvironment. PMID:21451238

  18. Interaction between functional health literacy, patient activation, and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodard LD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LeChauncy D Woodard, Cassie R Landrum, Amber B Amspoker, David Ramsey, Aanand D Naik Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Background: Functional health literacy (FHL and patient activation can impact diabetes control through enhanced diabetes self-management. Less is known about the combined effect of these characteristics on diabetes outcomes. Using brief, validated measures, we examined the interaction between FHL and patient activation in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c control among a cohort of multimorbid diabetic patients.Methods: We administered a survey via mail to 387 diabetic patients with coexisting ­hypertension and ischemic heart disease who received outpatient care at one regional VA medical center between November 2010 and December 2010. We identified patients with the study conditions using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical ­Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes and Current Procedure Terminology (CPT ­procedures codes. Surveys were returned by 195 (50.4% patients. We determined patient activation levels based on participant responses to the 13-item Patient Activation Measure and FHL levels using the single-item screening question, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” We reviewed patient medical records to assess glycemic control. We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether activation and FHL were individually or jointly related to HbA1c control.Results: Neither patient activation nor FHL was independently related to glycemic control in the unadjusted main effects model; however, the interaction between the two was significantly associated with glycemic control (odds ratio 1.05 [95% confidence

  19. BTG interacts with retinoblastoma to control cell fate in Dictyostelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Conte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the genesis of many tissues, a phase of cell proliferation is followed by cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation. The latter two processes overlap: genes involved in the cessation of growth may also be important in triggering differentiation. Though conceptually distinct, they are often causally related and functional interactions between the cell cycle machinery and cell fate control networks are fundamental to coordinate growth and differentiation. A switch from proliferation to differentiation may also be important in the life cycle of single-celled organisms, and genes which arose as regulators of microbial differentiation may be conserved in higher organisms. Studies in microorganisms may thus contribute to understanding the molecular links between cell cycle machinery and the determination of cell fate choice networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that in the amoebozoan D. discoideum, an ortholog of the metazoan antiproliferative gene btg controls cell fate, and that this function is dependent on the presence of a second tumor suppressor ortholog, the retinoblastoma-like gene product. Specifically, we find that btg-overexpressing cells preferentially adopt a stalk cell (and, more particularly, an Anterior-Like Cell fate. No btg-dependent preference for ALC fate is observed in cells in which the retinoblastoma-like gene has been genetically inactivated. Dictyostelium btg is the only example of non-metazoan member of the BTG family characterized so far, suggesting that a genetic interaction between btg and Rb predated the divergence between dictyostelids and metazoa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While the requirement for retinoblastoma function for BTG antiproliferative activity in metazoans is known, an interaction of these genes in the control of cell fate has not been previously documented. Involvement of a single pathway in the control of mutually exclusive processes may have relevant implication in the

  20. Modelling control of epidemics spreading by long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2009-10-06

    We have studied the spread of epidemics characterized by a mixture of local and non-local interactions. The infection spreads on a two-dimensional lattice with the fixed nearest neighbour connections. In addition, long-range dynamical links are formed by moving agents (vectors). Vectors perform random walks, with step length distributed according to a thick-tail distribution. Two distributions are considered in this paper, an alpha-stable distribution describing self-similar vector movement, yet characterized by an infinite variance and an exponential power characterized by a large but finite variance. Such long-range interactions are hard to track and make control of epidemics very difficult. We also allowed for cryptic infection, whereby an infected individual on the lattice can be infectious prior to showing any symptoms of infection or disease. To account for such cryptic spread, we considered a control strategy in which not only detected, i.e. symptomatic, individuals but also all individuals within a certain control neighbourhood are treated upon the detection of disease. We show that it is possible to eradicate the disease by using such purely local control measures, even in the presence of long-range jumps. In particular, we show that the success of local control and the choice of the optimal strategy depend in a non-trivial way on the dispersal patterns of the vectors. By characterizing these patterns using the stability index of the alpha-stable distribution to change the power-law behaviour or the exponent characterizing the decay of an exponential power distribution, we show that infection can be successfully contained using relatively small control neighbourhoods for two limiting cases for long-distance dispersal and for vectors that are much more limited in their dispersal range.

  1. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot interaction (HRI plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system.

  2. Feasibility of interactive gesture control of a robotic microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sven-Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Robotic devices become increasingly available in the clinics. One example are motorized surgical microscopes. While there are different scenarios on how to use the devices for autonomous tasks, simple and reliable interaction with the device is a key for acceptance by surgeons. We study, how gesture tracking can be integrated within the setup of a robotic microscope. In our setup, a Leap Motion Controller is used to track hand motion and adjust the field of view accordingly. We demonstrate with a survey that moving the field of view over a specified course is possible even for untrained subjects. Our results indicate that touch-less interaction with robots carrying small, near field gesture sensors is feasible and can be of use in clinical scenarios, where robotic devices are used in direct proximity of patient and physicians.

  3. Parallel Vortex Body Interaction Enabled by Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingaertner, Andre; Tewes, Philipp; Little, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted to explore the flow physics of parallel vortex body interaction between two NACA 0012 airfoils. Experiments were carried out at chord Reynolds numbers of 740,000. Initially, the leading airfoil was characterized without the target one being installed. Results are in good agreement with thin airfoil theory and data provided in the literature. Afterward, the leading airfoil was fixed at 18° incidence and the target airfoil was installed 6 chord lengths downstream. Plasma actuation (ns-DBD), originating close to the leading edge, was used to control vortex shedding from the leading airfoil at various frequencies (0.04 governing parameters of this vortex body interaction are explored. This work was supported by the Army Research Office under ARO Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0662.

  4. Control-structure interaction in precision pointing servo loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, John T.

    1989-01-01

    The control-structure interaction problem is addressed via stability analysis of a generic linear servo loop model. With the plant described by the rigid body mode and a single elastic mode, structural flexibility is categorized into one of three types: (1) appendage, (2) in-the-loop minimum phase, and (3) in-the-loop nonminimum phase. Closing the loop with proportional-derivative (PD) control action and introducing sensor roll-off dynamics in the feedback path, stability conditions are obtained. Trade studies are conducted with modal frequency, modal participation, modal damping, loop bandwidth, and sensor bandwidth treated as free parameters. Results indicate that appendage modes are most likely to produce instability if they are near the sensor rolloff, whereas in-the-loop modes are most dangerous near the loop bandwidth. The main goal of this paper is to provide a fundamental understanding of the control-structure interaction problem so that it may benefit the design of complex spacecraft and pointing system servo loops. In this framework, the JPL Pathfinder gimbal pointer is considered as an example.

  5. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  6. MINDS: A microcomputer interactive data system for 8086-based controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A microcomputer interactive data system (MINDS) software package for the 8086 family of microcomputers is described. To enhance program understandability and ease of code maintenance, the software is written in PL/M-86, Intel Corporation's high-level system implementation language. The MINDS software is intended to run in residence with real-time digital control software to provide displays of steady-state and transient data. In addition, the MINDS package provides classic monitor capabilities along with extended provisions for debugging an executing control system. The software uses the CP/M-86 operating system developed by Digital Research, Inc., to provide program load capabilities along with a uniform file structure for data and table storage. Finally, a library of input and output subroutines to be used with consoles equipped with PL/M-86 and assembly language is described.

  7. Interactive TV: Interaction and Control in Second-screen TV Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Baunstrup, Mai

    2012-01-01

    The integration of television and mobile technologies are becoming a reality in today’s home media environments. In order to facilitate the development of future cross-platform broadcast TV services, this study investigated prompting and control strategies for a secondary device in front of the TV...... they preferred with which content. Overall, we found a clear preference for keeping interactive contents and prompting on the secondary device and broadcast TV content on the primary screen. The workshops generated numerous ideas concerning possible personalization of such service....

  8. Autonomic control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish, amphibians and reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.W. Taylor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Control of the heart rate and cardiorespiratory interactions (CRI is predominantly parasympathetic in all jawed vertebrates, with the sympathetic nervous system having some influence in tetrapods. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA has been described as a solely mammalian phenomenon but respiration-related beat-to-beat control of the heart has been described in fish and reptiles. Though they are both important, the relative roles of feed-forward central control and peripheral reflexes in generating CRI vary between groups of fishes and probably between other vertebrates. CRI may relate to two locations for the vagal preganglionic neurons (VPN and in particular cardiac VPN in the brainstem. This has been described in representatives from all vertebrate groups, though the proportion in each location is variable. Air-breathing fishes, amphibians and reptiles breathe discontinuously and the onset of a bout of breathing is characteristically accompanied by an immediate increase in heart rate plus, in the latter two groups, a left-right shunting of blood through the pulmonary circuit. Both the increase in heart rate and opening of a sphincter on the pulmonary artery are due to withdrawal of vagal tone. An increase in heart rate following a meal in snakes is related to withdrawal of vagal tone plus a non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic effect that may be due to humoral factors released by the gut. Histamine is one candidate for this role.

  9. Autonomic control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish, amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E W; Leite, C A C; Skovgaard, N

    2010-07-01

    Control of the heart rate and cardiorespiratory interactions (CRI) is predominantly parasympathetic in all jawed vertebrates, with the sympathetic nervous system having some influence in tetrapods. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been described as a solely mammalian phenomenon but respiration-related beat-to-beat control of the heart has been described in fish and reptiles. Though they are both important, the relative roles of feed-forward central control and peripheral reflexes in generating CRI vary between groups of fishes and probably between other vertebrates. CRI may relate to two locations for the vagal preganglionic neurons (VPN) and in particular cardiac VPN in the brainstem. This has been described in representatives from all vertebrate groups, though the proportion in each location is variable. Air-breathing fishes, amphibians and reptiles breathe discontinuously and the onset of a bout of breathing is characteristically accompanied by an immediate increase in heart rate plus, in the latter two groups, a left-right shunting of blood through the pulmonary circuit. Both the increase in heart rate and opening of a sphincter on the pulmonary artery are due to withdrawal of vagal tone. An increase in heart rate following a meal in snakes is related to withdrawal of vagal tone plus a non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic effect that may be due to humoral factors released by the gut. Histamine is one candidate for this role.

  10. Targeting protein-protein interactions for parasite control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Taylor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding new drug targets for pathogenic infections would be of great utility for humanity, as there is a large need to develop new drugs to fight infections due to the developing resistance and side effects of current treatments. Current drug targets for pathogen infections involve only a single protein. However, proteins rarely act in isolation, and the majority of biological processes occur via interactions with other proteins, so protein-protein interactions (PPIs offer a realm of unexplored potential drug targets and are thought to be the next-generation of drug targets. Parasitic worms were chosen for this study because they have deleterious effects on human health, livestock, and plants, costing society billions of dollars annually and many sequenced genomes are available. In this study, we present a computational approach that utilizes whole genomes of 6 parasitic and 1 free-living worm species and 2 hosts. The species were placed in orthologous groups, then binned in species-specific orthologous groups. Proteins that are essential and conserved among species that span a phyla are of greatest value, as they provide foundations for developing broad-control strategies. Two PPI databases were used to find PPIs within the species specific bins. PPIs with unique helminth proteins and helminth proteins with unique features relative to the host, such as indels, were prioritized as drug targets. The PPIs were scored based on RNAi phenotype and homology to the PDB (Protein DataBank. EST data for the various life stages, GO annotation, and druggability were also taken into consideration. Several PPIs emerged from this study as potential drug targets. A few interactions were supported by co-localization of expression in M. incognita (plant parasite and B. malayi (H. sapiens parasite, which have extremely different modes of parasitism. As more genomes of pathogens are sequenced and PPI databases expanded, this methodology will become increasingly

  11. Interaction of attentional and motor control processes in handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T L; Donnenwirth, E E

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between attentional capacity, motor control processes, and strategic adaptations to changing task demands was investigated in handwriting, a continuous (rather than discrete) skilled performance. Twenty-four subjects completed 12 two-minute handwriting samples under instructions stressing speeded handwriting, normal handwriting, or highly legible handwriting. For half of the writing samples, a concurrent auditory monitoring task was imposed. Subjects copied either familiar (English) or unfamiliar (Latin) passages. Writing speed, legibility ratings, errors in writing and in the secondary auditory task, and a derived measure of the average number of characters held in short-term memory during each sample ("planning unit size") were the dependent variables. The results indicated that the ability to adapt to instructions stressing speed or legibility was substantially constrained by the concurrent listening task and by text familiarity. Interactions between instructions, task concurrence, and text familiarity in the legibility ratings, combined with further analyses of planning unit size, indicated that information throughput from temporary storage mechanisms to motor processes mediated the loss of flexibility effect. Overall, the results suggest that strategic adaptations of a skilled performance to changing task circumstances are sensitive to concurrent attentional demands and that departures from "normal" or "modal" performance require attention.

  12. Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jae Min; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Ko, K. H.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Study on one dimensional atom cooling and trapping process which is basic to the development of atom manipulation technology has been performed. A Zeeman slower has been designed and manufactured for efficient cooling of atoms. The speed of atoms finally achieved is as slow as 15 m/s with proper cooling conditions. By six circularly-polarized laser beams and quadrupole magnetic field, the atoms which have been slowed down by zeeman slower have been trapped in a small spatial region inside MOT. The higher the intensity of the slowing laser is the more is the number of atoms slowed and the maximum number of atoms trapped has been 10 8 . The atoms of several tens of μK degree have been trapped by controlling the intensity of trapping laser and intensity gradient of magnetic field. EIT phenomena caused by atomic coherent interaction has been studied for the development of atom optical elements. For the investigation of the focusing phenomena induced by the coherent interaction, experimental measurements and theoretical analysis have been performed. Spatial dependency of spectrum and double distribution signal of coupling laser have been obtained. The deflection of laser beams utilizing the EIT effects has also been considered. (author)

  13. Controlling single-molecule junction conductance by molecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Habuka, S.; Okuyama, H.; Hatta, S.; Aruga, T.; Frederiksen, T.; Paulsson, M.; Ueba, H.

    2015-01-01

    For the rational design of single-molecular electronic devices, it is essential to understand environmental effects on the electronic properties of a working molecule. Here we investigate the impact of molecular interactions on the single-molecule conductance by accurately positioning individual molecules on the electrode. To achieve reproducible and precise conductivity measurements, we utilize relatively weak π-bonding between a phenoxy molecule and a STM-tip to form and cleave one contact to the molecule. The anchoring to the other electrode is kept stable using a chalcogen atom with strong bonding to a Cu(110) substrate. These non-destructive measurements permit us to investigate the variation in single-molecule conductance under different but controlled environmental conditions. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we clarify the role of the electrostatic field in the environmental effect that influences the molecular level alignment. PMID:26135251

  14. How thermodynamic environments control stratocumulus microphysics and interactions with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Hendrik; Cermak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol–cloud interactions are central to climate system changes and depend on meteorological conditions. This study identifies distinct thermodynamic regimes and proposes a conceptual framework for interpreting aerosol effects. In the analysis, ten years (2003–2012) of daily satellite-derived aerosol and cloud products are combined with reanalysis data to identify factors controlling Southeast Atlantic stratocumulus microphysics. Considering the seasonal influence of aerosol input from biomass burning, thermodynamic environments that feature contrasting microphysical cloud properties and aerosol–cloud relations are classified. While aerosol impact is stronger in unstable environments, it is mostly confined to situations with low aerosol loading (aerosol index AI ≲ 0.15), implying a saturation of aerosol effects. Situations with high aerosol loading are associated with weaker, seasonally contrasting aerosol-droplet size relationships, likely caused by thermodynamically induced processes and aerosol swelling. (letter)

  15. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  16. Interactions Controlling the Slow Dynamic Conformational Motions of Ubiquitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Kitazawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rational mutation of proteins based on their structural and dynamic characteristics is a useful strategy for amplifying specific fluctuations in proteins. Here, we show the effects of mutation on the conformational fluctuations and thermodynamic stability of ubiquitin. In particular, we focus on the salt bridge between K11 and E34 and the hydrogen bond between I36 and Q41, which are predicted to control the fluctuation between the basic folded state, N1, and the alternatively folded state, N2, of the protein, using high-pressure NMR spectroscopy. The E34A mutation, which disrupts the salt bridge, did not alter picosecond–to–nanosecond, microsecond–to–millisecond dynamic motions, and stability of the protein, while the Q41N mutation, which destabilizes the hydrogen bond, specifically amplified the N1–N2 conformational fluctuation and decreased stability. Based on the observed thermodynamic stabilities of the various conformational states, we showed that in the Q41N mutant, the N1 state is more significantly destabilized than the N2 state, resulting in an increase in the relative population of N2. Identifying the interactions controlling specific motions of a protein will facilitate molecular design to achieve functional dynamics beyond native state dynamics.

  17. Interactive scan control for kinematic study in open MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Kiyomi; Ito, Taeko; Nagao, Hisako; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    A tool to support the subject is generally used for kinematic joint imaging with an open MRI apparatus because of difficulty setting the image plane correctly. However, use of a support tool requires a complicated procedure to position the subject, and setting the image plane when the joint angle changes is time consuming. Allowing the subject to move freely enables better diagnoses when kinematic joint imaging is performed. We therefore developed an interactive scan control (ISC) to facilitate the easy, quick, and accurate setting of the image plane even when a support tool is not used. We used a 0.4T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system open in the horizontal direction. The ISC determines the image plane interactively on the basis of fluoroscopy images displayed on a user interface. The imaging pulse is a balanced steady-state acquisition with rewound gradient echo (SARGE) sequence with update time less than 2 s. Without using a tool to support the knee, we positioned the knee of a healthy volunteer at 4 different joint angles and set the image plane through the patella and femur at each of the angles. Lumbar imaging is also demonstrated with ISC. Setting the image plane was easy and quick at all knee angles, and images obtained clearly showed the patella and femur. Total imaging time was less than 10 min, a fourth of the time needed when a support tool is used. We also used our ISC in kinematic imaging of the lumbar. The ISC shortens total time for kinematic joint imaging, and because a support tool is not needed, imaging can be done more freely in an open MR imaging apparatus. (author)

  18. Identification and Resolution of Feature Interactions in Greenhouse Climate Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen

    The slow adoption pace of new control strategies for sustainable greenhouse climate control by industrial growers, is mainly due to the complexity of identifying and resolving potentially conflicting climate control requirements. When separate climate control strategies are composed they become...... in greenhouses. Experiments show that solutions are found for compatible control strategies and that conflicts are identified and explained for incompatible control strategies....

  19. Plant neighbour identity matters to belowground interactions under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cristina; Pugnaire, Francisco Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Root competition is an almost ubiquitous feature of plant communities with profound effects on their structure and composition. Far beyond the traditional view that plants interact mainly through resource depletion (exploitation competition), roots are known to be able to interact with their environment using a large variety of mechanisms that may inhibit or enhance access of other roots to the resource or affect plant growth (contest interactions). However, an extensive analysis on how these contest root interactions may affect species interaction abilities is almost lacking. In a common garden experiment with ten perennial plant species we forced pairs of plants of the same or different species to overlap their roots and analyzed how belowground contest interactions affected plant performance, biomass allocation patterns, and competitive abilities under abundant resource supply. Our results showed that net interaction outcome ranged from negative to positive, affecting total plant mass and allocation patterns. A species could be a strong competitor against one species, weaker against another one, and even facilitator to a third species. This leads to sets of species where competitive hierarchies may be clear but also to groups where such rankings are not, suggesting that intransitive root interactions may be crucial for species coexistence. The outcome of belowground contest interactions is strongly dependent on neighbours' identity. In natural plant communities this conditional outcome may hypothetically help species to interact in non-hierarchical and intransitive networks, which in turn might promote coexistence.

  20. Sediment Supply as a Control on Plant-Morphodynamic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Kui, L.; Stella, J. C.; Lightbody, A.; Sklar, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The caliber and quantity of sediment delivered to a channel influences its size and shape, yet we know little about how the sediment supply affects rivers whose geomorphic form is influenced by riparian vegetation. We present results from flume experiments that test the impact of sediment supply on plant-morphodynamic interactions. We introduced two sediment supply conditions to a 28-meter long, sand bedded flume (60 cm wide and 71 cm deep) at the UC-Berkeley Richmond Field Station: equilibrium (balance between sediment transport and supply) and deficit (transport exceeds sediment supply). We conducted ten runs with different riparian seedling configurations (individual plants or patches) and species (tamarisk or cottonwood), and stem and leaf density (0.003-0.47 cm2/cm2), under both sediment supply conditions. Plant species, size, and configuration were important in predicting the topographic adjustments that occurred during our experiments. These influences may be attributed to differences in plant morphology; tamarisk is shrubby while cottonwood is more tree-like, with a single stem and leaves concentrated higher on the plant. The plant-morphodynamic relationship, however, differed for the two sediment supply conditions. During sediment equilibrium, only patches of cottonwood served as sediment sinks compared to an unvegetated bed, but tamarisk patches had no impact on the sediment mass balance. During sediment deficit, in contrast, tamarisk patches accumulated more sediment than unvegetated beds. Stem and leaf density also controlled changes in bed elevation. During equilibrium conditions, increasing the density of cottonwood stems and leaves resulted in greater bed degradation. Conversely, aggradation occurred with increases in the density of tamarisk. For sediment deficit conditions, the relationship between stem and leaf density and the rate of bed change was negative for both species (i.e., higher density resulted in faster rate of scour). The shifting

  1. Interactive urban design using integrated planning requirements control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Tabak, V.; Achten, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Urban planning and urban design are separated disciplines. As a consequence, there is hardly any feedback from the urban design process to the urban planning process. To improve interaction between these two, an interactive urban design (IUD) tool has been developed. The tool is implemented in a

  2. Motor Control and Neural Plasticity through Interhemispheric Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum, which is the largest white matter structure in the human brain, connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the independent processing of the hemispheres and in integrating information between both hemispheres. The functional integrity of interhemispheric interactions can be tested electrophysiologically in humans by using transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. As a brain structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging has revealed the microstructural connectivity underlying interhemispheric interactions. Sex, age, and motor training in addition to the size of the corpus callosum influence interhemispheric interactions. Several neurological disorders change hemispheric asymmetry directly by impairing the corpus callosum. Moreover, stroke lesions and unilateral peripheral impairments such as amputation alter interhemispheric interactions indirectly. Noninvasive brain stimulation changes the interhemispheric interactions between both motor cortices. Recently, these brain stimulation techniques were applied in the clinical rehabilitation of patients with stroke by ameliorating the deteriorated modulation of interhemispheric interactions. Here, we review the interhemispheric interactions and mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these interactions and propose rehabilitative approaches for appropriate cortical reorganization.

  3. Control In Cellular Activity By Interaction Of Peptides | Umar Dikko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiments was conducted in the previous years using EGF, PTH-rP and PTH(1-34) to investigate the interaction between these peptides on the proliferation of JAR human chariocarcinoma cells. Here the interaction between some of the fragments of hypercalcaemic factor PTH-rP and PTH(1-34) were considered with ...

  4. Interactive robot control system and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having joints, actuators, and sensors, and a distributed controller. The controller includes command-level controller, embedded joint-level controllers each controlling a respective joint, and a joint coordination-level controller coordinating motion of the joints. A central data library (CDL) centralizes all control and feedback data, and a user interface displays a status of each joint, actuator, and sensor using the CDL. A parameterized action sequence has a hierarchy of linked events, and allows the control data to be modified in real time. A method of controlling the robot includes transmitting control data through the various levels of the controller, routing all control and feedback data to the CDL, and displaying status and operation of the robot using the CDL. The parameterized action sequences are generated for execution by the robot, and a hierarchy of linked events is created within the sequence.

  5. Influenza A Virus-Host Protein Interactions Control Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Shitao

    2017-08-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is a highly transmissible respiratory pathogen and represents a continued threat to global health with considerable economic and social impact. IAV is a zoonotic virus that comprises a plethora of strains with different pathogenic profiles. The different outcomes of viral pathogenesis are dependent on the engagement between the virus and the host cellular protein interaction network. The interactions may facilitate virus hijacking of host molecular machinery to fulfill the viral life cycle or trigger host immune defense to eliminate the virus. In recent years, much effort has been made to discover the virus-host protein interactions and understand the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we review the recent advances in our understanding of IAV-host interactions and how these interactions contribute to host defense and viral pathogenesis.

  6. Cardiorespiratory interactions in neural circulatory control in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuzzaman, A S; Somers, V K

    2001-06-01

    The reflex mechanisms and interactions described in this overview provide some explanation for the range of neural circulatory responses evident during changes in breathing. The effects described represent the integrated responses to activation of several reflex mechanisms, including peripheral and central chemoreflexes, arterial baroreflexes, pulmonary stretch receptors, and ventricular mechanoreceptors. These interactions occur on a dynamic basis and the transfer characteristics of any single interaction are, in all likelihood, also highly dynamic. Nevertheless, it is only by attempting to understand individual reflexes and their modulating influences that a more thorough understanding of the responses to complex phenomena such as hyperventilation, apnea, and obstructive sleep apnea can be better understood.

  7. The double meaning of control: three-way interactions between internal resources, job control, and stressors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Laurenz L; Semmer, Norbert K; Elfering, Achim; Jacobshagen, Nicola

    2008-07-01

    The Job Demand-Control model postulates that job control attenuates the effects of job demands on health and well-being. Support for this interactive effect is rather weak. Conceivably, it holds only when there is a match between job control and individual characteristics that relate to exercising control options, such as locus of control, or self-efficacy. This three-way interaction was tested in a sample of 96 service employees, with affective strain and musculoskeletal pain as dependent variables. As hypothesized, job control attenuated the effects of stressors only for people with an internal locus of control. For people with an external locus of control, job control actually predicted poorer well-being and health as stressors increased. For self-efficacy, the corresponding three-way interaction was significant with regard to affective strain. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Interactions between Management Control Systems and Strategy on Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Melek Eker; Semih Eker

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in examining the relationships among management control systems, business strategy and firm performance. In this study, the interactions of management control systems and strategy with their impact on firm performance are examined with an empirical analysis, based on the data from 94 manufacturing firms from the top 500 in Turkey in 2014. The results support the postulate that high interaction between interactive control system (ICS) and differ...

  9. Controlled interaction: strategies for using virtual reality to study perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgin, Frank H; Li, Zhi

    2010-05-01

    Immersive virtual reality systems employing head-mounted displays offer great promise for the investigation of perception and action, but there are well-documented limitations to most virtual reality systems. In the present article, we suggest strategies for studying perception/action interactions that try to depend on both scale-invariant metrics (such as power function exponents) and careful consideration of the requirements of the interactions under investigation. New data concerning the effect of pincushion distortion on the perception of surface orientation are presented, as well as data documenting the perception of dynamic distortions associated with head movements with uncorrected optics. A review of several successful uses of virtual reality to study the interaction of perception and action emphasizes scale-free analysis strategies that can achieve theoretical goals while minimizing assumptions about the accuracy of virtual simulations.

  10. Parent-child interactions during traditional and interactive media settings: A pilot randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Silje; Englund, Kjellrun T; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Lydersen, Stian; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2018-04-01

    Parent-child interactions are pivotal for children's socioemotional development, yet might suffer with increased attention to screen media, as research has suggested. In response, we hypothesized that parent-child play on a tablet computer, as representative of interactive media, would generate higher-quality parent-child interactions than toy play or watching TV. We examined the emotional availability of mothers and their 2-year-old child during the previous three contexts using a randomized crossover design (n = 22) in a laboratory room. Among other results, mothers were more sensitive and structuring during joint gaming on a tablet than when engaged in toy play or watching TV. In addition, mothers were more hostile toward their children during play with traditional toys than during joint tablet gaming and television co-viewing. Such findings provide new insights into the impact of new media on parent-child interactions, chiefly by demonstrating that interactive media devices such as tablets can afford growth-enhancing parent-child interactions. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Controlling coulomb interactions in infrared stereometamaterials for unity light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudachathi, Renilkumar; Moritake, Yuto; Tanaka, Takuo

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the influence of near field interactions between the constituent 3D split ring resonators on the absorbance and resonance frequency of a stereo metamaterial based perfect light absorber. The experimental and theoretical analyses reveal that the magnetic resonance red shifts and broadens for both the decreasing vertical and lateral separations of the constituents within the metamaterial lattice, analogous to plasmon hybridization. The strong interparticle interactions for higher density reduce the effective cross-section per resonator, which results in weak light absorption observed in both experimental and theoretical analyses. The red shift of the magnetic resonance with increasing lattice density is an indication of the dominating electric dipole interactions and we analyzed the metamaterial system in an electrostatic point of view to explain the observed resonance shift and decreasing absorption peak. From these analyses, we found that the fill factor introduces two competing factors determining the absorption efficiency such as coulomb interactions between the constituent resonators and their number density in a given array structure. We predicted unity light absorption for a fill factor of 0.17 balancing these two opposing factors and demonstrate an experimental absorbance of 99.5% at resonance with our 3D device realized using residual stress induced bending of 2D patterns.

  12. Calculation of control rod worth with mutual interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthar, M.C.V.; Oliveira Vellozo, S. de; Carvalho Vital, H. de

    1989-01-01

    This work presents a two-dimensional model for determining the total worth of a set of N absorbing rods. The model simplifies the evaluation of the interaction coefficient among rods by analysing them in pairs and attributes to it a purely geometrical character. Comparisons with conventional calculational methods indicate that the results are in error by less than 6%. (author) [pt

  13. A communication protocol for interactively controlling software tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulp, van der J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a protocol for interactively using software tools in a loosely coupled tool environment. Such an environment can assist the user in doing tasks that require the use of multiple tools. For example, it can invoke tools on certain input, set processing parameters, await task completion and

  14. Organization of Multi-controller Interaction in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Morzhov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN is a promising paradigm for network management. It is a centralized network intelligence on a dedicated server, which runs network operating system, and is called SDN controller. It was assumed that such an architecture should have an improved network performance and monitoring. However, the centralized control architecture of the SDNs brings novel challenges to reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. These problems are especially acute for large data center networks and can be solved by combining SDN controllers into clusters, called multi-controllers. Multi-controller architecture became very important for SDN-enabled networks nowadays. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of SDN multi-controller architectures. The authors review several most popular distributed controllers in order to indicate their strengths and weaknesses. They also investigate and classify approaches used. This paper explains in details the difference among various types of multi-controller architectures, the distribution method and the communication system. Furthermore, it provides already implemented architectures and some examples of architectures under consideration by describing their design, communication process, and performance results. In this paper, the authors show their own classification of multi-controllers and claim that, despite the existence of undeniable advantages, all reviewed controllers have serious drawbacks, which must be eliminated. These drawbacks hamper the development of multi-controllers and their widespread adoption in corporate networks. In the end, the authors conclude that now it is impossible to find a solution capable to solve all the tasks assigned to it adequately and fully. The article is published in the authors’ wording.

  15. Interactive tag cloud visualization of software version control repositories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greene, GJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Version control repositories contain a wealth of implicit information that can be used to answer many questions about a project’s development process. However, this information is not directly accessible in the version control archives and must...

  16. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  17. Control rod interaction models for use in 2D and 3D reactor geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    Control rod interaction models are developed for use in two-dimensional and three-dimensional reactor geometries. These models allow the total worth of any combination of control rods inserted to be determined from the individual worths in conjunction with an algorithm representing interaction effects between them. The validity of the assumptions is demonstrated for fast and thermal systems showing modelling errors of 1#percent# or less in inserted control rod worths. The models are ideally suited for most reactor systems. (UK)

  18. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-01

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  19. Interactions between prolactin and kisspeptin to control reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jose; Frazão, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Upon activation, PRLRs may exert prolactin's functions through several signaling pathways, although the recruitment of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 causes most of the known effects of prolactin. Pathological hyperprolactinemia is mainly due to the presence of a prolactinoma or pharmacological effects induced by drugs that interact with the dopamine system. Notably, hyperprolactinemia is a frequent cause of reproductive dysfunction and may lead to infertility in males and females. Recently, several studies have indicated that prolactin may modulate the reproductive axis by acting on specific populations of hypothalamic neurons that express the Kiss1 gene. The Kiss1 gene encodes neuropeptides known as kisspeptins, which are powerful activators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. In the present review, we will summarize the current knowledge about prolactin's actions on reproduction. Among other aspects, we will discuss whether the interaction between prolactin and the Kiss1-expressing neurons can affect reproduction and how kisspeptins may become a novel therapeutic approach to treat prolactin-induced infertility.

  20. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  1. Human-telerobot interactions - Information, control, and mental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randy L.; Gillan, Douglas J.

    1987-01-01

    A part of the NASA's Space Station will be a teleoperated robot (telerobot) with arms for grasping and manipulation, feet for holding onto objects, and television cameras for visual feedback. The objective of the work described in this paper is to develop the requirements and specifications for the user-telerobot interface and to determine through research and testing that the interface results in efficient system operation. The focus of the development of the user-telerobot interface is on the information required by the user, the user inputs, and the design of the control workstation. Closely related to both the information required by the user and the user's control of the telerobot is the user's mental model of the relationship between the control inputs and the telerobot's actions.

  2. Interactive orbit control package for INDUS-2 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, A.A.S.; Ghodke, A.D.; Fatnani, Pravin; Bhujle, A.G.; Singh, Gurnam

    2003-01-01

    Maintaining the proper electron beam orbit is very important for all light sources. This package designed in Meatball provides for orbit control by just drag and drop. Simulation of Indus-2 storage ring in this package makes it useful for beam dynamic studies as well. Package functionality and architecture is described. (author)

  3. Interactive orbit control package for INDUS-2 storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, A A.S.; Ghodke, A D; Fatnani, Pravin; Bhujle, A G; Singh, Gurnam [Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2003-07-01

    Maintaining the proper electron beam orbit is very important for all light sources. This package designed in Meatball provides for orbit control by just drag and drop. Simulation of Indus-2 storage ring in this package makes it useful for beam dynamic studies as well. Package functionality and architecture is described. (author)

  4. Towards Efficient Fluid-Structure-Control Interaction for Smart Rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebaart, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the solutions to speed up the energy transition is the smart rotor concept: wind turbine blades with actively controlled Trailing Edge Flaps. In the past decade feasibility studies (both numerical and experimental) have been performed to assess the applicability of smart rotors in future

  5. NEURAL NETWORK INTERACTIONS AND INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR CONTROL DURING ANOREXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Alan G.; Salter, Dawna S.; Neuner, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Many models have been proposed over the years to explain how motivated feeding behavior is controlled. One of the most compelling is based on the original concepts of Eliot Stellar whereby sets of interosensory and exterosensory inputs converge on a hypothalamic control network that can either stimulate or inhibit feeding. These inputs arise from information originating in the blood, the viscera, and the telencephalon. In this manner the relative strengths of the hypothalamic stimulatory and inhibitory networks at a particular time dictates how an animal feeds. Anorexia occurs when the balance within the networks consistently favors the restraint of feeding. This article discusses experimental evidence supporting a model whereby the increases in plasma osmolality that result from drinking hypertonic saline activate pathways projecting to neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These neurons constitute the hypothalamic controller for ingestive behavior, and receive a set of afferent inputs from regions of the brain that process sensory information that is critical for different aspects of feeding. Important sets of inputs arise in the arcuate nucleus, the hindbrain, and in the telencephalon. Anorexia is generated in dehydrated animals by way of osmosensitive projections to the behavior control neurons in the PVH and LHA, rather than by actions on their afferent inputs. PMID:17531275

  6. Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Han Jae; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Jung, E. C.; Choe, A. S.; Lee, J. M

    1999-01-01

    The doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of Na atoms has been performed and the proper conditions for the frequency stabilization of narrow band cw dye lasers, which was used as laser sources for the laser cooling and trapping, have been obtained as follows : a) optimum pressure of a Na vapor cell: 10 mTorr b) intensity of a pump laser : a few {mu}W c) intensity of a probe laser : 1/10 of that of a pump laser. EIT (Electromagnetically Induced Transparency) generated by coherent laser-atom interactions was investigated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. The absorption of a probe laser could be remarkably reduced more than 90 % due to EIT effect. The EIT spectrum as narrow as 6 MHz which is even narrower than the natural linewidth of an excited state could be obtained under proper conditions.

  7. Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Han Jae; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Jung, E. C.; Choe, A. S.; Lee, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of Na atoms has been performed and the proper conditions for the frequency stabilization of narrow band cw dye lasers, which was used as laser sources for the laser cooling and trapping, have been obtained as follows : a) optimum pressure of a Na vapor cell: 10 mTorr b) intensity of a pump laser : a few μW c) intensity of a probe laser : 1/10 of that of a pump laser. EIT (Electromagnetically Induced Transparency) generated by coherent laser-atom interactions was investigated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. The absorption of a probe laser could be remarkably reduced more than 90 % due to EIT effect. The EIT spectrum as narrow as 6 MHz which is even narrower than the natural linewidth of an excited state could be obtained under proper conditions

  8. Parental Interaction Patterns in Children with Adhd and Controls; a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami -Aghda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Communicational patterns of the parents can either positively or negatively influence children's personality. Parenting manner has long-term effects on behavior, function, expectations and eventually people's future personality. This study investigates parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit- hyperactive disorder. Methods :In this study, 50 male children aged 7-12 years were selected in two groups including 1 25 students with ADHD referring to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan according to the diagnostic scale of DSM- IV and 2 25 healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan from Septamber 2005 until March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them. Results: In "Communication" interaction pattern, the mean score of healthy children was 15.08, while the mean score of ADHD children was 13.42. In "admission" interactional pattern; the mean of the first group was 14.76, while the second group was 11.76. In "control" interactional pattern, mean of group one was 13.28 and the second group was 11.76. In "aggression control" interactional pattern, the mean of group one was 13 and the second group was 14.68. In "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional pattern, mean of the first group was 13.36 and the second group was 16.67. The mean scores of parental interactional pattern in healthy children were all higher than ADHD children except for "aggression control" and "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional patterns. Conclusion: The more the parental "admission" interactional pattern score, the lower the signs of ADHD in children. The signs of severity are lower in cases with more positive parental "control" interactional patterns. If the scores of "lack of aggressive/ attachment" and "aggressive/ control" interactional patterns are higher, ADHD signs are more severe.

  9. Control of a Robot Dancer for Enhancing Haptic Human-Robot Interaction in Waltz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbo Wang; Kosuge, K

    2012-01-01

    Haptic interaction between a human leader and a robot follower in waltz is studied in this paper. An inverted pendulum model is used to approximate the human's body dynamics. With the feedbacks from the force sensor and laser range finders, the robot is able to estimate the human leader's state by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce interaction force, two robot controllers, namely, admittance with virtual force controller, and inverted pendulum controller, are proposed and evaluated in experiments. The former controller failed the experiment; reasons for the failure are explained. At the same time, the use of the latter controller is validated by experiment results.

  10. Descending and Local Network Interactions Control Adaptive Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    coupled CPGs also has the added benefit of making rhythms more robust. This improves both responses to perturbations to walking and the stability of...includes the sensory pathways identified in the insect and CPGs at each joint. We also developed a new robotic cockroach leg model that includes additional...controller. Campaniform sensilla (CS) are sensory neurons whose dendrites insert into a cuticular cap on the exoskeleton (Fig. 14). The elliptical

  11. Bio-Inspired Interaction Control of Robotic Machines for Motor Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zollo, Loredana; Formica, Domenico; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter basic criteria for the design and implementation of interaction control of robotic machines for motor therapy have been briefly introduced and two bio-inspired compliance control laws developed by the authors to address requirements coming from this specific application field have been presented. The two control laws are named the coactivation-based compliance control in the joint space and the torque-dependent compliance control in the joint space, respectively. They try to o...

  12. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  13. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  14. Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Kussigit; Supriatna, Piping; Karlina, Itjeu; Widagdo, Suharyo; Darlis; Sudiono, Bambang

    1998-01-01

    One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

  15. Utilization and control of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections and community-based microbial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth; Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activities are most often shaped by interactions between co-existing microbes within mixed-species communities. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms of species interactions within communities is a central issue in microbial ecology, and our ability to engineer and control microbial co...

  16. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  17. Analysis of airframe/engine interactions in integrated flight and propulsion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierman, John D.; Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis framework for the assessment of dynamic cross-coupling between airframe and engine systems from the perspective of integrated flight/propulsion control is presented. This analysis involves to determining the significance of the interactions with respect to deterioration in stability robustness and performance, as well as critical frequency ranges where problems may occur due to these interactions. The analysis illustrated here investigates both the airframe's effects on the engine control loops and the engine's effects on the airframe control loops in two case studies. The second case study involves a multi-input/multi-output analysis of the airframe. Sensitivity studies are performed on critical interactions to examine the degradations in the system's stability robustness and performance. Magnitudes of the interactions required to cause instabilities, as well as the frequencies at which the instabilities occur are recorded. Finally, the analysis framework is expanded to include control laws which contain cross-feeds between the airframe and engine systems.

  18. Interaction of the IAEA and the United States in controlling nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis of this paper is on those aspects of the U. S.-IAEA interactions that pertain to the control and assurance of non-diversion of special nuclear materials. Some background information on the IAEA is given

  19. Contributions to the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains three papers presented in the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices held in Princeton (USA) 5-9 May 1986, all referred to the FT Tokamak

  20. Reduction of Flight Control System/Structural Mode Interaction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel approach is proposed for reducing the degree of interaction of a high gain flight control system with the airframe structural vibration modes, representing a...

  1. Tools for Trustworthy Autonomy: Robust Predictions, Intuitive Control, and Optimized Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Driggs Campbell, Katherine Rose

    2017-01-01

    In the near future, robotics will impact nearly every aspect of life. Yet for technology to smoothly integrate into society, we need interactive systems to be well modeled and predictable; have robust decision making and control; and be trustworthy to improve cooperation and interaction. To achieve these goals, we propose taking a human-centered approach to ease the transition into human-dominated fields. In this work, our modeling methods and control schemes are validated through user stu...

  2. An Interaction Measure for Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Bilinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    are needed to be controlled, are nonlinear and linear models are insufficient to describe the behavior of the processes. The focus of this paper is on the problem of control configuration selection for a class of nonlinear systems which is known as bilinear systems. A gramian-based interaction measure...... for control configuration selection of MIMO bilinear processes is described. In general, most of the results on the control configuration selection, which have been proposed so far, can only support linear systems. The proposed gramian-based interaction measure not only supports bilinear processes but also...

  3. Control configuration selection for bilinear systems via generalised Hankel interaction index array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2015-01-01

    configuration selection. It is well known that a suitable control configuration selection is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control. In this paper the problem of control configuration selection for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) bilinear processes is addressed. First...... way, an iterative method for solving the generalised Sylvester equation is proposed. The generalised cross-gramian is used to form the generalised Hankel interaction index array. The generalised Hankel interaction index array is used for control configuration selection of MIMO bilinear processes. Most......Decentralised and partially decentralised control strategies are very popular in practice. To come up with a suitable decentralised or partially decentralised control structure, it is important to select the appropriate input and output pairs for control design. This procedure is called control...

  4. Effect of interaction strength on robustness of controlling edge dynamics in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shao-Peng; Hao, Fei

    2018-05-01

    Robustness plays a critical role in the controllability of complex networks to withstand failures and perturbations. Recent advances in the edge controllability show that the interaction strength among edges plays a more important role than network structure. Therefore, we focus on the effect of interaction strength on the robustness of edge controllability. Using three categories of all edges to quantify the robustness, we develop a universal framework to evaluate and analyze the robustness in complex networks with arbitrary structures and interaction strengths. Applying our framework to a large number of model and real-world networks, we find that the interaction strength is a dominant factor for the robustness in undirected networks. Meanwhile, the strongest robustness and the optimal edge controllability in undirected networks can be achieved simultaneously. Different from the case of undirected networks, the robustness in directed networks is determined jointly by the interaction strength and the network's degree distribution. Moreover, a stronger robustness is usually associated with a larger number of driver nodes required to maintain full control in directed networks. This prompts us to provide an optimization method by adjusting the interaction strength to optimize the robustness of edge controllability.

  5. Utilization and control of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections and community-based microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth; Amador, Cristina Isabel; Jelsbak, Lotte; Sternberg, Claus; Jelsbak, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activities are most often shaped by interactions between co-existing microbes within mixed-species communities. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms of species interactions within communities is a central issue in microbial ecology, and our ability to engineer and control microbial communities depends, to a large extent, on our knowledge of these interactions. This review highlights the recent advances regarding molecular characterization of microbe-microbe interactions that modulate community structure, activity, and stability, and aims to illustrate how these findings have helped us reach an engineering-level understanding of microbial communities in relation to both human health and industrial biotechnology.

  6. Tracking control of time-varying knee exoskeleton disturbed by interaction torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Ma, Wenhao; Yin, Ziguang; Guo, Hongliang

    2017-11-01

    Knee exoskeletons have been increasingly applied as assistive devices to help lower-extremity impaired people to make their knee joints move through providing external movement compensation. Tracking control of knee exoskeletons guided by human intentions often encounters time-varying (time-dependent) issues and the disturbance interaction torque, which may dramatically put an influence up on their dynamic behaviors. Inertial and viscous parameters of knee exoskeletons can be estimated to be time-varying due to unexpected mechanical vibrations and contact interactions. Moreover, the interaction torque produced from knee joint of wearers has an evident disturbance effect on regular motions of knee exoskeleton. All of these points can increase difficultly of accurate control of knee exoskeletons to follow desired joint angle trajectories. This paper proposes a novel control strategy for controlling knee exoskeleton with time-varying inertial and viscous coefficients disturbed by interaction torque. Such designed controller is able to make the tracking error of joint angle of knee exoskeletons exponentially converge to zero. Meanwhile, the proposed approach is robust to guarantee the tracking error bounded when the interaction torque exists. Illustrative simulation and experiment results are presented to show efficiency of the proposed controller. Additionally, comparisons with gradient dynamic (GD) approach and other methods are also presented to demonstrate efficiency and superiority of the proposed control strategy for tracking joint angle of knee exoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. dSPACE based adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of grid interactive inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Necmi; Sefa, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a dSPACE based neuro-fuzzy controlled grid interactive inverter. ► The membership functions and rule base of fuzzy logic controller by using ANFIS. ► A LCL output filter is designed. ► A high performance controller is designed. - Abstract: In this study, design, simulation and implementation of a dSPACE based grid interactive voltage source inverter are proposed. This inverter has adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller and capable of importing electrical energy, generated from renewable energy sources such as the wind, the solar and the fuel cells to the grid. A line frequency transformer and a LCL filter are used at the output of the grid interactive inverter which is designed as current controlled to decrease the susceptibility to phase errors. Membership functions and rule base of the fuzzy logic controller, which control the inverter output current, are determined by using artificial neural networks. Both simulation and experimental results show that, the grid interactive inverter operates synchronously with the grid. The inverter output current which is imported to the grid is in sinusoidal waveform and the harmonic level of it meets the international standards (4.3 < 5.0%). In addition, simulation and experimental results of the neuro-fuzzy and the PI controlled inverter are given together and compared in detail. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed inverter has faster response to the reference variations and lower steady state error than PI controller.

  8. The Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese Families: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Sin, Tammy C. S.; Choi, Siu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the efficacy of the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Hong Kong Chinese families, using randomized controlled trial design. Methods: The participants included 111 Hong Kong Chinese parents with children aged 2--7 years old, who were randomized into the intervention group (n = 54) and control group (n…

  9. Controlling Correlated Tunneling and Superexchange Interactions with ac-Driven Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Ao; Nascimbene, Sylvain; Aidelsburger, Monika; Atala, Marcos; Trotzky, Stefan; Bloch, Immanuel

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical control of tunneling processes of single particles plays a major role in science ranging from Shapiro steps in Josephson junctions to the control of chemical reactions via light in molecules. Here we show how such control can be extended to the regime of correlated tunneling of strongly interacting particles. Through a periodic modulation of a biased tunnel contact, we have been able to coherently control single-particle and correlated two-particle hopping processes. We have furthermore been able to extend this control to superexchange spin interactions in the presence of a magnetic-field gradient. Such photon-assisted superexchange processes constitute a novel approach to realize arbitrary XXZ spin models in ultracold quantum gases, where transverse and Ising-type spin couplings can be fully controlled in magnitude and sign.

  10. The interaction of amylin with other hormones in the control of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T A

    2013-02-01

    Twenty years of research established amylin as an important control of energy homeostasis. Amylin controls nutrient and energy fluxes by reducing energy intake, by modulating nutrient utilization via an inhibition of postprandial glucagon secretion and by increasing energy disposal via a prevention of compensatory decreases of energy expenditure in weight reduced individuals. Like many other gastrointestinal hormones, amylin is secreted in response to meals and it reduces eating by promoting meal-ending satiation. Not surprisingly, amylin interacts with many of these hormones to control eating. These interactions seem to occur at different levels because amylin seems to mediate the eating inhibitory effect of some of these gastrointestinal hormones, and the combination of some of these hormones seems to lead to a stronger reduction in eating than single hormones alone. Amylin's effect on eating is thought to be mediated by a stimulation of specific amylin receptors in the area postrema. Secondary brain sites that were defined to mediate amylin action - and hence potential additional sites of interaction with other hormones - include the nucleus of the solitary tract, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area and other hypothalamic nuclei. The focus of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of amylin interactions in the control of eating. In most cases, these interactions have only been studied at a descriptive rather than a mechanistic level and despite the clear knowledge on primary sites of amylin action, the interaction sites between amylin and other hormones are often unknown. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Visual analytics of geo-social interaction patterns for epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei

    2016-08-10

    Human interaction and population mobility determine the spatio-temporal course of the spread of an airborne disease. This research views such spreads as geo-social interaction problems, because population mobility connects different groups of people over geographical locations via which the viruses transmit. Previous research argued that geo-social interaction patterns identified from population movement data can provide great potential in designing effective pandemic mitigation. However, little work has been done to examine the effectiveness of designing control strategies taking into account geo-social interaction patterns. To address this gap, this research proposes a new framework for effective disease control; specifically this framework proposes that disease control strategies should start from identifying geo-social interaction patterns, designing effective control measures accordingly, and evaluating the efficacy of different control measures. This framework is used to structure design of a new visual analytic tool that consists of three components: a reorderable matrix for geo-social mixing patterns, agent-based epidemic models, and combined visualization methods. With real world human interaction data in a French primary school as a proof of concept, this research compares the efficacy of vaccination strategies between the spatial-social interaction patterns and the whole areas. The simulation results show that locally targeted vaccination has the potential to keep infection to a small number and prevent spread to other regions. At some small probability, the local control strategies will fail; in these cases other control strategies will be needed. This research further explores the impact of varying spatial-social scales on the success of local vaccination strategies. The results show that a proper spatial-social scale can help achieve the best control efficacy with a limited number of vaccines. The case study shows how GS-EpiViz does support the design

  12. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Y.; Murakawa, T.; Shimamura, K.; Oishi, M.; Ohyama, T.; Kurita, N.

    2015-01-01

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA

  13. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Y., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Murakawa, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Shimamura, K., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Oishi, M., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Ohyama, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Kurita, N., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.

  14. Effects of Pilates exercises on sensory interaction, postural control and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal Tomruk, Melda; Uz, Muhammed Zahid; Kara, Bilge; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-05-01

    Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (pPilates training (ppilates exercises (p>0.05). Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

  16. Information Flow Analysis for Human-System Interaction in the SG Level Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Yeong Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between automatic control and operators is one of main issues in the application of automation technology. Inappropriate information from automatic control systems causes unexpected problems in human-automation collaboration. Poor information becomes critical, especially when the operator takes over the control from an automation system. Operators cannot properly handle the situation transferred from the automatic mode because of inadequate situation awareness, if the operator is out-of-the loop and the automatic control system fails. Some cases of unplanned reactor trips during the transition between the manual mode and the automatic mode are reported in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Among unplanned reactor trips since 2002, two cases were partially caused by automation-related failures of steam generator (SG) level control. This paper conducts information flow analysis to identify information and control requirement for human-system interaction of SG level control. At first, this paper identifies the level of automation in SG level control systems and then function allocation between system control and human operators. Then information flow analysis for monitoring and transition of automation is performed by adapting job process chart. Information and control requirements will be useful as an input for the human-system interface (HSI) design of SG level control

  17. Nonlinear PI Control with Adaptive Interaction Algorithm for Multivariable Wastewater Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Samsudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP is highly known with the nonlinearity of the control parameters, thus it is difficult to be controlled. In this paper, the enhancement of nonlinear PI controller (ENon-PI to compensate the nonlinearity of the activated sludge WWTP is proposed. The ENon-PI controller is designed by cascading a sector-bounded nonlinear gain to linear PI controller. The rate variation of the nonlinear gain kn is automatically updated based on adaptive interaction algorithm. Initiative to simplify the ENon-PI control structure by adapting kn has been proved by significant improvement under various dynamic influents. More than 30% of integral square error and 14% of integral absolute error are reduced compared to benchmark PI for DO control and nitrate in nitrogen removal control. Better average effluent qualities, less number of effluent violations, and lower aeration energy consumption resulted.

  18. Reward-driven modulation of adaptive control: How prospective monetary gains interact with unpredictable control demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien, Hans; Aarts, Henk; Custers, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Shifting attention is an effortful control process and incurs a cost on the cognitive system. Previous research suggests that rewards, such as monetary gains, will selectively enhance the ability to shift attention when this demand for control is explicitly cued. Here, we hypothesized that

  19. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits

  20. Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR di Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-10-01

    We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits.

  1. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  2. Identifying Ant-Mirid Spatial Interactions to Improve Biological Control in Cacao-Based Agroforestry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Piou, Cyril; Tadu, Zéphirin; Babin, Régis

    2018-06-06

    The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap. The mirid/ant data were collected in complex cacao-based agroforestry systems sampled in three agroecological areas over a forest-savannah gradient in Cameroon. Three species, Crematogaster striatula Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Crematogaster clariventris Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with high predator and aggressive behaviors were identified as dominant and showed negative spatial relationships with mirids. The weaver ant, O. longinoda was identified as the only potential biological control agent, considering its ubiquity in the plots, the similarity in niche requirements, and the spatial segregation with mirids resulting probably from exclusion mechanisms. Combining bivariate point pattern analysis to good knowledge of insect ecology was an effective method to identify a potentially good biological control agent.

  3. Graphene as a flexible template for controlling magnetic interactions between metal atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Kim, Dongwook; Robertson, Alex W; Yoon, Euijoon; Hong, Suklyun; Ihm, Jisoon; Yu, Jaejun; Warner, Jamie H; Lee, Gun-Do

    2017-03-01

    Metal-doped graphene produces magnetic moments that have potential application in spintronics. Here we use density function theory computational methods to show how the magnetic interaction between metal atoms doped in graphene can be controlled by the degree of flexure in a graphene membrane. Bending graphene by flexing causes the distance between two substitutional Fe atoms covalently bonded in graphene to gradually increase and these results in the magnetic moment disappearing at a critical strain value. At the critical strain, a carbon atom can enter between the two Fe atoms and blocks the interaction between relevant orbitals of Fe atoms to quench the magnetic moment. The control of interactions between doped atoms by exploiting the mechanical flexibility of graphene is a unique approach to manipulating the magnetic properties and opens up new opportunities for mechanical-magnetic 2D device systems.

  4. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; de Ruiter, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  5. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  6. Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Ng, Gene S. H.; Choi, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD features. Methods: This study adopted a randomized controlled trial design without blinding. Participants were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 32) and…

  7. 78 FR 37570 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Control Technology; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Interactive Program Guide and Parental Control Technology; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public... questions regarding filing should contact the Secretary (202-205-2000). Any person desiring to submit a... taken under the authority of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1337), and of...

  8. Control of the beam-internal target interaction at the nuclotron by means of light radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artiomov, A.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: artiomov@moonhe.jinr.ru; Anisimov, Yu.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Afanasiev, S.V. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bazilev, S.N. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Zolin, L.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Issinsky, I.B. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Malakhov, A.I. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Matousek, V. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Morhac, M. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nikitin, V.A. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, A.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Nomokonov, P.V. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Pilyar, A.V. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Turzo, I. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-02-11

    The light radiation from various internal targets at the nuclotron can be utilized for the operative control and time optimization of the interaction intensity of the beam. The examples presented in the paper illustrate information about the space characteristics of the circulating beam during one cycle of the accelerator run at the stages of injection, acceleration and during the physical experiments, respectively.

  9. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Keijsers, L.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys)

  10. Computer tomography guided lung biopsy using interactive breath-hold control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Krag-Andersen, Shella; Naqibullah, Matiullah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Interactive breath-hold control (IBC) may improve the accuracy and decrease the complication rate of computed tomography (CT)-guided lung biopsy, but this presumption has not been proven in a randomized study. Methods: Patients admitted for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomized...

  11. The Effects of Variations in Lesson Control and Practice on Learning from Interactive Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannafin, Michael J.; Colamaio, MaryAnne E.

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of variations in lesson control and practice on the learning of facts, procedures, and problem-solving skills during interactive video instruction focuses on a study of graduates and advanced level undergraduates learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Embedded questioning methods and posttests used are described.…

  12. QUINT : A tool to detect qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doove, L.L.; Van Deun, K.; Dusseldorp, E.; van Mechelen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The detection of subgroups involved in qualitative treatment–subgroup interactions (i.e., for one subgroup of clients treatment A outperforms treatment B, whereas for another the reverse holds true) is crucial for personalized health. In typical Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), the

  13. Controlled initiation and quantitative visualization of cell interaction dynamics - a novel hybrid microscopy method -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder-van As, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development, validation, and application of a hybrid microscopy technique to study cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions in a controlled and quantitative manner. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the selected membrane molecules CD6 and the activated

  14. Automated boundary interaction force control of micromanipulators with in situ applications to microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Jalili, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Most recent works on miniature tasks are concentrated on developing tools to take advantage of the visual servoing feedback to control the ultra-small interaction forces. This paper spans an extensive platform for automatic controlling of boundary interaction forces with high precision in the level of micro/nano-Newton with extensive micro/nanoengineering applications such as the microsurgery. To this end, a comprehensive piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) model considering the shear deformation and rotary inertia effects treating as the distributed-parameters model along with the Hertzian contact force is presented. The purpose of considering the Hertzian contact force model is to investigate the dynamic response of the interaction force between the microcantilever's tip and the specimen. Afterward, a control platform is introduced to automatically manipulate the PMC to follow an ideal micro/nano-interaction force. By using the integrated PMC with the micromanipulator and a digital signal processor, an intuitive programming code is written to incorporate the micromanipulator and the controller in a real-time framework. To calibrate and verify the induced voltage in the PMC, a self-sensing experiment on the piezoelectric microcantilever is carried out to warrant the calibration procedure. Some experiments are established to affirm the validity of the proposed control for the autonomous real-time tasks on the boundary interaction force control. Unlike the conventional research studies, the measured force here contributes as the feedback source in contrast to the vision feedback while force sensors possess more precision, productivity and small size. This technique has several potential applications listed but not limited to the micro/nanomanipulation, developing artificial biological systems (e.g., fabricating hydrogel for the scaffold), and medicine such as microsurgery. As a result, using the proposed platform, we are able to manipulate and control the

  15. Robust Control of a Cable-Driven Soft Exoskeleton Joint for Intrinsic Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, C; McDaid, A J

    2017-07-01

    A novel, cable-driven soft joint is presented for use in robotic rehabilitation exoskeletons to provide intrinsic, comfortable human-robot interaction. The torque-displacement characteristics of the soft elastomeric core contained within the joint are modeled. This knowledge is used in conjunction with a dynamic system model to derive a sliding mode controller (SMC) to implement low-level torque control of the joint. The SMC controller is experimentally compared with a baseline feedback-linearised proportional-derivative controller across a range of conditions and shown to be robust to un-modeled disturbances. The torque controller is then tested with six healthy subjects while they perform a selection of activities of daily living, which has validated its range of performance. Finally, a case study with a participant with spastic cerebral palsy is presented to illustrate the potential of both the joint and controller to be used in a physiotherapy setting to assist clinical populations.

  16. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  17. Implications and control of fuel-cladding chemical interaction for LMFBR fuel pin design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roake, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI) is typically incorporated into the design of an LMFBR fuel pin as a wastage allowance. Several interrelated factors are considered during the evolution of an LMFBR fuel pin design. Those which are indirectly affected by FCCI include: allowable pin power, fuel restructuring, fission gas migration and release from the fuel, fuel cracking, fuel swelling, in-reactor cladding creep, cladding swelling, and the cladding mechanical strain. Chemical activity of oxygen is the most readily controlled factor in FCCI. Two methods are being investigated: control of total oxygen inventory by limiting fuel O/M, and control of oxygen activity with buffer metals

  18. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  19. Data on the interaction between thermal comfort and building control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June Young; Nagy, Zoltan

    2018-04-01

    This dataset contains bibliography information regarding thermal comfort and building control research. In addition, the instruction of a data-driven literature survey method guides readers to reproduce their own literature survey on related bibliography datasets. Based on specific search terms, all relevant bibliographic datasets are downloaded. We explain the keyword co-occurrences of historical developments and recent trends, and the citation network which represents the interaction between thermal comfort and building control research. Results and discussions are described in the research article entitled "Comprehensive analysis of the relationship between thermal comfort and building control research - A data-driven literature review" (Park and Nagy, 2018).

  20. Comparison of cell homogenization methods considering interaction effect between fuel cells and control rod cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Uto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Several methods to determine cell-averaged group cross sections and anisotropic diffusion coefficients which consider the interaction effect between core fuel cells and control rods or control rod followers have been compared to discuss the physical meaning included in cell homogenization. As the cell homogenization methods considered are the commonly used flux-weighting method, the reaction rate preservation method and the reactivity preservation method. These homogenization methods have been applied to control rod worth calculations in 1-D slab cores to investigate their applicability. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  1. Implications and control of fuel-cladding chemical interaction for LMFBR fuel pin design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roake, W E [Westinghouse-Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI) is typically incorporated into the design of an LMFBR fuel pin as a wastage allowance. Several interrelated factors are considered during the evolution of an LMFBR fuel pin design. Those which are indirectly affected by FCCI include: allowable pin power, fuel restructuring, fission gas migration and release from the fuel, fuel cracking, fuel swelling, in-reactor cladding creep, cladding swelling, and the cladding mechanical strain. Chemical activity of oxygen is the most readily controlled factor in FCCI. Two methods are being investigated: control of total oxygen inventory by limiting fuel O/M, and control of oxygen activity with buffer metals.

  2. Well-Controlled Cell-Trapping Systems for Investigating Heterogeneous Cell-Cell Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Abe, Yuta; Inoue, Kosuke; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2018-03-01

    Microfluidic systems have been developed for patterning single cells to study cell-cell interactions. However, patterning multiple types of cells to understand heterogeneous cell-cell interactions remains difficult. Here, it is aimed to develop a cell-trapping device to assemble multiple types of cells in the well-controlled order and morphology. This device mainly comprises a parylene sheet for assembling cells and a microcomb for controlling the cell-trapping area. The cell-trapping area is controlled by moving the parylene sheet on an SU-8 microcomb using tweezers. Gentle downward flow is used as a driving force for the cell-trapping. The assembly of cells on a parylene sheet with round and line-shaped apertures is demonstrated. The cell-cell contacts of the trapped cells are then investigated by direct cell-cell transfer of calcein via connexin nanopores. Finally, using the device with a system for controlling the cell-trapping area, three different types of cells in the well-controlled order are assembled. The correct cell order rate obtained using the device is 27.9%, which is higher than that obtained without the sliding parylene system (0.74%). Furthermore, the occurrence of cell-cell contact between the three cell types assembled is verified. This cell-patterning device will be a useful tool for investigating heterogeneous cell-cell interactions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamic Characterization and Interaction Control of the CBM-Motus Robot for Upper-Limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Zollo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamic characterization and control of an upper-limb rehabilitation machine aimed at improving robot performance in the interaction with the patient. An integrated approach between mechanics and control is the key issue of the paper for the development of a robotic machine with desirable dynamic properties. Robot inertial and acceleration properties are studied in the workspace via a graphical representation based on ellipses. Robot friction is experimentally retrieved by means of a parametric identification procedure. A current-based impedance control is developed in order to compensate for friction and enhance control performance in the interaction with the patient by means of force feedback, without increasing system inertia. To this end, servo-amplifier motor currents are monitored to provide force feedback in the interaction, thus avoiding the need for force sensors mounted at the robot end-effector. Current-based impedance control is implemented on the robot; experimental results in free space as well as in constrained space are provided.

  4. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-10-01

    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r ij ), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r ij between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important

  5. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-10-15

    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r{sub ij}), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r{sub ij} between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important.

  6. Comparison of different power loop controllers for synchronous power controlled grid-interactive converters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weiyi; Remón, D.; Mir Cantarellas, Antonio; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Candela García, José Ignacio; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The impact caused by the large scale penetration of renewable energy sources into electrical grid has been given an increasing concern in the past decade. Multiple challenges will occur in the future when the share of the traditional synchronous generators is reduced. One of the main issues is the lack of rotational inertia in the grid, which may cause stability issues. Therefore, the renewable energy generation plants have been asked for new control objectives and services. In this paper...

  7. A unified grid current control for grid-interactive DG inverters in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a unified grid current control for grid-interactive distributed generation inverters. In the approach, the grid-side current, instead of inverter-side current, is controlled as an inner loop, while the filter capacitor voltage is indirectly regulated through a virtual admittan...... locus analyses in the discrete z-domain are performed for elaborating the controller design. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the performances of the proposed approach.......This paper proposes a unified grid current control for grid-interactive distributed generation inverters. In the approach, the grid-side current, instead of inverter-side current, is controlled as an inner loop, while the filter capacitor voltage is indirectly regulated through a virtual admittance...... in the outer loop. It, therefore, provides several superior features over traditional control schemes: 1) high-quality grid current in the grid-connected mode, 2) inherent derivative-less virtual output impedance control, and 3) the unified active damping for both grid-connected and islanded operations. Root...

  8. Engineering systems for the generation of patterned co-cultures for controlling cell-cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Hirokazu; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-03-01

    Inside the body, cells lie in direct contact or in close proximity to other cell types in a tightly controlled architecture that often regulates the resulting tissue function. Therefore, tissue engineering constructs that aim to reproduce the architecture and the geometry of tissues will benefit from methods of controlling cell-cell interactions with microscale resolution. We discuss the use of microfabrication technologies for generating patterned co-cultures. In addition, we categorize patterned co-culture systems by cell type and discuss the implications of regulating cell-cell interactions in the resulting biological function of the tissues. Patterned co-cultures are a useful tool for fabricating tissue engineered constructs and for studying cell-cell interactions in vitro, because they can be used to control the degree of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell contact. In addition, this approach can be manipulated to elucidate important factors involved in cell-matrix interactions. Patterned co-culture strategies hold significant potential to develop biomimetic structures for tissue engineering. It is expected that they would create opportunities to develop artificial tissues in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Nanotechnologies - Emerging Applications in Biomedicine. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Large Display Interaction via Multiple Acceleration Curves and Multifinger Pointer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Esakia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large high-resolution displays combine high pixel density with ample physical dimensions. The combination of these factors creates a multiscale workspace where interactive targeting of on-screen objects requires both high speed for distant targets and high accuracy for small targets. Modern operating systems support implicit dynamic control-display gain adjustment (i.e., a pointer acceleration curve that helps to maintain both speed and accuracy. However, large high-resolution displays require a broader range of control-display gains than a single acceleration curve can usably enable. Some interaction techniques attempt to solve the problem by utilizing multiple explicit modes of interaction, where different modes provide different levels of pointer precision. Here, we investigate the alternative hypothesis of using a single mode of interaction for continuous pointing that enables both (1 standard implicit granularity control via an acceleration curve and (2 explicit switching between multiple acceleration curves in an efficient and dynamic way. We evaluate a sample solution that augments standard touchpad accelerated pointer manipulation with multitouch capability, where the choice of acceleration curve dynamically changes depending on the number of fingers in contact with the touchpad. Specifically, users can dynamically switch among three different acceleration curves by using one, two, or three fingers on the touchpad.

  10. Experimental study on the control interaction force coefficient; Soju ryutairyoku kansho keisu ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatake, K; Oda, K; Yoshitake, A; Fujita, K; Nakajima, A [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    The interaction force induced to hull by steering is important for prediction of control performance of ships. The control interaction force coefficient dependent on the steering has been investigated through the rudder angle tests using three small model ships with a length of 2.5 m, i.e., mathematical type of ship, cargo type of ship, and tanker type of ship. The interaction forces acting on the hull, propeller, and rudder were determined by measuring the lateral force as well as the forward force of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the rudder. These forces were compared with the theoretically calculated values. Prior to the rudder angle tests, the self propulsion factor and the number of revolution of propeller were determined from the results of the open water tests, resistance tests, and self propulsion tests by the changing load method. The rudder angle tests were conducted under this number of revolution of propeller as a standard condition, and under those increasing and decreasing by 15%. Consequently, the interaction forces determined from the rudder angle tests agreed well with those determined from the other tests. When comparing the control hydrodynamic forces determined from the tests with those theoretically calculated, a similar trend was observed. Effectiveness of the theoretical model was confirmed. 4 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Controlled, Constrained, or Flexible? How Self-Management Goals Are Shaped By Patient-Provider Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Marika; Lewis, Sophie; Willis, Karen; Rogers, Anne; Venville, Annie; Smith, Lorraine

    2018-06-01

    A person-centered approach to goal-setting, involving collaboration between patients and health professionals, is advocated in policy to support self-management. However, this is difficult to achieve in practice, reducing the potential effectiveness of self-management support. Drawing on observations of consultations between patients and health professionals, we examined how goal-setting is shaped in patient-provider interactions. Analysis revealed three distinct interactional styles. In controlled interactions, health professionals determine patients' goals based on biomedical reference points and present these goals as something patients should do. In constrained interactions, patients are invited to present goals, yet health professionals' language and questions orientate goals toward biomedical issues. In flexible interactions, patients and professionals both contribute to goal-setting, as health professionals use less directive language, create openings, and allow patients to decide on their goals. Findings suggest that interactional style of health professionals could be the focus of interventions when aiming to increase the effectiveness of goal-setting.

  12. Quality control methodology for high-throughput protein-protein interaction screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Alexei; Rual, Jean-François; Venkatesan, Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are key to many aspects of the cell, including its cytoskeletal structure, the signaling processes in which it is involved, or its metabolism. Failure to form protein complexes or signaling cascades may sometimes translate into pathologic conditions such as cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. The set of all protein interactions between the proteins encoded by an organism constitutes its protein interaction network, representing a scaffold for biological function. Knowing the protein interaction network of an organism, combined with other sources of biological information, can unravel fundamental biological circuits and may help better understand the molecular basics of human diseases. The protein interaction network of an organism can be mapped by combining data obtained from both low-throughput screens, i.e., "one gene at a time" experiments and high-throughput screens, i.e., screens designed to interrogate large sets of proteins at once. In either case, quality controls are required to deal with the inherent imperfect nature of experimental assays. In this chapter, we discuss experimental and statistical methodologies to quantify error rates in high-throughput protein-protein interactions screens.

  13. Interaction force and motion estimators facilitating impedance control of the upper limb rehabilitation robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancisidor, Aitziber; Zubizarreta, Asier; Cabanes, Itziar; Bengoa, Pablo; Jung, Je Hyung

    2017-07-01

    In order to enhance the performance of rehabilitation robots, it is imperative to know both force and motion caused by the interaction between user and robot. However, common direct measurement of both signals through force and motion sensors not only increases the complexity of the system but also impedes affordability of the system. As an alternative of the direct measurement, in this work, we present new force and motion estimators for the proper control of the upper-limb rehabilitation Universal Haptic Pantograph (UHP) robot. The estimators are based on the kinematic and dynamic model of the UHP and the use of signals measured by means of common low-cost sensors. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimators, several experimental tests were carried out. The force and impedance control of the UHP was implemented first by directly measuring the interaction force using accurate extra sensors and the robot performance was compared to the case where the proposed estimators replace the direct measured values. The experimental results reveal that the controller based on the estimators has similar performance to that using direct measurement (less than 1 N difference in root mean square error between two cases), indicating that the proposed force and motion estimators can facilitate implementation of interactive controller for the UHP in robotmediated rehabilitation trainings.

  14. rpanel: Simple Interactive Controls for R Functions Using the tcltk Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a variety of settings it is extremely helpful to be able to apply R functions through buttons, sliders and other types of graphical control. This is particularly true in plotting activities where immediate communication between such controls and a graphical display allows the user to interact with a plot in a very effective manner. The tcltk package provides extensive tools for this and the aim of the rpanel package is to provide simple and well documented functions which make these facilities as accessible as possible. In addition, the operations which form the basis of communication within tcltk are managed in a way which allows users to write functions with a more standard form of parameter passing. This paper describes the basic design of the software and illustrates it on a variety of examples of interactive control of graphics. The tkrplot system is used to allow plots to be integrated with controls into a single panel. An example of the use of a graphical image, and the ability to interact with this, is also discussed.

  15. Large-eddy simulation of passive shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquariello, Vito; Grilli, Muzio; Hickel, Stefan; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study investigates a passive flow-control technique for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. • The control configuration consists of local suction and injection through a pressure feedback duct. • Implicit LES have been conducted for three different suction locations. • Suction reduces the size of the separation zone. • Turbulence amplification and reflected shock dynamics can be significantly reduced. - Abstract: We investigate a passive flow-control technique for the interaction of an oblique shock generated by an 8.8° wedge with a turbulent boundary-layer at a free-stream Mach number of Ma ∞ =2.3 and a Reynolds number based on the incoming boundary-layer thickness of Re δ 0 =60.5×10 3 by means of large-eddy simulation (LES). The compressible Navier–Stokes equations in conservative form are solved using the adaptive local deconvolution method (ALDM) for physically consistent subgrid scale modeling. Emphasis is placed on the correct description of turbulent inflow boundary conditions, which do not artificially force low-frequency periodic motion of the reflected shock. The control configuration combines suction inside the separation zone and blowing upstream of the interaction region by a pressure feedback through a duct embedded in the wall. We vary the suction location within the recirculation zone while the injection position is kept constant. Suction reduces the size of the separation zone with strongest effect when applied in the rear part of the separation bubble. The analysis of wall-pressure spectra reveals that all control configurations shift the high-energy low-frequency range to higher frequencies, while the energy level is significantly reduced only if suction acts in the rear part of the separated zone. In that case also turbulence production within the interaction region is significantly reduced as a consequence of mitigated reflected shock dynamics and near-wall flow acceleration

  16. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    To identify the key formulation factors controlling the initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Ketoconazole (KTZ) ASDs using PVP, PVP-VA, HMPC, or HPMC-AS as polymeric matrix were prepared. For each drug-polymer system, two types of formulations with the same composition were prepared: 1. Spray dried dispersion (SDD) that is homogenous at molecular level, 2. Physical blend of SDD (80% drug loading) and pure polymer (SDD-PB) that is homogenous only at powder level. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) between KTZ and the four polymers were obtained by Flory-Huggins model fitting. Solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR were conducted to investigate the specific drug-polymer interaction in the solution and solid state, respectively. Intrinsic dissolution of both the drug and the polymer from ASDs were studied using a Higuchi style intrinsic dissolution apparatus. PXRD and confocal Raman microscopy were used to confirm the absence of drug crystallinity on the tablet surface before and after dissolution study. In solid state, KTZ is completely miscible with PVP, PVP-VA, or HPMC-AS, demonstrated by the negative χ values of -0.36, -0.46, -1.68, respectively; while is poorly miscible with HPMC shown by a positive χ value of 0.23. According to solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR studies, KTZ interacts with HPMC-AS strongly through H-bonding and dipole induced interaction; with PVPs and PVP-VA moderately through dipole-induced interactions; and with HPMC weakly without detectable attractive interaction. Furthermore, the "apparent" strength of drug-polymer interaction, measured by the extent of peak shift on NMR or FT-IR spectra, increases with the increasing number of interacting drug-polymer pairs. For ASDs with the presence of considerable drug-polymer interactions, such as KTZ/PVPs, KTZ/PVP-VA, or KTZ /HPMC-AS systems, drug released at the same rate as the polymer when intimate drug-polymer mixing was ensured (i.e., the SDD systems

  18. Micro-Ramp Flow Control for Oblique Shock Interactions: Comparisons of Computational and Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Stephanie M.; Reich, David B.; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to study the effectiveness of micro-ramp vortex generators to control oblique shock boundary layer interactions. Simulations were based on experiments previously conducted in the 15- by 15-cm supersonic wind tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Four micro-ramp geometries were tested at Mach 2.0 varying the height, chord length, and spanwise spacing between micro-ramps. The overall flow field was examined. Additionally, key parameters such as boundary-layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness and incompressible shape factor were also examined. The computational results predicted the effects of the microramps well, including the trends for the impact that the devices had on the shock boundary layer interaction. However, computing the shock boundary layer interaction itself proved to be problematic since the calculations predicted more pronounced adverse effects on the boundary layer due to the shock than were seen in the experiment.

  19. Characterization of Aerodynamic Interactions with the Mars Science Laboratory Reaction Control System Using Computation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; VanNorman, John; Rhode, Matthew; Paulson, John

    2013-01-01

    On August 5 , 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry capsule successfully entered Mars' atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater. The capsule used a reaction control system (RCS) consisting of four pairs of hydrazine thrusters to fly a guided entry. The RCS provided bank control to fly along a flight path commanded by an onboard computer and also damped unwanted rates due to atmospheric disturbances and any dynamic instabilities of the capsule. A preliminary assessment of the MSL's flight data from entry showed that the capsule flew much as predicted. This paper will describe how the MSL aerodynamics team used engineering analyses, computational codes and wind tunnel testing in concert to develop the RCS system and certify it for flight. Over the course of MSL's development, the RCS configuration underwent a number of design iterations to accommodate mechanical constraints, aeroheating concerns and excessive aero/RCS interactions. A brief overview of the MSL RCS configuration design evolution is provided. Then, a brief description is presented of how the computational predictions of RCS jet interactions were validated. The primary work to certify that the RCS interactions were acceptable for flight was centered on validating computational predictions at hypersonic speeds. A comparison of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to wind tunnel force and moment data gathered in the NASA Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel was the lynch pin to validating the CFD codes used to predict aero/RCS interactions. Using the CFD predictions and experimental data, an interaction model was developed for Monte Carlo analyses using 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation. The interaction model used in the flight simulation is presented.

  20. Using interactive problem-solving techniques to enhance control systems education for non English-speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, L. A.; Chaar, L.; Toms, C.

    2010-03-01

    Interactive learning is beneficial to students in that it allows the continual development and testing of many skills. An interactive approach enables students to improve their technical capabilities, as well as developing both verbal and written communicative ability. Problem solving and communication skills are vital for engineering students; in the workplace they will be required to communicate with people of varying technical abilities and from different linguistic and engineering backgrounds. In this paper, a case study is presented that discusses how the traditional method of teaching control systems can be improved. 'Control systems' is a complex engineering topic requiring students to process an extended amount of mathematical formulae. MATLAB software, which enables students to interactively compare a range of possible combinations and analyse the optimal solution, is used to this end. It was found that students became more enthusiastic and interested when given ownership of their learning objectives. As well as improving the students' technical knowledge, other important engineering skills are also improved by introducing an interactive method of teaching.

  1. Competitive interactions and controlled release of a natural antioxidant from halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hári, József; Gyürki, Ádám; Sárközi, Márk; Földes, Enikő; Pukánszky, Béla

    2016-01-15

    Halloysite nanotubes used as potential carrier material for a controlled release stabilizer in polyethylene were thoroughly characterized with several techniques including the measurement of specific surface area, pore volume and surface energy. The high surface energy of the halloysite results in the strong bonding of the additive to the surface. Dissolution experiments carried out with eight different solvents for the determination of the effect of solvent characteristics on the amount of irreversibly bonded quercetin proved that adsorption and dissolution depend on competitive interactions prevailing in the system. Solvents with low polarity dissolve only surplus quercetin adsorbed in multilayers. Polyethylene is a very apolar polymer forming weak interactions with every substance; quercetin dissolves into it from the halloysite surface only above a critical surface coverage. Stabilization experiments confirmed that strong adhesion prevents dissolution and results in limited stabilization efficiency. At larger adsorbed amounts better stability and extended effect were measured indicating dissolution and controlled release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reversible control of magnetic interactions by electric field in a single-phase material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P J; Kim, J-W; Birol, T; Thompson, P; Lee, J-H; Ke, X; Normile, P S; Karapetrova, E; Schiffer, P; Brown, S D; Fennie, C J; Schlom, D G

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the interaction between magnetic and electric polarization through an inherent microscopic mechanism in a single-phase material. This phenomenon has the potential to control the magnetic state of a material with an electric field, an enticing prospect for device engineering. Here, we demonstrate 'giant' magnetoelectric cross-field control in a tetravalent titanate film. In bulk form, EuTiO(3), is antiferromagnetic. However, both anti and ferromagnetic interactions coexist between different nearest europium neighbours. In thin epitaxial films, strain was used to alter the relative strength of the magnetic exchange constants. We not only show that moderate biaxial compression precipitates local magnetic competition, but also demonstrate that the application of an electric field at this strain condition switches the magnetic ground state. Using first-principles density functional theory, we resolve the underlying microscopic mechanism resulting in G-type magnetic order and illustrate how it is responsible for the 'giant' magnetoelectric effect.

  3. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.; Gaddy, C.; Toquam, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on previous research which has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made in measuring such skills. Dimensions of team interaction skills developed in an earlier study were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally anchored Rating scales (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency scale format. Rating data were collected using training instructors at a nuclear plant, who rated videotape scenarios of control room performance and later rated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales was, although the hypothesized factor structure did not emerge. Analysis of ratings of the videotapes using Cronbach's components of accuracy indicted that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. This paper discusses results in terms of both field and research implications

  4. Autonomy and control in dyads: effects on interaction quality and joint creative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Hodgins, Holley S; Ryan, Richard M

    2010-12-01

    Two studies examined interaction quality and joint performance on two creative tasks in unacquainted dyads primed for autonomy or control orientations. It was hypothesized that autonomy-primed dyads would interact more constructively, experience more positive mood, and engage the task more readily, and as a result these dyads would perform better. To test this, Study 1 primed orientation and explored verbal creative performance on the Remote Associates Task (RAT). In Study 2, dyads were primed with autonomy and control orientation and videotaped during two joint creative tasks, one verbal (RAT) and one nonverbal (charades). Videotapes were coded for behavioral indicators of closeness and task engagement. Results showed that autonomy-primed dyads felt closer, were more emotionally and cognitively attuned, provided empathy and encouragement to partners, and performed more effectively. The effects of primed autonomy on creative performance were mediated by interpersonal quality, mood, and joint engagement.

  5. Pigeon interaction mode switch-based UAV distributed flocking control under obstacle environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huaxin; Duan, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flocking control is a serious and challenging problem due to local interactions and changing environments. In this paper, a pigeon flocking model and a pigeon coordinated obstacle-avoiding model are proposed based on a behavior that pigeon flocks will switch between hierarchical and egalitarian interaction mode at different flight phases. Owning to the similarity between bird flocks and UAV swarms in essence, a distributed flocking control algorithm based on the proposed pigeon flocking and coordinated obstacle-avoiding models is designed to coordinate a heterogeneous UAV swarm to fly though obstacle environments with few informed individuals. The comparative simulation results are elaborated to show the feasibility, validity and superiority of our proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  7. Petri Nets Based Modelling of Control Flow for Memory-Aid Interactive Programs in Telemedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Khoromskaia, V K

    2004-01-01

    Petri Nets (PN) based modelling of the control flow for the interactive memory assistance programs designed for personal pocket computers and having special requirements for robustness is considered. The proposed concept allows one to elaborate the programs which can give users a variety of possibilities for a day-time planning in the presence of environmental and time restrictions. First, a PN model for a known simple algorithm is constructed and analyzed using the corresponding state equations and incidence matrix. Then a PN graph for a complicated algorithm with overlapping actions and choice possibilities is designed, supplemented by an example of its analysis. Dynamic behaviour of this graph is tested by tracing of all possible paths of the flow of control using the PN simulator. It is shown that PN based modelling provides reliably predictable performance of interactive algorithms with branched structures and concurrency requirements.

  8. Interaction between demand-control and social support in the occurrence of common mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Ivine Santana Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the interaction between the psychosocial aspects of work and the occurrence of common mental disorders among health workers. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of workers of the primary health care of five municipalities of the State of Bahia, Brazil, in 2012. The variable of outcome were the common mental disorders evaluated by the SRQ-20, and the variables of exposure were high demand (high psychological demand and low control over the work and low social support in the workplace. Interaction was checked by the deviation of the additivity of the effects for the factors studied from the calculation of excess risk from interaction, proportion of cases attributed to interaction, and the synergy index. RESULTS The global prevalence of common mental disorders was 21%. The group of combined exposure has shown higher magnitude (high demand and low social support, reaching 28% when compared to the 17% in the situation of no exposure (low demand and high social support. CONCLUSIONS The results strengthen the hypothesis of interaction between the factors investigated, directing to the synergy of the effects.

  9. Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions: advances in genetics of biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Zachow, Christin; Berg, Gabriele; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Trichoderma spp. are widely used in agriculture as biofungicides. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. Understanding these mechanisms at the molecular level would help in developing strains with superior biocontrol properties. In this article, we review our current understanding of the genetics of interactions of Trichoderma with plants and plant pathogens.

  10. An Assessment of Comprehensive Code Prediction State-of-the-Art Using the HART II International Workshop Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (= CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this paper, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II Inter- national Workshop data base, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics - especially for the cases with HHC - and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.

  11. The HART II International Workshop: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in Comprehensive Code Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications have been achieved recently. Despite this, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this article, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II International Workshop database, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. A companion article addresses the CFD/CSD coupled approach. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics-especially for the cases with HHC-and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.

  12. Online Assessment of Human-Robot Interaction for Hybrid Control of Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de-los-Reyes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of walking ability of Spinal Cord Injury subjects can be achieved by different approaches, as the use of robotic exoskeletons or electrical stimulation of the user’s muscles. The combined (hybrid approach has the potential to provide a solution to the drawback of each approach. Specific challenges must be addressed with specific sensory systems and control strategies. In this paper we present a system and a procedure to estimate muscle fatigue from online physical interaction assessment to provide hybrid control of walking, regarding the performances of the muscles under stimulation.

  13. Challenges of implementing economic model predictive control strategy for buildings interacting with smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Böning, Georg Martin; Santos, Rui Mirra

    2016-01-01

    ) strategy for energy management in smart buildings, which can act as active users interacting with smart energy systems. The challenges encountered during the implementation of EMPC for active demand side management are investigated in detail in this paper. A pilot testing study shows energy savings......When there is a high penetration of renewables in the energy system, it requires proactive control of large numbers of distributed demand response resources to maintain the system’s reliability and improve its operational economics. This paper presents the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC...

  14. Impacts of Interactive and Diagnostic Control System Use on the Innovation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Frezatti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the innovation process in organizations based on the Management Control System (MCS. We examined the link between the diagnostic and interactive uses of management control systems and their association with the intensity of the innovation process. Motivations for the research are: (a enhance the potentiality of the model by including variables that are external to the organization, and (b offer an empirical emergent country perspective on innovation. The study is quantitative and the data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire involving a sample of 121 Brazilian companies. The analysis was supported by structural equation modeling. The contributions are: (a enhancement of the model by including the influences exerted by external stimuli on the intensity of innovation, (b confirmation of the utility of the model in an emergent country, and (c despite the controversial literature, highlighting the importance of the interactive use of the Management Control Systems process, by offering an empirical perspective on innovation control. A positive implication of the findings relates to the use of a broader and not exclusively internal model to increase its potentiality, reflecting the organizational reality by including the dynamism of external stimuli and the innovation control perspective.

  15. Interaction between bacterial outer membrane proteins and periplasmic quality control factors: a kinetic partitioning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Ge, Xi; Lv, Zhixin; Zhi, Zeyong; Chang, Zengyi; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2011-09-15

    The OMPs (outer membrane proteins) of Gram-negative bacteria have to be translocated through the periplasmic space before reaching their final destination. The aqueous environment of the periplasmic space and high permeability of the outer membrane engender such a translocation process inevitably challenging. In Escherichia coli, although SurA, Skp and DegP have been identified to function in translocating OMPs across the periplasm, their precise roles and their relationship remain to be elucidated. In the present paper, by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and single-molecule detection, we have studied the interaction between the OMP OmpC and these periplasmic quality control factors. The results of the present study reveal that the binding rate of OmpC to SurA or Skp is much faster than that to DegP, which may lead to sequential interaction between OMPs and different quality control factors. Such a kinetic partitioning mechanism for the chaperone-substrate interaction may be essential for the quality control of the biogenesis of OMPs.

  16. Compliance control based on PSO algorithm to improve the feeling during physical human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongliang; Sun, Yu; Gao, Peng; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Robots play more important roles in daily life and bring us a lot of convenience. But when people work with robots, there remain some significant differences in human-human interactions and human-robot interaction. It is our goal to make robots look even more human-like. We design a controller which can sense the force acting on any point of a robot and ensure the robot can move according to the force. First, a spring-mass-dashpot system was used to describe the physical model, and the second-order system is the kernel of the controller. Then, we can establish the state space equations of the system. In addition, the particle swarm optimization algorithm had been used to obtain the system parameters. In order to test the stability of system, the root-locus diagram had been shown in the paper. Ultimately, some experiments had been carried out on the robotic spinal surgery system, which is developed by our team, and the result shows that the new controller performs better during human-robot interaction.

  17. Comparative Study Between the Two Experimental Design Approaches Taguchi and Traditional in Presence of Control by Control Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Nava Elías Heriberto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments plays an important role in the field of creating and innovating process and products directly in manufacturing and improving areas. There are several areas into designs of experiments; robust design is one of them. Robust parameter design is a principle that emphasize in products creation through a correct selection of values called “control” which make a product robust to the variability by the noise introducing by another factors known as “noise” factors. This article aims for a comparative study between two well-known robust design methodologies, making a special emphasis in the control by control interaction effects over optimal operating conditions. The results showed that Taguchi´s crossed arrays are unable to estimate all significant terms in a model. The optimizations result concludes that the Taguchi´s approach is less efficient than the traditional approach in both; maximization and minimization.

  18. Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: biotic control, plant–soil interactions and dispersal limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Soliveres, Santiago; Valladares, Fernando; Papadopoulos, Jorge; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant–soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0–2, 7–9 and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts [BSCs], and soil microbial functional diversity [soil microorganisms] affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant–soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: 1) maintain well-conserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late

  19. Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: Biotic control, plant-soil interactions, and dispersal limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Palacios, P.; Bowker, M.A.; Maestre, F.T.; Soliveres, S.; Valladares, F.; Papadopoulos, J.; Escudero, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant-soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0-2, 7-9, and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and soil microbial functional diversity (soil microorganisms) affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control, and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant-soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: (1) maintaining wellconserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late

  20. Musical friends and foes: The social cognition of affiliation and control in improvised interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Canonne, Clément

    2017-04-01

    A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention. We created a novel experimental situation in which we asked expert music improvisers to communicate 5 types of non-musical social intentions, such as being domineering, disdainful or conciliatory, to one another solely using musical interaction. Using a combination of decoding studies, computational and psychoacoustical analyses, we show that both musically-trained and non musically-trained listeners can recognize relational intentions encoded in music, and that this social cognitive ability relies, to a sizeable extent, on the information processing of acoustic cues of temporal and harmonic coordination that are not present in any one of the musicians' channels, but emerge from the dynamics of their interaction. By manipulating these cues in two-channel audio recordings and testing their impact on the social judgements of non-musician observers, we finally establish a causal relationship between the affiliation dimension of social behaviour and musical harmonic coordination on the one hand, and between the control dimension and musical temporal coordination on the other hand. These results provide novel mechanistic insights not only into the social cognition of musical interactions, but also into that of non-verbal interactions as a whole. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A new adaptive control scheme based on the interacting multiple model (IMM) estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Hamed H.; Al-Ani, Dhafar; Habibi, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an Interacting multiple model (IMM) adaptive estimation approach is incorporated to design an optimal adaptive control law for stabilizing an Unmanned vehicle. Due to variations of the forward velocity of the Unmanned vehicle, its aerodynamic derivatives are constantly changing. In order to stabilize the unmanned vehicle and achieve the control objectives for in-flight conditions, one seeks for an adaptive control strategy that can adjust itself to varying flight conditions. In this context, a bank of linear models is used to describe the vehicle dynamics in different operating modes. Each operating mode represents a particular dynamic with a different forward velocity. These models are then used within an IMM filter containing a bank of Kalman filters (KF) in a parallel operating mechanism. To regulate and stabilize the vehicle, a Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) law is designed and implemented for each mode. The IMM structure determines the particular mode based on the stored models and in-flight input-output measurements. The LQR controller also provides a set of controllers; each corresponds to a particular flight mode and minimizes the tracking error. Finally, the ultimate control law is obtained as a weighted summation of all individual controllers whereas weights are obtained using mode probabilities of each operating mode.

  2. Natural interfaces for interacting with a virtual control desk of a nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2012-01-01

    Due to very strict standards of safe operation of a nuclear power plant operators must be well trained so they can operate it within the necessary safety procedures. This is done through training simulators, which enable the user operation, as close as possible to the real control desk, and can be inserted accident situations, so they train, how to return the plant to a normal operating condition. Normally is used two types of simulator. Preferred is the full scope simulator, what is a computational dynamics program of the plant used in conjunction with a physical replica of the control desk, but this type of simulator involves a high construction cost. The second type is what uses synoptic windows of various regions of the original control desk, its construction cost is smaller, but it have a little fidelity to the original appearance of the table. Currently, with the use of virtual reality, control desks can be modeled in 3D, making the simulator interface is very similar to the appearance of the real control desk with a low cost construction. This work shows the use of natural interfaces for operator interaction with the virtual control desk, in order that it does not use any mechanical device for displaying and acting with it. For procedures that were used, such as: computer vision to recognize the position of the operator's and observation of their hands to the work of the desk controls and voice recognition. (author)

  3. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  4. Switches of stimulus tagging frequencies interact with the conflict-driven control of selective attention, but not with inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Frisch, Simon; Dshemuchadse, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention and its adaptation by cognitive control processes are considered a core aspect of goal-directed action. Often, selective attention is studied behaviorally with conflict tasks, but an emerging neuroscientific method for the study of selective attention is EEG frequency tagging. It applies different flicker frequencies to the stimuli of interest eliciting steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in the EEG. These oscillating SSVEPs in the EEG allow tracing the allocation of selective attention to each tagged stimulus continuously over time. The present behavioral investigation points to an important caveat of using tagging frequencies: The flicker of stimuli not only produces a useful neuroscientific marker of selective attention, but interacts with the adaptation of selective attention itself. Our results indicate that RT patterns of adaptation after response conflict (so-called conflict adaptation) are reversed when flicker frequencies switch at once. However, this effect of frequency switches is specific to the adaptation by conflict-driven control processes, since we find no effects of frequency switches on inhibitory control processes after no-go trials. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding and propose precautions that should be taken into account when studying conflict adaptation using frequency tagging in order to control for the described confounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of proton beam divergence in intense-laser foil-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S.; Sonobe, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Sakai, K.; Kikuchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Quality of an ion beam is one of the critical factors in intense-laser ion beam generation. A purpose of this study is the suppression of transverse proton divergence by a controlled electron cloud in laser-foil interactions. In this study, the foil target has a hole at the opposite side of the laser illumination. The electrons accelerated by an intense laser are limited in transverse by a neutral plasma at a protuberant part. Therefore the protons are accelerated and also controlled transversely by the electron cloud structure. In our 2.5-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations we demonstrate that the transverse shape of the electron cloud is well controlled and the collimated proton beam is generated successfully in the target with the hole. (authors)

  6. Control of ion beam generation in intense short pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Gu, Y.J.; Wang, W.M.; Ma, Y.Y.; Kong, Q.

    2013-01-01

    In intense laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a control of generation of high-energy ions. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions, and also controlled ion energy and the ion energy spectrum by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. The first near-critical plasma target is illuminated by a laser pulse, and the ions accelerated are transferred to the next target. The next identical target is also illuminated by another identical large pulse, and the ion beam introduced is further accelerated and controlled. In this study four stages are employed, and finally a few hundreds of MeV of protons are realized. A quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum is also obtained. (author)

  7. An optimal control method for fluid structure interaction systems via adjoint boundary pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirco, L.; Da Vià, R.; Manservisi, S.

    2017-11-01

    In recent year, in spite of the computational complexity, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems have been widely studied due to their applicability in science and engineering. Fluid-structure interaction systems consist of one or more solid structures that deform by interacting with a surrounding fluid flow. FSI simulations evaluate the tensional state of the mechanical component and take into account the effects of the solid deformations on the motion of the interior fluids. The inverse FSI problem can be described as the achievement of a certain objective by changing some design parameters such as forces, boundary conditions and geometrical domain shapes. In this paper we would like to study the inverse FSI problem by using an optimal control approach. In particular we propose a pressure boundary optimal control method based on Lagrangian multipliers and adjoint variables. The objective is the minimization of a solid domain displacement matching functional obtained by finding the optimal pressure on the inlet boundary. The optimality system is derived from the first order necessary conditions by taking the Fréchet derivatives of the Lagrangian with respect to all the variables involved. The optimal solution is then obtained through a standard steepest descent algorithm applied to the optimality system. The approach presented in this work is general and could be used to assess other objective functionals and controls. In order to support the proposed approach we perform a few numerical tests where the fluid pressure on the domain inlet controls the displacement that occurs in a well defined region of the solid domain.

  8. Aerodynamic Interactions of Propulsive Deceleration and Reaction Control System Jets on Mars-Entry Aeroshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkandry, Hicham

    Future missions to Mars, including sample-return and human-exploration missions, may require alternative entry, descent, and landing technologies in order to perform pinpoint landing of heavy vehicles. Two such alternatives are propulsive deceleration (PD) and reaction control systems (RCS). PD can slow the vehicle during Mars atmospheric descent by directing thrusters into the incoming freestream. RCS can provide vehicle control and steering by inducing moments using thrusters on the hack of the entry capsule. The use of these PD and RCS jets, however, involves complex flow interactions that are still not well understood. The fluid interactions induced by PD and RCS jets for Mars-entry vehicles in hypersonic freestream conditions are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of central and peripheral PD configurations using both sonic and supersonic jets at various thrust conditions are examined in this dissertation. The RCS jet is directed either parallel or transverse to the freestream flow at different thrust conditions in order to examine the effects of the thruster orientation with respect to the center of gravity of the aeroshell. The physical accuracy of the computational method is also assessed by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data. The central PD configuration decreases the drag force acting on the entry capsule due to a shielding effect that prevents mass and momentum in the hypersonic freestream from reaching the aeroshell. The peripheral PD configuration also decreases the drag force by obstructing the flow around the aeroshell and creating low surface pressure regions downstream of the PD nozzles. The Mach number of the PD jets, however, does not have a significant effect on the induced fluid interactions. The reaction control system also alters the flowfield, surface, and aerodynamic properties of the aeroshell, while the jet orientation can have a significant effect on the control effectiveness

  9. Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Karahmadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD.
    METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects. The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them.
    RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”.
    CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns.
    KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.

  10. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Kiran Adhikarla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  11. Exploring direct 3D interaction for full horizontal parallax light field displays using leap motion controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega

    2015-04-14

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  12. A kernel regression approach to gene-gene interaction detection for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicholas B; Schaid, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Gene-gene interactions are increasingly being addressed as a potentially important contributor to the variability of complex traits. Consequently, attentions have moved beyond single locus analysis of association to more complex genetic models. Although several single-marker approaches toward interaction analysis have been developed, such methods suffer from very high testing dimensionality and do not take advantage of existing information, notably the definition of genes as functional units. Here, we propose a comprehensive family of gene-level score tests for identifying genetic elements of disease risk, in particular pairwise gene-gene interactions. Using kernel machine methods, we devise score-based variance component tests under a generalized linear mixed model framework. We conducted simulations based upon coalescent genetic models to evaluate the performance of our approach under a variety of disease models. These simulations indicate that our methods are generally higher powered than alternative gene-level approaches and at worst competitive with exhaustive SNP-level (where SNP is single-nucleotide polymorphism) analyses. Furthermore, we observe that simulated epistatic effects resulted in significant marginal testing results for the involved genes regardless of whether or not true main effects were present. We detail the benefits of our methods and discuss potential genome-wide analysis strategies for gene-gene interaction analysis in a case-control study design. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Interaction Control Protocols for Distributed Multi-user Multi-camera Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Video-centred communication (e.g., video conferencing, multimedia online learning, traffic monitoring, and surveillance is becoming a customary activity in our lives. The management of interactions in such an environment is a complicated HCI issue. In this paper, we present our study on a collection of interaction control protocols for distributed multiuser multi-camera environments. These protocols facilitate different approaches to managing a user's entitlement for controlling a particular camera. We describe a web-based system that allows multiple users to manipulate multiple cameras in varying remote locations. The system was developed using the Java framework, and all protocols discussed have been incorporated into the system. Experiments were designed and conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these protocols, and to enable the identification of various human factors in a distributed multi-user and multi-camera environment. This work provides an insight into the complexity associated with the interaction management in video-centred communication. It can also serve as a conceptual and experimental framework for further research in this area.

  14. Tuning dipolar magnetic interactions by controlling individual silica coating of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Rojas, P. C.; Tancredi, P.; Moscoso Londoño, O.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Single and fixed size core, core-shell nanoparticles of iron oxides coated with a silica layer of tunable thickness were prepared by chemical routes, aiming to generate a frame of study of magnetic nanoparticles with controlled dipolar interactions. The batch of iron oxides nanoparticles of 4.5 nm radii, were employed as cores for all the coated samples. The latter was obtained via thermal decomposition of organic precursors, resulting on nanoparticles covered with an organic layer that was subsequently used to promote the ligand exchange in the inverse microemulsion process, employed to coat each nanoparticle with silica. The amount of precursor and times of reaction was varied to obtain different silica shell thicknesses, ranging from 0.5 nm to 19 nm. The formation of the desired structures was corroborated by TEM and SAXS measurements, the core single-phase spinel structure was confirmed by XRD, and superparamagnetic features with gradual change related to dipolar interaction effects were obtained by the study of the applied field and temperature dependence of the magnetization. To illustrate that dipolar interactions are consistently controlled, the main magnetic properties are presented and analyzed as a function of center to center minimum distance between the magnetic cores.

  15. The pilus usher controls protein interactions via domain masking and is functional as an oligomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Glenn T; Henderson, Nadine S; Portnoy, Erica B; Sarowar, Samema; Hultgren, Scott J; Li, Huilin; Thanassi, David G

    2015-07-01

    The chaperone-usher (CU) pathway assembles organelles termed pili or fimbriae in Gram-negative bacteria. Type 1 pili expressed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are prototypical structures assembled by the CU pathway. Biogenesis of pili by the CU pathway requires a periplasmic chaperone and an outer-membrane protein termed the usher (FimD). We show that the FimD C-terminal domains provide the high-affinity substrate-binding site but that these domains are masked in the resting usher. Domain masking requires the FimD plug domain, which serves as a switch controlling usher activation. We demonstrate that usher molecules can act in trans for pilus biogenesis, providing conclusive evidence for a functional usher oligomer. These results reveal mechanisms by which molecular machines such as the usher regulate and harness protein-protein interactions and suggest that ushers may interact in a cooperative manner during pilus assembly in bacteria.

  16. Analysis and control of macro - and microorganisms interactions for missions of different duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    In developing different t pes of life support systems for use in space or extremey environments Earth, researchers should pay attention to the functional state and stability of such systems. Special attention has been given to the interactions between macro- and microorganisms. Microorganisms are considered the most suitable indicators of a system's health and its component links. We can divide all space missions into types by which the behavior of man microbe interactions may be categorized: short missions and long ones. For short missions sanitary and hygiene procedures can be used to control the microflora of open and / or physico -chemical systems of life support. F r more prolonged missions hygieneo provisions may become inadequate and opportunistic infection occur rapidly. In general we should understand that the task of maintaining the heals of human being under conditions of stress is not only a question of sanitation and hygiene, but also a problem of the ecological balance within the habitat.

  17. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. PMID:25673742

  18. Observation and Control of Hamiltonian Chaos in Wave-particle Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doveil, F.; Ruzzon, A.; Elskens, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Wave-particle interactions are central in plasma physics. The paradigm beam-plasma system can be advantageously replaced by a traveling wave tube (TWT) to allow their study in a much less noisy environment. This led to detailed analysis of the self-consistent interaction between unstable waves and an either cold or warm electron beam. More recently a test cold beam has been used to observe its interaction with externally excited wave(s). This allowed observing the main features of Hamiltonian chaos and testing a new method to efficiently channel chaotic transport in phase space. To simulate accurately and efficiently the particle dynamics in the TWT and other 1D particle-wave systems, a new symplectic, symmetric, second order numerical algorithm is developed, using particle position as the independent variable, with a fixed spatial step.This contribution reviews: presentation of the TWT and its connection to plasma physics, resonant interaction of a charged particle in electrostatic waves, observation of particle trapping and transition to chaos, test of control of chaos, and description of the simulation algorithm.The velocity distribution function of the electron beam is recorded with a trochoidal energy analyzer at the output of the TWT. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the 4m long helix of the TWT. The nonlinear synchronization of particles by a single wave, responsible for Landau damping, is observed. We explore the resonant velocity domain associated with a single wave as well as the transition to large scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap. This transition exhibits a devil's staircase behavior when increasing the excitation level in agreement with numerical simulation.A new strategy for control of chaos by building barriers of transport in phase space as well as its robustness is successfully tested. The underlying concepts extend far beyond the field of

  19. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. 3rd Symposium on Fluid-Structure-Sound Interactions and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Lucey, AD; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lixi

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings primarily focus on advances in the theory, experiments, and numerical simulations of turbulence in the contexts of flow-induced vibration and noise, as well as their control. Fluid-related structural vibration and noise problems are often encountered in many engineering fields, increasingly making them a cause for concern. The FSSIC conference, held on 5-9 July 2015 in Perth, featured prominent keynote speakers such as John Kim, Nigel Peake, Song Fu and Colin Hansen, as well as talks on a broad range of topics: turbulence, fluid-structure interaction, fluid-related noise and the control/management aspects of these research areas, many of which are clearly interdisciplinary in nature. It provided a forum for academics, scientists and engineers working in all branches of Fluid-Structure-Sound Interactions and Control (FSSIC) to exchange and share the latest developments, ideas and advances, bringing them together researchers from East and West to push forward the frontiers of FSSIC, ensuring t...

  1. Interacting cannabinoid and opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens core control adolescent social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Manduca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents. Systemic administration of the 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitor JZL184 or the opioid receptor agonist morphine increased social play behavior in adolescent rats. These effects were blocked by systemic pretreatment with either CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R or mu-opioid receptor (MOR antagonists. The social play-enhancing effects of systemic morphine or JZL184 treatment were also prevented by direct infusion of the CB1R antagonist SR141716 and the MOR antagonist naloxone into the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC. Searching for synaptic correlates of these effects in adolescent NAcC excitatory synapses, we observed that CB1R antagonism blocked the effect of the MOR agonist DAMGO and, conversely, that naloxone reduced the effect of a cannabinoid agonist. These results were recapitulated in mice, and completely abolished in CB1R and MOR knockout mice, suggesting that the functional interaction between CB1R and MOR in the NAcC in the modulation of mediates social behavior is widespread in rodents. The data shed new light on the mechanism by which endocannabinoid lipids and opioid peptides interact to orchestrate rodent socioemotional behaviors.

  2. Instrumented Compliant Wrist with Proximity and Contact Sensing for Close Robot Interaction Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Laferrière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compliance has been exploited in various forms in robotic systems to allow rigid mechanisms to come into contact with fragile objects, or with complex shapes that cannot be accurately modeled. Force feedback control has been the classical approach for providing compliance in robotic systems. However, by integrating other forms of instrumentation with compliance into a single device, it is possible to extend close monitoring of nearby objects before and after contact occurs. As a result, safer and smoother robot control can be achieved both while approaching and while touching surfaces. This paper presents the design and extensive experimental evaluation of a versatile, lightweight, and low-cost instrumented compliant wrist mechanism which can be mounted on any rigid robotic manipulator in order to introduce a layer of compliance while providing the controller with extra sensing signals during close interaction with an object’s surface. Arrays of embedded range sensors provide real-time measurements on the position and orientation of surfaces, either located in proximity or in contact with the robot’s end-effector, which permits close guidance of its operation. Calibration procedures are formulated to overcome inter-sensor variability and achieve the highest available resolution. A versatile solution is created by embedding all signal processing, while wireless transmission connects the device to any industrial robot’s controller to support path control. Experimental work demonstrates the device’s physical compliance as well as the stability and accuracy of the device outputs. Primary applications of the proposed instrumented compliant wrist include smooth surface following in manufacturing, inspection, and safe human-robot interaction.

  3. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: Interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Gruber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated behaviour exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioural control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum, amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioural responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive, but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum. The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the basal ganglia to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioural and neural

  4. Controllable magnetic thermal rectification in a SMM dimmer with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ai-Hua; Liu, Juan; Luo, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Using the quantum master equation, we studied the thermally driven magnonic spin current in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) dimer with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Due to the asymmetric DMI, one can observe the thermal rectifying effect in the case of the spatial symmetry coupling with the thermal reservoirs. The properties of the thermal rectification can be controlled by tuning the angle and intensity of the magnetic field. Specially, when the DM vector and magnetic field point at the specific angles, the thermal rectifying effect disappears. And this phenomenon does not depend on the intensities of DMI and magnetic field, the temperature bias and the magnetic anisotropies of the SMM.

  5. ISAC - A tool for aeroservoelastic modeling and analysis. [Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M., Jr.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the capabilities of the Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics, and Controls (ISAC) system of program modules. The major modeling, analysis, and data management components of ISAC are identified. Equations of motion are displayed for a Laplace-domain representation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Options for approximating a frequency-domain representation of unsteady aerodynamic forces with rational functions of the Laplace variable are shown. Linear time invariant state-space equations of motion that result are discussed. Model generation and analyses of stability and dynamic response characteristics are shown for an aeroelastic vehicle which illustrate some of the capabilities of ISAC as a modeling and analysis tool for aeroelastic applications.

  6. User interaction concept for plasma discharge control on WENDELSTEIN 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spring, Anett; Laqua, Heike; Niedermeyer, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The requirements to the user interfaces arising from the concept of segmented discharges allowing short pulses and steady state operation and from the distributed hierarchical structure of the experiment are discussed. The modular design of the user interfaces is presented including specialised tools for preparation, manipulating, and monitoring the discharge operation. The user guidance and the mapping of complex control procedures onto a physically relevant view on the plasma discharge process will be vitally important. The feasibility of the user interaction concept could already be validated on a prototype installation and during commissioning of the first technical WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) components

  7. Development of a new ALWR control concept using a PC-based interactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, S.S.; Eschbach, S.L.; Gabler, W.E.; Brown, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new control concept for an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and the personal computer (PC) based environment on which it was developed. In this concept, a mathematical model of the plant is used to calculate the demands and certain setpoints. The model takes into account stored energy and mass, and plant interactions, and thus the calculated demands represent dynamic balance between subsystems. Corrections to these demands based on certain key measurements are determined to account for deviation between the model and the plant and to keep the plant away from protection and operating limits. The expected results are smoother plant maneuvers and runbacks and fewer challenges to safety systems

  8. A unique set of SH3-SH3 interactions controls IB1 homodimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Guenat, Sylvie; Dar, Imran

    2006-01-01

    Islet-brain 1 (IB1 or JIP-1) is a scaffold protein that interacts with components of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal-transduction pathway. IB1 is expressed at high levels in neurons and in pancreatic beta-cells, where it controls expression of several insulin-secretory components...... reduces IB1-dependent basal JNK activity in 293T cells. Impaired dimerization also results in a reduction in glucose transporter type 2 expression and in glucose-dependent insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Taken together, these results indicate that IB1 homodimerization through its SH3 domain...

  9. Affiliation and control in marital interaction: interpersonal complementarity is present but is not associated with affect or relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Butner, Jonathan; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Nealey-Moore, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory states that an actor's behavior tends to "pull, elicit, invite, or evoke" responses from interaction partners who are similar in affiliation (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) and opposite in control (i.e., dominance vs. submissiveness). Furthermore, complementary interactions are proposed to evoke less negative affect and promote greater relationship satisfaction. These predictions were examined in two studies of married couples. Results suggest that complementarity in affiliation describes a robust general pattern of marital interaction, but complementarity in control varies across contexts. Consistent with behavioral models of marital interaction, greater levels of affiliation and lower control by partners-not complementarity in affiliation or control-were associated with less anger and anxiety and greater relationship quality. Partners' levels of affiliation and control combined in ways other than complementarity-mostly additively, but sometimes synergistically-to predict negative affect and relationship satisfaction. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. In-reactor performance of methods to control fuel-cladding chemical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Gibby, R.L.; Wilson, C.N.; Lawrence, L.A.; Adamson, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    Inner surface corrosion of austenitic stainless steel cladding by oxygen and reactive fission product elements requires a 50 μm wastage allowance in current FBR reference oxide fuel pin design. Elimination or reduction of this wastage allowance could result in better reactor efficiency and economics through improvements in fuel pin performance and reliability. Reduction in cladding thickness and replacement of equivalent volume with fuel result in improved breeding capability. Of the factors affecting fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI), oxygen activity within the fuel pin can be most readily controlled and/or manipulated without degrading fuel pin performance or significantly increasing fuel fabrication costs. There are two major approaches to control oxygen activity within an oxide fuel pin: (1) control of total oxygen inventory and chemical activity (Δ anti GO 2 ) by use of low oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M) fuel; and (2) incorporation of a material within the fuel pin to provide in-situ control of oxygen activity (Δ anti GO 2 ) and fixation of excess oxygen prior to, or in preference to reaction with the cladding. The paper describes irradiation tests which were conducted in EBR-II and GETR incorporating oxygen buffer/getter materials and very low O/M fuel to control oxygen activity in sealed fuel pins

  11. Determinants of aggressive behavior: Interactive effects of emotional regulation and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Hsieh

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior can be defined as any behavior intended to hurt another person, and it is associated with many individual and social factors. This study examined the relationship between emotional regulation and inhibitory control in predicting aggressive behavior. Seventy-eight participants (40 males completed self-report measures (Negative Mood Regulation Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, a stop signal task, and engaged in a modified version of Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP exercise, in which the outcome was used as a measure of direct physical aggression. We used a hierarchical, mixed-model multiple regression analysis test to examine the effects of emotion regulation and inhibitory control on physical reactive aggression. Results indicated an interaction between emotion regulation and inhibitory control on aggression. For participants with low inhibitory control only, there was a significant difference between high and low emotion regulation on aggression, such that low emotion regulation participants registered higher aggression than high emotion regulation participants. This difference was not found among participants with high inhibitory control. These results have implications for refining and targeting training and rehabilitation programs aimed at reducing aggressive behavior.

  12. Interaction effect of psychological distress and asthma control on productivity loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullec, Grégory; FitzGerald, J Mark; Rousseau, Roxanne; Chen, Wenjia; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the potential synergistic effect of comorbid psychological distress (PD) and uncontrolled asthma (UA) on productivity loss. We estimated the productivity loss associated with the combination of these two potentially preventable conditions in employed adults with asthma. A population-based random sample of 300 adults with asthma in British Columbia, Canada, was prospectively recruited between Dec 2010 and Aug 2012. PD and productivity loss due to absenteeism and presenteeism was measured using validated instruments, and asthma control was ascertained using 2010 Global Initiative for Asthma management strategy. We used two-part regression models to study the contribution of UA and PD to productivity loss. Compared with reference group (controlled asthma (CA)+noPD), those with UA+noPD had CAD$286 (95%CI $276-297) weekly productivity loss, and those with CA+PD had CAD$465 ($445-485). Those with UA+PD had CAD$449 (437-462) in productivity loss. There was no significant interaction effect of PD with asthma control levels on productivity loss (p=0.22). In patients without PD, uncontrolled asthma was associated with a higher productivity loss than controlled asthma, but this was not the case in patients with PD. This finding can be explained by the fact that the contribution of PD to productivity loss is so large that there is no room for synergy with asthma control. Future studies should assess the impact of interventions that modify PD in patients with asthma. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  13. Single-step controlled-NOT logic from any exchange interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiautdinov, Andrei

    2007-11-01

    A self-contained approach to studying the unitary evolution of coupled qubits is introduced, capable of addressing a variety of physical systems described by exchange Hamiltonians containing Rabi terms. The method automatically determines both the Weyl chamber steering trajectory and the accompanying local rotations. Particular attention is paid to the case of anisotropic exchange with tracking controls, which is solved analytically. It is shown that, if computational subspace is well isolated, any exchange interaction can always generate high fidelity, single-step controlled-NOT (CNOT) logic, provided that both qubits can be individually manipulated. The results are then applied to superconducting qubit architectures, for which several CNOT gate implementations are identified. The paper concludes with consideration of two CNOT gate designs having high efficiency and operating with no significant leakage to higher-lying noncomputational states.

  14. Control of a shock wave-boundary layer interaction using localized arc filament plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nathan Joseph

    Supersonic flight is currently possible, but expensive. Inexpensive supersonic travel will require increased efficiency of high-speed air entrainment, an integral part of air-breathing propulsion systems. Although mixed compression inlet geometry can significantly improve entrainment efficiency, numerous Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) are generated in this configuration. The boundary layer must therefore develop through multiple regions of adverse pressure gradient, causing it to thicken, and, in severe cases, separate. The associated increase in unsteadiness can have adverse effects on downstream engine hardware. The most severe consequence of these interactions is the increased aerodynamic blockage generated by the thickened boundary layer. If the increase is sufficient, it can choke the flow, causing inlet unstart, and resulting in a loss of thrust and high transient forces on the engine, airframe, and aircraft occupants. The potentially severe consequences associated with SWBLIs require flow control to ensure proper operation. Traditionally, boundary layer bleed has been used to control the interaction. Although this method is effective, it has inherent efficiency penalties. Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are designed to generate perturbations for flow control. Natural flow instabilities act to amplify certain perturbations, allowing the LAFPAs to control the flow with minimal power input. LAFPAs also have the flexibility to maintain control over a variety of operating conditions. This work seeks to examine the effectiveness of LAFPAs as a separation control method for an oblique, impinging SWBLI. The low frequency unsteadiness in the reflected shock was thought to be the natural manifestation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer above the separation region. The LAFPAs were therefore placed upstream of the interaction to allow their perturbations to convect to the receptivity region (near the shear layer origin

  15. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itasse, Maxime; Brazier, Jean-Philippe; Léon, Olivier; Casalis, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m 1 , n 1 ), (m 2 , n 2 ), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m 1 − m 2 , n 1 − n 2 ). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes

  16. Control dynamics of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter; Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2016-05-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold bosons following an interaction quench upon a periodically driven optical lattice is investigated. It is shown that an interaction quench triggers the inter-well tunneling dynamics, while for the intra-well dynamics breathing and cradle-like processes can be generated. In particular, the occurrence of a resonance between the cradle and tunneling modes is revealed. On the other hand, the employed periodic driving enforces the bosons in the mirror wells to oscillate out-of-phase and to exhibit a dipole mode, while in the central well the cloud experiences a breathing mode. The dynamical behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency revealing a resonant behaviour of the intra-well dynamics. To drive the system in a highly non-equilibrium state an interaction quench upon the driving is performed giving rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result of the quench the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  17. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  19. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  20. Observation of Hamiltonian chaos and its control in wave-particle interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doveil, F; Macor, A; Aissi, A

    2007-01-01

    Wave-particle interactions are central in plasma physics. They can be studied in a traveling wave tube (TWT) to avoid intrinsic plasma noise. This led to detailed experimental analysis of the self-consistent interaction between unstable waves and an either cold or warm beam. More recently a test cold electron beam has been used to observe its non-self-consistent interaction with externally excited wave(s). The velocity distribution function of the electron beam is recorded with a trochoidal energy analyzer at the output of the TWT. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the slow wave structure (a 4 m long helix) of the TWT. The nonlinear synchronization of particles by a single wave responsible for Landau damping is observed. The resonant velocity domain associated with a single wave is also observed, as well as the transition to large scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap. This transition exhibits a 'devil's staircase' behavior when increasing the excitation amplitude in agreement with numerical simulation. A new strategy for control of chaos by building barriers of transport which prevent electrons from escaping from a given velocity region as well as its robustness are successfully tested. The underlying concepts extend far beyond the field of electron devices and plasma physics

  1. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itasse, Maxime, E-mail: Maxime.Itasse@onera.fr; Brazier, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: Jean-Philippe.Brazier@onera.fr; Léon, Olivier, E-mail: Olivier.Leon@onera.fr; Casalis, Grégoire, E-mail: Gregoire.Casalis@onera.fr [Onera - The French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-15

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m{sub 1}, n{sub 1}), (m{sub 2}, n{sub 2}), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m{sub 1} − m{sub 2}, n{sub 1} − n{sub 2}). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  2. Improvement of confinement characteristics of tokamak plasma by controlling plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengoku, Seio

    1985-08-01

    Relation between plasma-wall interactions and confinement characteristics of a tokamak plasma with respect to both impurity and fuel particle controls is discussed. Following results are obtained from impurity control studies: (1) Ion sputtering is the dominant mechanism of impurity release in a steady state tokamak discharge. (2) By applying carbon coating on entire first wall of DIVA tokamak, dominant radiative region is concentrated more in boundary plasma resulting a hot peripheral plasma with cold boundary plasma. (3) A physical model of divertor functions about impurity control is empilically obtained. By a computer simulation based on above model with respect to divertor functions for JT-60 tokamak, it is found that the allowable electron temperature of the divertor plasma is not restricted by a condition that the impurity release due to ion sputtering does not increase continuously. (4) Dense and cold divertor plasma accompanied with strong remote radiative cooling was diagnosed along the magnetic field line in the simple poloidal divertor of DOUBLET III tokamak. Strong particle recycling region is found to be localized near the divertor plate. by and from particle control studies: (1) The INTOR scaling on energy confinement time is applicable to high density region when a core plasma is fueled directly by solid deuterium pellet injection in DOUBLET III tokamak. (2) As remarkably demonstrated by direct fueling with pellet injection, energy confinement characteristics can be improved at high density range by decreasing particle deposition at peripheral plasma in order to reduce plasma-wall interaction. (3) If the particle deposition at boundary layer is necessarily reduced, the electron temperature at the boundary or divertor region increases due to decrease of the particle recycling and the electron density there. (J.P.N.)

  3. Interaction between demand-control and social support in the occurrence of common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Amália Ivine Santana; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Almeida, Maura Maria Guimarães de

    2017-05-15

    To analyze the interaction between the psychosocial aspects of work and the occurrence of common mental disorders among health workers. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of workers of the primary health care of five municipalities of the State of Bahia, Brazil, in 2012. The variable of outcome were the common mental disorders evaluated by the SRQ-20, and the variables of exposure were high demand (high psychological demand and low control over the work) and low social support in the workplace. Interaction was checked by the deviation of the additivity of the effects for the factors studied from the calculation of excess risk from interaction, proportion of cases attributed to interaction, and the synergy index. The global prevalence of common mental disorders was 21%. The group of combined exposure has shown higher magnitude (high demand and low social support), reaching 28% when compared to the 17% in the situation of no exposure (low demand and high social support). The results strengthen the hypothesis of interaction between the factors investigated, directing to the synergy of the effects. Analisar a interação entre aspectos psicossociais do trabalho e a ocorrência de transtornos mentais comuns entre trabalhadores da saúde. Estudo transversal conduzido em amostra representativa de trabalhadores da atenção básica de cinco municípios da Bahia em 2012. As variáveis desfecho foram os transtornos mentais comuns avaliados pelo SRQ-20, as de exposição foram a alta exigência (alta demanda psicológica e baixo controle sobre o próprio trabalho) e o baixo apoio social no trabalho. A interação foi verificada pelo afastamento da aditividade dos efeitos para fatores estudados a partir do cálculo do excesso de risco devido à interação, proporção de casos atribuída à interação e índice de sinergia. A prevalência global de transtornos mentais comuns foi de 21%. Apresentou maior magnitude no grupo de exposi

  4. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  5. Interactions between aromatase (estrogen synthase) and dopamine in the control of male sexual behavior in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-05-01

    In male quail, like in other vertebrates including rodents, testosterone acting especially through its estrogenic metabolites is necessary for the activation of male sexual behavior. Also, the administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists profoundly influences male sexual behavior. How the steroid-sensitive neural network and dopamine interact physiologically, remains largely unknown. It is often implicitly assumed that testosterone or its metabolite estradiol, stimulates male sexual behavior via the modification of dopaminergic transmission. We have now identified in quail two possible ways in which dopamine could potentially affect sexual behavior by modulating the aromatization of testosterone into an estrogen. One is a long-acting mechanism that presumably involves the modification of dopaminergic transmission followed by the alteration of the genomic expression of aromatase. The other is a more rapid mechanism that does not appear to be dopamine receptor-mediated and may involve a direct interaction of dopamine with aromatase (possibly via substrate competition). We review here the experimental data supporting the existence of these controls of aromatase activity by dopamine and discuss the possible contribution of these controls to the activation of male sexual behavior.

  6. Motivational state controls the prediction error in Pavlovian appetitive-aversive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Vincent; Balleine, Bernard W; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary theories of learning emphasize the role of a prediction error signal in driving learning, but the nature of this signal remains hotly debated. Here, we used Pavlovian conditioning in rats to investigate whether primary motivational and emotional states interact to control prediction error. We initially generated cues that positively or negatively predicted an appetitive food outcome. We then assessed how these cues modulated aversive conditioning when a novel cue was paired with a foot shock. We found that a positive predictor of food enhances, whereas a negative predictor of that same food impairs, aversive conditioning. Critically, we also showed that the enhancement produced by the positive predictor is removed by reducing the value of its associated food. In contrast, the impairment triggered by the negative predictor remains insensitive to devaluation of its associated food. These findings provide compelling evidence that the motivational value attributed to a predicted food outcome can directly control appetitive-aversive interactions and, therefore, that motivational processes can modulate emotional processes to generate the final error term on which subsequent learning is based. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy cascading by triple-bubble interactions via time-delayed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yang, I-Da; Chieng, Ching-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The triple-bubble interaction controlled by a precise time-delayed technique was investigated in detail with respect to different ignition times, heater spaces and sequential firing modes to promote efficient energy cascading and concentration. The target bubble, which was generated under a specific delay time with two auxiliary bubbles, can have a volume that is two or almost three times larger than that of a single bubble. This result overcomes the limitation of energy usage on an explosive microbubble under a constant heat flux. As the heater space decreases, stronger bubble–bubble interactions were obtained due to the hydrodynamic effect and the intensive pressure wave emission, resulting in highly enhancing and depressing bubble dynamics. Other interesting phenomena, such as bubble shifting, mushroom-shape bubble, rod-shape bubble and bubble extension among heaters, were also recorded by a high-speed phase-averaged stroboscopic technique, displaying special non-spherical bubble dynamics. Artificial manipulation of bubble behavior was further conducted in a two-level sequential firing process. Using various volumetric combinations, the adjustable multi-level fluid transportation can be realized by a digital time-delayed control. The above-mentioned information can be applied to not only the design and operation of inkjet printheads but also cavitation research and fluid pumping in microdevices. (paper)

  8. The role of plant-microbiome interactions in weed establishment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Friederike; Hackl, Evelyn; Widhalm, Siegrid; Sessitsch, Angela

    2016-10-01

    The soil microbiome plays an important role in the establishment of weeds and invasive plants. They associate with microorganisms supporting their growth and health. Weed management strategies, like tillage and herbicide treatments, to control weeds generally alter soil structure going alongside with changes in the microbial community. Once a weed population establishes in the field, the plants build up a close relationship with the available microorganisms. Seeds or vegetative organs overwinter in soil and select early in the season their own microbiome before crop plants start to vegetate. Weed and crop plants compete for light, nutrition and water, but may differently interact with soil microorganisms. The development of new sequencing technologies for analyzing soil microbiomes has opened up the possibility for in depth analysis of the interaction between 'undesired' plants and crop plants under different management systems. These findings will help us to understand the functions of microorganisms involved in crop productivity and plant health, weed establishment and weed prevention. Exploitation of the knowledge offers the possibility to search for new biocontrol methods against weeds based on soil and plant-associated microorganisms. This review discusses the recent advances in understanding the functions of microbial communities for weed/invasive plant establishment and shows new ways to use plant-associated microorganisms to control weeds and invasive plants in different land management systems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  10. Mealtime family interactions in home environments of children with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Julia; Hartmann, Andrea Sabrina; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja

    2011-06-01

    Experimental and self-report studies have shown that parents have a strong influence on their normal or overweight children's eating behavior, i.e. through parental feeding behavior or communication. Studies in children with loss of control (LOC) eating that have investigated this relationship are scarce, and ecologically valid observational studies are missing. This study examined family functioning at mealtimes in home environments in 43 families of a child with LOC eating and 31 families of a child without LOC eating; the children were 8-13 years old. Familial interactions, child eating behavior, and parental mealtime behavior were assessed using the Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System, observation of bite speed of the child, and self-report questionnaires. Less healthy patterns of communication (U=201.53, pchild with LOC eating compared to those without LOC eating. Children with LOC eating (M=4.73, SD=1.88) ate faster than controls (M=3.71, SD=1.19; pchild's eating behavior. Parent-child communication training should be tested as an intervention for children with LOC episodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Hauth, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Team interaction skills are an essential aspect of safe nuclear power plant control room operations. Previous research has shown that, when a group works together, rather than as individuals, more effective operations are possible. However, little research has addressed how such team interaction skills can be measured. In this study rating scales were developed specifically for such a measurement purpose. Dimensions of team skill performance were identified from previous research and experience in the area, incorporating the input of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contract operator licensing examiners. Rating scales were developed on the basis of these dimensions, incorporating a modified Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) as well as Behavioral Frequency formats. After a pilot-testing/revision process, rating data were collected using 11 control room crews responding to simulator scenarios at a boiling water and a pressurized water reactor. Statistical analyses of the resulting data revealed moderate inter-rater reliability using the Behavioral Frequency scales, relatively low inter-rater reliability using the BARS, and moderate support for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. It was concluded that the scales show promise psychometrically and in terms of user acceptability, but that additional scale revision is needed before field implementation. Recommendations for scale revision and directions for future research were presented

  12. Achieving atomistic control in materials processing by plasma–surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jeffrey; Chang, Jane P

    2017-01-01

    The continuous down-scaling of electronic devices and the introduction of functionally improved novel materials require a greater atomic level controllability in the synthesis and patterning of thin film materials, especially with regards to deposition uniformity and conformality as well as etching selectivity and anisotropy. The richness of plasma chemistry and the corresponding plasma–surface interactions provide the much needed processing flexibility and efficacy. To achieve the integration of the novel materials into devices, plasma-enhanced atomic layer processing techniques are emerging as the enabling factors to obtain atomic scale control of complex materials and nanostructures. This review focuses on an overview of the role of respective plasma species involved in plasma–surface interactions, addressing their respective and synergistic effects, which is followed by two distinct applications: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) and atomic layer etching (ALE). For plasma-enhanced ALD, this review emphasizes the use of plasma chemistry to enable alternative pathways to synthesize complex materials at low temperatures and the challenges associated with deposition conformality. For plasma enabled ALE processes, the review focuses on the surface-specific chemical reactions needed to achieve desirable selectivity and anisotropy. (topical review)

  13. Interactions of Circadian Rhythmicity, Stress and Orexigenic Neuropeptide Systems: Implications for Food Intake Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Anna; Gundlach, Andrew L; Hess, Grzegorz; Lewandowski, Marian H

    2017-01-01

    Many physiological processes fluctuate throughout the day/night and daily fluctuations are observed in brain and peripheral levels of several hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters. In turn, mediators under the "control" of the "master biological clock" reciprocally influence its function. Dysregulation in the rhythmicity of hormone release as well as hormone receptor sensitivity and availability in different tissues, is a common risk-factor for multiple clinical conditions, including psychiatric and metabolic disorders. At the same time circadian rhythms remain in a strong, reciprocal interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent findings point to a role of circadian disturbances and excessive stress in the development of obesity and related food consumption and metabolism abnormalities, which constitute a major health problem worldwide. Appetite, food intake and energy balance are under the influence of several brain neuropeptides, including the orexigenic agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone and relaxin-3. Importantly, orexigenic neuropeptide neurons remain under the control of the circadian timing system and are highly sensitive to various stressors, therefore the potential neuronal mechanisms through which disturbances in the daily rhythmicity and stress-related mediator levels contribute to food intake abnormalities rely on reciprocal interactions between these elements.

  14. Eye Tracking Based Control System for Natural Human-Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement can be regarded as a pivotal real-time input medium for human-computer communication, which is especially important for people with physical disability. In order to improve the reliability, mobility, and usability of eye tracking technique in user-computer dialogue, a novel eye control system with integrating both mouse and keyboard functions is proposed in this paper. The proposed system focuses on providing a simple and convenient interactive mode by only using user’s eye. The usage flow of the proposed system is designed to perfectly follow human natural habits. Additionally, a magnifier module is proposed to allow the accurate operation. In the experiment, two interactive tasks with different difficulty (searching article and browsing multimedia web were done to compare the proposed eye control tool with an existing system. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM measures are used to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of our system. It is demonstrated that the proposed system is very effective with regard to usability and interface design.

  15. Eye Tracking Based Control System for Natural Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebai; Liu, Xiaolong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Lin, Shu-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Eye movement can be regarded as a pivotal real-time input medium for human-computer communication, which is especially important for people with physical disability. In order to improve the reliability, mobility, and usability of eye tracking technique in user-computer dialogue, a novel eye control system with integrating both mouse and keyboard functions is proposed in this paper. The proposed system focuses on providing a simple and convenient interactive mode by only using user's eye. The usage flow of the proposed system is designed to perfectly follow human natural habits. Additionally, a magnifier module is proposed to allow the accurate operation. In the experiment, two interactive tasks with different difficulty (searching article and browsing multimedia web) were done to compare the proposed eye control tool with an existing system. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) measures are used to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of our system. It is demonstrated that the proposed system is very effective with regard to usability and interface design.

  16. Remote Control of Tissue Interactions via Engineered Photo-switchable Cell Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M.; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2014-09-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies.

  17. The phylogeny and ontogeny of autonomic control of the heart and cardiorespiratory interactions in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edwin W; Leite, Cleo A C; Sartori, Marina R; Wang, Tobias; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A

    2014-03-01

    Heart rate in vertebrates is controlled by activity in the autonomic nervous system. In spontaneously active or experimentally prepared animals, inhibitory parasympathetic control is predominant and is responsible for instantaneous changes in heart rate, such as occur at the first air breath following a period of apnoea in discontinuous breathers like inactive reptiles or species that surface to air breathe after a period of submersion. Parasympathetic control, exerted via fast-conducting, myelinated efferent fibres in the vagus nerve, is also responsible for beat-to-beat changes in heart rate such as the high frequency components observed in spectral analysis of heart rate variability. These include respiratory modulation of the heartbeat that can generate cardiorespiratory synchrony in fish and respiratory sinus arrhythmia in mammals. Both may increase the effectiveness of respiratory gas exchange. Although the central interactions generating respiratory modulation of the heartbeat seem to be highly conserved through vertebrate phylogeny, they are different in kind and location, and in most species are as yet little understood. The heart in vertebrate embryos possesses both muscarinic cholinergic and β-adrenergic receptors very early in development. Adrenergic control by circulating catecholamines seems important throughout development. However, innervation of the cardiac receptors is delayed and first evidence of a functional cholinergic tonus on the heart, exerted via the vagus nerve, is often seen shortly before or immediately after hatching or birth, suggesting that it may be coordinated with the onset of central respiratory rhythmicity and subsequent breathing.

  18. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  20. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.

  1. Clinical implications of antiretroviral drug interactions with warfarin: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterly, John S; Darin, Kristin M; Gerzenshtein, Lana; Othman, Fidah; Postelnick, Michael J; Scarsi, Kimberly K

    2013-06-01

    Warfarin, a frequently prescribed anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index, is susceptible to drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study compared the warfarin maintenance dose (WMD) between patients receiving and not receiving ART and evaluated predictors of warfarin dosage among those on ART. This was a case-control (1:2) study. Cases were HIV-infected patients receiving warfarin and protease inhibitor (PI)- and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Controls were randomly selected HIV-uninfected patients receiving warfarin. The WMD was compared between cases and controls and between cases on varying ART regimens. Bivariate comparisons were performed and a linear regression model was developed to identify predictors of WMD. We identified 18 case and 36 control patients eligible for inclusion. Cases were younger than controls (mean age: 45.8 versus 63.1 years, P African American (50.0% versus 22.2%, P=0.04). ART was classified as PI-based (n=9), NNRTI-based (n=7) and PI + NNRTI-based (n=2). The WMD (mean ± SD) differed between cases and controls (8.6  ±  3.4 mg versus 5.1 ± 1.5 mg, P ART regimens (PI: 8.8  ±  4.5 mg; NNRTI: 8.6   ± 1.8 mg; PI + NNRTI: 7.3  ±  3.3 mg; P = 0.86). Race and ritonavir dose were independent predictors of WMD, predicting an increase of 3.9 mg (95% CI: 0.88-6.98, P = 0.02) if a patient was African American or 3.7 mg (95% CI: 0.53-6.89, P = 0.03) if the total daily ritonavir dose was 200 mg. The required WMD was significantly higher in patients receiving ART. Prompt dose titration to achieve a higher WMD with vigilant monitoring may be required due to these drug-drug interactions.

  2. Interactions Between Indirect DC-Voltage Estimation and Circulating Current Controllers of MMC-Based HVDC Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe, Harith R.; Konstantinou, Georgios; Pou, Josep

    2018-01-01

    Estimation-based indirect dc-voltage control in MMCs interacts with circulating current control methods. This paper proposes an estimation-based indirect dc-voltage control method for MMC-HVDC systems and analyzes its performance compared to alternative estimations. The interactions between......-state and transient performance is demonstrated using a benchmark MMC-HVDC transmission system, implemented in a real-time digital simulator. The results verify the theoretical evaluations and illustrate the operation and performance of the proposed indirect dc-voltage control method....

  3. An evaluation of touchscreen versus keyboard/mouse interaction for large screen process control displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Benjamin; Li, Jingwen; Rothrock, Ling

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effect of interaction device on performance in a process control task (managing a tank farm). The study compared the following two conditions: a) 4K-resolution 55" screen with a 21" touchscreen versus b) 4K-resolution 55″ screen with keyboard/mouse. The touchscreen acted both as an interaction device for data entry and navigation and as an additional source of information. A within-subject experiment was conducted among 20 college engineering students. A primary task of preventing tanks from overfilling as well as a secondary task of manual logging with situation awareness questions were designed for the study. Primary Task performance (including tank level at discharge, number of tank discharged and performance score), Secondary Task Performance (including Tank log count, performance score), system interaction times, subjective workload, situation awareness questionnaire, user experience survey regarding usability and condition comparison were used as the measures. Parametric data resulted in two metrics statistically different means between the two conditions: The 4K-keyboard condition resulted in faster Detection + Navigation time compared to the 4K-touchscreen condition, by about 2 s, while participants within the 4K-touchscreen condition were about 2 s faster in data entry than in the 4K-keyboard condition. No significant results were found for: performance on the secondary task, situation awareness, and workload. Additionally, no clear significant differences were found in the non-parametric data analysis. However, participants showed a slight preference for the 4K-touchscreen condition compared to the 4K-keyboard condition in subjective responses in comparing the conditions. Introducing the touchscreen as an additional/alternative input device showed to have an effect in interaction times, which suggests that proper design considerations need to be made. While having values shown on the interaction device

  4. Empowerment of disability benefit claimants through an interactive website: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoocha, David; Bruinvels, David J; Anema, Johannes R; Steenbeek, Romy; van der Beek, Allard J

    2009-05-10

    Individuals claiming a disability benefit after long-term sickness absence, have to undergo medical disability assessments. These assessments, often carried out by specialized physicians, can be complicated by wrong expectations or defensive attitudes of disability benefit claimants. It is hypothesized that empowerment of these claimants will enhance the physician-patient relationship by shifting claimants from a passive role to a more active and constructive role during disability assessments. Furthermore, empowerment of claimants may lead to a more realistic expectation and acceptance of the assessment outcome among claimants and may lead to a more accurate assessment by the physician. In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT), 230 claimants will be randomized to either the intervention or control group. For the intervention group, an interactive website was designed http://www.wiagesprek.nl using an Intervention Mapping procedure. This website was tested during a pilot study among 51 claimants. The final version of the website consists of five interactive modules, in which claimants will be prepared and empowered step-by-step, prior to their upcoming disability assessment. Other website components are a forum, a personal health record, a personal diary, and information on disability assessment procedures, return to work, and coping with disease and work disability. Subjects from the control group will be directed to a website with commonly available information only. Approximately two weeks prior to their disability assessment, disability claimants will be recruited through the Dutch Workers Insurance Authority (UWV). Outcomes will be assessed at five occasions: directly after recruitment (baseline), prior to disability assessment, directly after disability assessment as well as 6 and 16 weeks after the assessment. The study's primary outcome is empowerment, measured with the Vrijbaan questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include claimants' satisfaction

  5. Viscosity controlled magma-carbonate interaction: a comparison of Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) and Mt. Merapi (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, L. S.; Misiti, V.; Masotta, M.; Taddeucci, J.; Freda, C.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Jolis, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Magma-carbonate interaction is increasingly seen as a viable and extremely important cause of magma contamination, and the generation of a crustally sourced CO2 phase (Goff et al., 2001; Freda et al., 2010). Even though the process is well recognized at certain volcanoes e.g. Popocatépetl, (Mexico); Merapi, (Indonesia); and Colli Albani, (Italy) (Goff et al., 2001; Deegan et al., 2010; Freda et al., 2010), neither the kinetics of carbonate assimilation nor its consequences for controlling the explosivity of eruptions have been constrained. Here we show the results of magma-carbonate interaction experiments conducted at 1200 °C and 0.5 GPa for varying durations (0 s, 60 s, 90 s and 300 s) for the Mt. Merapi (Indonesia) and Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) volcanic systems. We performed experiments using glassy starting materials specific to each volcano (shoshonite for Mt. Vesuvius, basaltic-andesite for Mt. Merapi) with different degrees of hydration (anhydrous vs hydration with ~ 2 wt % water) and using carbonate fragments of local origin; see Deegan et al., (2010) and Jolis et al., (2011). Experimental products include a gas phase (CO2-rich) and two melt phases, one pristine (Ca-normal) and one contaminated (Ca-rich) separated by a 'contamination front' which propagates outwards from the carbonate clast. Vesicles appear to nucleate in the contaminated glass and then migrate into the pristine one. Both contamination front propagation and bubble migration away from the carbonate are slower in anhydrous basaltic-andesite (Merapi anhydrous series) than in hydrated basaltic-andesite and shoshonite (Merapi and Vesuvius hydrated series), suggesting that assimilation speed is strongly controlled by the degree of hydration and the SiO2 content, both of which influence melt viscosity and hence diffusivity. As the carbonate dissolution proceeds in our experiments, initially dissolved and eventually exsolved CO2 builds up in the contaminated Ca-rich melt phase. Once melt volatile

  6. Empowerment of disability benefit claimants through an interactive website: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruinvels David J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals claiming a disability benefit after long-term sickness absence, have to undergo medical disability assessments. These assessments, often carried out by specialized physicians, can be complicated by wrong expectations or defensive attitudes of disability benefit claimants. It is hypothesized that empowerment of these claimants will enhance the physician-patient relationship by shifting claimants from a passive role to a more active and constructive role during disability assessments. Furthermore, empowerment of claimants may lead to a more realistic expectation and acceptance of the assessment outcome among claimants and may lead to a more accurate assessment by the physician. Methods/Design In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT, 230 claimants will be randomized to either the intervention or control group. For the intervention group, an interactive website was designed http://www.wiagesprek.nl using an Intervention Mapping procedure. This website was tested during a pilot study among 51 claimants. The final version of the website consists of five interactive modules, in which claimants will be prepared and empowered step-by-step, prior to their upcoming disability assessment. Other website components are a forum, a personal health record, a personal diary, and information on disability assessment procedures, return to work, and coping with disease and work disability. Subjects from the control group will be directed to a website with commonly available information only. Approximately two weeks prior to their disability assessment, disability claimants will be recruited through the Dutch Workers Insurance Authority (UWV. Outcomes will be assessed at five occasions: directly after recruitment (baseline, prior to disability assessment, directly after disability assessment as well as 6 and 16 weeks after the assessment. The study's primary outcome is empowerment, measured with the Vrijbaan questionnaire

  7. On-orbit evaluation of the control system/structural mode interactions on OSO-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slafer, L. I.

    1980-01-01

    The Orbiting Solar Observatory-8 experienced severe structural mode/control loop interaction problems during the spacecraft development. Extensive analytical studies, using the hybrid coordinate modeling approach, and comprehensive ground testing were carried out in order to achieve the system's precision pointing performance requirements. A recent series of flight tests were conducted with the spacecraft in which a wide bandwidth, high resolution telemetry system was utilized to evaluate the on-orbit flexible dynamics characteristics of the vehicle along with the control system performance. This paper describes the results of these tests, reviewing the basic design problem, analytical approach taken, ground test philosophy, and on-orbit testing. Data from the tests was used to determine the primary mode frequency, damping, and servo coupling dynamics for the on-orbit condition. Additionally, the test results have verified analytically predicted differences between the on-orbit and ground test environments. The test results have led to a validation of both the analytical modeling and servo design techniques used during the development of the control system, and also verified the approach taken to vehicle and servo ground testing.

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled Physics of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Controlled Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Behrisch, R; Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    1986-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is one of the possible candidates for long term energy sources which will be indispensable for our highly technological society. However, the physics and technology of controlled fusion are extremely complex and still require a great deal of research and development before fusion can be a practical energy source. For producing energy via controlled fusion a deuterium-tritium gas has to be heated to temperatures of a few 100 Million °c corres­ ponding to about 10 keV. For net energy gain, this hot plasma has to be confined at a certain density for a certain time One pro­ mising scheme to confine such a plasma is the use of i~tense mag­ netic fields. However, the plasma diffuses out of the confining magnetic surfaces and impinges on the surrounding vessel walls which isolate the plasma from the surrounding air. Because of this plasma wall interaction, particles from the plasma are lost to the walls by implantation and are partially reemitted into the plasma. In addition, wall...

  9. How soil organic matter composition controls hexachlorobenzene-soil-interactions: adsorption isotherms and quantum chemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Leinweber, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soilsoilsoil+3 HWEsoil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HCB adsorption. To obtain a molecular level understanding, a test set has been developed on the basis of elemental analysis which comprises 32 representative soil constituents. The calculated binding energy for HCB with each representative system shows that HCB binds to SOM stronger than to soil minerals. For SOM, HCB binds to alkylated aromatic, phenols, lignin monomers, and hydrophobic aliphatic compounds stronger than to polar aliphatic compounds confirming the above adsorption isotherms. Moreover, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of the binding energy with independent physical properties of the test set systems for the first time indicated that the polarizability, the partial charge on the carbon atoms, and the molar volume are the most important properties controlling HCB-SOM interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rational Design and Tuning of Functional RNA Switch to Control an Allosteric Intermolecular Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Tamaki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2015-08-04

    Conformational transitions of biomolecules in response to specific stimuli control many biological processes. In natural functional RNA switches, often called riboswitches, a particular RNA structure that has a suppressive or facilitative effect on gene expression transitions to an alternative structure with the opposite effect upon binding of a specific metabolite to the aptamer region. Stability of RNA secondary structure (-ΔG°) can be predicted based on thermodynamic parameters and is easily tuned by changes in nucleobases. We envisioned that tuning of a functional RNA switch that causes an allosteric interaction between an RNA and a peptide would be possible based on a predicted switching energy (ΔΔG°) that corresponds to the energy difference between the RNA secondary structure before (-ΔG°before) and after (-ΔG°after) the RNA conformational transition. We first selected functional RNA switches responsive to neomycin with predicted ΔΔG° values ranging from 5.6 to 12.2 kcal mol(-1). We then demonstrated a simple strategy to rationally convert the functional RNA switch to switches responsive to natural metabolites thiamine pyrophosphate, S-adenosyl methionine, and adenine based on the predicted ΔΔG° values. The ΔΔG° values of the designed RNA switches proportionally correlated with interaction energy (ΔG°interaction) between the RNA and peptide, and we were able to tune the sensitivity of the RNA switches for the trigger molecule. The strategy demonstrated here will be generally applicable for construction of functional RNA switches and biosensors in which mechanisms are based on conformational transition of nucleic acids.

  11. An Interactive Tool for Outdoor Computer Controlled Cultivation of Microalgae in a Tubular Photobioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Dormido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive virtual laboratory for experimenting with an outdoor tubular photobioreactor (henceforth PBR for short. This virtual laboratory it makes possible to: (a accurately reproduce the structure of a real plant (the PBR designed and built by the Department of Chemical Engineering of the University of Almería, Spain; (b simulate a generic tubular PBR by changing the PBR geometry; (c simulate the effects of changing different operating parameters such as the conditions of the culture (pH, biomass concentration, dissolved O2, inyected CO2, etc.; (d simulate the PBR in its environmental context; it is possible to change the geographic location of the system or the solar irradiation profile; (e apply different control strategies to adjust different variables such as the CO2 injection, culture circulation rate or culture temperature in order to maximize the biomass production; (f simulate the harvesting. In this way, users can learn in an intuitive way how productivity is affected by any change in the design. It facilitates the learning of how to manipulate essential variables for microalgae growth to design an optimal PBR. The simulator has been developed with Easy Java Simulations, a freeware open-source tool developed in Java, specifically designed for the creation of interactive dynamic simulations.

  12. A virtual control room with an embedded, interactive nuclear reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markidis, S.; Rizwan, U.

    2006-01-01

    The use of virtual nuclear control room can be an effective and powerful tool for training personnel working in the nuclear power plants. Operators could experience and simulate the functioning of the plant, even in critical situations, without being in a real power plant or running any risk. 3D models can be exported to Virtual Reality formats and then displayed in the Virtual Reality environment providing an immersive 3D experience. However, two major limitations of this approach are that 3D models exhibit static textures, and they are not fully interactive and therefore cannot be used effectively in training personnel. In this paper we first describe a possible solution for embedding the output of a computer application in a 3D virtual scene, coupling real-world applications and VR systems. The VR system reported here grabs the output of an application running on an X server; creates a texture with the output and then displays it on a screen or a wall in the virtual reality environment. We then propose a simple model for providing interaction between the user in the VR system and the running simulator. This approach is based on the use of internet-based application that can be commanded by a laptop or tablet-pc added to the virtual environment. (authors)

  13. Comprehension through explanation as the interaction of the brain’s coherence and cognitive control networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod eMoss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Discourse comprehension processes attempt to produce an elaborate and well-connected representation in the reader’s mind. A common network of regions including the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate, and dorsal frontal cortex appears to be involved in constructing coherent representations in a variety of tasks including social cognition tasks, narrative comprehension, and expository text comprehension. Reading strategies that require the construction of explicit inferences are used in the present research to examine how this coherence network interacts with other brain regions. A psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine regions showing changed functional connectivity with this coherence network when participants were engaged in either a non-inferencing reading strategy, paraphrasing, or a strategy requiring coherence-building inferences, self-explanation. Results of the analysis show that the coherence network increases in functional connectivity with a cognitive control network that may be specialized for the manipulation of semantic representations and the construction of new relations among these representations.

  14. Observing and participating in social interactions: Action perception and action control across the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Dimitris; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2018-01-01

    Autism is a developmental condition, characterized by difficulties of social interaction and communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although several important conceptions have shed light on specific facets, there is still no consensus about a universal yet specific theory in terms of its underlying mechanisms. While some theories have exclusively focused on sensory aspects, others have emphasized social difficulties. However, sensory and social processes in autism might be interconnected to a higher degree than what has been traditionally thought. We propose that a mismatch in sensory abilities across individuals can lead to difficulties on a social, i.e. interpersonal level and vice versa. In this article, we, therefore, selectively review evidence indicating an interrelationship between perceptual and social difficulties in autism. Additionally, we link this body of research with studies, which investigate the mechanisms of action control in social contexts. By doing so, we highlight that autistic traits are also crucially related to differences in integration, anticipation and automatic responding to social cues, rather than a mere inability to register and learn from social cues. Importantly, such differences may only manifest themselves in sufficiently complex situations, such as real-life social interactions, where such processes are inextricably linked. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Interaction Control in Diblock Copolymer Blends and Multiblock Copolymers with Opposite Phase Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan

    2014-03-01

    Here we show how to control molecular interactions via mixing AB and AC diblock copolymers, where one copolymer exhibits upper order-disorder transition and the other does lower disorder-order transition. Linear ABC triblock copolymers possessing both barotropic and baroplastic pairs are also taken into account. A recently developed random-phase approximation (RPA) theory and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for general compressible mixtures are used to analyze stability criteria and morphologies for the given systems. It is demonstrated that the copolymer systems can yield a variety of phase behaviors in their temperature and pressure dependence upon proper mixing conditions and compositions, which is caused by the delicate force fields generated in the systems. We acknowledge the financial support from National Research Foundation of Korea and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials.

  16. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Toquam, J.; Gaddy, C.

    1991-09-01

    Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach's components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications

  17. Behavior of QQ-plots and genomic control in studies of gene-environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend Voorman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies of gene-environment interaction (GxE GWAS are becoming popular. As with main effects GWAS, quantile-quantile plots (QQ-plots and Genomic Control are being used to assess and correct for population substructure. However, in G x E work these approaches can be seriously misleading, as we illustrate; QQ-plots may give strong indications of substructure when absolutely none is present. Using simulation and theory, we show how and why spurious QQ-plot inflation occurs in G x E GWAS, and how this differs from main-effects analyses. We also explain how simple adjustments to standard regression-based methods used in G x E GWAS can alleviate this problem.

  18. Interaction mode between catalytic and regulatory subunits in glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tadashi; Toshimori, Takayasu; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Koichi

    2016-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) α-glucosidases play vital roles in catabolic and regulated degradation, including the α-subunit of glucosidase II (GIIα), which catalyzes trimming of the terminal glucose residues of N-glycan in glycoprotein processing coupled with quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Among the known GH31 enzymes, only GIIα functions with its binding partner, regulatory β-subunit (GIIβ), which harbors a lectin domain for substrate recognition. Although the structural data have been reported for GIIα and the GIIβ lectin domain, the interaction mode between GIIα and GIIβ remains unknown. Here, we determined the structure of a complex formed between GIIα and the GIIα-binding domain of GIIβ, thereby providing a structural basis underlying the functional extension of this unique GH31 enzyme. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  19. Controlling the Host-Guest Interaction Mode through a Redox Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalóki, György; Croué, Vincent; Carré, Vincent; Aubriet, Frédéric; Alévêque, Olivier; Levillain, Eric; Allain, Magali; Aragó, Juan; Ortí, Enrique; Goeb, Sébastien; Sallé, Marc

    2017-12-18

    A proof-of-concept related to the redox-control of the binding/releasing process in a host-guest system is achieved by designing a neutral and robust Pt-based redox-active metallacage involving two extended-tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) ligands. When neutral, the cage is able to bind a planar polyaromatic guest (coronene). Remarkably, the chemical or electrochemical oxidation of the host-guest complex leads to the reversible expulsion of the guest outside the cavity, which is assigned to a drastic change of the host-guest interaction mode, illustrating the key role of counteranions along the exchange process. The reversible process is supported by various experimental data ( 1 H NMR spectroscopy, ESI-FTICR, and spectroelectrochemistry) as well as by in-depth theoretical calculations performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 2nd Symposium on Fluid-Structure-Sound Interactions and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Lixi; Hodges, Dewey

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic and industrial development in China, India and elsewhere, fluid-related structural vibration and noise problems are widely encountered in many fields, just as they are in the more developed parts of the world, causing increasingly grievous concerns. Turbulence clearly has a significant impact on many such problems. On the other hand, new opportunities are emerging with the advent of various new technologies, such as signal processing, flow visualization and diagnostics, new functional materials, sensors and actuators, etc. These have revitalized interdisciplinary research activities, and it is in this context that the 2nd symposium on fluid-structure-sound interactions and control (FSSIC) was organized. Held in Hong Kong (May 20-21, 2013) and Macau (May 22-23, 2013), the meeting brought together scientists and engineers working in all related branches from both East and West and provided them with a forum to exchange and share the latest progress, ideas and advances and to chart the fronti...

  1. Two-photon cavity solitons in a laser: radiative profiles, interaction and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrat, C [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 1, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Torrent, M C [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 1, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Vilaseca, R [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 1, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); GarcIa-Ojalvo, J [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brambilla, M [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Politecnico di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2004-05-01

    We study the properties of two-photon cavity solitons that appear in a broad-area cascade laser. These vectorial solitons consist of islands of two-photon emission emerging over a background of single-photon emission. Analysis of their structural properties reveals singular features such as their short distance radiation of outgoing waves, which can be interpreted in terms of the soliton frequency profile. However, the phase of these solitons is not determined by any external factor, which influences the way in which the structures can be written and erased. We also examine ways of controlling the cavity-soliton position, and analyse the interaction between neighbouring cavity solitons. Finally, investigation of the parameter dependence of these structures shows a route from soliton-dominated to defect-mediated turbulence.

  2. Interactive computer-based instruction: Basic material control and accounting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisch, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of interactive, computer-based training (CBT) courses can be a time- and resource-saving alternative to formal instruction in a classroom milieu. With CBT, students can proceed at their own pace, fit the study course into their schedule, and avoid the extra time and effort involved in travel and other special arrangements. The demonstration given here is an abbreviated, annotated version of a recently developed course in basic material control and accounting designed for the MC and A novice. The system used is ''Quest'' which includes multi-media capabilities, individual scoring, and built-in result-reporting capabilities for the course administrator. Efficient instruction and training are more important than ever because of the growing numbers of relatively inexperienced persons becoming active in safeguards

  3. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118

  4. Modulation of electrostatic interactions to improve controlled drug delivery from nanogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauri, Emanuele; Chincarini, Giulia M.F.; Rigamonti, Riccardo; Magagnin, Luca; Sacchetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.sacchetti@polimi.it; Rossi, Filippo, E-mail: filippo.rossi@polimi.it

    2017-03-01

    The synthesis of nanogels as devices capable to maintain the drug level within a desired range for a long and sustained period of time is a leading strategy in controlled drug delivery. However, with respect to the good results obtained with antibodies and peptides there are a lot of problems related to the quick and uncontrolled diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules through polymeric network pores. For these reasons research community is pointing toward the use of click strategies to reduce release rates of the linked drugs to the polymer chains. Here we propose an alternative method that considers the electrostatic interactions between polymeric chains and drugs to tune the release kinetics from nanogel network. The main advantage of these systems lies in the fact that the carried drugs are not modified and no chemical reactions take place during their loading and release. In this work we synthesized PEG-PEI based nanogels with different protonation degrees and the release kinetics with charged and uncharged drug mimetics (sodium fluorescein, SF, and rhodamine B, RhB) were studied. Moreover, also the effect of counterion used to induce protonation was taken into account in order to build a tunable drug delivery system able to provide multiple release rates with the same device. - Highlights: • The design of nanogels as drug delivery systems based on electrostatic interaction among drug and polymers is proposed. • Nanogels can be synthetized tuning their positive charge density, according to the protonation of PEI at different pH. • No biorthogonal chemistry strategies are applied to the polymers or drugs. • Drug release is efficiently modulated by charge density of PEI chains. • The effect of counterion on nanogel synthesis is investigated and allows controlling the drug release.

  5. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  6. Functional, interactive and critical health literacy: Varying relationships with control over care and number of GP visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Iris; Heijmans, Monique; Schuit, A Jantine; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which functional, interactive and critical health literacy are associated with patients' perceived control over care and frequency of GP visits. Data from the Dutch 'National Panel of People with Chronic Illness or Disability' was used (N=2508). Health literacy was assessed by the Functional, Communicative and Critical Health Literacy measure. Perceived control over care was indicated by perceived ability to organize care, interact with providers and to perform self-care. By multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, associations between health literacy and perceived control over care and subsequently frequency of GP visits were studied. Mainly interactive health literacy was associated with patients' perceived ability to organize care, interact with healthcare providers and perform self-care, whereas only functional health literacy was associated with number of GP visits. The results imply that some patients' may be less able to exert control over their care because of lower health literacy. Functional, interactive and critical health literacy vary in their relevance for patients' ability to exert control. Initiatives for strengthening patients' role in healthcare may be improved by paying attention to patients' health literacy, specifically functional and interactive health literacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response surface modeling of alfentanil-sevoflurane interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, A; Nieuwenhuijs, D; Olofsen, E; Sarton, E; Romberg, R; Teppema, L

    2001-06-01

    Respiratory depression is a serious side effect of anesthetics and opioids. The authors examined the influence of the combined administration of sevoflurane and alfentanil on ventilatory control, heart rate (HR), and Bispectral Index (BIS) in healthy volunteers. Step decreases in end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen from normoxia into hypoxia (approximately 50 mmHg) at constant end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (approximately 48 mmHg) were performed in nine male volunteers at various concentrations of alfentanil and sevoflurane, ranging from 0 to 50 ng/ml for alfentanil and from 0 to 0.4 end-tidal concentration (ET%) for sevoflurane, and with various combinations of alfentanil and sevoflurane. The alfentanil-sevoflurane interactions on normoxic resting (hypercapnic) ventilation (Vi), HR, hypoxic Vi, and HR responses and BIS were assessed by construction of response surfaces that related alfentanil and sevoflurane to effect using a population analysis. Concentration-effect relations were linear for alfentanil and sevoflurane. Synergistic interactions were observed for resting Vi and resting HR. Depression of Vi by 25% occurred at 38 +/- 11 ng/ml alfentanil (population mean +/- SE) and at 0.7 +/- 0.4 ET% sevoflurane. One possibility for 25% reduction when alfentanil and sevoflurane are combined is 13.4 ng/ml alfentanil plus 0.12 ET% sevoflurane. Additive interactions were observed for hypoxic Vi and HR responses and BIS. Depression of the hypoxic Vi response by 25% occurred at 16 +/- 1 ng/ml alfentanil and 0.14 +/- 0.05 ET% sevoflurane. The effect of sevoflurane on the BIS (25% reduction of BIS occurred at 0.45 +/- 0.08 ET%) was independent of the alfentanil concentration. Response surface modeling was used successfully to analyze the effect of interactions between two drugs on respiration. The combination of alfentanil and sevoflurane causes more depression of Vi and HR than does the summed effect of each drug administered separately. The effects of

  8. Three-way interaction between biological control insects, a congener and their shared parasitoid: Evidence of biotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plants are one of the strongest drivers of species extinctions. Weed biological control offers a sustainable and safe means of long-term population reduction of their target. Herbivores introduced for the control of invasive plants interact with the native community in addition to the top-d...

  9. Opportunities, Rational Choice, and Self-Control: On the Interaction of Person and Situation in a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…

  10. SH2 and SH3 domains: elements that control interactions of cytoplasmic signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C A; Anderson, D; Moran, M F; Ellis, C; Pawson, T

    1991-05-03

    Src homology (SH) regions 2 and 3 are noncatalytic domains that are conserved among a series of cytoplasmic signaling proteins regulated by receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, including phospholipase C-gamma, Ras GTPase (guanosine triphosphatase)-activating protein, and Src-like tyrosine kinases. The SH2 domains of these signaling proteins bind tyrosine phosphorylated polypeptides, implicated in normal signaling and cellular transformation. Tyrosine phosphorylation acts as a switch to induce the binding of SH2 domains, thereby mediating the formation of heteromeric protein complexes at or near the plasma membrane. The formation of these complexes is likely to control the activation of signal transduction pathways by tyrosine kinases. The SH3 domain is a distinct motif that, together with SH2, may modulate interactions with the cytoskeleton and membrane. Some signaling and transforming proteins contain SH2 and SH3 domains unattached to any known catalytic element. These noncatalytic proteins may serve as adaptors to link tyrosine kinases to specific target proteins. These observations suggest that SH2 and SH3 domains participate in the control of intracellular responses to growth factor stimulation.

  11. Interactive motion-controlled games in the neurorehabilitation of adult post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-08-01

    Emilia Mikołajewska Rehabilitation Clinic Military Clinical Hospital No. 10 and Polyclinic Bydgoszcz, Poland e-mail: e.mikolajewska@wp.pl, emiliam@cm.umk.pl www: http://emikolajewska.netstrefa.eu   Keywords: neurorehabilitation; physiotherapy; stroke; neurological deficit; therapeutic game.   Abstract   Despite efforts of scientists and clinicians stroke still constitutes one of the major causes of disability worldwide. Motion-controlled video games become increasingly common adjunct to the traditional physical therapy. Such games are usually available, low-cost, fun, and functional ways to increase everyday treatment possibilities, both in hospital, ambulatory and home settings. Research and scientific publications concerning this issue are still rare. Assessment how interactive motion-controlled games can be incorporated into current guidelines of the eclectic approach within neurorehabilitation of adult post-stroke survivors is key issue within contemporary neurorehabilitation of adults. Complementary use of such games may constitute another breakthrough both in in-patient and out-patient rehabilitation and care. This review aims at potential of aforementioned solutions and modalities for the rehabilitation of function in cases of stroke.

  12. Transient interaction between a reaction control jet and a hypersonic crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Warrick A.; Medwell, Paul R.; Doolan, Con J.; Kim, Minkwan

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical study that focuses on the transient interaction between a reaction control jet and a hypersonic crossflow with a laminar boundary layer. The aim is to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms affecting the resulting surface pressure and control force. Implicit large-eddy simulations were performed with a round, sonic, perfect air jet issuing normal to a Mach 5 crossflow over a flat plate with a laminar boundary layer, at a jet-to-crossflow momentum ratio of 5.3 and a pressure ratio of 251. The pressure distribution induced on the flat plate is unsteady and is influenced by vortex structures that form around the jet. A horseshoe vortex structure forms upstream and consists of six vortices: two quasi-steady vortices and two co-rotating vortex pairs that periodically coalesce. Shear-layer vortices shed periodically and cause localised high pressure regions that convect downstream with constant velocity. A longitudinal counter-rotating vortex pair is present downstream of the jet and is formed from a series of trailing vortices which rotate about a common axis. Shear-layer vortex shedding causes periodic deformation of barrel and bow shocks. This changes the location of boundary layer separation which also affects the normal force on the plate.

  13. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films

    KAUST Repository

    Belabbes, Abderrezak

    2016-04-22

    The search for chiral magnetic textures in systems lacking spatial inversion symmetry has attracted a massive amount of interest in the recent years with the real space observation of novel exotic magnetic phases such as skyrmions lattices, but also domain walls and spin spirals with a defined chirality. The electrical control of these textures offers thrilling perspectives in terms of fast and robust ultrahigh density data manipulation. A powerful ingredient commonly used to stabilize chiral magnetic states is the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling in inversion asymmetric magnets. Such a large antisymmetric exchange has been obtained at interfaces between heavy metals and transition metal ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore enabling the smart design of chiral magnetism in ultra-thin films. We anticipate that these results extend to other electronegative ions and suggest the possibility of electrical tuning of exotic magnetic phases.

  14. Motion Intention Analysis-Based Coordinated Control for Amputee-Prosthesis Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study amputee-prosthesis (AP interaction, a novel reconfigurable biped robot was designed and fabricated. In homogeneous configuration, two identical artificial legs (ALs were used to simulate the symmetrical lower limbs of a healthy person. Linear inverted pendulum model combining with ZMP stability criterion was used to generate the gait trajectories of ALs. To acquire interjoint coordination for healthy gait, rate gyroscopes were mounted on CoGs of thigh and shank of both legs. By employing principal component analysis, the measured angular velocities were processed and the motion synergy was obtained in the final. Then, one of two ALs was replaced by a bionic leg (BL, and the biped robot was changed into heterogeneous configuration to simulate the AP coupling system. To realize symmetrical stable walking, master/slave coordinated control strategy is proposed. According to information acquired by gyroscopes, BL recognized the motion intention of AL and reconstructed its kinematic variables based on interjoint coordination. By employing iterative learning control, gait tracking of BL to AL was archived. Real environment robot walking experiments validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  15. Impurity Control Test Facility (ICTF) for the study of fusion reactor plasma/edge materials interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.; Ehst, D.A.; Boley, C.D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1984-05-01

    A test facility for investigating many of the impurity control issues associated with the interactions of materials with the plasma edge is outlined. Analysis indicates that the plasma edge conditions expected in TFCX, INTOR, etc. can be readily produced at the end cells of an rf stabilized mirror, similar in some respects to the Phaedrus device at the University of Wisconsin. A steady-state, Impurity Control Test Facility (ICTF) based on such a mirror device is expected to produce a plasma with typical parameters of n/sub e/ approx. 3 x 10 18 m -3 , T/sub e/ = 50 eV, and T/sub i/ = 100 eV at each end cell. A heat load of approx. 2 MW/m 2 over areas of approx. 1600 cm 2 could be produced at each end with 800 kW of ICRH power. These conditions would provide a unique capability for examining issues such as erosion/redeposition behavior, properties of redeposited materials, high recycling regimes, plasma edge operating limits for high-Z materials, and particle pumping efficiencies for limiter and divertor designs

  16. The interaction between glucose and cytokinin signaling in controlling Arabidopsis thaliana seedling root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwah, Sunita; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2017-05-04

    Cytokinin (CK) and glucose (GLC) control several common responses in plants. There is an extensive overlap between CK and GLC signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis. Physiologically, both GLC and CK could regulate root length in light. CK interacts with GLC via HXK1 dependent pathway for root length control. Wild-type (WT) roots cannot elongate in the GLC free medium while CK-receptor mutant ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 (ahk4) and type B ARR triple mutant ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR1, 10,11 (arr1, 10,11) roots could elongate even in the absence of GLC as compared with the WT. The root hair initiation was also found defective in CK signaling mutants ahk4, arr1,10,11 and arr3,4,5,6,8,9 on increasing GLC concentration (up to 3%); and lesser number of root hairs were visible even at 5% GLC as compared with the WT. Out of 941 BAP regulated genes, 103 (11%) genes were involved in root growth and development. Out of these 103 genes, 60 (58%) genes were also regulated by GLC. GLC could regulate 5736 genes, which include 327 (6%) genes involved in root growth and development. Out of these 327 genes, 60 (18%) genes were also regulated by BAP. Both GLC and CK signaling cannot alter root length in light in auxin signaling mutant AUXIN RESPONSE3/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17 (axr3/iaa17) suggesting that they may involve auxin signaling component as a nodal point. Therefore CK- and GLC- signaling are involved in controlling different aspects of root growth and development such as root length, with auxin signaling components working as downstream target.

  17. Nanoscale control of energy and matter in plasma-surface interactions: towards energy-efficient nanotech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrikov, Kostya

    2010-11-01

    This presentation focuses on the plasma issues related to the solution of the grand challenge of directing energy and matter at nanoscales. This ability is critical for the renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies for sustainable future development. It will be discussed how to use environmentally and human health benign non-equilibrium plasma-solid systems and control the elementary processes of plasma-surface interactions to direct the fluxes of energy and matter at multiple temporal and spatial scales. In turn, this makes it possible to achieve the deterministic synthesis of self- organised arrays of metastable nanostructures in the size range beyond the reach of the present-day nanofabrication. Such structures have tantalising prospects to enhance performance of nanomaterials in virtually any area of human activity yet remain almost inaccessible because the Nature's energy minimisation rules allow only a small number of stable equilibrium states. By using precisely controlled and kinetically fast nanoscale transfer of energy and matter under non-equilibrium conditions and harnessing numerous plasma- specific controls of species creation, delivery to the surface, nucleation and large-scale self-organisation of nuclei and nanostructures, the arrays of metastable nanostructures can be created, arranged, stabilised, and further processed to meet the specific requirements of the envisaged applications. These approaches will eventually lead to faster, unprecedentedly- clean, human-health-friendly, and energy-efficient nanoscale synthesis and processing technologies for the next-generation renewable energy and light sources, biomedical devices, information and communication systems, as well as advanced functional materials for applications ranging from basic food, water, health and clean environment needs to national security and space missions.

  18. Interaction between mantle and crustal detachments: a non-linear system controlling lithospheric extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We use numerical modelling to investigate the development of crustal and mantle detachment faults during lithospheric extension. Our models simulate a wide range of rift systems with varying values of crustal thickness and heat flow, showing how strain localization in the mantle interacts with localization in the upper crust and controls the evolution of extensional systems. Model results reveal a richness of structures and deformation styles, which grow in response to a self-organized mechanism that minimizes the internal stored energy of the system by localizing deformation at different levels of the lithosphere. Crustal detachment faults are well developed during extension of overthickened (60 km) continental crust, even when the initial heat flow is relatively low (50 mW/m2). In contrast, localized mantle deformation is most pronounced when the extended lithosphere has a normal crustal thickness (30-40 km) and an intermediate (60-70 mW/m2) heat flow. Results show a non-linear response to subtle changes in crustal thickness or heat flow, characterized by abrupt and sometime unexpected switches in extension modes (e.g. from diffuse rifting to effective lithospheric-scale rupturing) or from mantle- to crust-dominated strain localization. We interpret this non-linearity to result from the interference of doming wavelengths. Disharmony of crust and mantle doming wavelengths results in efficient communication between shear zones at different lithospheric levels, leading to rupturing of the whole lithosphere. In contrast, harmonious crust and mantle doming inhibits interaction of shear zones across the lithosphere and results in a prolonged rifting history prior to continental breakup.

  19. Interaction between mantle and crustal detachments: A nonlinear system controlling lithospheric extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Weinberg, Roberto F.

    2010-11-01

    We use numerical modeling to investigate the development of crustal and mantle detachments during lithospheric extension. Our models simulate a wide range of extensional systems with varying values of crustal thickness and heat flow, showing how strain localization in the mantle interacts with localization in the upper crust and controls the evolution of extensional systems. Model results reveal a richness of structures and deformation styles as a response to a self-organized mechanism that minimizes the internal stored energy of the system by localizing deformation. Crustal detachments, here referred as low-angle normal decoupling horizons, are well developed during extension of overthickened (60 km) continental crust, even when the initial heat flow is relatively low (50 mW m-2). In contrast, localized mantle deformation is most pronounced when the extended lithosphere has a normal crustal thickness (30-40 km) and an intermediate heat flow (60-70 mW m-2). Results show a nonlinear response to subtle changes in crustal thickness or heat flow, characterized by abrupt and sometimes unexpected switches in extension modes (e.g., from diffuse extensional deformation to effective lithospheric-scale rupturing) or from mantle- to crust-dominated strain localization. We interpret this nonlinearity to result from the interference of doming wavelengths in the presence of multiple necking instabilities. Disharmonic crust and mantle doming wavelengths results in efficient communication between shear zones at different lithospheric levels, leading to rupturing of the whole lithosphere. In contrast, harmonic crust and mantle doming inhibits interaction of shear zones across the lithosphere and results in a prolonged history of extension prior to continental breakup.

  20. Response surface modeling of remifentanil-propofol interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijs, Diederik J F; Olofsen, Erik; Romberg, Raymonda R; Sarton, Elise; Ward, Denham; Engbers, Frank; Vuyk, Jaap; Mooren, Rene; Teppema, Luc J; Dahan, Albert

    2003-02-01

    Since propofol and remifentanil are frequently combined for monitored anesthesia care, we examined the influence of the separate and combined administration of these agents on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index in humans. The effect of steady-state concentrations of remifentanil and propofol was assessed in 22 healthy male volunteer subjects. For each subject, measurements were obtained from experiments using remifentanil alone, propofol alone, and remifentanil plus propofol (measured arterial blood concentration range: propofol studies, 0-2.6 microg/ml; remifentanil studies, 0-2.0 ng/ml). Respiratory experiments consisted of ventilatory responses to three to eight increases in end-tidal Pco2 (Petco2). Invasive blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index were monitored concurrently. The nature of interaction was assessed by response surface modeling using a population approach with NONMEM. Values are population estimate plus or minus standard error. A total of 94 responses were obtained at various drug combinations. When given separately, remifentanil and propofol depressed cardiorespiratory variables in a dose-dependent fashion (resting V(i) : 12.6 +/- 3.3% and 27.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; V(i) at fixed Petco of 55 mmHg: 44.3 +/- 3.9% and 57.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; blood pressure: 9.9 +/- 1.8% and 3.7 +/- 1.1% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively). When given in combination, their effect on respiration was synergistic (greatest synergy observed for resting V(i)). The effects of both drugs on heart rate and blood pressure were modest, with additive interactions when combined. Over the dose range studied, remifentanil had no effect on bispectral index even when combined with propofol (inert interaction). These data show dose-dependent effects on respiration at relatively low concentrations of

  1. Repopulation of interacting tumor cells during fractionated radiotherapy: Stochastic modeling of the tumor control probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakir, Hatim; Hlatky, Lynn; Li, Huamin; Sachs, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Optimal treatment planning for fractionated external beam radiation therapy requires inputs from radiobiology based on recent thinking about the “five Rs” (repopulation, radiosensitivity, reoxygenation, redistribution, and repair). The need is especially acute for the newer, often individualized, protocols made feasible by progress in image guided radiation therapy and dose conformity. Current stochastic tumor control probability (TCP) models incorporating tumor repopulation effects consider “stem-like cancer cells” (SLCC) to be independent, but the authors here propose that SLCC-SLCC interactions may be significant. The authors present a new stochastic TCP model for repopulating SLCC interacting within microenvironmental niches. Our approach is meant mainly for comparing similar protocols. It aims at practical generalizations of previous mathematical models. Methods: The authors consider protocols with complete sublethal damage repair between fractions. The authors use customized open-source software and recent mathematical approaches from stochastic process theory for calculating the time-dependent SLCC number and thereby estimating SLCC eradication probabilities. As specific numerical examples, the authors consider predicted TCP results for a 2 Gy per fraction, 60 Gy protocol compared to 64 Gy protocols involving early or late boosts in a limited volume to some fractions. Results: In sample calculations with linear quadratic parameters α = 0.3 per Gy, α/β = 10 Gy, boosting is predicted to raise TCP from a dismal 14.5% observed in some older protocols for advanced NSCLC to above 70%. This prediction is robust as regards: (a) the assumed values of parameters other than α and (b) the choice of models for intraniche SLCC-SLCC interactions. However, α = 0.03 per Gy leads to a prediction of almost no improvement when boosting. Conclusions: The predicted efficacy of moderate boosts depends sensitively on α. Presumably, the larger values of α are

  2. Repopulation of interacting tumor cells during fractionated radiotherapy: stochastic modeling of the tumor control probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Hatim; Hlatky, Lynn; Li, Huamin; Sachs, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    Optimal treatment planning for fractionated external beam radiation therapy requires inputs from radiobiology based on recent thinking about the "five Rs" (repopulation, radiosensitivity, reoxygenation, redistribution, and repair). The need is especially acute for the newer, often individualized, protocols made feasible by progress in image guided radiation therapy and dose conformity. Current stochastic tumor control probability (TCP) models incorporating tumor repopulation effects consider "stem-like cancer cells" (SLCC) to be independent, but the authors here propose that SLCC-SLCC interactions may be significant. The authors present a new stochastic TCP model for repopulating SLCC interacting within microenvironmental niches. Our approach is meant mainly for comparing similar protocols. It aims at practical generalizations of previous mathematical models. The authors consider protocols with complete sublethal damage repair between fractions. The authors use customized open-source software and recent mathematical approaches from stochastic process theory for calculating the time-dependent SLCC number and thereby estimating SLCC eradication probabilities. As specific numerical examples, the authors consider predicted TCP results for a 2 Gy per fraction, 60 Gy protocol compared to 64 Gy protocols involving early or late boosts in a limited volume to some fractions. In sample calculations with linear quadratic parameters α = 0.3 per Gy, α∕β = 10 Gy, boosting is predicted to raise TCP from a dismal 14.5% observed in some older protocols for advanced NSCLC to above 70%. This prediction is robust as regards: (a) the assumed values of parameters other than α and (b) the choice of models for intraniche SLCC-SLCC interactions. However, α = 0.03 per Gy leads to a prediction of almost no improvement when boosting. The predicted efficacy of moderate boosts depends sensitively on α. Presumably, the larger values of α are the ones appropriate for individualized

  3. Effect of cutoff radius, long range interaction and temperature controller on thermodynamic properties of fluids: Methanol as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Abdalla; Jaradat, Adnan; Hamdan, Bushra; Abu-Ghazleh, Hind

    2018-04-01

    The best spherical cutoff radius, long range interaction and temperature controller were determined using surface tension, density, and diffusion coefficients of van Leeuwen and Smit methanol. A quite good range of cutoff radii from 0.75 to 1.45 nm has been studied on Coulomb cut-off and particle mesh Ewald (PME) long range interaction to determine the best cutoff radius and best long range interaction as well for four sets of temperature: 200, 230, 270 and 300 K. To determine the best temperature controller, the cutoff radius of 1.25 nm was fixed using PME long range interaction on calculating the above properties at low temperature range: 200-300 K.

  4. Collective interaction by design collective controllers for social navigation on digital photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Mortensen, Morten Boye

    2010-01-01

    trial use serves to refine the collective interaction model and identify qualities and shortcommings of collective interaction applications. In this way we wish to point to a design space, which can lead to new interaction techniques and -designs supporting shared social experiences around digital...

  5. Who Is Controlling the Interaction? The Effect of Nonverbal Mirroring on Teacher-Student Rapport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-yuan, Zhou; Wei, Guo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nonverbal mirroring on teacher-student rapport in one-on-one interactions. Nonverbal mirroring refers to the unconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partner in social interactions. In a within-subjects paradigm, students had four…

  6. Pre-morbid glycemic control modifies the interaction between acute hypoglycemia and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Moritoki; Krinsley, James S; Maurer, Paula; Amin, Devendra N; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Ghandi, Shruti; Morita, Kiyoshi; Bailey, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of pre-morbid glycemic control on the association between acute hypoglycemia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and subsequent hospital mortality in critically ill patients. We performed a multicenter, multinational, retrospective observational study of patients with available HbA1c levels within the 3-month period preceding ICU admission. We separated patients into three cohorts according to pre-admission HbA1c levels (<6.5, 6.5-7.9, ≥8.0%, respectively). Based on published data, we defined a glucose concentration of 40-69 mg/dL (2.2-3.8 mmol/L) as moderate hypoglycemia and <40 mg/dL (<2.2 mmol/L) as severe hypoglycemia. We applied logistic regression analysis to study the impact of pre-morbid glycemic control on the relationship between acute hypoglycemia and mortality. A total of 3084 critically ill patients were enrolled in the study. Among these patients, with increasing HbA1c levels from <6.5, to 6.5-7.9, and to ≥8.0%, the incidence of both moderate (3.8, 11.1, and 16.4%, respectively; p < 0.001) and severe (0.9, 2.5, and 4.3%, respectively; p < 0.001) hypoglycemia progressively and significantly increased. The relationship between the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes in the ICU and in-hospital mortality was independently and significantly affected by pre-morbid glucose control, as assessed by adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for hospital mortality: (1) moderate hypoglycemia: in patients with <6.5, 6.5-7.9, and ≥8.0 % of HbA1c level-OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.25-1.16; OR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.33-2.05; OR 3.42, 95 % CI 1.29-9.06, respectively; (2) severe hypoglycemia: OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.42-5.33; OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.36-7.10; OR 23.46, 95% CI 5.13-107.28, respectively (interaction with pre-morbid glucose control, p = 0.009). We found that the higher the glucose level before admission to the ICU, the higher the mortality risk when patients experienced hypoglycemia. In critically ill patients, chronic pre

  7. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W

    2018-01-01

    test with case-control data. Our simulation studies suggest that the EB approach uses the gene-environment independence assumption in a data-adaptive way and provides power gain compared to the standard logistic regression analysis and better control of Type I error when compared to the analysis......There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case......-control studies. However, under departure from this assumption, substantial bias in the estimates and inflated Type I error in the corresponding tests can occur. This paper extends the empirical Bayes (EB) approach previously developed for multiplicative interaction that trades off between bias and efficiency...

  8. Above and belowground connections and species interactions: Controls over ecosystem fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, Amy Marie [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Phillips, Richard [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Stoy, Paul Christopher [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The ultimate goal of this work was to quantify soil and volatile organic compound fluxes as a function of tree species and associated mycorrhizal associations in an intact forest, but also to describe the physical and biological factors that control these emissions. The results of this research lay the foundation toward an improved mechanistic understanding of carbon pathways, fluxes, and ecosystem function, ultimately improving the representation of forest ecosystems in Earth System models. To this end, a multidisciplinary approach was necessary to fill a critical gap in our understanding of how soil and root processes may influence whole-ecosystem carbon-based volatile fluxes in the face of a rapidly changing climate. We developed a series of novel sampling protocols and coupled a variety of advanced analytical techniques, resulting in findings relevant across disciplines. Furthermore, we leveraged existing infrastructure, research sites, and datasets to design a low-cost exploratory project that links belowground processes, soil volatile emissions, and total ecosystem carbon budgets. Measurements from soil collars installed across a species/mycorrhizal gradient at the DOE-supported Moran Monroe State Forest Ameriflux tower site suggest that leaf litter is the primary source of belowground and forest floor volatile emissions, but the strength of this source is significantly affected not only by leaf litter type, but the strength of the soil as a sink. Results suggest that the strength of the sink is influenced by tree species-specific associated microbial communities that change throughout the season as a function of temperature, soil moisture, leaf litter inputs, and phenology. The magnitude of the observed volatile fluxes from the forest floor is small relative to total aboveground ecosystem flux, but the contribution of these emissions to volatile-mediated ecological interactions and soil processes (e.g. nitrification) varies substantially across the growing

  9. Control of Chain Walking by Weak Neighbouring Group Interac-tions in Unsymmetric Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2017-12-20

    A combined theoretical and experimental study shows how weak attractive interactions of a neighbouring group can strongly promote chain walking and chain transfer. This accounts for the previously observed very different micro-structures obtained in ethylene polymerization by [κ2-N,O-{(2,6-(3\\',5\\'-R2C6H3)2C6H3-N=C(H)-(3,5-X,Y2-2-O-C6H2)}]NiCH3(pyridine)], namely hyperbranched oligomers for remote substituents R = CH3 versus. high molecular weight polyethylene for R = CF3. From a full mechanistic consideration the alkyl olefin complex with the growing chain cis to the salicylaldiminato oxygen donor is identified as the key species. Alternative to ethylene chain growth by insertion in this species, decoordination of the monomer to form a cis ß-agostic complex provides an entry into branching and chain transfer pathways. This release of monomer is promoted and made competitive by a weak η2-coordination of the distal aryl rings to the metal center, operative only for the case of sufficiently electron rich aryls. This concept for controlling chain walking is underlined by catalysts with other weakly coordinating furane and thio-phene motifs, which afford highly branched oligomers with > 120 branches per 1000 carbon atoms.

  10. Modulation of electrostatic interactions to improve controlled drug delivery from nanogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Emanuele; Chincarini, Giulia M F; Rigamonti, Riccardo; Magagnin, Luca; Sacchetti, Alessandro; Rossi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    The synthesis of nanogels as devices capable to maintain the drug level within a desired range for a long and sustained period of time is a leading strategy in controlled drug delivery. However, with respect to the good results obtained with antibodies and peptides there are a lot of problems related to the quick and uncontrolled diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules through polymeric network pores. For these reasons research community is pointing toward the use of click strategies to reduce release rates of the linked drugs to the polymer chains. Here we propose an alternative method that considers the electrostatic interactions between polymeric chains and drugs to tune the release kinetics from nanogel network. The main advantage of these systems lies in the fact that the carried drugs are not modified and no chemical reactions take place during their loading and release. In this work we synthesized PEG-PEI based nanogels with different protonation degrees and the release kinetics with charged and uncharged drug mimetics (sodium fluorescein, SF, and rhodamine B, RhB) were studied. Moreover, also the effect of counterion used to induce protonation was taken into account in order to build a tunable drug delivery system able to provide multiple release rates with the same device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products.

  12. Dopamine and cognitive control: sex-by-genotype interactions influence the capacity to switch attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, C; Rossell, S L

    2015-03-15

    Cognitive performance in healthy persons varies widely between individuals. Sex differences in cognition are well reported, and there is an emerging body of evidence suggesting that the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission, implicated in many cognitive functions, is modulated by sex. Here, we examine the influence of sex and genetic variations along the dopaminergic pathway on aspects of cognitive control. A total of 415 healthy individuals, selected from an international consortium linked to Brain Research and Integrative Neuroscience Network (BRAINnet), were genotyped for two common and functional genetic variations of dopamine regulating genes: the catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] gene (rs4680) and the dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2] gene (rs6277). Cognitive measures were selected to explore sustained attention (using a continuous performance task), switching of attention (using a Trails B adaptation) and working memory (a visual computerised adaptation of digit span). While there were no main effects for genotype across any tasks, analyses revealed significant sex by genotype interactions for the capacity to switch attention. In relation to COMT, superior performance was noted in females with the Val/Val genotype and for DRD2, superior performance was seen for TT females and CC males. These findings highlight the importance of considering genetic variation in baseline dopamine levels in addition to sex, when considering the impact of dopamine on cognition in healthy populations. These findings also have important implications for the many neuropsychiatric disorders that implicate dopamine, cognitive changes and sex differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Luminance and chromatic signals interact differently with melanopsin activation to control the pupil light response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin. These cells receive afferent inputs from rods and cones, which provide inputs to the postreceptoral visual pathways. It is unknown, however, how melanopsin activation is integrated with postreceptoral signals to control the pupillary light reflex. This study reports human flicker pupillary responses measured using stimuli generated with a five-primary photostimulator that selectively modulated melanopsin, rod, S-, M-, and L-cone excitations in isolation, or in combination to produce postreceptoral signals. We first analyzed the light adaptation behavior of melanopsin activation and rod and cones signals. Second, we determined how melanopsin is integrated with postreceptoral signals by testing with cone luminance, chromatic blue-yellow, and chromatic red-green stimuli that were processed by magnocellular (MC), koniocellular (KC), and parvocellular (PC) pathways, respectively. A combined rod and melanopsin response was also measured. The relative phase of the postreceptoral signals was varied with respect to the melanopsin phase. The results showed that light adaptation behavior for all conditions was weaker than typical Weber adaptation. Melanopsin activation combined linearly with luminance, S-cone, and rod inputs, suggesting the locus of integration with MC and KC signals was retinal. The melanopsin contribution to phasic pupil responses was lower than luminance contributions, but much higher than S-cone contributions. Chromatic red-green modulation interacted with melanopsin activation nonlinearly as described by a "winner-takes-all" process, suggesting the integration with PC signals might be mediated by a postretinal site.

  14. Didactic Lecture Versus Interactive Workshop for Continuing Pharmacy Education on Reproductive Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammadreza; Kargar, Alireza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Rashidian, Arash; Torkamandi, Hassan; Sarayani, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Pharmacists are routinely providing reproductive health counseling in community pharmacies, but studies have revealed significant deficits in their competencies. Therefore, continuing pharmacy education (CPE) could be utilized as a valuable modality to upgrade pharmacists' capabilities. A randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of CPE meetings (lecture based vs. workshop based) on contraception and male sexual dysfunctions. Sixty pharmacists were recruited for each CPE meeting. Small group training using simulated patients was employed in the workshop-based CPE. Study outcomes were declarative/procedural knowledge, attitudes, and satisfaction of the participants. Data were collected pre-CPE, post-CPE, and 2 months afterward and were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. Results showed that lecture-based CPE was more successful in improving pharmacists' knowledge post-CPE (p < .001). In contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the lecture-based group at follow-up (p = .002), whereas the workshop-based group maintained their knowledge over time (p = 1.00). Knowledge scores of both groups were significantly higher at follow-up in comparison with pre-CPE (p < .01). No significant differences were observed regarding satisfaction and attitudes scores between groups. In conclusion, an interactive workshop might not be superior to lecture-based training for improving pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes in a 1-day CPE meeting. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwisoo Eom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model.

  17. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-06-12

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model.

  18. Passive control of flow structure interaction between a sphere and free-surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akilli Huseyin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow characteristics for both a smooth and a vented sphere such as velocity vectors, patterns of streamlines, vorticity contours, stream-wise fluctuations, cross-stream velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress correlations between a sphere and free-surface for various submerged ratio at Re =5,000 are studied by using dye visualization and the particle image velocimetry technique. Passive control of flow structure interaction between sphere and free surface was examined by using a modified geometry which has a 15% sphere diameter hole passing through the sphere equator. Both of the spheres were separately placed beneath the free surface with different positions from touching to the free surface to two sphere diameters below the free surface. It is demonstrated that reattachment point of the separated flow to the free surface varies for both of the sphere cases as the sphere position alters vertically through the water flow while the flow structure for the vented sphere occurs considerably symmetrical due to forming of a pair of counter-rotating ring vortices.

  19. Economic-demographic interactions and the impact of investments in population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paqueo, V B

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between economic and demographic factors in the Philippines was examined, analyzing the effects of investment in fertility control on the birthrate, population size, and such economic variables as gross national product (GNP), wage rate, and family income. A family planning model that was constructed and is used to project population program cost and births prevented is grafted to and simulated with a larger economic/demographic model. The simulation results are anayzed. The economic demographic model to which the family planning subsystem was grafted is a modified version of the model constructed by Encarnacion et al. (1974). It is basically a neoclassical model, a closed economy in which the real wage rate is determined by the intersection of the demand and supply of labor. The demand for labor is derived from a Cobb-Douglas production function on the assumption that labor is paid the value of its margin product, and the labor supply is determined by age and sex specific labor force participation rates and population. Capital accumulation is influenced by population size through its effect on government and private consumption expe nditures. Fertility rate is determined by duration of marriage and the level and distribution of family incomes. The model was used to develop projections from 1970 through 2000. Results show that the effects on per capital income and real wage rate seem significant, yet family income appears largely unaffected and the effect on the traditional investment to output ratio (I/Y) seems minimal. One of the outcomes of the projection without family planning is that, if the economy were to depend solely on its own savings, the average annual rate of growth of gross national product (GNP) would be only about 4.32%, which is less than the historical growth rate of 6% and the present government longterm target of 8%. The result suggests that foreign investments and loans would have to play an increasingly important role in the

  20. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G.; Herget, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed

  1. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: Temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavel, D. T.; Pittenger, L. C.; McDonald, J. S.; Cramer, P. G.; Herget, C. J.

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, AND LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.

  2. Genetic susceptibility loci, environmental exposures, and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study of gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun Ju; Armasu, Sebastian M; Anderson, Kari J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Lesnick, Timothy G; Rider, David N; Cunningham, Julie M; Ahlskog, J Eric; Frigerio, Roberta; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2013-06-01

    Prior studies causally linked mutations in SNCA, MAPT, and LRRK2 genes with familial Parkinsonism. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in those three genes with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility worldwide. Here we investigated the interactions between SNPs in those three susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pesticides application, tobacco smoking, coffee drinking, and alcohol drinking) also associated with PD susceptibility. Pairwise interactions between environmental exposures and 18 variants (16 SNPs and two variable number tandem repeats, or "VNTRs") in SNCA, MAPT and LRRK2, were investigated using data from 1098 PD cases from the upper Midwest, USA and 1098 matched controls. Environmental exposures were assessed using a validated telephone interview script. Five pairwise interactions had uncorrected P-values coffee drinking × MAPT H1/H2 haplotype or MAPT rs16940806, and alcohol drinking × MAPT rs2435211. None of these interactions remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Secondary analyses in strata defined by type of control (sibling or unrelated), sex, or age at onset of the case also did not identify significant interactions after Bonferroni correction. This study documented limited pairwise interactions between established genetic and environmental risk factors for PD; however, the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Adam S; Nilsson, Anders; Jacobs, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The interface between management control and information technology is an under-developed research area with a knowledge gap concerning its implications for financial performance. This study contributes to bridging this gap by investigates the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance. We surveyed a sample of 518 managers of U.S. manufacturing plants, approximately evenly distributed between those using activ...

  4. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Control of Electrostatic Interactions Between F-Actin And Genetically Modified Lysozyme in Aqueous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.K.; Xian, W.; Guaqueta, C.; Strohman, M.; Vrasich, C.R.; Luijten, E.; Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.

  6. A randomized waitlist control community study of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne; Davis, Penelope J; Patterson, Susan; Pepping, Christopher A; Scott, James G; Salter, Kerri; Connell, Melissa

    2018-03-01

    Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving social cognition and functioning of people with schizophrenia. This pilot study examines the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of SCIT with individuals who have schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and are receiving care through a public mental health service. In a pragmatic randomized waitlist controlled trial, 36 participants (aged 19-55 years) with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were randomly allocated to SCIT or treatment as usual (TAU). Measures of theory of mind, emotion perception, attributional bias, social skills, quality of life, life skills, depression, anxiety, and stress were administered pre- and post-intervention with follow-up conducted 4 months later. All wait-list controls subsequently received the intervention and a secondary within-group analysis was conducted including these participants. While no significant differences were found between groups on any outcomes, there was strong engagement with the SCIT intervention. Of the 21 participants in the intervention group, the completion rate was 85.71% with a median attendance rate of 17 sessions. Within subject analyses of SCIT participants over time showed significant improvements in quality of life, emotion recognition, social skills, and a trend towards better life skills from pre- to post-intervention. These gains were sustained at the 4-month follow-up time. Although this study showed limited benefits in outcomes associated with SCIT compared with TAU, it demonstrated the acceptability of SCIT to participants in a real world public health setting shown by high retention, attendance, and positive feedback. This pilot shows SCIT can be implemented in routine clinical practice and lays the foundation for a larger pragmatic study. SCIT can be implemented successfully in a real-world community mental health setting. SCIT had high levels of acceptability to these participants. Limitations The

  7. Interactions between soil texture, water, and nutrients control patterns of biocrusts abundance and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristina; Bowker, Matthew; Reed, Sasha; Howell, Armin

    2017-04-01

    . Soil shear resistance was highest on finer textured soil with the highest watering treatment, whereas compression resistance was highest on the coarsest textured soils with the highest watering amounts. Nutrient addition did not influence total cover or biocrust function, but did decrease lichen cover. Taken together, these results suggest that interactions between soil texture, water, and to a lesser degree nutrients, create predictable patterns in biocrust assemblage and offers a mechanistic understanding of edaphic controls over biocrust abundance and structure. These insights add to our increasing understanding of how edaphic gradients structure soil communities.

  8. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    2017-06-09

    FQC is software that facilitates large-scale quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics within and across experiments into an interactive dashboard. The dashboard utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data.

  9. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Ballebye, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme...... is developed for the specific crane, considering the saturation phenomena of the system and practical implementation....

  10. Factors controlling the mode of rift interaction in brittle-ductile coupled systems: A 3D numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allken, V.; Huismans, R.S.; Thieulot, C.

    2012-01-01

    The way individual faults and rift segments link up is a fundamental aspect of lithosphere extension and continental break-up. Little is known however about the factors that control the selection of the different modes of rift interaction observed in nature. Here we use state-of-the-art large

  11. Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping

  12. Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.A.G.; Rutte, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers. A 3-way interaction between time management, work demands, and autonomy was hypothesized: The combination of high work demands and low autonomy was

  13. Controlled Study of the Impact on Child Behaviour Problems of Intensive Interaction for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Abi; Reed, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Pupils with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) received 6 months of intensive interaction or treatment as usual. They were assessed for behaviour problems at the start and end of the period, and changes were related to child and parent factors. Intensive interaction did not offer any greater advantages to child behaviour than treatment as usual.…

  14. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; Vanzwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of twenty five constant pitch-rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control.

  15. A nested case-control approach to interactions between radiation dose and other factors as causes of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Charles E [Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, US National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Often a nested case-control study is the most practicable approach to estimating the interaction of two cancer risk factors in a large cohort. If one of the factors has already been evaluated for the entire cohort, however, more information is already available about its relationship to risk than could be obtained from a nested study. A modified case-control approach is proposed, in which information about the second, unknown factor is sought for cases and controls matched on the first factor. The approach requires, for interaction models other than the multiplicative, a nonstandard analytical approach incorporating cohort-based information about the first factor. The problem is discussed in the context of breast cancer risk in a defined cohort of female Japanese atomic bomb survivors, in relation to radiation dose and reproductive history. (author)

  16. Bright and dark solitons in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibers: Soliton interaction and soliton control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenjun; Tian Bo; Xu Tao; Sun Kun; Jiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    Symbolically investigated in this paper is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the varying dispersion and nonlinearity for the propagation of optical pulses in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibers. With the aid of the Hirota method, analytic one- and two-soliton solutions are obtained. Relevant properties of physical and optical interest are illustrated. Different from the previous results, both the bright and dark solitons are hereby derived in the normal dispersion regime of the inhomogeneous optical fibers. Moreover, different dispersion profiles of the dispersion-decreasing fibers can be used to realize the soliton control. Finally, soliton interaction is discussed with the soliton control confirmed to have no influence on the interaction. The results might be of certain value for the study of the signal generator and soliton control.

  17. An overview of adaptive model theory: solving the problems of redundancy, resources, and nonlinear interactions in human movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Peter D; Neilson, Megan D

    2005-09-01

    Adaptive model theory (AMT) is a computational theory that addresses the difficult control problem posed by the musculoskeletal system in interaction with the environment. It proposes that the nervous system creates motor maps and task-dependent synergies to solve the problems of redundancy and limited central resources. These lead to the adaptive formation of task-dependent feedback/feedforward controllers able to generate stable, noninteractive control and render nonlinear interactions unobservable in sensory-motor relationships. AMT offers a unified account of how the nervous system might achieve these solutions by forming internal models. This is presented as the design of a simulator consisting of neural adaptive filters based on cerebellar circuitry. It incorporates a new network module that adaptively models (in real time) nonlinear relationships between inputs with changing and uncertain spectral and amplitude probability density functions as is the case for sensory and motor signals.

  18. Controlling measurement-induced nonlocality in the Heisenberg XX model by three-spin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-Xia; Sun, Yu-Hang; Li, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the well-defined measures of measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) for thermal states of the transverse field XX model, with the addition of three-spin interaction terms being introduced. The results showed that the MINs are very sensitive to system parameters of the chain. The three-spin interactions can serve as flexible parameters for enhancing MINs of the boundary spins, and the maximum enhancement achievable by varying strengths of the three-spin interactions are different for the chain with different number of spins.

  19. Different modes of APC/C activation control growth and neuron-glia interaction in the developing Drosophila eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuert, Helen; Yuva-Aydemir, Yeliz; Silies, Marion; Klämbt, Christian

    2017-12-15

    The development of the nervous system requires tight control of cell division, fate specification and migration. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that affects different steps of cell cycle progression, as well as having postmitotic functions in nervous system development. It can therefore link different developmental stages in one tissue. The two adaptor proteins, Fizzy/Cdc20 and Fizzy-related/Cdh1, confer APC/C substrate specificity. Here, we show that two distinct modes of APC/C function act during Drosophila eye development. Fizzy/Cdc20 controls the early growth of the eye disc anlage and the concomitant entry of glial cells onto the disc. In contrast, fzr/cdh1 acts during neuronal patterning and photoreceptor axon growth, and subsequently affects neuron-glia interaction. To further address the postmitotic role of Fzr/Cdh1 in controlling neuron-glia interaction, we identified a series of novel APC/C candidate substrates. Four of our candidate genes are required for fzr/cdh1 -dependent neuron-glia interaction, including the dynein light chain Dlc90F Taken together, our data show how different modes of APC/C activation can couple early growth and neuron-glia interaction during eye disc development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Application of an active device for helicopter noise reduction in JAXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    2010-01-01

    Important issues in noise problems for current helicopters are described. An active tab (AT) was developed as a new active device for noise/vibration reduction under research cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Kawada Industries, Inc. The wind tunnel test was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the AT on the aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter. From the wind tunnel test, the capability of reducing blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise by an AT was verified. A new control law using instantaneous pressure change on a blade during BVI phenomena was introduced and applied to the wind tunnel testing. This new control law shows reasonable controllability for helicopter noise reduction. Furthermore, in order to analyze noise characteristics, the advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code named JAXA o v3d was developed in JAXA and extended to include CFD-CSD (computational structure dynamics) coupling by using the beam theory for blade deformation. (invited paper)

  1. Effectiveness of Interactive Self-Management Interventions in Individuals With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Sit, Janet W H; Choi, Kai-Chow; Chair, Sek-Ying; Li, Xiaomei; He, Xiao-le

    2017-02-01

    To identify, assess, and summarize available scientific evidence on the effectiveness of interactive self-management interventions on glycemic control and patient-centered outcomes in individuals with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Major English and Chinese electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang Data were searched to identify randomized controlled trials that reported the effectiveness of interactive self-management interventions in individuals with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥ 7.5% or 58 mmol/mol), from inception to June 2015. Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. A total of 16 trials with 3,545 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Interactive self-management interventions could have a beneficial effect in individuals with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in reducing HbA1c (mean difference: -0.43%, 95% CI: -0.67% to -0.18%), improving diabetes knowledge (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.58), enhancing self-efficacy (SMD: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.44), and reducing diabetes-related distress (SMD: -0.21, 95% CI: -0.39 to -0.04). Self-management interventions supported with theory and structured curriculum showed desirable results in glycemic control. The behavioral change techniques, including providing feedback on performance, problem-solving, and action planning, were associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c. Individuals with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes could benefit from interactive self-management interventions. Interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled diabetes, those who are at the greatest risk of developing complications, should be prioritized. Our findings indicate that providing feedback on performance, problem-solving, and action

  2. Control of Chain Walking by Weak Neighbouring Group Interac-tions in Unsymmetric Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura; Wiedemann, Thomas; Gö ttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Mecking, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study shows how weak attractive interactions of a neighbouring group can strongly promote chain walking and chain transfer. This accounts for the previously observed very different micro-structures obtained

  3. Chiropractor interaction and treatment equivalence in a pilot randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salsbury, Stacie A; DeVocht, James W; Hondras, Maria

    2014-01-01

    -parametric statistics were calculated. RESULTS: The trial ran from January 2010 to October 2011. We analyzed 111 complete video-recordings (54 active, 57 sham). Chiropractor interactions differed between the treatment groups in 7 categories. Active participants received more interactions with clinical information (8 vs....... 4) or explanations (3.5 vs. 1) than sham participants within the therapeutic domain. Active participants received more directions (63 vs. 58) and adjusting instrument thrusts (41.5 vs. 23) in the procedural domain and more optimistic (2.5 vs. 0) or neutral (7.5 vs. 5) outcome statements...... aimed to: 1) develop an instrument to assess practitioner-patient interactions; 2) determine the equivalence of a chiropractor's verbal interactions and treatment delivery for participants allocated to active or sham chiropractic groups; and 3) describe the perceptions of a treatment-masked evaluator...

  4. Herbivory and climate interact serially to control monoterpene emissions from pinyon pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Amy M; Daly, Ryan W; Helmig, Detlev; Stoy, Paul C; Monson, Russell K

    2014-06-01

    The emission of volatile monoterpenes from coniferous trees impacts the oxidative state of the troposphere and multi-trophic signaling between plants and animals. Previous laboratory studies have revealed that climate anomalies and herbivory alter the rate of tree monoterpene emissions. However, no studies to date have been conducted to test these relations in situ. We conducted a two-year field experiment at two semiarid sites dominated by pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) during outbreaks of a specialist herbivore, the southwestern tiger moth (Lophocampa ingens: Arctiidae). We discovered that during the early spring, when herbivory rates were highest, monoterpene emission rates were approximately two to six times higher from undamaged needles on damaged trees, with this increase in emissions due to alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and camphene at both sites. During mid-summer, emission rates did not differ between previously damaged and undamaged trees at the site on the Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains, but rather tracked changes in the temperature and precipitation regime characteristic of the region. As the mid-summer drought progressed at the Eastern Slope site, emission rates were low, but differences between previously damaged and undamaged trees were not statistically significant. Despite no difference in emissions, mid-summer tissue monoterpene concentrations were significantly lower in previously damaged trees at both sites. With the onset of monsoon rains during late summer, emission rates from previously damaged trees increased to levels higher than those of undamaged trees despite the lack of herbivory. We conclude that (1) herbivory systemically increases the flux of terpenes to the atmosphere during the spring, (2) drought overrides the effect of past herbivory as the primary control over emissions during the mid-summer, and (3) a release from drought and the onset of late-summer rains is correlated with a secondary increase in emissions, particularly from

  5. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  6. 3D wake dynamics of the VAWT : Experimental and numerical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, C.; Hofemann, C.; Dixon, K.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, in its 2D form, is characterized by a complex unsteady aerodynamic flow, including dynamic stall and blade vortex interaction. Adding to this complexity, the 3D flow causes spanwise effects and the presence of trailing vorticity and tip vortices. The objective of the

  7. Establishing Approaches to Modeling the Ares I-X and Ares I Roll Control System with Free-stream Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, S. Paul; Deere, Karen A.; Abdol-Hamid, Khales S.

    2011-01-01

    Approaches were established for modeling the roll control system and analyzing the jet interactions of the activated roll control system on Ares-type configurations using the USM3D Navier-Stokes solver. Components of the modeling approach for the roll control system include a choice of turbulence models, basis for computing a dynamic equivalence of the real gas rocket exhaust flow in terms of an ideal gas, and techniques to evaluate roll control system performance for wind tunnel and flight conditions. A simplified Ares I-X configuration was used during the development phase of the roll control system modeling approach. A limited set of Navier-Stokes solutions was obtained for the purposes of this investigation and highlights of the results are included in this paper. The USM3D solutions were compared to equivalent solutions at select flow conditions from a real gas Navier- Stokes solver (Loci-CHEM) and a structured overset grid Navier-Stokes solver (OVERFLOW).

  8. Development of an interactive GIS based work zone traffic control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to include consideration for intersections into the previously created GIS traffic control planning tool. Available data for making intersection control calculations were collected and integrated into the design of the t...

  9. Toehold-mediated internal control to probe the near-field interaction between the metallic nanoparticle and the fluorophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Y. S.; Yung, L. Y. L.

    2014-10-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are known to alter the emission of vicinal fluorophores through the near-field interaction, leading to either fluorescence quenching or enhancement. Much ambiguity remains in the experimental outcome of such a near-field interaction, particularly for bulk colloidal solution. It is hypothesized that the strong far-field interference from the inner filter effect of the MNPs could mask the true near-field MNP-fluorophore interaction significantly. Thus, in this work, a reliable internal control capable of decoupling the near-field interaction from far-field interference is established by the use of the DNA toehold concept to mediate the in situ assembly and disassembly of the MNP-fluorophore conjugate. A model gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-Cy3 system is used to investigate our proposed toehold-mediated internal control system. The maximum fluorescence enhancement is obtained for large-sized AuNP (58 nm) separated from Cy3 at an intermediate distance of 6.8 nm, while fluorescence quenching is observed for smaller-sized AuNP (11 nm and 23 nm), which is in agreement with the theoretical values reported in the literature. This work shows that the toehold-mediated internal control design can serve as a central system for evaluating the near-field interaction of other MNP-fluorophore combinations and facilitate the rational design of specific MNP-fluorophore systems for various applications.Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are known to alter the emission of vicinal fluorophores through the near-field interaction, leading to either fluorescence quenching or enhancement. Much ambiguity remains in the experimental outcome of such a near-field interaction, particularly for bulk colloidal solution. It is hypothesized that the strong far-field interference from the inner filter effect of the MNPs could mask the true near-field MNP-fluorophore interaction significantly. Thus, in this work, a reliable internal control capable of decoupling the near

  10. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  11. Controlling Short-Range Interactions by Tuning Surface Chemistry in HDPE/Graphene Nanoribbon Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Soheil; Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-09-03

    Unique dispersion states of nanoparticles in polymeric matrices have the potential to create composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. The present work aims to determine the state of dispersion from the melt-state rheological behavior of nanocomposites based on carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon (GNR) nanomaterials. GNRs were synthesized from nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via a chemical route using potassium permanganate and some second acids. High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/GNR nanocomposite samples were then prepared through a solution mixing procedure. Different nanocomposite dispersion states were achieved using different GNR synthesis methods providing different surface chemistry, interparticle interactions, and internal compartments. Prolonged relaxation of flow induced molecular orientation was observed due to the presence of both carbon nanotubes and GNRs. Based on the results of this work, due to relatively weak interactions between the polymer and the nanofillers, it is expected that short-range interactions between nanofillers play the key role in the final dispersion state.

  12. Optimal control of quantum gates and suppression of decoherence in a system of interacting two-level particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, Matthew; Brif, Constantin; Rabitz, Herschel; Walmsley, Ian A; Kosut, Robert L; Lidar, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    Methods of optimal control are applied to a model system of interacting two-level particles (e.g., spin-half atomic nuclei or electrons or two-level atoms) to produce high-fidelity quantum gates while simultaneously negating the detrimental effect of decoherence. One set of particles functions as the quantum information processor, whose evolution is controlled by a time-dependent external field. The other particles are not directly controlled and serve as an effective environment, coupling to which is the source of decoherence. The control objective is to generate target one- and two-qubit unitary gates in the presence of strong environmentally-induced decoherence and under physically motivated restrictions on the control field. The quantum-gate fidelity, expressed in terms of a novel state-independent distance measure, is maximized with respect to the control field using combined genetic and gradient algorithms. The resulting high-fidelity gates demonstrate the feasibility of precisely guiding the quantum evolution via optimal control, even when the system complexity is exacerbated by environmental coupling. It is found that the gate duration has an important effect on the control mechanism and resulting fidelity. An analysis of the sensitivity of the gate performance to random variations in the system parameters reveals a significant degree of robustness attained by the optimal control solutions

  13. Bimanual motor coordination controlled by cooperative interactions in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Ito, Koji; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Although strong motor coordination in intrinsic muscle coordinates has frequently been reported for bimanual movements, coordination in extrinsic visual coordinates is also crucial in various bimanual tasks. To explore the bimanual coordination mechanisms in terms of the frame of reference, here we characterized implicit bilateral interactions in visuomotor tasks. Visual perturbations (finger-cursor gain change) were applied while participants performed a rhythmic tracking task with both index fingers under an in-phase or anti-phase relationship in extrinsic coordinates. When they corrected the right finger's amplitude, the left finger's amplitude unintentionally also changed [motor interference (MI)], despite the instruction to keep its amplitude constant. Notably, we observed two specificities: one was large MI and low relative-phase variability (PV) under the intrinsic in-phase condition, and the other was large MI and high PV under the extrinsic in-phase condition. Additionally, using a multiple-interaction model, we successfully decomposed MI into intrinsic components caused by motor correction and extrinsic components caused by visual-cursor mismatch of the right finger's movements. This analysis revealed that the central nervous system facilitates MI by combining intrinsic and extrinsic components in the condition with in-phases in both intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates, and that under-additivity of the effects is explained by the brain's preference for the intrinsic interaction over extrinsic interaction. In contrast, the PV was significantly correlated with the intrinsic component, suggesting that the intrinsic interaction dominantly contributed to bimanual movement stabilization. The inconsistent features of MI and PV suggest that the central nervous system regulates multiple levels of bilateral interactions for various bimanual tasks. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and

  14. Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Miranda A G; Rutte, Christel G

    2005-01-01

    The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers. A 3-way interaction between time management, work demands, and autonomy was hypothesized: The combination of high work demands and low autonomy was predicted to lead to burnout for teachers low in time management and not, or to a lesser extent, for those high in time management. This hypothesis is confirmed for emotional exhaustion, the most predictive dimension of teacher burnout, and partly confirmed for the personal accomplishment dimension. Generalizability to other contactual occupations is discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Interactive Effects of Listwide Control, Item-Based Control, and Working Memory Capacity on Stroop Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of control within conflict-rich environments were examined by presenting participants with a Stroop task in which specific words were usually presented in either congruent or incongruent colors. Incongruent colors were either frequently (high contingency) or infrequently (low contingency) paired with…

  16. Imaging contrast and tip-sample interaction of non-contact amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy with Q -control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Shuai; Guo, Dan; Luo, Jianbin

    2017-01-01

    Active quality factor ( Q ) exhibits many promising properties in dynamic atomic force microscopy. Energy dissipation and image contrasts are investigated in the non-contact amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) with an active Q -control circuit in the ambient air environment. Dissipated power and virial were calculated to compare the highly nonlinear interaction of tip-sample and image contrasts with different Q gain values. Greater free amplitudes and lower effective Q values show better contrasts for the same setpoint ratio. Active quality factor also can be employed to change tip-sample interaction force in non-contact regime. It is meaningful that non-destructive and better contrast images can be realized in non-contact AM-AFM by applying an active Q -control to the dynamic system. (paper)

  17. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  18. Depth camera-based 3D hand gesture controls with immersive tactile feedback for natural mid-air gesture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangtaek; Kim, Joongrock; Choi, Jaesung; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-08

    Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user's hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern) that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE), 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping) gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user's gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback.

  19. Depth Camera-Based 3D Hand Gesture Controls with Immersive Tactile Feedback for Natural Mid-Air Gesture Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangtaek Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user’s hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE, 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user’s gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback.

  20. Physical adsorption at the nanoscale: Towards controllable scaling of the substrate-adsorbate van der Waals interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    The Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn (LZK) theory is commonly considered as the correct large-distance limit for the van der Waals (vdW) interaction of adsorbates (atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles) with solid substrates. In the standard approximate form, implicitly based on local dielectric functions, the LZK approach predicts universal power laws for vdW interactions depending only on the dimensionality of the interacting objects. However, recent experimental findings are challenging the universality of this theoretical approach at finite distances of relevance for nanoscale assembly. Here, we present a combined analytical and numerical many-body study demonstrating that physical adsorption can be significantly enhanced at the nanoscale. Regardless of the band gap or the nature of the adsorbate specie, we find deviations from conventional LZK power laws that extend to separation distances of up to 10-20 nm. Comparison with recent experimental observations of ultra-long-ranged vdW interactions in the delamination of graphene from a silicon substrate reveals qualitative agreement with the present theory. The sensitivity of vdW interactions to the substrate response and to the adsorbate characteristic excitation frequency also suggests that adsorption strength can be effectively tuned in experiments, paving the way to an improved control of physical adsorption at the nanoscale.

  1. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  2. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadry, Heba, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Zakaria, Nordin, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com [Computer and Information Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Cheong, Lee Yen [Fundamental and Applied Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters.

  3. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadry, Heba; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem; Zakaria, Nordin; Cheong, Lee Yen

    2014-01-01

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters

  4. Interaction of Physical and Chemical Processes Controlling the Environmental Fate and Transport of Lampricides Through Stream-Hyporheic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; Schmadel, N.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2016-12-01

    The transport and fate of contaminants of emerging concern through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of natural systems and the unique reaction pathways of individual compounds. Our current evaluation of risk is often simplified to controls assumed to be homogeneous in space and time. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reaction rates complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and therefore risk. These complications are the result of the interactions between the physical and chemical systems and the time-variable equilibrium that exists between the two. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  5. Plasma equilibrium control during slow plasma current quench with avoidance of plasma-wall interaction in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, R.; Nakamura, Y.; Neyatani, Y.

    1997-08-01

    In JT-60U a vertical displacement event (VDE) is observed during slow plasma current quench (Ip quench) for a vertically elongated divertor plasma with a single null. The VDE is generated by an error in the feedback control of the vertical position of the plasma current centre (ZJ). It has been perfectly avoided by improving the accuracy of the ZJ measurement in real time. Furthermore, plasma-wall interaction has been avoided successfully during slow Ip quench owing to the good performance of the plasma equilibrium control system

  6. The Combined Effect of Long Working Hours and Low Job Control on Self-Rated Health: An Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Sik; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. We analyzed employees' data obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and postestimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13 to 1.35] for long working hours, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.13) for low job control, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33 to 1.62) for both long working hours and low job control. The RERI was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34). These results imply that low job control may increase the negative influence of long working hours on self-rated health.

  7. Supramolecular Control of Oligothienylenevinylene-Fullerene Interactions: Evidence for a Ground-State EDA Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McClenaghan, N.D.; Grote, Z.; Darriet, K.; Zimine, M.Y.; Williams, R.M.; De Cola, L.; Bassani, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Complementary hydrogen-bonding interactions between a barbituric acid-substituted fullerene derivative (1) and corresponding receptor (2) bearing thienylenevinylene units are used to assemble a 1:1 supramolecular complex ( K ) 5500 M-1). Due to the close proximity of the redox-active moieties within

  8. Species traits and their non-additive interactions control the water economy of bryophyte cushions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, P.; Lee, W.G.; During, H.J.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; van der Putten, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    1. Ecological processes in mixed-species assemblages are not always an additive function of those in monocultures. In areas with high ground cover of bryophytes, renowned for their considerable water retention capacity, non-additive interactions in mixed-species cushions could play a key role in the

  9. Cross-habitat interactions among bivalve species control community structure on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donadi, S.; van der Heide, T.; van der Zee, E.M.; Eklöf, J.S.; van de Koppel, J.; Weerman, E.J.; Piersma, T.; Olff, H.; Eriksson, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spatial interactions between sedentary organisms can structure communities and promote landscape complexity in many ecosystems. Here we tested the hypothesis that reef-forming mussels (Mytilus edulis L.), a dominant intertidal ecosystem engineer in the Wadden Sea,

  10. Cross-habitat interactions among bivalve species control community structure on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donadi, Serena; van der Heide, Tjisse; van der Zee, Els M.; Eklöf, Johan S.; van de Koppel, Johan; Weerman, Ellen J.; Piersma, Theunis; Olff, Han; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    Increasing evidence shows that spatial interactions between sedentary organisms can structure communities and promote landscape complexity in many ecosystems. Here we tested the hypothesis that reef-forming mussels (Mytilus edulis L.), a dominant intertidal ecosystem engineer in the Wadden Sea,

  11. Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan, Angela; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian

    We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly

  12. Traveller: An Interactive Cultural Training System Controlled by User-Defined Body Gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, F.; André, E.; Mascarenhas, S.; Silva, A.; Paiva, A.; Degens, D.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Krumhuber, E.; Kappas, A.; Aylett, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cultural training system based on an interactive storytelling approach and a culturally-adaptive agent architecture, for which a user-defined gesture set was created. 251 full body gestures by 22 users were analyzed to find intuitive gestures for the in-game actions in

  13. Folded plate assemblies with branching column supports : Interaction and control of overall shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falk, A.; Turrin, M.; von Buelow, P.

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper aims at developing the interrelation and overall effects of interaction between a folded plate roof structure and a system of branching column supports. In the context of architectural performance it is of interest to discuss the effects of the material on

  14. Control of the interphase interaction and morphology in the organic-inorganic polymer nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor; Murias, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2010), s. 45-50 ISSN 1934-8959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic-inorganic polymer * interphase interaction * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.davidpublishing.com

  15. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  16. Human body micro-environment: The benefits of controlling airflow interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-environment around a human body, and especially on its interaction with the surrounding environment. Research on the free convection flow generated by a human body (including the convective boundary layer around the body and the thermal plume above the body), its...

  17. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  19. SINCRO/CAR: An interactive numerical system for computer-aided control engineering and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Despujols, A.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes a dialogue-oriented software implemented on a portable computer for computer-aided engineering and training in control instrumentation and also for on-line verification of the performances of the analog controllers installed on power plants. The SINCRO/CAR software includes algorithms for controller design, simulation, identification, optimization, frequency response and real time data acquisition. Various results obtained on fossil-fired and nuclear plants are given to illustrate the efficiency of the SINCRO/CAR software

  20. Resistance to temptation: the interaction of external and internal control on alcohol use during residential treatment for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Schläfli, Katrin; Stutz, Sonja; Rösner, Susanne; Moggi, Franz

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence that drinking during residential treatment is related to various factors, such as patients' general control beliefs and self-efficacy, as well as to external control of alcohol use by program's staff and situations where there is temptation to drink. As alcohol use during treatment has been shown to be associated with the resumption of alcohol use after discharge from residential treatment, we aimed to investigate how these variables are related to alcohol use during abstinence-oriented residential treatment programs for alcohol use disorders (AUD). In total, 509 patients who entered 1 of 2 residential abstinence-oriented treatment programs for AUD were included in the study. After detoxification, patients completed a standardized diagnostic procedure including interviews and questionnaires. Drinking was assessed by patients' self-report of at least 1 standard drink or by positive breathalyzer testing. The 2 residential programs were categorized as high or low control according to the average number of tests per patient. Regression analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between internal and external control suggesting that patients with high internal locus of control and high frequency of control by staff demonstrated the least alcohol use during treatment (16.7%) while patients with low internal locus of control in programs with low external control were more likely to use alcohol during treatment (45.9%). No effects were found for self-efficacy and temptation. As alcohol use during treatment is most likely associated with poor treatment outcomes, external control may improve treatment outcomes and particularly support patients with low internal locus of control, who show the highest risk for alcohol use during treatment. High external control may complement high internal control to improve alcohol use prevention while in treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley

  1. The interactions of design, control and operability in reactive distillation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, M.C.; Schenk, Myrian Andrea; Pistikopoulos, Stratos

    2002-01-01

    is a strong function of the process design and potential operability bottlenecks are identified. In the second approach, the process design and the control system are optimized simultaneously leading to a more economically beneficial and better controlled system than that obtained using the sequential......In this work the design and control of a reactive distillation column, described by a rigorous dynamic model, is tackled via two different optimization approaches. In the first, the steady-state process design and the control system are optimized sequentially. It is shown that operability...

  2. Effects of hydrodynamic interactions and control within a point absorber array on electrical output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambiar, Anup J.; Forehand, David I.M.; Kramer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the WECs and the total power extracted by the array can be modified. In this paper, different resistive and reactive PTO control strategies, applied to a time-domain wave-to-wire model of a three-float Danish Wavestar device, are compared. The time-domain modelling approach, as opposed to the frequency......-coordinated global array control (matrix control) was found to maximise the time-averaged power generated by the array. Fully-coordinated control potentially enables wave farm developers and device designers to explore the opportunities of connecting and maximising energy yields from installations...

  3. Wind turbine inverter robust loop-shaping control subject to grid interaction effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff; Wu, Qiuwei; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    the grid and the number of wind turbines connected. Power converter based turbines inject harmonic currents, which are attenuated by passive filters. A robust high order active filter controller is proposed to complement the passive filtering. The H∞ design of the control loop enables desired tracking......An H∞ robust control of wind turbine inverters employing an LCL filter is proposed in this paper. The controller dynamics are designed for selective harmonic filtering in an offshore transmission network subject to parameter perturbations. Parameter uncertainty in the network originates from...

  4. A copper-methionine interaction controls the pH-dependent activation of peptidylglycine monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Andrew T; Broers, Brenda A; Kline, Chelsey D; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2011-12-20

    The pH dependence of native peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM) and its M314H variant has been studied in detail. For wild-type (WT) PHM, the intensity of the Cu-S interaction visible in the Cu(I) extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data is inversely proportional to catalytic activity over the pH range of 3-8. A previous model based on more limited data was interpreted in terms of two protein conformations involving an inactive Met-on form and an active flexible Met-off form [Bauman, A. T., et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 11140-11150] that derived its catalytic activity from the ability to couple into vibrational modes critical for proton tunneling. The new studies comparing the WT and M314H variant have led to the evolution of this model, in which the Met-on form has been found to be derived from coordination of an additional Met residue, rather than a more rigid conformer of M314 as previously proposed. The catalytic activity of the mutant decreased by 96% because of effects on both k(cat) and K(M), but it displayed the same activity-pH profile with a maximum around pH 6. At pH 8, the reduced Cu(I) form gave spectra that could be simulated by replacement of the Cu(M) Cu-S(Met) interaction with a Cu-N/O interaction, but the data did not unambiguously assign the ligand to the imidazole side chain of H314. At pH 3.5, the EXAFS still showed the presence of a strong Cu-S interaction, establishing that the Met-on form observed at low pH in WT cannot be due to a strengthening of the Cu(M)-methionine interaction but must arise from a different Cu-S interaction. Therefore, lowering the pH causes a conformational change at one of the Cu centers that brings a new S donor residue into a favorable orientation for coordination to copper and generates an inactive form. Cys coordination is unlikely because all Cys residues in PHM are engaged in disulfide cross-links. Sequence comparison with the PHM homologues tyramine β-monooxygenase and dopamine

  5. Temporal dynamics of motivation-cognitive control interactions revealed by high-resolution pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sarah Chiew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivational manipulations, such as the presence of performance-contingent reward incentives, can have substantial influences on cognitive control. Previous evidence suggests that reward incentives may enhance cognitive performance specifically through increased preparatory, or proactive, control processes. The present study examined reward influences on cognitive control dynamics in the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT, using high-resolution pupillometry. In the AX-CPT, contextual cues must be actively maintained over a delay in order to appropriately respond to ambiguous target probes. A key feature of the task is that it permits dissociable characterization of preparatory, proactive control processes (i.e., utilization of context and reactive control processes (i.e., target-evoked interference resolution. Task performance profiles suggested that reward incentives enhanced proactive control (context utilization. Critically, pupil dilation was also increased on reward incentive trials during context maintenance periods, suggesting trial-specific shifts in proactive control, particularly when context cues indicated the need to overcome the dominant target response bias. Reward incentives had both transient (i.e., trial-by-trial and sustained (i.e., block-based effects on pupil dilation, which may reflect distinct underlying processes. The transient pupillary effects were present even when comparing against trials matched in task performance, suggesting a unique motivational influence of reward incentives. These results suggest that pupillometry may be a useful technique for investigating reward motivational signals and their dynamic influence on cognitive control.

  6. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  7. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W.; Boag, T.S.; Panitz, M.; Sangchote, S.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

  8. Design and Interaction Control of a New Bilateral Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation device (BULReD with two degrees of freedom (DOFs. The BULReD is portable for both hospital and home environment, easy to use for therapists and patients, and safer with respect to upper-limb robotic exoskeletons. It was implemented to be able to conduct both passive and interactive training, based on system kinematics and dynamics, as well as the identification of real-time movement intention of human users. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential of the BULReD for clinical applications, with satisfactory position and interaction force tracking performance. Future work will focus on the clinical evaluation of the BULReD on a large sample of poststroke patients.

  9. Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan

    Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators...... of these inverters may depend on grid connection rules which are forced by DSOs. Minimum requirement expected from PV inverters is to transfer maximum power by taking direct current (DC) form from PV modules and release it into AC grid and also continuously keep the inverters synchronized to the grid even under...... for this problem but PV inverters connected to highly capacitive networks are able to employ extra current and voltage harmonics compensation to avoid triggering network resonances at low order frequencies. The barriers such as harmonics interaction, flicker, fault current contribution and dc current injections...

  10. Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Demirok, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators (DSOs) in order to maintain at least the same power quality as before PVs were not revealed. Potential problems caused by high amount of PV installations can be avoided with technical study of both...

  11. Simulation of Past Life: Controlling Agent Behaviors from the Interactions between Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Lim , Chen-Kim; Cani , Marie-Paule; Galvane , Quentin; Pettré , Julien; Abdullah Zawawi , Talib

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Many efforts have been carried out in preserving the history and culture of Penang and also other regions of Malaysia since George Town was elected as a UNESCO living heritage city. This paper presents a method to simulate life in a local trading port in the 1800s, where various populations with very different social rules interacted with each other. These populations included Indian coolies, Malay vendors, British colonists and Chinese traders. The challenge is to mod...

  12. Daf-2, Daf-16 and Daf-23: Genetically Interacting Genes Controlling Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, S.; Ruvkun, G.

    1994-01-01

    Under conditions of high population density and low food, Caenorhabditis elegans forms an alternative third larval stage, called the dauer stage, which is resistant to desiccation and harsh environments. Genetic analysis of some dauer constitutive (Daf-c) and dauer defective (Daf-d) mutants has revealed a complex pathway that is likely to function in particular neurons and/or responding tissues. Here we analyze the genetic interactions between three genes which comprise a branch of the dauer ...

  13. Kinetics and fracture resistance of lithiated silicon nanostructure pairs controlled by their mechanical interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seok Woo; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Ryu, Ill; /Brown U.; Nix, William D.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Gao, Huajian; /Brown U.; Cui, Yi; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC

    2015-06-01

    Following an explosion of studies of silicon as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the anomalous volumetric changes and fracture of lithiated single Si particles have attracted significant attention in various fields, including mechanics. However, in real batteries, lithiation occurs simultaneously in clusters of Si in a confined medium. Hence, understanding how the individual Si structures interact during lithiation in a closed space is necessary. Herein, we demonstrate physical/mechanical interactions of swelling Si structures during lithiation using well-defined Si nanopillar pairs. Ex situ SEM and in situ TEM studies reveal that compressive stresses change the reaction kinetics so that preferential lithiation occurs at free surfaces when the pillars are mechanically clamped. Such mechanical interactions enhance the fracture resistance of This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. SLAC-PUB-16300 2 lithiated Si by lessening the tensile stress concentrations in Si structures. This study will contribute to improved design of Si structures at the electrode level for high performance Li-ion batteries.

  14. Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2008-12-02

    Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM(+)SaF(+), whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM(-)SaF(-) that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM(-). This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF(+) with SaM(-), a truncated protein, but not with SaM(+) because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM(+) is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding.

  15. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control:In-Flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for the Space Launch System (SLS) has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of the launch vehicle's baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a potential manual steering mode were also investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority, which is the subject of this paper. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of 25 constant pitch rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control, evaluating six different nominal and off-nominal test case scenarios. Pilot comments and PIO ratings were given following each trajectory and correlated with aircraft state data and internal controller signals post-flight.

  16. Key aromatic/hydrophobic amino acids controlling a cross-amyloid peptide interaction versus amyloid self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakou, Maria; Hille, Kathleen; Kracklauer, Michael; Spanopoulou, Anna; Frost, Christina V; Malideli, Eleni; Yan, Li-Mei; Caporale, Andrea; Zacharias, Martin; Kapurniotu, Aphrodite

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of the intrinsically disordered polypeptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide modulates their self-assembly into amyloid fibrils and may link the pathogeneses of these two cell-degenerative diseases. However, the molecular determinants of this interaction remain elusive. Using a systematic alanine scan approach, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other biophysical methods, including heterocomplex pulldown assays, far-UV CD spectroscopy, the thioflavin T binding assay, transmission EM, and molecular dynamics simulations, here we identified single aromatic/hydrophobic residues within the amyloid core IAPP region as hot spots or key residues of its cross-interaction with Aβ40(42) peptide. Importantly, we also find that none of these residues in isolation plays a key role in IAPP self-assembly, whereas simultaneous substitution of four aromatic/hydrophobic residues with Ala dramatically impairs both IAPP self-assembly and hetero-assembly with Aβ40(42). Furthermore, our experiments yielded several novel IAPP analogs, whose sequences are highly similar to that of IAPP but have distinct amyloid self- or cross-interaction potentials. The identified similarities and major differences controlling IAPP cross-peptide interaction with Aβ40(42) versus its amyloid self-assembly offer a molecular basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms. We propose that these insights will aid in designing intervention strategies and novel IAPP analogs for the management of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or other diseases related to IAPP dysfunction or cross-amyloid interactions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Interacting with Networks : How Does Structure Relate to Controllability in Single-Leader, Consensus Networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egerstedt, Magnus; Martini, Simone; Cao, Ming; Camlibel, Kanat; Bicchi, Antonio

    As networked dynamical systems appear around us at an increasing rate, questions concerning how to manage and control such systems are becoming more important. Examples include multiagent robotics, distributed sensor networks, interconnected manufacturing chains, and data networks. In response to

  18. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Interaction between Visual and Proprioception Information for Dynamic Postural Control in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yasin hoseini

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: the posture is controled mostly by the motion in the knee joint rather than the hip or ankle joints. It is recommended to enhance the knee extensors to prevent falling in people with high risk of postural instability.

  20. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films

    KAUST Repository

    Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blü gel, Stefan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore

  1. Review on Climate Control Chamber studies in studying plant environment interaction under climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Geethalakshmi, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, K.; Lakshmanan, A.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical brief summarizes some of the studies conducted on rice using a climate control chamber and outlines the studies that will be undertaken in the Climate Control Chamber facility that has been established at the Agro Climate Research Center at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. In recent years a numbers of technologies have been developed to study the impact of climate change on agricultural systems. Crop response to climate change could be studied by using a climate ...

  2. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nanoscale control of energy and matter in plasma-surface interactions: Toward energy- and matter-efficient nanotech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrikov, K.

    2011-01-01

    The approach to control the elementary processes of plasma-surface interactions to direct the fluxes of energy and matter at nano- and subnanometer scales is introduced. This ability is related to the solution of the grand challenge of directing energy and matter at nanoscales and is critical for the renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies for a sustainable future development. The examples of deterministic synthesis of self-organized arrays of metastable nanostructures in the size range beyond the reach of the present-day nanofabrication are considered to illustrate this possibility. By using precisely controlled and kinetically fast nanoscale transfer of energy and matter under nonequilibrium conditions and harnessing numerous plasma-specific controls of species creation, delivery to the surface, nucleation, and large-scale self-organization of nuclei and nanostructures, the arrays of metastable nanostructures can be created, arranged, stabilized, and further processed to meet the specific requirements of the envisaged applications.

  4. Possible applications of the LEAP motion controller for more interactive simulated experiments in augmented or virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Peter; Vauderwange, Oliver; Mandal, Avikarsha; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Practical exercises are a crucial part of many curricula. Even simple exercises can improve the understanding of the underlying subject. Most experimental setups require special hardware. To carry out e. g. a lens experiments the students need access to an optical bench, various lenses, light sources, apertures and a screen. In our previous publication we demonstrated the use of augmented reality visualization techniques in order to let the students prepare with a simulated experimental setup. Within the context of our intended blended learning concept we want to utilize augmented or virtual reality techniques for stationary laboratory exercises. Unlike applications running on mobile devices, stationary setups can be extended more easily with additional interfaces and thus allow for more complex interactions and simulations in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). The most significant difference is the possibility to allow interactions beyond touching a screen. The LEAP Motion controller is a small inexpensive device that allows for the tracking of the user's hands and fingers in three dimensions. It is conceivable to allow the user to interact with the simulation's virtual elements by the user's very hand position, movement and gesture. In this paper we evaluate possible applications of the LEAP Motion controller for simulated experiments in augmented and virtual reality. We pay particular attention to the devices strengths and weaknesses and want to point out useful and less useful application scenarios.

  5. Control over social interactions: an important reason for young people's use of the Internet and mobile phones for communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madell, Dominic E; Muncer, Steven J

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports some research that was undertaken to determine why young people choose to use certain communication media, especially the Internet and mobile phones for social purposes. Focus group methodology was employed in achieving this aim. Specifically, two focus groups containing young people aged 18-20 years were asked to discuss the question "why do you use different communication media, such as the Internet and mobile phones, in your social lives?" Discussions from the sessions were recorded on audiotapes, and then transcribed, and analyzed according to the principles of Grounded Theory. A number of categories emerged from the data. The most significant category indicated that young people often liked to use communication media such as the Internet and mobile phones to communicate because these afforded them control over their interactions. In particular, the data seemed to suggest that participants felt that because some communication media such as email, text messaging and instant messaging can be used asynchronously as well as synchronously, they allow one time to stop and think before giving a response if this is desired, or, alternatively, allowed one to retain the conversational nature of interactions if this is preferred. This gave participants greater control over interactions than they would have if, say, communicating via voice calls using the telephone or face-to-face, which are necessarily synchronous.

  6. "FIND Technology": investigating the feasibility, efficacy and safety of controller-free interactive digital rehabilitation technology in an inpatient stroke population: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, M L; Cannell, J; Callisaya, M L; Moles, E; Rathjen, A; Lane, K; Tyson, A; Smith, S

    2016-04-16

    Stroke results in significant disability, which can be reduced by physical rehabilitation. High levels of repetition and activity are required in rehabilitation, but patients are typically sedentary. Using clinically relevant and fun computer games may be one way to achieve increased activity in rehabilitation. A single-blind randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of novel stroke-specific rehabilitation software. This software uses controller-free client interaction and inertial motion sensors. Elements of feasibility include recruitment into the trial, ongoing participation (adherence and dropout), perceived benefit, enjoyment and ease of use of the games. Efficacy will be determined by measuring activity and using upper-limb tasks as well as measures of balance and mobility. The hypothesis that the intervention group will have increased levels of physical activity within rehabilitation and improved physical outcomes compared with the control group will be tested. Results from this study will provide a basis for discussion of feasibility of this interactive video technological solution in an inpatient situation. Differences in activity levels between groups will be the primary measure of efficacy. It will also provide data on measures of upper-limb function, balance and mobility. ACTRN12614000427673 . Prospectively registered 17 April 2014.

  7. Inhibitory Control and Hedonic Response towards Food Interactively Predict Success in a Weight Loss Programme for Adults with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Brockmeyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low inhibitory control and strong hedonic response towards food are considered to contribute to overeating and obesity. Based on previous research, the present study aimed at examining the potentially crucial interplay between these two factors in terms of long-term weight loss in people with obesity. Methods: BMI, inhibitory control towards food, and food liking were assessed in obese adults prior to a weight reduction programme (OPTIFAST® 52. After the weight reduction phase (week 13 and the weight loss maintenance phase (week 52, participants' BMI was re-assessed. Results: Baseline BMI, inhibitory control and food liking alone did not predict weight loss. As hypothesised, however, inhibitory control and food liking interactively predicted weight loss from baseline to week 13 and to week 52 (albeit the latter effect was less robust. Participants with low inhibitory control and marked food liking were less successful in weight reduction. Conclusion: These findings underscore the relevance of the interplay between cognitive control and food reward valuation in the maintenance of obesity.

  8. Interaction of feel system and flight control system dynamics on lateral flying qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. E.; Knotts, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of lateral feel system characteristics on fighter aircraft roll flying qualities was conducted using the variable stability USAF NT-33. Forty-two evaluation flights were flown by three engineering test pilots. The investigation utilized the power approach, visual landing task and up-and-away tasks including formation, gun tracking, and computer-generated compensatory attitude tracking tasks displayed on the Head-Up Display. Experimental variations included the feel system frequency, force-deflection gradient, control system command type (force or position input command), aircraft roll mode time constant, control system prefilter frequency, and control system time delay. The primary data were task performance records and evaluation pilot comments and ratings using the Cooper-Harper scale. The data highlight the unique and powerful effect of the feel system of flying qualities. The data show that the feel system is not 'equivalent' in flying qualities influence to analogous control system elements. A lower limit of allowable feel system frequency appears warranted to ensure good lateral flying qualities. Flying qualities criteria should most properly treat the feel system dynamic influence separately from the control system, since the input and output of this dynamic element is apparent to the pilot and thus, does not produce a 'hidden' effect.

  9. Detection and Control of Spin-Orbit Interactions in a GaAs Hole Quantum Point Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A.; Miserev, D. S.; Hudson, K. L.; Klochan, O.; Muraki, K.; Hirayama, Y.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Sushkov, O. P.; Hamilton, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the relationship between the Zeeman interaction and the inversion-asymmetry-induced spin-orbit interactions (Rashba and Dresselhaus SOIs) in GaAs hole quantum point contacts. The presence of a strong SOI results in the crossing and anticrossing of adjacent spin-split hole subbands in a magnetic field. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the anticrossing energy gap depends on the interplay between the SOI terms and the highly anisotropic hole g tensor and that this interplay can be tuned by selecting the crystal axis along which the current and magnetic field are aligned. Our results constitute the independent detection and control of the Dresselhaus and Rashba SOIs in hole systems, which could be of importance for spintronics and quantum information applications.

  10. Interactions between dopamine and oxytocin in the control of sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Douglas, Alison J

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine and oxytocin are two key neuromodulators involved in reproductive behaviours, such as mating and maternal care. Much evidence underlies their separate roles in such behaviours, but particularly in sexual behaviour. It is generally believed that central dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems work together to regulate the expression of penile erection, but relatively little is known regarding how they interact. Thus, this review aims to discuss neuroanatomical proof, neuromodulator secretory profiles in the hypothalamus and behavioural pharmacological evidence which support a dopamine-oxytocin link in three hypothalamic nuclei that have been implicated in sexual behaviour, namely the medial preoptic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We also aim to provide an overview of potential dopamine-mediated transduction pathways that occur within these nuclei and are correlated with the exhibition of penile erection. The PVN provides the most convincing evidence for a dopamine-oxytocin link and it is becoming increasingly apparent that parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN, in part, mediate the effects of dopamine to elicit penile erection. However, while we show that oxytocin neurons express dopamine receptors, other evidence on whether dopaminergic activation of PVN oxytocin cells involves a direct and/or indirect mechanism is inconclusive and further evidence is required to establish whether the two systems interact synergistically or sequentially in the regulation of penile erection.

  11. The plasma-wall interaction region: a key low temperature plasma for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G F

    2002-01-01

    The plasma-wall interaction region of a fusion device provides the interface between the hot core plasma and the material surfaces. To obtain acceptably low levels of erosion from these surfaces requires most of the power leaving the core to be radiated. This is accomplished in existing devices by encouraging plasma detachment, in which the hot plasma arriving in the region is cooled by volume recombination and ion-neutral momentum transfer with a dense population of neutrals recycled from the surface. The result is a low temperature (1 eV e e >10 19 m -3 ) but weakly ionized (n 0 >10 20 m -3 , n e /n 0 <0.1) plasma found nowhere else in the fusion environment. This plasma provides many of the conditions found in industrial plasmas exploiting plasma chemistry and the presence of carbon in the region (in the form of carbon-fibre composite used in the plasma facing materials) can result in the formation of deposited hydrocarbon films. The plasma-wall interaction region is therefore among the most difficult in fusion to model, requiring an understanding of atomic, molecular and surface physics issues

  12. Targeting Plant Ethylene Responses by Controlling Essential Protein-Protein Interactions in the Ethylene Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Melanie M A; Groth, Georg

    2015-08-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many processes of high agronomic relevance throughout the life span of plants. A central element in ethylene signaling is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized membrane protein ethylene insensitive2 (EIN2). Recent studies indicate that in response to ethylene, the extra-membranous C-terminal end of EIN2 is proteolytically processed and translocated from the ER to the nucleus. Here, we report that the conserved nuclear localization signal (NLS) mediating nuclear import of the EIN2 C-terminus provides an important domain for complex formation with ethylene receptor ethylene response1 (ETR1). EIN2 lacking the NLS domain shows strongly reduced affinity for the receptor. Interaction of EIN2 and ETR1 is also blocked by a synthetic peptide of the NLS motif. The corresponding peptide substantially reduces ethylene responses in planta. Our results uncover a novel mechanism and type of inhibitor interfering with ethylene signal transduction and ethylene responses in plants. Disruption of essential protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway as shown in our study for the EIN2-ETR1 complex has the potential to guide the development of innovative ethylene antagonists for modern agriculture and horticulture. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interacting Learning Processes during Skill Acquisition: Learning to control with gradually changing system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Nicolas; Giese, Martin A; Ilg, Winfried

    2017-10-16

    There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end. In the second group, subjects had to acquire the skill on the maximum, most difficult gravity level. We hypothesized that the gradual increase in gravity during skill acquisition supports learning despite the necessary adjustments to changes in cart-pole dynamics. We found that the gradual group benefits from the slow increment, although overall improvement was interrupted by the changes in gravity and resulting system dynamics, which caused short-term degradations in performance and timing of actions. In conclusion, our results deliver evidence for an interaction of reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation processes, which indicates the importance of both processes for the development of optimized skill acquisition schedules.

  14. Mitigation of Wind Turbine/Vortex Interaction Using Disturbance Accommodating Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2003-12-01

    Wind turbines, a competitive source of emission-free electricity, are being designed with diameters and hub heights approaching 100 m, to further reduce the cost of the energy they produce. At this height above the ground, the wind turbine is exposed to atmospheric phenomena such as low-level jets, gravity waves, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which are not currently modeled in wind turbine design codes. These atmospheric phenomena can generate coherent turbulence that causes high cyclic loads on wind turbine blades. These fluctuating loads lead to fatigue damage accumulation and blade lifetime reduction. Advanced control was used to mitigate vortex-induced blade cyclic loading. A full-state feedback controller that incorporates more detailed vortex inputs achieved significantly greater blade load reduction. Blade loads attributed to vortex passage, then, can be reduced through advanced control, and further reductions appear feasible.

  15. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  16. A discussion of techniques used in defining the Interactive Measurement Evaluation and Control System at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, B.K.; Hunt, V.; Schweitzer, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes both the general methodology used to study the current needs for a measurement control and evaluation system at Rocky Flats Plant and the recommendations for implementation into the Interactive Measurement Evaluation and Control System (IMECS). The study resulted in a clear assessment of the current system and recommendations for the system which will be its replacement. To arrive at the recommendations, the authors used a formal analysis approach that is based on an in-depth study of the measurement evaluation and control problems and user needs. The problems and needs were defined by interviews with present and potential users of this kind of system throughout the nuclear industry. Some of the recommendations are to provide: timely sample measurement feedback; representative measurement error estimates; a history data base of sample measurements To meet the user needs, the new system will: be interactive with user selection menus; use standards which cover the range of application; facilitate historical analysis of sample data and bookkeeping. The implementation of this program is projected to be more cost effective than the current program. Also included are the authors' recommendations to those involved in the design of a system of similar large magnitude

  17. Interactive Effects of Emotional Dissonance and Self-Control Demands on Burnout, Anxiety, and Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Two specific sources of stress at work have recently received increasing attention in organizational stress research: emotional dissonance (ED) and self-control demands (SCDs). Both theoretical arguments and experimental findings in basic research strongly suggest that ED and different SCDs draw on a common limited regulatory resource.…

  18. 76 FR 72215 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... System Inc. on November 15, 2011. The complaints allege violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of... parental controls technology. The complaint names Vizio, Inc. of Irvine, CA; Haier Group Corp. of China... affect the public health and welfare in the United States, competitive conditions in the United States...

  19. Novel apparatus and methods for performing remotely controlled particle-solid interaction experiments at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, H. F.; Deveney, E. F.; Jones, N. L.; Vane, C. R.; Datz, S.; Knudsen, H.; Grafström, P.; Schuch, R.

    1997-04-01

    Recent atomic physics studies involving ultrarelativistic Pb ions required solid target positioners, scintillators, and a sophisticated data acquisition and control system placed in a remote location at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron near Geneva, Switzerland. The apparatus, installed in a high-radiation zone underground, had to (i) function for months, (ii) automatically respond to failures such as power outages and particle-induced computer upsets, and (iii) communicate with the outside world via a telephone line. The heart of the apparatus developed was an Apple Macintosh-based CAMAC system that answered the telephone and interpreted and executed remote control commands that (i) sensed and set targets, (ii) controlled voltages and discriminator levels for scintillators, (iii) modified data acquisition hardware logic, (iv) reported control information, and (v) automatically synchronized data acquisition to the CERN spill cycle via a modem signal and transmitted experimental data to a remote computer. No problems were experienced using intercontinental telephone connections at 1200 baud. Our successful "virtual laboratory" approach that uses off-the-shelf electronics is generally adaptable to more conventional bench-type experiments.

  20. Motion Controllers for Learners to Manipulate and Interact with 3D Objects for Mental Rotation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lin, Po-Han; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is an important spatial processing ability and an important element in intelligence tests. However, the majority of past attempts at training mental rotation have used paper-and-pencil tests or digital images. This study proposes an innovative mental rotation training approach using magnetic motion controllers to allow learners to…

  1. In vitro susceptibility of nematophagous fungi to antiparasitic drugs: interactions and implications for biological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract The fast anthelmintic resistance development has shown a limited efficiency in the control of animal’s endoparasitosis and has promoted research using alternative control methods. The use of chemicals in animal anthelmintic treatment, in association with nematophagous fungi used for biological control, is a strategy that has proven to be effective in reducing the nematode population density in farm animals. This study aims to verify the in vitro susceptibility of the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans and Paecilomyces lilacinus against the antiparasitic drugs albendazole, thiabendazole, ivermectin, levamisole and closantel by using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. MICs ranged between 4.0 and 0.031 µg/mL for albendazole, thiabendazole and ivermectin, between 0.937 and 0.117 µg/mL for levamisole, and between 0.625 and 0.034 µg/mL for closantel. The results showed that all antiparasitic drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on nematophagous fungi, which could compromise their action as agents of biological control. D. flagrans was the most susceptible species to all drugs.

  2. Communication and Control in the Canadian North: The Role of Interactive Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaskakis, Gail G.

    In 1972 the Canadian government launched its first domestic communications satellite, Anik A, which relays direct broadcast television and telephone messages to northern communities. The impact of television on Inuit life has raised issues and concerns pertaining to native language broadcasting, media access and control, and cultural identity…

  3. Exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction and risk of digoxin toxicity: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Li, I-Hsun; Lee, Wan-Ju; Huang, Tien-Yu; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chan, Agnes L F

    2011-11-01

    Digoxin is an important medication for heart failure (HF) patients and sennosides are widely used to treat constipation. Recently, safety concerns have been raised about a possible interaction between sennosides and digoxin, an issue that has not been studied empirically. This study therefore aimed to evaluate whether exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction is associated with an increased risk of digoxin toxicity. This was a population-based nested case-control study that analysed data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2004. All HF patients treated with digoxin for the first time were included as the study cohort. Of these, cases were identified as subjects hospitalized for digoxin toxicity (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, ICD-9-CM 972.1), and matched to randomly selected controls. Use of sennosides was compared between the two groups. Odds ratios (ORs) were employed to quantify the risk associated with exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction by conditional logistic regression. The study cohort comprised 222,527 HF patients, of whom 524 were identified as cases and 2,502 as matched controls. Use of sennosides during the 14 days preceding the index date was found to be associated with a 1.61-fold increased risk of digoxin toxicity [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15, 2.25]. Additionally, a greater risk was observed for sennosides prescribed at an average daily dose ≥ 24 mg (adjusted OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.94). The combined use of sennosides and digoxin was found to be associated with a modest increased risk of digoxin toxicity in HF patients.

  4. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Bealing, Clive R.; Bian, Kaifu; Hughes, Kevin J.; Zhang, Wenyu; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hennig, Richard G.; Engstrom, James R.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. The cancer stem cell marker CD133 interacts with plakoglobin and controls desmoglein-2 protein levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Koyama-Nasu

    Full Text Available The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein CD133 (also known as prominin-1 has been widely used as a marker for both cancer and normal stem cells. However, the function of CD133 has not been elucidated. Here we describe a cancer stem cell line established from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC and show that CD133 interacts with plakoglobin (also known as γ-catenin, a desmosomal linker protein. We further demonstrate that knockdown of CD133 by RNA interference (RNAi results in the downregulation of desmoglein-2, a desmosomal cadherin, and abrogates cell-cell adhesion and tumorigenicity of CCC stem cells. We speculate that CD133 may be a promising target for cancer chemotherapy.

  6. Splitter target for controlling magnetic reconnection in relativistic laser plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Korn, G.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of a conical target irradiated by a high power laser is proposed to study fast magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasma interactions. Such target, placed in front of the near critical density gas jet, splits the laser pulse, forming two parallel laser pulses in the 2D case and a donut shaped pulse in the 3D case. The magnetic annihilation and reconnection occur in the density downramp region of the subsequent gas jet. The magnetic field energy is converted into the particle kinetic energy. As a result, a backward accelerated electron beam is obtained as a signature of reconnection. The above mechanisms are demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulations in both 2D and 3D cases. Facilitating the synchronization of two laser beams, the proposed approach can be used in designing the corresponding experiments on studying fundamental problems of relativistic plasma physics.

  7. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-03-09

    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Software complex AS (automation of spectrometry). The spectrometer interactive control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhova, N.V.; Beskrovnyj, A.I.; Butorin, P.E.; Vasilovskij, S.E.; Salamatin, I.M.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Maznyj, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    At the development of Experiment Automation System (EAS) important and complicated challenges are integration of components in the system and reliability of work. First of all it concerns the driver layer of the programs. For a solution of these tasks the special technique of the assembly EAS from ready modules is used. For the purpose of checking the technique of EAS integration in the actual experimental conditions the program MC is developed. And apart from it, MC is a convenient tool for diagnostics of the equipment and realization of experiments in an interactive mode. During experimental maintenance on the spectrometer DN2, properties of performance of the developed technique are confirmed. The program MC without a modification can be used on various spectrometers. (author)

  9. Software Complex AS (Automation of Spectrometry). The Spectrometer Interactive Control Program

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhova, N V; Bytorin, P E; Vasilivskii, S E; Maznyi, N G; Salamatin, I M; Shvetsov, V N

    2004-01-01

    At the development of Experiment Automation System (EAS) important and complicated challenges are integration of components in the system and reliability of work. First of all it concerns driver layer of the programs. For a solution of these tasks the special technique of assembly EAS from ready modules is used. For the purpose of checking the technique of EAS integration in the actual experimental conditions the program MC is developed. And apart from it, MC is a convenient tool for diagnostics of the equipment and realization of experiments in an interactive mode. During experimental maintenance on the spectrometer DN2, properties of performance of the developed technique are confirmed. The program MC without a modification can be used on various spectrometers.

  10. Multiple interactions between maternally-activated signalling pathways control Xenopus nodal-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Maria; Hilton, Emma; Old, Robert

    2002-03-01

    We have investigated the induction of the six Xenopus nodal-related genes, Xnr1-Xnr6, by maternal determinants. The beta-catenin pathway was modelled by stimulation using Xwnt8, activin-like signalling was modelled by activin, and VegT action was studied by overexpression in animal cap explants. Combinations of factors were examined, and previously unrecognised interactions were revealed in animal caps and whole embryos. For the induction of Xnr5 and Xnr6 in whole embryos, using a beta-catenin antisense morpholino oligonucleotide or a dominant negative XTcf3, we have demonstrated an absolute permissive requirement for the beta-catenin/Tcf pathway, in addition to the requirement for VegT action. In animal caps Xnr5 and Xnr6 are induced in response to VegT overexpression, and this induction is dependent upon the concomitant activation of the beta-catenin pathway that VegT initiates in animal caps. For the induction of Xnr3, VegT interacts negatively so as to inhibit the induction otherwise observed with wnt-signalling alone. The negative effect of VegT is not the result of a general inhibition of wnt-signalling, and does not result from an inhibition of wnt-induced siamois expression. A 294 bp proximal promoter fragment of the Xnr3 gene is sufficient to mediate the negative effect of VegT. Further experiments, employing cycloheximide to examine the dependence of Xnr gene expression upon proteins translated after the mid-blastula stage, demonstrated that Xnrs 4, 5 and 6 are 'primary' Xnr genes whose expression in the late blastula is solely dependent upon factors present before the mid-blastula stage.

  11. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  12. EphrinB1/EphB3b Coordinate Bidirectional Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Controlling Liver Morphogenesis and Laterality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayuso, Jordi; Dzementsei, Aliaksandr; Fischer, Johanna C

    2016-01-01

    Positioning organs in the body often requires the movement of multiple tissues, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms coordinating such movements are largely unknown. Here, we show that bidirectional signaling between EphrinB1 and EphB3b coordinates the movements of the hepatic endoderm...... and adjacent lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), resulting in asymmetric positioning of the zebrafish liver. EphrinB1 in hepatoblasts regulates directional migration and mediates interactions with the LPM, where EphB3b controls polarity and movement of the LPM. EphB3b in the LPM concomitantly repels hepatoblasts...

  13. FQC Dashboard: integrates FastQC results into a web-based, interactive, and extensible FASTQ quality control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph; Pirrung, Meg; McCue, Lee Ann

    2017-06-09

    FQC is software that facilitates quality control of FASTQ files by carrying out a QC protocol using FastQC, parsing results, and aggregating quality metrics into an interactive dashboard designed to richly summarize individual sequencing runs. The dashboard groups samples in dropdowns for navigation among the data sets, utilizes human-readable configuration files to manipulate the pages and tabs, and is extensible with CSV data. FQC is implemented in Python 3 and Javascript, and is maintained under an MIT license. Documentation and source code is available at: https://github.com/pnnl/fqc . joseph.brown@pnnl.gov. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Maternal controlling feeding practices and girls’ inhibitory control interact to predict changes in BMI and eating in the absence of hunger from 5 to 7 y1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mothers use a range of feeding practices to limit children's intake of palatable snacks (eg, keeping snacks out of reach, not bringing snacks into the home), but less is known about the effects of these practices on children's eating and weight outcomes. Objective: The objective was to identify distinct feeding practice profiles and evaluate the interactive effects of these profiles and girls’ temperament (inhibitory control and approach) on girls’ eating behaviors and weight outcomes at 5 and 7 y. Design: Participants included 180 mother-daughter dyads; measures were mothers’ reports of controlling feeding practices and girls’ height and weight, eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at 5 y, and inhibitory control (a measure of behavioral inhibition) and approach (a measure of appetitive motivation) at 7 y. Results: Latent profile analysis of maternal feeding practices showed 4 feeding profiles based on maternal use of limit-setting practices and keeping snacks out of girls’ physical reach, a restrictive practice: Unlimited Access to Snacks, Sets Limits+Does Not Restrict Snacks, Sets Limits+Restricts High Fat/Sugar Snacks, and Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks. Girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks had a higher approach and EAH at 5 y. Low inhibitory control girls whose mothers used Sets Limits+Restricts All Snacks or Unlimited Access to Snacks had greater increases in EAH and body mass index (BMI) from 5 to 7 y. Conclusions: Effects of maternal control on girls’ EAH and BMI may differ by the type of practice used (eg, limit-setting or restrictive practices). Girls with low inhibitory control were more susceptible to the negative effects of low and high control. PMID:24284443

  15. Reduction in degree of absorber-cladding mechanical interaction by shroud tube in control rods for the fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donomae, Takako; Katsuyama, Kozo; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Koji; Yamamoto, Masaya; Soga, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a long-life control rod for fast reactors is being conducted at Joyo. One of the challenges in developing a long-life control rod is the restraint of absorber-cladding mechanical interaction (ACMI). First, a helium-bonding rod was selected as a control rod for the experimental fast reactor Joyo, which is the first liquid metal fast reactor in Japan. Its lifetime was limited by ACMI, which is induced by the swelling and relocation of B 4 C pellets. To restrain ACMI, a shroud tube was inserted into the gap between the B 4 C pellets and the cladding tube. However, once B 4 C pellets cracked and broke into small fragments, relocation occurred. After this, the narrow gap closed immediately as the degree of B 4 C pellet swelling increased. To solve this problem, the gap was widened during design, and sodium was selected as the bonding material instead of helium to restrain the increase in pellet temperature. Irradiation testing of the modified sodium-bonding control rod confirmed that ACMI would be restrained by the shroud tube regardless of the occurrence of B 4 C pellet relocation. As a result of these improvements, the estimated lifetime of the control rod at Joyo was doubled. In this paper, the results of postirradiation examination are reported. (author)

  16. Nonautonomous spatiotemporal localized structures in the inhomogeneous optical fibers: Interaction and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Chaoqing; Wang Xiaogang; Zhang Jiefang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The similarity transformation of (n + 1)-dimensional inhomogeneous NLSE are found. → From transformation, analytical self-similar waves and rogue waves are obtained. → Dynamical behaviors of self-similar waves in DDF are discussed. → The propagation and control of spatiotemporal self-similar waves are presented. - Abstract: We develop a systematic way to find the similarity transformation and investigate nonautonomous optical similariton dynamics for (n + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the inhomogeneous optical fibers. A condition between the parameters of the mediums, which hints a exact balance between the dispersion/diffraction, nonlinearity and the gain/loss, has been obtained. Under this condition the optical similariton transmission in the dispersion-decreasing fibers (DDF) can be exactly controlled by proper dispersion management. Moreover, novel propagation dynamics of bright and dark similaritons on the background waves and optical rogue waves (rogons) in DDF are investigated too.

  17. Man/terminal interaction evaluation of computer operating system command and control service concepts. [in Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, D. W.; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Experiment Computer Operating System (ECOS) of the Spacelab will allow the onboard Payload Specialist to command experiment devices and display information relative to the performance of experiments. Three candidate ECOS command and control service concepts were reviewed and laboratory data on operator performance was taken for each concept. The command and control service concepts evaluated included a dedicated operator's menu display from which all command inputs were issued, a dedicated command key concept with which command inputs could be issued from any display, and a multi-display concept in which command inputs were issued from several dedicated function displays. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed in terms of training, operational errors, task performance time, and subjective comments of system operators.

  18. Comparison of cauliflower-insect-fungus interactions and pesticides for cabbage root fly control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Žerjav, Metka; Zemljič-Urbančič, Meta; Modic, Špela; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Grunder, Jürg; Fellous, Simon; Urek, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low-risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040-based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on nonformulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, and T. gamsii and commercial insecticides λ-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam. Spinosad and thiamethoxam were pipetted to individual plants before transplanting; λ-cyhalothrin was sprayed after transplanting; nitrogen lime was applied at first hoeing. Nonformulated fungi were delivered onto cauliflower plantlets' roots as a single pretransplantation inoculation. The cabbage root fly population dynamics exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variation. The lowest number of cabbage root fly pupae recovered from cauliflower roots in the field experiments was recorded in plants treated with spinosad (significant reduction), followed by Naturalis and one of the tested M. brunneum strains (nonsignificant reduction). Significantly more pupae were counted in the nitrogen lime treatment. The field experiments showed that a single drench of cauliflower plantlets with spinosad offered consistent and enduring cabbage root fly control. Naturalis and nonformulated fungal isolates did not decrease cabbage root fly pressure significantly, apparently due to lack of statistical power. The implications of the substantial intra- and inter-annual pest pressure variation and the benefits of using single plant treatments are discussed, and recommendations for improvement of rhizosphere-competence utilizing biological control strategies provided. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Interaction of Pubertal Development and Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plamper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In T1DM, delayed pubertal development and reduced final height are associated with inadequate metabolic control. Objective. To assess whether T1DM affects pubertal growth spurt and whether metabolic control during puberty is gender-related. Methods. Using a large multicentre database, longitudinal data from 1294 patients were analysed. Inclusion criteria: complete records of height and HbA1c from the age of seven to 16 years. Exclusion criteria: other significant chronic diseases and medications, T1DM duration less than three months, and initial BMI 97th percentile. Results. Growth velocity (GV was impaired with a significant reduction of peak GV by 1.2 cm in boys. HbA1c increase during male puberty was lower except for a period of 1.5 years. The highest HbA1c increase in boys coincided with maximum growth spurt. In girls, the highest HbA1c increase was observed during late puberty. Even though there is impaired GV, both sexes reach a height at 16 years of age which corresponds to the background population height. Conclusion. Worsening of metabolic control is sex-discordant and associated with gender-specific alterations of GV. However, the vast majority of boys and girls with T1DM seems to reach normal height at the age of 16 years.

  20. Use of spreadsheets for interactive control of MFTF-B plasma diagnostic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.; Goldner, A.L.; Kobayashi, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a variety of highly individualized plasma diagnostic instruments attached to the experiment. These instruments are controlled through graphics workstations networked to a central computer system. A distributed spreadsheet-like program runs in both the graphics workstations and in the central computer system. An interface very similar to a commercial spreadsheet program is presented to the user at a workstation. In a commercial spreadsheet program, the user may attach mathematical calculation functions to spreadsheet cells. At MFTF-B, hardware control functions, hardware monitoring functions, and communications functions, as well as mathematical functions, may be attached to cells. Both the user and feedback from instrument hardware may make entries in spreadsheet cells; any entry in a spreadsheet cell may cause reevaluation of the cell's associated functions. The spreadsheet approach makes the addition of a new instrument a matter of designing one or more spreadsheet tables with associated meta-language-defined control and communication function strings. This paper describes the details of the spreadsheets and the implementation experience

  1. Use of spreadsheets for interactive control of MFTF-B plasma diagnostic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.; Goldner, A.; Kobayashi, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a variety of highly individualized plasma diagnostic instruments attached to the experiment. These instruments are controlled through graphics workstations networked to a central computer system. A distributed spreadsheet-like program runs in both the graphics workstations and in the central computer system. An interface very similar to a commercial spreadsheet program is presented to the user at a workstation. In a commercial spreadsheet program, the user may attach mathematical calculation functions to spreadsheet cells. At MFTF-B, hardware control functions, hardware monitoring functions, and communications functions, as well as mathematical functions, may be attached to cells. Both the user and feedback from instrument hardware may make entries in spreadsheet cells; any entry in a spreadsheet cell may cause reevaluation of the cell's associated functions. The spreadsheet approach makes the addition of a new instrument a matter of designing one or more spreadsheet tables with associated meta-language-defined control and communication function strings. We report here details of our spreadsheets and our implementation experience

  2. Interactive associations of parental support, demands, and psychological control, over adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Carlos; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parental support, demand, psychological control and adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues in a sample of 1342 Chilean adolescents (M = 16.38, SD = 1.24, age range 14-20). Results from multiple regression analyses separated by age indicated that demand was positively associated with adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues and that psychological control was negatively associated with adolescents' legitimacy beliefs concerning personal issues. Furthermore, parental support moderated the relationship between parental demand and adolescents' beliefs about parental legitimacy for personal and multifaceted issues: those who display high levels of demand showed stronger beliefs about parental legitimacy at high level of support. These results support the interactive effect of parental support and demand on adolescent development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Controlled experimental soil organic matter modification for study of organic pollutant interactions in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ashour A.; Kühn, Oliver; Leinweber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Interactions of organic pollutants with soil organic matter can be studied by adsorption of the pollutants on well-characterized soil samples with constant mineralogy but different organic matter compositions. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are establishing a set of different, well-characterized soil samples by systematic modifications of their organic matter content and molecular composition and prove these modifications by advanced complementary analytical techniques. Modifications were done by off-line pyrolysis and removal/addition of hot-water extracted organic fraction (HWE) from/to the original soil sample. Both pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and synchrotron-based C- and N- X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) were applied to investigate the composition of the soil organic matter. These complementary analytical methods in addition to elemental analysis agreed in showing the following order of organic matter contents: pyrolyzed soil < soil residue < original soil < soil + 3 HWE < soil + 6 HWE < HWE. The addition of HWE to the soil sample increases the relative proportions of carbohydrates, N-containing heterocyclic compounds and peptides, and decreases the relative proportions of phenols, lignin monomers and dimers, and lipids. The most abundant organic compound classes in the pyrolyzed sample are aromatics, aliphatic nitriles, aldehydes, five- and six-membered N-containing heterocyclic compounds, and aliphatic carboxylic acids. It can be expected that removal or addition of HWE, that mimic biomass inputs to soil or soil amendments, change the binding capacity for organic pollutants less intensively than heat impact, e.g. from vegetation burning. It will be possible to interpret kinetic data on the pollutants adsorption by these original and modified soil samples on the basis of the bond- and element-specific speciation data through C-XANES and N-XANES and the molecular-level characterization

  4. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling interacts differentially with Ihh signaling in controlling endochondral bone and synovial joint formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kingston Kinglun; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Day, Timothy F; Chuang, Pao-Tien; Yang, Yingzi

    2006-09-01

    Both the Wnt/beta-catenin and Ihh signaling pathways play essential roles in crucial aspects of endochondral ossification: osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. To understand the genetic interaction between these two signaling pathways, we have inactivated the beta-catenin gene and upregulated Ihh signaling simultaneously in the same cells during endochondral skeletal development using beta-catenin and patched 1 floxed alleles. We uncovered previously unexpected roles of Ihh signaling in synovial joint formation and the essential function of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in regulating chondrocyte survival. More importantly, we found that Wnt and Ihh signaling interact with each other in distinct ways to control osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, survival and synovial joint formation in the developing endochondral bone. Beta-catenin is required downstream of Ihh signaling and osterix expression for osteoblast differentiation. But in chondrocyte survival, beta-catenin is required upstream of Ihh signaling to inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis. In addition, Ihh signaling can inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy and synovial joint formation independently of beta-catenin. However, there is a strong synergistic interaction between Wnt/beta-catenin and Ihh signaling in regulating synovial joint formation.

  5. GBOOST: a GPU-based tool for detecting gene-gene interactions in genome-wide case control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Ling Sing; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Yu, Weichuan

    2011-05-01

    Collecting millions of genetic variations is feasible with the advanced genotyping technology. With a huge amount of genetic variations data in hand, developing efficient algorithms to carry out the gene-gene interaction analysis in a timely manner has become one of the key problems in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Boolean operation-based screening and testing (BOOST), a recent work in GWAS, completes gene-gene interaction analysis in 2.5 days on a desktop computer. Compared with central processing units (CPUs), graphic processing units (GPUs) are highly parallel hardware and provide massive computing resources. We are, therefore, motivated to use GPUs to further speed up the analysis of gene-gene interactions. We implement the BOOST method based on a GPU framework and name it GBOOST. GBOOST achieves a 40-fold speedup compared with BOOST. It completes the analysis of Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium Type 2 Diabetes (WTCCC T2D) genome data within 1.34 h on a desktop computer equipped with Nvidia GeForce GTX 285 display card. GBOOST code is available at http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/BOOST.html#GBOOST.

  6. Programmable display of DNA-protein chimeras for controlling cell-hydrogel interactions via reversible intermolecular hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2013-04-08

    Extensive studies have been recently carried out to achieve dynamic control of cell-material interactions primarily through physicochemical stimulation. The purpose of this study was to apply reversible intermolecular hybridization to program cell-hydrogel interactions in physiological conditions based on DNA-antibody chimeras and complementary oligonucleotides. The results showed that DNA oligonucleotides could be captured to and released from the immobilizing DNA-functionalized hydrogels with high specificity via DNA hybridization. Accordingly, DNA-antibody chimeras were captured to the hydrogels, successfully inducing specific cell attachment. The cell attachment to the hydrogels reached the plateau at approximately half an hour after the functionalized hydrogels and the cells were incubated together. The attached cells were rapidly released from the bound hydrogels when triggering complementary oligonucleotides were introduced to the system. However, the capability of the triggering complementary oligonucleotides in releasing cells was affected by the length of intermolecular hybridization. The length needed to be at least more than 20 base pairs in the current experimental setting. Notably, because the procedure of intermolecular hybridization did not involve any harsh condition, the released cells maintained the same viability as that of the cultured cells. The functionalized hydrogels also exhibited the potential to catch and release cells repeatedly. Therefore, this study demonstrates that it is promising to regulate cell-material interactions dynamically through the DNA-programmed display of DNA-protein chimeras.

  7. KIR and HLA interactions are associated with control of primary CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duin, D; Avery, R K; Hemachandra, S; Yen-Lieberman, B; Zhang, A; Jain, A; Butler, R S; Barnard, J; Schold, J D; Fung, J; Askar, M

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors(KIR) are genetically polymorphic natural killer(NK) cell receptors important in antiviral responses. A retrospective, single-center cohort study was performed to study the interaction of KIR genotype and primary control of CMV infection after transplantation.Time to first CMV viremia was determined for a cohort of 531 CMV serology donor positive/recipient negative solid organ transplant recipients. Of the KIR genes,KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 were most strongly associated with time to CMV viremia in random survival forest analysis. As KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 both interact with HLA-C1, these interactions were evaluated. Seventy six recipients were found to be positive for both KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 and expressed only HLA-C1 antigens in both recipient and donor. These patients had a substantially reduced hazard of CMV viremia in the first year after solid organ transplantation (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.27–0.72, p=0.0012). In KIR2DL3+/KIR2DS2+/HLA-C1/1 recipients who received an organ from a non-C1/1 donor, this protective effect was not observed. These results improve our understanding of human NK cell function in primary CMV infection after transplant.

  8. Phosphorylation of human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) allosterically controls its interaction with the lysosomal trafficking protein LIP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jennifer Virginia; Survery, Sabeen; Kreida, Stefan; Nesverova, Veronika; Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Gourdon, Maria; Deen, Peter M T; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between the renal water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein LIP5 targets AQP2 to multivesicular bodies and facilitates lysosomal degradation. This interaction is part of a process that controls AQP2 apical membrane abundance in a vasopressin-dependent manner, allowing for urine volume adjustment. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation at four sites within the AQP2 C terminus (Ser 256 , Ser 261 , Ser 264 , and Thr 269 ), of which Ser 256 is crucial and sufficient for AQP2 translocation from storage vesicles to the apical membrane. However, whether AQP2 phosphorylation modulates AQP2-LIP5 complex affinity is unknown. Here we used far-Western blot analysis and microscale thermophoresis to show that the AQP2 binds LIP5 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We constructed five phospho-mimicking mutants (S256E, S261E, S264E, T269E, and S256E/T269E) and a C-terminal truncation mutant (ΔP242) that lacked all phosphorylation sites but retained a previously suggested LIP5-binding site. CD spectroscopy indicated that wild-type AQP2 and the phospho-mimicking mutants had similar overall structure but displayed differences in melting temperatures possibly arising from C-terminal conformational changes. Non-phosphorylated AQP2 bound LIP5 with the highest affinity, whereas AQP2-ΔP242 had 20-fold lower affinity as determined by microscale thermophoresis. AQP2-S256E, S261E, T269E, and S256E/T269E all had reduced affinity. This effect was most prominent for AQP2-S256E, which fits well with its role in apical membrane targeting. AQP2-S264E had affinity similar to non-phosphorylated AQP2, possibly indicating a role in exosome excretion. Our data suggest that AQP2 phosphorylation allosterically controls its interaction with LIP5, illustrating how altered affinities to interacting proteins form the basis for regulation of AQP2 trafficking by post-translational modifications. © 2017 by The American Society for

  9. Separate and interactive contributions of weak inhibitory control and threat sensitivity to prediction of suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Noah C; Sellbom, Martin; Sourander, Andre; Kendler, Kenneth S; Joiner, Thomas E; Drislane, Laura E; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimaki, Petteri; Patrick, Christopher J

    2015-04-30

    Biobehavioral dispositions can serve as valuable referents for biologically oriented research on core processes with relevance to many psychiatric conditions. The present study examined two such dispositional variables-weak response inhibition (or disinhibition; INH-) and threat sensitivity (or fearfulness; THT+)-as predictors of the serious transdiagnostic problem of suicide risk in two samples: male and female outpatients from a U.S. clinic (N=1078), and a population-based male military cohort from Finland (N=3855). INH- and THT+ were operationalized through scores on scale measures of disinhibition and fear/fearlessness, known to be related to DSM-defined clinical conditions and brain biomarkers. Suicide risk was assessed by clinician ratings (clinic sample) and questionnaires (both samples). Across samples and alternative suicide indices, INH- and THT+ each contributed uniquely to prediction of suicide risk-beyond internalizing and externalizing problems in the case of the clinic sample where diagnostic data were available. Further, in both samples, INH- and THT+ interactively predicted suicide risk, with individuals scoring concurrently high on both dispositions exhibiting markedly augmented risk. Findings demonstrate that dispositional constructs of INH- and THT+ are predictive of suicide risk, and hold potential as referents for biological research on suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature and rainfall interact to control carbon cycling in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Philip G; Cleveland, Cory C; Wieder, William R; Sullivan, Benjamin W; Doughty, Christopher E; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Townsend, Alan R

    2017-06-01

    Tropical forests dominate global terrestrial carbon (C) exchange, and recent droughts in the Amazon Basin have contributed to short-term declines in terrestrial carbon dioxide uptake and storage. However, the effects of longer-term climate variability on tropical forest carbon dynamics are still not well understood. We synthesised field data from more than 150 tropical forest sites to explore how climate regulates tropical forest aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and organic matter decomposition, and combined those data with two existing databases to explore climate - C relationships globally. While previous analyses have focused on the effects of either temperature or rainfall on ANPP, our results highlight the importance of interactions between temperature and rainfall on the C cycle. In cool forests (forests (> 20 °C) it consistently enhanced both ANPP and decomposition. At the global scale, our analysis showed an increase in ANPP with rainfall in relatively warm sites, inconsistent with declines in ANPP with rainfall reported previously. Overall, our results alter our understanding of climate - C cycle relationships, with high precipitation accelerating rates of C exchange with the atmosphere in the most productive biome on earth. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Intermolecular Interactions in the TMEM16A Dimer Controlling Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudieri, Paolo; Musante, Ilaria; Gianotti, Ambra; Moran, Oscar; Galietta, Luis J V

    2016-12-08

    TMEM16A and TMEM16B are plasma membrane proteins with Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - channel function. By replacing the carboxy-terminus of TMEM16A with the equivalent region of TMEM16B, we obtained channels with potentiation of channel activity. Progressive shortening of the chimeric region restricted the "activating domain" to a short sequence close to the last transmembrane domain and led to TMEM16A channels with high activity at very low intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this effect, we carried out experiments based on double chimeras, Forster resonance energy transfer, and intermolecular cross-linking. We also modeled TMEM16A structure using the Nectria haematococca TMEM16 protein as template. Our results indicate that the enhanced activity in chimeric channels is due to altered interaction between the carboxy-terminus and the first intracellular loop in the TMEM16A homo-dimer. Mimicking this perturbation with a small molecule could be the basis for a pharmacological stimulation of TMEM16A-dependent Cl - transport.

  12. Control of the interaction strength of photonic molecules by nanometer precise 3D fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Colin D; Zientek, Michal; Spieser, Martin; Urbonas, Darius; Stöferle, Thilo; Mahrt, Rainer F; Lisunova, Yuliya; Brugger, Juergen; Duerig, Urs; Knoll, Armin W

    2017-11-28

    Applications for high resolution 3D profiles, so-called grayscale lithography, exist in diverse fields such as optics, nanofluidics and tribology. All of them require the fabrication of patterns with reliable absolute patterning depth independent of the substrate location and target materials. Here we present a complete patterning and pattern-transfer solution based on thermal scanning probe lithography (t-SPL) and dry etching. We demonstrate the fabrication of 3D profiles in silicon and silicon oxide with nanometer scale accuracy of absolute depth levels. An accuracy of less than 1nm standard deviation in t-SPL is achieved by providing an accurate physical model of the writing process to a model-based implementation of a closed-loop lithography process. For transfering the pattern to a target substrate we optimized the etch process and demonstrate linear amplification of grayscale patterns into silicon and silicon oxide with amplification ratios of ∼6 and ∼1, respectively. The performance of the entire process is demonstrated by manufacturing photonic molecules of desired interaction strength. Excellent agreement of fabricated and simulated structures has been achieved.

  13. Plasmon interactions between gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution with controlled spatial separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sendroiu, I.E.; Mertens, Stijn; Schiffrin, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of interparticle distance on the UV-visible absorption spectrum of gold nanocrystals aggregates in aqueous solution have been investigated. The aggregates were produced by ion-templated chelation of omega-mercaptocarboxylic acid ligands covalently attached to the nanoparticles surface....... Variation of the ligand chain length provides control over the interparticle separation in the aggregates. The UV-visible spectra consist typically of a single particle band and a secondary band at higher wavelengths associated with the formation of aggregates in solution. The position of the latter depends...

  14. Interactions between mRNA export commitment, 3'-end quality control, and nuclear degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libri, Domenico; Dower, Ken; Boulay, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    Several aspects of eukaryotic mRNA processing are linked to transcription. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overexpression of the mRNA export factor Sub2p suppresses the growth defect of hpr1 null cells, yet the protein Hpr1p and the associated THO protein complex are implicated in transcriptional el...... results show that several classes of defective RNPs are subject to a quality control step that impedes release from transcription site foci and suggest that suboptimal messenger ribonucleoprotein assembly leads to RNA degradation by Rrp6p....

  15. [Interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture combined with occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment in stroke: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pei, Jian; Cui, Xiao; Sun, Kexing; Ni, Huanhuan; Zhou, Cuixia; Wu, Ji; Huang, Mei; Ji, Li

    2015-10-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy on upper limb motor impairment in stroke between the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture therapy and the traditional scalp acupuncture therapy. The randomized controlled trial and MINIMIZE layering randomization software were adopted. Seventy patients of upper limb with III to V grade in Brunnstrom scale after stroke were randomized into an interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group and a traditional scalp acupuncture group, 35 cases in each one. In the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group, the middle 2/5 of Dingnieqianxiexian (anterior oblique line of vertex-temporal), the middle 2/5 of Dingniehouxiexian (posterior oblique line of vertex-temporal) and Dingpangerxian (lateral line 2 of vertex) on the affected side were selected as the stimulation areas. Additionally, the rehabilitation training was applied during scalp acupuncture treatment. In the traditional scalp acupuncture group, the scalp stimulation areas were same as the interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture group. But the rehabilitation training was applied separately. The rehabilitation training was applied in the morning and the scalp acupuncture was done in the afternoon. The results in Fugl-Meyer for the upper limb motor function (U-FMA), the Wolf motor function measure scale (WM- FT) and the modified Barthel index in the two groups were compared between the two groups before treatment and in 1 and 2 months of treatment, respectively. After treatment, the U-FMA score, WMFT score and the score of the modified Barthel index were all apparently improved as compared with those before treatment (all P acupuncture group was better than that in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (P acupuncture group were improved apparently as compared with those in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (P acupuncture group were not different significantly as compared with those in the traditional scalp acupuncture group (both P > 0.05). For the patients of IV to V grade in

  16. Cardiovascular and Postural Control Interactions during Hypergravity: Effects on Cerebral Autoregulation in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Blaber, Andrew; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Avan, Paul; Bruner, Michelle; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a problem upon return to Earth from the microgravity environment of spaceflight. A variety of conditions including hypovolemia, cerebral vasoconstriction, cerebral or peripheral vascular disease, or cardiac arrhythmias may result in syncope if the person remains upright. Current research indicates that there is a greater dependence on visual and somatosensory information at the beginning of space flight with a decreased otolith gain during prolonged space flight (Herault et al., 2002). The goal of the research is to further our understanding of the fundamental adaptive homeostatic mechanisms involved in gravity related changes in cardiovascular and postural function. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and postural sensory motor control systems in male and female participants before, during, and after exposure to graded levels of hyper-G were investigated. Hypotheses: 1) Activation of skeletal muscle pump will be directly related to the degree of orthostatic stress. 2) Simultaneous measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and postural sway will predict cardio-postural stability. Blood pressure and heart rate (means and variability), postural sway, center of pressure (COP), baroreflex function, calf blood flow, middle cerebral artery blood flow, non-invasive intracranial pressure measurements, and two-breath CO2 were measured. Results from the study will be used to provide an integrated insight into mechanisms of cardio-postural control and cerebral autoregulation, which are important aspects of human health in flights to Moon, Mars and distant planets.

  17. A HUMAN AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONCEPT FOR A SMALL MODULAR REACTOR CONTROL ROOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Spielman, Zach; Hill, Rachael

    2017-06-01

    Many advanced nuclear power plant (NPP) designs incorporate higher degrees of automation than the existing fleet of NPPs. Automation is being introduced or proposed in NPPs through a wide variety of systems and technologies, such as advanced displays, computer-based procedures, advanced alarm systems, and computerized operator support systems. Additionally, many new reactor concepts, both full scale and small modular reactors, are proposing increased automation and reduced staffing as part of their concept of operations. However, research consistently finds that there is a fundamental tradeoff between system performance with increased automation and reduced human performance. There is a need to address the question of how to achieve high performance and efficiency of high levels of automation without degrading human performance. One example of a new NPP concept that will utilize greater degrees of automation is the SMR concept from NuScale Power. The NuScale Power design requires 12 modular units to be operated in one single control room, which leads to a need for higher degrees of automation in the control room. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) researchers and NuScale Power human factors and operations staff are working on a collaborative project to address the human performance challenges of increased automation and to determine the principles that lead to optimal performance in highly automated systems. This paper will describe this concept in detail and will describe an experimental test of the concept. The benefits and challenges of the approach will be discussed.

  18. Cognitive control during audiovisual working memory engages frontotemporal theta-band interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daume, Jonathan; Graetz, Sebastian; Gruber, Thomas; Engel, Andreas K; Friese, Uwe

    2017-10-03

    Working memory (WM) maintenance of sensory information has been associated with enhanced cross-frequency coupling between the phase of low frequencies and the amplitude of high frequencies, particularly in medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. It has been suggested that these WM maintenance processes are controlled by areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) via frontotemporal phase synchronisation in low frequency bands. Here, we investigated whether enhanced cognitive control during audiovisual WM as compared to visual WM alone is associated with increased low-frequency phase synchronisation between sensory areas maintaining WM content and areas from PFC. Using magnetoencephalography, we recorded neural oscillatory activity from healthy human participants engaged in an audiovisual delayed-match-to-sample task. We observed that regions from MTL, which showed enhanced theta-beta phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) during the WM delay window, exhibited stronger phase synchronisation within the theta-band (4-7 Hz) to areas from lateral PFC during audiovisual WM as compared to visual WM alone. Moreover, MTL areas also showed enhanced phase synchronisation to temporooccipital areas in the beta-band (20-32 Hz). Our results provide further evidence that a combination of long-range phase synchronisation and local PAC might constitute a mechanism for neuronal communication between distant brain regions and across frequencies during WM maintenance.

  19. Control strategies for a stochastic model of host-parasite interaction in a seasonal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corral, A; López García, M

    2014-08-07

    We examine a nonlinear stochastic model for the parasite load of a single host over a predetermined time interval. We use nonhomogeneous Poisson processes to model the acquisition of parasites, the parasite-induced host mortality, the natural (no parasite-induced) host mortality, and the reproduction and death of parasites within the host. Algebraic results are first obtained on the age-dependent distribution of the number of parasites infesting the host at an arbitrary time t. The interest is in control strategies based on isolation of the host and the use of an anthelmintic at a certain intervention instant t0. This means that the host is free living in a seasonal environment, and it is transferred to a uninfected area at age t0. In the uninfected area, the host does not acquire new parasites, undergoes a treatment to decrease the parasite load, and its natural and parasite-induced mortality are altered. For a suitable selection of t0, we present two control criteria that appropriately balance effectiveness and cost of intervention. Our approach is based on simple probabilistic principles, and it allows us to examine seasonal fluctuations of gastrointestinal nematode burden in growing lambs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  1. Dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA): interaction between DCA methods and 1-methylcyclopropene on 'Fuji Suprema' apple quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Anderson; Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Anese, Rogerio de Oliveira; Both, Vanderlei; Pavanello, Elizandra Pivotto; Brackmann, Auri

    2017-11-15

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the appropriate respiratory quotient (RQ) value to achieve a safe lowest oxygen limit (LOL), during storage of 'Fuji Suprema' apples, in dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA), treated with or without 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The apples were stored in DCA-RQ, a new technology for storing fruits, and were compared with the HarvestWatch™, a system based on chlorophyll fluorescence DCA (DCA-CF), and static controlled atmosphere. DCA-RQ1.5 is the most suited for the storage of 'Fuji Suprema' apples. In this condition fermentative products were induced, which reduced ethylene production and respiration rate; however, it did not increase physiological disorders, and the concentration of ethyl acetate was below the odour threshold. 1-MCP application maintained higher flesh firmness and reduced the anaerobic metabolism, although it decreased fruit quality due to the occurrence of cavities, therefore its application is not recommended for 'Fuji Suprema' apple stored in DCA conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Local magnetic divertor for control of the plasma--limiter interaction in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Liewer, P.C.; Gould, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment is described in which plasma flow to a tokamak limiter is controlled through the use of a local toroidal divertor coil mounted inside the limiter itself. This coil produces a local perturbed field B/sub C/ approximately equal to the local unperturbed toroidal field B/sub T/approx. =3 kG, such that when B/sub C/ adds to B/sub T/ the field lines move into the limiter and the local plasma flow to it increases by a factor as great as 1.6, and when B/sub C/ subtracts from B/sub T/ the field lines move away from the limiter and the local plasma flow to it decreases by as much as a factor of 4. A simple theoretical model is used to interpret these results. Since these changes occur without significantly affecting global plasma confinement, such a control scheme may be useful for optimizing the performance of pumped limiters

  3. Interactive effects of chemical and biological controls on food-web composition in saline prairie lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ryan N; Wissel, Björn

    2012-11-27

    Salinity is restricting habitatability for many biota in prairie lakes due to limited physiological abilities to cope with increasing osmotic stress. Yet, it remains unclear how salinity effects vary among major taxonomic groups and what role other environmental parameters play in shaping food-web composition. To answer these questions, we sampled fish, zooplankton and littoral macroinvertebrates in 20 prairie lakes (Saskatchewan, Canada) characterized by large gradients in water chemistry and lake morphometry. We showed that salinity thresholds differed among major taxonomic groups, as most fishes were absent above salinities of 2 g L-1, while littoral macroinvertebrates were ubiquitous. Zooplankton occurred over the whole salinity range, but changed taxonomic composition as salinity increased. Subsequently, the complexity of fish community (diversity) was associated with large changes in invertebrate communities. The directional changes in invertebrate communities to smaller taxa indicated that complex fish assemblages resulted in higher predation pressure. Most likely, as the complexity of fish community decreased, controls of invertebrate assemblages shifted from predation to competition and ultimately to productivity in hypersaline lakes. Surprisingly, invertebrate predators did not thrive in the absence of fishes in these systems. Furthermore, the here identified salinity threshold for fishes was too low to be a result of osmotic stress. Hence, winterkill was likely an important factor eliminating fishes in low salinity lakes that had high productivity and shallow water depth. Ultimately, while salinity was crucial, intricate combinations of chemical and biological mechanisms also played a major role in controlling the assemblages of major taxonomic groups in prairie lakes.

  4. TP53 genetic polymorphisms, interactions with lifestyle factors and lung cancer risk: a case control study in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanli; Su, Jia; Cai, Lin; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Crabtree-Ide, Christina R; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Han, Xiaoyou; Li, Jiawei

    2013-01-01

    A pathway-based genotyping analysis suggested rs2078486 was a novel TP53 SNP, but very few studies replicate this association. TP53 rs1042522 is the most commonly studied SNP, but very few studies examined its potential interaction with environmental factors in relation to lung cancer risk. This study aims to examine associations between two TP53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2078486, rs1042522), their potential interaction with environmental factors and risk of lung cancer. A case–control study was conducted in Taiyuan, China. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Multiplicative and additive interactions between TP53 SNPs and lifestyle factors were evaluated. Variant TP53 rs2078486 SNP was significantly associated with elevated lung cancer risk among smokers (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.67) and individuals with high indoor air pollution exposure (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.00-2.30). Significant or borderline significant multiplicative and additive interactions were found between TP53 rs2078486 polymorphism with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure. The variant genotype of TP53 SNP rs1042522 significantly increased lung cancer risk in the total population (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), but there was no evidence of heterogeneity among individuals with different lifestyle factors. This study confirmed that TP53 rs2078486 SNP is potentially a novel TP53 SNP that may affect lung cancer risk. Our study also suggested potential synergetic effects of TP53 rs2078486 SNP with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure on lung cancer risk

  5. Tuning interionic interaction by rationally controlling solution pH for highly selective colorimetric sensing of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Hao, Jie; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-04-01

    Direct selective sensing of arginine in central nervous systems remains very essential to understanding of the molecular basis of some physiological events. This study presents the first demonstration on a simple yet effective method for arginine sensing with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. The rationale for the method is based on the pH-dependent feature of the interionic interaction between cysteine and arginine. At pH 6.0, cysteine can only interact with arginine through the ion-pair interaction and such interaction can lead to the changes in both the solution color and UV-vis spectrum of the cysteine-protected Au-NPs upon the addition of arginine. These changes are further developed into an analytical strategy for effective sensing of arginine by rationally controlling the pH values of Au-NP dispersions with the ratio of the absorbance at 650 nm (A 650) to that at 520 nm (A 520) (A 650/A 520) as a parameter for analysis. The method is responsive to arginine without the interference from other species in the cerebral system; under the optimized conditions, the A 650/A 520 values are linear with the concentration of arginine within a concentration range from 0.80 to 64 μM, yet remain unchanged with the addition of other kinds of amino acids or the species in the central nervous system into the Au-NPs dispersion containing cysteine. The method demonstrated here is reliable and robust and could thus be used for detection of the increase of arginine in central nervous systems.

  6. Interaction between beam control and rf feedback loops for high Q cavities an heavy beam loading. Revision A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestha, L.K.; Kwan, C.M.; Yeung, K.S.

    1994-04-01

    An open-loop state space model of all the major low-level rf feedback control loops is derived. The model has control and state variables for fast-cycling machines to apply modern multivariable feedback techniques. A condition is derived to know when exactly we can cross the boundaries between time-varying and time-invariant approaches for a fast-cycling machine like the Low Energy Booster (LEB). The conditions are dependent on the Q of the cavity and the rate at which the frequency changes with time. Apart from capturing the time-variant characteristics, the errors in the magnetic field are accounted in the model to study the effects on synchronization with the Medium Energy Booster (MEB). The control model is useful to study the effects on beam control due to heavy beam loading at high intensities, voltage transients just after injection especially due to time-varying voltages, instability thresholds created by the cavity tuning feedback system, cross coupling between feedback loops with and without direct rf feedback etc. As a special case we have shown that the model agrees with the well known Pedersen model derived for the CERN PS booster. As an application of the model we undertook a detailed study of the cross coupling between the loops by considering all of them at once for varying time, Q and beam intensities. A discussion of the method to identify the coupling is shown. At the end a summary of the identified loop interactions is presented

  7. Eternal triangle: the interaction of light source, electrical control gear, and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'heeren, Griet

    1998-04-01

    In this particular 'affair' the participants are less than human but have individual personalities they bring to their relationship with each other. High pressure metal halide lamps such as BriteArc lamps have the highest luminance and radiance of all continuously operating practical light source. Since these lamps have short arcs and are available in power ratings from about 30W to 30kW they have found applications with various optical systems. Besides the lamps, such systems include an electrical control device and an optical system. To fulfil the user's requirements for a specific application, it is not only important to choose the right lamp, but crucial to achieve a harmonious marriage between the light source, electrical control device and the optics. To run a high pressure discharge lamp an ignitor/ballast system is essential This stabilizes the lamp parameters. The chemical components inside the lamp determine the lamp voltage and the gear determines, via the current, the lamp power. These are directly related in the luminance and color temperature of the emitted light. Therefore lamp performance and effective life are dependent on the ignitor, control gear and lamp combination. Since the lamp emits radiation in all directions, collection of the light from a lamp can be improved by using reflectors to deliver the light into a lens system. Since lamps with short arc gaps approach a point source they appear ideal for optical system applications. The shape of the reflector and the focusing of the lamp determine which part of the light is collected out of the light-arc. In the case of an LCD projector, the final light output also depends on the transmission characteristics of the LCD panels. Their nonlinearity causes the color of the emitted light to be different from the lamp color. All these parameters have to be optimized to obtain the highest performance. This leads to the conclusion that a carefully matched combination of lamp, ignitor/ballast and optics

  8. Implementing the Kyoto protocol in Europe: Interactions between international and Community controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-07-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book which discusses the coexistence of the Kyoto protocol and of a regional regime within the European Union for the actual application of rules requiring mechanisms of control. The international regime implements a continuous monitoring which combines conventional techniques and more intrusive procedures. The European Community introduced a non-contentious mechanism with a large and strong law basis and sanction ability. The author assesses the ability of the monitoring system as a whole to ensure the very credibility of the Protocol. She also assesses the reliability of international and community economic tools which aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions at a minimum cost. She also discusses the desirable evolutions of the regime of struggle against climate changes

  9. Phase sensitive control of vibronic guest-host interaction: Br2 in Ar matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Heide; Héjjas, Mónika; Fushitani, Mizuho; Schwentner, Nikolaus

    2009-07-02

    Vibronic progressions are programmed into a pulse shaper which converts them via the inherent Fourier transformation into a train of femtosecond pulses in time domain for chromophore excitation. Double pulse results agree with phase-sensitive wave packet superposition from a Michelson interferometer which delivers coherence times with high reliability. Spectral resolution of 1 nm and a spacing of around 4 nm within the 20 nm envelope centered at 590 nm delivers a train of seven phase-controlled 40 fs subpulses separated by 250 fs. Combs adjusted to the zero phonon lines (ZPL) and phonon sidebands (PSB) of the B state vibronic progression are reproduced in the chromophore for a coherent subpulse accumulation. B state ZPL wave packet dynamics dominates in pump-probe spectra due to its coherence despite an overwhelming but incoherent A state contribution in absorption. PSB comb accumulation is also phase sensitive and demonstrates coherence within several 100 matrix degrees of freedom in the vicinity.

  10. Interactions within the yeast t-SNARE Sso1p that control SNARE complex assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, M; Chen, X; Cocina, A E; Schultz, S M; Hughson, F M

    2000-10-01

    In the eukaryotic secretory and endocytic pathways, transport vesicles shuttle cargo among intracellular organelles and to and from the plasma membrane. Cargo delivery entails fusion of the transport vesicle with its target, a process thought to be mediated by membrane bridging SNARE protein complexes. Temporal and spatial control of intracellular trafficking depends in part on regulating the assembly of these complexes. In vitro, SNARE assembly is inhibited by the closed conformation adopted by the syntaxin family of SNAREs. To visualize this closed conformation directly, the X-ray crystal structure of a yeast syntaxin, Sso1p, has been determined and refined to 2.1 A resolution. Mutants designed to destabilize the closed conformation exhibit accelerated rates of SNARE assembly. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of SNARE assembly and its intramolecular and intermolecular regulation.

  11. Controlling the orientation of nucleobases by dipole moment interaction with graphene/h-BN interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vovusha, Hakkim; Amorim, Rodrigo G.; Scheicher, Ralph H.; Sanyal, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    The interfaces in 2D hybrids of graphene and h-BN provide interesting possibilities of adsorbing and manipulating atomic and molecular entities. In this paper, with the aid of density functional theory, we demonstrate the adsorption characteristics of DNA nucleobases at different interfaces of 2D hybrid nanoflakes of graphene and h-BN. The interfaces provide stronger binding to the nucleobases in comparison to pure graphene and h-BN nanoflakes. It is also revealed that the individual dipole moments of the nucleobases and nanoflakes dictate the orientation of the nucleobases at the interfaces of the hybrid structures. The results of our study point towards a possible route to selectively control the orientation of individual molecules in biosensors.

  12. Controlling the orientation of nucleobases by dipole moment interaction with graphene/h-BN interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vovusha, Hakkim

    2018-02-08

    The interfaces in 2D hybrids of graphene and h-BN provide interesting possibilities of adsorbing and manipulating atomic and molecular entities. In this paper, with the aid of density functional theory, we demonstrate the adsorption characteristics of DNA nucleobases at different interfaces of 2D hybrid nanoflakes of graphene and h-BN. The interfaces provide stronger binding to the nucleobases in comparison to pure graphene and h-BN nanoflakes. It is also revealed that the individual dipole moments of the nucleobases and nanoflakes dictate the orientation of the nucleobases at the interfaces of the hybrid structures. The results of our study point towards a possible route to selectively control the orientation of individual molecules in biosensors.

  13. New techniques to control salinity-wastewater reuse interactions in golf courses of the Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrao, J.; Costa, M.; Rosado, V.; Gamito, P.; Santos, R.; Khaydarova, V.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the lack water around the Mediterranean regions, potable water luxurious uses - as in golf courses - are increasingly contested. In order to solve this problem, non conventional water resources (effluent, gray, recycled, reclaimed, brackish), like treated wastewater, for irrigation gained increasing role in the planning and development of additional water supplies in golf courses. In most cases, the intense use of effluent for irrigation attracted public awareness in respect of contaminating pathogens and heavy metals. The contaminating effect of salinity in soil and underground water is very often neglected. The objective of this work is to present the conventional techniques to control salinity of treated wastewater and to present some results on new clean techniques to solve this problem, in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project (no. IC-15CT98-0105) "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle Asia with Scarce Sources Subject to Environmental Control, Climate Change and Socio-Economic Development" and of the INCO-DC project (no. IC18-CT98-0266) "Control of Salination and Combating Desertification Effects in the Mediterranean Region. Phase II". Saline water is the most common irrigation water in arid climates. Moreover, for each region treated wastewater is always more saline than tap water, and therefore, when treated wastewater is reused in golf courses, more salinity problems occur. Conventional techniques to combat the salination process in golf courses can be characterized by four generations: 1) Problem of root zone salination by soil leaching - two options can occur - when there is an impermeable layer, salts will be concentrated above this layer; on the other hand, when there is no impermeable layer, aquifers contamination can be observed; 2) Use of subsurface trickle irrigation - economy of water, and therefore less additional salts; however the problem of groundwater contamination due to natural rain

  14. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hou

    Full Text Available In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS. We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- "mood modification," "salience" and ''conflict"- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking.

  15. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Jiang, Yingying; Ye, Zi; Wang, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Pang, Liangjun; Kong, Yan; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS). We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- "mood modification," "salience" and ''conflict"- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking.

  16. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Ye, Zi; Wang, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Pang, Liangjun; Kong, Yan; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS). We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- “mood modification,” “salience” and ‘‘conflict”- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking. PMID:28817710

  17. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  18. LiveWire interactive boundary extraction algorithm based on Haar wavelet transform and control point set direction search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-12-01

    Based on deep analysis of the LiveWire interactive boundary extraction algorithm, a new algorithm focusing on improving the speed of LiveWire algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the Haar wavelet transform is carried on the input image, and the boundary is extracted on the low resolution image obtained by the wavelet transform of the input image. Secondly, calculating LiveWire shortest path is based on the control point set direction search by utilizing the spatial relationship between the two control points users provide in real time. Thirdly, the search order of the adjacent points of the starting node is set in advance. An ordinary queue instead of a priority queue is taken as the storage pool of the points when optimizing their shortest path value, thus reducing the complexity of the algorithm from O[n2] to O[n]. Finally, A region iterative backward projection method based on neighborhood pixel polling has been used to convert dual-pixel boundary of the reconstructed image to single-pixel boundary after Haar wavelet inverse transform. The algorithm proposed in this paper combines the advantage of the Haar wavelet transform and the advantage of the optimal path searching method based on control point set direction search. The former has fast speed of image decomposition and reconstruction and is more consistent with the texture features of the image and the latter can reduce the time complexity of the original algorithm. So that the algorithm can improve the speed in interactive boundary extraction as well as reflect the boundary information of the image more comprehensively. All methods mentioned above have a big role in improving the execution efficiency and the robustness of the algorithm.

  19. The Effects of an Interactive Nursing Skills Mobile Application on Nursing Students' Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Skills Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunsun Kim, MSN, RN; Eunyoung E. Suh, PhD, FNP, RN

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical nursing practice is important because it helps nursing students experience realities of clinical nursing that cannot be learned through theoretical education. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an interactive nursing skills mobile application for nursing students. Methods: Sixty-six senior nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The experimental group used an interactive nursing skills mobile application for 1 week. The control grou...

  20. Effect of interactive cognitive motor training on gait and balance among older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ching-Chiu; Chiu, Huei-Ling; Liu, Doresses; Chan, Pi-Tuan; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Chen, Ruey; Niu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2018-06-01

    Aging is a normal degenerative process that results in a decline in the gait and balance performance of older adults. Interactive cognitive motor training is an intervention that integrates cognitive and motor tasks to promote individuals' physical and cognitive fall risk factors. However, the additive effects of the interactive cognitive motor training on objective quantitative data and comprehensive descriptions of gait and balance warrants further investigation. To investigate the effect of interactive cognitive motor training on older adults' gait and balance from immediate to long-term time points. A double-blind randomized control trial. Four senior service centers and community service centers in Taiwan. 62 older adults who met the inclusion criteria. The study participants were older adults without cognitive impairment, and they were randomly allocated to the experimental group or active control group. In both groups, older adults participated in three sessions of 30-min training per week for a total of 8 weeks, with the total number of training sessions being 24. The primary outcome was gait performance, which was measured using objective and subjective indicators. iWALK was used as an objective indicator to measure pace and dynamic stability; the Functional Gait Assessment was employed as a subjective indicator. The secondary outcome was balance performance, which was measured using iSWAY. A generalized estimating equation was used to identify whether the results of the two groups differ after receiving different intervention measures; the results were obtained from immediate to long-term posttests. Stride length in the pace category of the experimental group improved significantly in immediate posttest (p = 0.01), 3-month follow-up (p = 0.01), and 6-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The range of motion of the leg exhibited significant improvement in immediate posttest (p = 0.04) and 3-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The Functional Gait

  1. TLX controls angiogenesis through interaction with the von Hippel-Lindau protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhao-Jun; Johansson, Erik; Hayashi, Amiko; Chavali, Pavithra L; Akrap, Nina; Yoshida, Takeshi; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Izumi, Hiroto; Funa, Keiko

    2012-06-15

    TLX is known as the orphan nuclear receptor indispensable for maintaining neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis. We report here that neuroblastoma cell lines express high levels of TLX, which further increase in hypoxia to enhance the angiogenic capacity of these cells. The proangiogenetic activity of TLX appears to be induced by its direct binding to the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL), which stabilizes TLX. In turn, TLX competes with hydroxylated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-α) for binding to pVHL, which contributes to the stabilization of HIF-2α in neuroblastoma during normoxia. Upon hypoxia, TLX increases in the nucleus where it binds in close proximity of the HIF-response element on the VEGF-promoter chromatin, and, together with HIF-2α, recruits RNA polymerase II to induce VEGF expression. Conversely, depletion of TLX by shRNA decreases the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF as well as the growth-promoting and colony-forming capacity of the neuroblastoma cell lines IMR-32 and SH-SY5Y. On the contrary, silencing HIF-2α will slightly increase TLX, suggesting that TLX acts to maintain a hypoxic environment when HIF-2α is decreasing. Our results demonstrate TLX to play a key role in controlling angiogenesis by regulating HIF-2α. TLX and pVHL might counterbalance each other in important fate decisions such as self-renewal and differentiation, as well as angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis.

  2. TLX controls angiogenesis through interaction with the von Hippel-Lindau protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-jun Zeng

    2012-04-01

    TLX is known as the orphan nuclear receptor indispensable for maintaining neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis. We report here that neuroblastoma cell lines express high levels of TLX, which further increase in hypoxia to enhance the angiogenic capacity of these cells. The proangiogenetic activity of TLX appears to be induced by its direct binding to the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL, which stabilizes TLX. In turn, TLX competes with hydroxylated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-α for binding to pVHL, which contributes to the stabilization of HIF-2α in neuroblastoma during normoxia. Upon hypoxia, TLX increases in the nucleus where it binds in close proximity of the HIF-response element on the VEGF-promoter chromatin, and, together with HIF-2α, recruits RNA polymerase II to induce VEGF expression. Conversely, depletion of TLX by shRNA decreases the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF as well as the growth-promoting and colony-forming capacity of the neuroblastoma cell lines IMR-32 and SH-SY5Y. On the contrary, silencing HIF-2α will slightly increase TLX, suggesting that TLX acts to maintain a hypoxic environment when HIF-2α is decreasing. Our results demonstrate TLX to play a key role in controlling angiogenesis by regulating HIF-2α. TLX and pVHL might counterbalance each other in important fate decisions such as self-renewal and differentiation, as well as angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis.

  3. Postmating sexual conflict and female control over fertilization during gamete interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C

    2018-06-01

    Males and females rarely have identical evolutionary interests over reproduction, and when the fitness of both sexes is dependent upon paternity outcomes, sexual conflict over fertilization is inevitable. In internal fertilizers, the female tract is a formidable selective force on the number and integrity of sperm that reach the egg. Selection on sperm quality is intensified when females mate multiply and rival males are forced to compete for fertilizations. While male adaptations to sperm competition have been well documented (e.g., increased sperm fertilizing capacity), much less attention has been given to the evolutionary consequences of postmating sexual conflict for egg form and function. Specifically, increased sperm competitiveness can be detrimental by giving rise to an elevation in reproductive failure resulting from polyspermy. Spanning literature on both internal and external fertilizers, in this review I discuss how females respond to sperm competition via fertilization barriers that mediate sperm entry. These findings, which align directly with sexual conflict theory, indicate that females have greater control over fertilization than has previously been appreciated. I then consider the implications of gametic sexual conflict in relation to the development of reproductive isolation and speculate on potential mechanisms accounting for "egg defensiveness." Finally, I discuss the functional significance of egg defensiveness for both the sexes, and sperm selection for females. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Biogeochemical interactions control a temporal succession in the elemental composition of marine communities

    KAUST Repository

    Martiny, Adam C.; Talarmin, Agathe Anne Gaelle; Mouginot, Cé line; Lee, Jeanette A.; Huang, Jeremy S.; Gellene, Alyssa G.; Caron, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed clear regional differences in the particulate organic matter composition and stoichiometry of plankton communities. In contrast, less is known about potential mechanisms and patterns of temporal changes in the elemental composition of marine systems. Here, we monitored weekly changes in environmental conditions, phytoplankton abundances, and particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations over a 3-yr period. We found that variation in the particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations and ratios were related to seasonal oscillations of environmental conditions and phytoplankton abundances. Periods with low temperature, high nutrient concentrations and a dominance of large phytoplankton corresponded to low C : N : P and vice-versa for warmer periods during the summer and fall. In addition to seasonal changes, we observed a multiyear increase in POM C : P and N : P that might be associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Finally, there was substantial short-term variability in all factors but similar linkages between environmental variability and elemental composition as observed on seasonal and interannual time-scales. Using a feed-forward neural network, we could explain a large part of the variation in POM concentrations and ratios based on changes in environmental conditions and phytoplankton abundances. The apparent links across all time-scales between changes in physics, chemistry, phytoplankton, and POM concentrations and ratios suggest we have identified key controls of the elemental composition of marine communities in this region.

  5. Time evolution of a pair of distinguishable interacting spins subjected to controllable and noisy magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaudo, R.; Belousov, Yu.; Nakazato, H.; Messina, A.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum dynamics of a Jˆ2 = (jˆ1 +jˆ2)2-conserving Hamiltonian model describing two coupled spins jˆ1 and jˆ2 under controllable and fluctuating time-dependent magnetic fields is investigated. Each eigenspace of Jˆ2 is dynamically invariant and the Hamiltonian of the total system restricted to any one of such (j1 +j2) - |j1 -j2 | + 1 eigenspaces, possesses the SU(2) structure of the Hamiltonian of a single fictitious spin acted upon by the total magnetic field. We show that such a reducibility holds regardless of the time dependence of the externally applied field as well as of the statistical properties of the noise, here represented as a classical fluctuating magnetic field. The time evolution of the joint transition probabilities of the two spins jˆ1 and jˆ2 between two prefixed factorized states is examined, bringing to light peculiar dynamical properties of the system under scrutiny. When the noise-induced non-unitary dynamics of the two coupled spins is properly taken into account, analytical expressions for the joint Landau-Zener transition probabilities are reported. The possibility of extending the applicability of our results to other time-dependent spin models is pointed out.

  6. Scientific research and regulatory control: An interaction that must be reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Y.; Mezrahi, A.; Bonacossa Almeida, C.E. de; Xavier, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The control of radiological impact, in Brazil, at nuclear facilities is based on radiological protection guidelines adopted by the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN), following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), Publication 26. ICRP adopted ''prudently'', for radiological protection purposes, the hypothesis, in case of stochastic effects, of linearity dose/effect, without dose threshold, based on absence of conclusive data concerning the real behaviour of dose/effect curve. Additionally, the position of ICRP is not sustained specially considering as non existent individually accumulated doses, accumulated doses through generations and origin of radiation, either natural or anthropogenic. Brazil follows ICRP recommendations despite existing high background radiation areas. In absence of a definitive position, professionals of different areas, such as jurists and psychologists infer on ''effects of radiation'', no matter it exists. ICRP should: clarify as being just operational linearity hypothesis; consider that an excess of prudence can cause a non-sense public rejection to nuclear applications; incentive participation of different fields scientists to elaborate radiological protection procedures and radiological protection scientists to develop researches based on realistic data. Finally, it would be possible to achieve a new philosophy for public protection considering real risks associated with exposure to radiation. (author)

  7. Biogeochemical interactions control a temporal succession in the elemental composition of marine communities

    KAUST Repository

    Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-11-23

    Recent studies have revealed clear regional differences in the particulate organic matter composition and stoichiometry of plankton communities. In contrast, less is known about potential mechanisms and patterns of temporal changes in the elemental composition of marine systems. Here, we monitored weekly changes in environmental conditions, phytoplankton abundances, and particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations over a 3-yr period. We found that variation in the particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations and ratios were related to seasonal oscillations of environmental conditions and phytoplankton abundances. Periods with low temperature, high nutrient concentrations and a dominance of large phytoplankton corresponded to low C : N : P and vice-versa for warmer periods during the summer and fall. In addition to seasonal changes, we observed a multiyear increase in POM C : P and N : P that might be associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Finally, there was substantial short-term variability in all factors but similar linkages between environmental variability and elemental composition as observed on seasonal and interannual time-scales. Using a feed-forward neural network, we could explain a large part of the variation in POM concentrations and ratios based on changes in environmental conditions and phytoplankton abundances. The apparent links across all time-scales between changes in physics, chemistry, phytoplankton, and POM concentrations and ratios suggest we have identified key controls of the elemental composition of marine communities in this region.

  8. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Suffoletto

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive

  9. Interaction between control and acceptance of nuclear energy in Switzerland. Aims and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangger, C.

    1977-01-01

    In Switzerland four Federal laws are involved in controlling nuclear energy, two of which are on the cantonal level. These four laws have entailed three different licensing procedures, of which two are cantonal. Even though these laws together cover all aspects of the protection of man, the environment and the countryside, which must be examined for each individual project, nevertheless: (a) the legal situation and the overall licensing system are complex - they are not easily understood by the man in the street and offer a lawyer numerous possibilities for bringing in appeals; (b) decisions affecting the three licensing procedures are taken at different levels; and (c) the nuclear law contains a clause obliging the Federal authorities to treat information on the nuclear aspects of projects confidentially, thus limiting access by the citizen to such information. Although this state of affairs has not appreciably influenced acceptance by the population living near the two operating power plants and the two that are under construction, it has led, in the case of two of the five new projects, to consistently mounting opposition on the part of the local population, opposition which in some cases has reached a very high pitch. In 1975, there was one case where the site was occupied for several months, a violation of the law. Similarly, the opposition which was latent in the rest of Switzerland until two years ago has reached the stage of initiatives, and a ''Federal popular initiative to safeguard the people's rights and safety during the construction and operation of atomic facilities'' has been launched. This initiative, which demands in particular that powers of decision by means of a vote should be accorded to the local population, is prompting the Federal authorities to take legislative action. A Federal commission of legal experts is at present working on a revision of the nuclear law; the proposed modifications are set out and discussed in the paper. (author)

  10. Controlled fabrication of PANI/CNF hybrid films: molecular interaction induced various micromorphologies and electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guiheng; Xu, Dongdong; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Kaixi; Chen, Zhimin; Chen, Jiafu; Xu, Qun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a facile and efficient method is reported to prepare polyaniline/carbon nanofiber (PANI/CNF) hybrid films by in situ chemical polymerization of aniline. The various morphologies and microstructures of PANI/CNF hybrid films can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of aniline and different acids as the protonation reagent, and the formation mechanism is illustrated in this study. The surface morphologies and chemical structure of the PANI/CNF hybrid films are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), water contact angle (CA), FT-IR, Raman, and UV-vis spectrophotometers. The different morphology of uniformly coated, twist-tangled, and needle-like PANI built on CNF films are obtained by using HCl, H2SO4, and HClO4 as protonation reagent and the obtained hybrid films are labeled as PANI/CNF-f1, PANI/CNF-f2, and PANI/CNF-f3, respectively. We demonstrated that the different protonation reagent has the determined effect on the surface properties of the obtained hybrid films that can transfer from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Besides, the various morphologies of PANI play an important role in their electrochemical properties. PANI/CNF-f3 exhibits higher specific capacitance and better stability than that of the PANI/CNF-f1 and PANI/CNF-f2. Considering its unique needle-like structure, this work is a proof of concept that micro-structure and morphology can determine the macro-properties. And this study supplies a facile method to fabricate PANI/CNF hybrid films that can be used as electrode materials in supercapacitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interactive Sensor-Based Balance Training in Older Cancer Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael; Grewal, Gurtej S; Holloway, Dustin; Muchna, Amy; Garland, Linda; Najafi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) have deficits in sensory and motor skills leading to inappropriate proprioceptive feedback, impaired postural control, and fall risk. Balance training programs specifically developed for CIPN patients are lacking. This pilot study investigated the effect of an interactive motor adaptation balance training program based on wearable sensors for improving balance in older cancer patients with CIPN. Twenty-two patients (age: 70.3 ± 8.7 years) with objectively confirmed CIPN [vibration perception threshold (VPT) >25 V] were randomized to either an intervention (IG) or a control (CG) group. The IG received interactive game-based balance training including repetitive weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing tasks. Wearable sensors provided real-time visual/auditory feedback from the lower limb trajectory and allowed the perception of motor errors during each motor action. The CG received no exercise intervention and continued their normal activity. Outcome measures were changes in sway of ankle, hip, and center of mass (CoM) in both mediolateral and anteroposterior (AP) directions during 30-second balance tests with increasing task difficulty [i.e. standing in feet-closed position with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), and in semi-tandem position with EO] at baseline and after the intervention. Additionally, gait performance (speed, variability) and fear of falling [Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I)] were measured. Training was safe despite the participants' impaired health status, great severity of CIPN (VPT 49.6 ± 26.7 V), and great fear of falling (FES-I score 31.37 ± 11.20). After the intervention, sway of hip, ankle, and CoM was significantly reduced in the IG compared to the CG while standing in feet-closed position with EO (p = 0.010-0.022, except AP CoM sway) and in semi-tandem position (p = 0.008-0.035, except ankle sway). No significant effects were found for balance with

  12. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of Tuned Mass Dampers in Seismic Response Control of Isolated Bridges Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Elias

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three-span continuous reinforced concrete (RC bridge is investigated. Also, tuned mass damper(s (TMD/s is/are installed to control undesirable bearing displacement, even under the SSI effect. The TMDs are placed at the mid-span of the bridge and each tuned with a modal frequency, while controlling up to first few modes as desirable. The soil surrounding the foundation of pier is modeled by frequency independent coefficients. Dynamic analysis is carried out in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the non-isolated, isolated, and controlled isolated bridge are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the pier has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with installation of the TMDs.

  14. In-orbit evaluation of the control system/structural mode interactions of the OSO-8 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slafer, L. I.

    1979-01-01

    The Orbiting Solar Observatory-8 experienced severe structural mode/control loop interaction problems during the spacecraft development. Extensive analytical studies, using the hybrid coordinate modeling approach, and comprehensive ground testing were carried out in order to achieve the system's precision pointing performance requirements. A recent series of flight tests were conducted with the spacecraft in which a wide bandwidth, high resolution telemetry system was utilized to evaluate the on-orbit flexible dynamics characteristics of the vehicle along with the control system performance. The paper describes the results of these tests, reviewing the basic design problem, analytical approach taken, ground test philosophy, and on-orbit testing. Data from the tests was used to determine the primary mode frequency, damping, and servo coupling dynamics for the on-orbit condition. Additionally, the test results have verified analytically predicted differences between the on-orbit and ground test environments, and have led to a validation of both the analytical modeling and servo design techniques used during the development of the control system.

  15. Utilization and control of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections and community-based microbial cell factories [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoth Wigneswaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial activities are most often shaped by interactions between co-existing microbes within mixed-species communities. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms of species interactions within communities is a central issue in microbial ecology, and our ability to engineer and control microbial communities depends, to a large extent, on our knowledge of these interactions. This review highlights the recent advances regarding molecular characterization of microbe-microbe interactions that modulate community structure, activity, and stability, and aims to illustrate how these findings have helped us reach an engineering-level understanding of microbial communities in relation to both human health and industrial biotechnology.

  16. On the role of exchange of power and information signals in control and stability of the human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, H.

    1991-01-01

    A human's ability to perform physical tasks is limited, not only by his intelligence, but by his physical strength. If, in an appropriate environment, a machine's mechanical power is closely integrated with a human arm's mechanical power under the control of the human intellect, the resulting system will be superior to a loosely integrated combination of a human and a fully automated robot. Therefore, we must develop a fundamental solution to the problem of 'extending' human mechanical power. The work presented here defines 'extenders' as a class of robot manipulators worn by humans to increase human mechanical strength, while the wearer's intellect remains the central control system for manipulating the extender. The human, in physical contact with the extender, exchanges power and information signals with the extender. The aim is to determine the fundamental building blocks of an intelligent controller, a controller which allows interaction between humans and a broad class of computer-controlled machines via simultaneous exchange of both power and information signals. The prevalent trend in automation has been to physically separate the human from the machine so the human must always send information signals via an intermediary device (e.g., joystick, pushbutton, light switch). Extenders, however are perfect examples of self-powered machines that are built and controlled for the optimal exchange of power and information signals with humans. The human wearing the extender is in physical contact with the machine, so power transfer is unavoidable and information signals from the human help to control the machine. Commands are transferred to the extender via the contact forces and the EMG signals between the wearer and the extender. The extender augments human motor ability without accepting any explicit commands: it accepts the EMG signals and the contact force between the person's arm and the extender, and the extender 'translates' them into a desired position. In

  17. Group parent-child interaction therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niec, Larissa N; Barnett, Miya L; Prewett, Matthew S; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R

    2016-08-01

    Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Eighty-one families with 3- to 6-year-old children (71.6% boys, 85.2% White) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, Group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children's conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children's conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in Group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of Group PCIT in community settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Controlled chaos of polymorphic mucins in a metazoan parasite (Schistosoma mansoni interacting with its invertebrate host (Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Roger

    Full Text Available Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata. Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism-a "controlled chaos"-based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also

  19. Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Randomized Control Trial for the Treatment of Conduct Problems in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Prewett, Matthew S.; Shanley, Jenelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Methods Eighty-one families with three- to six-year-old children (71.6% male; 85.2% Caucasian) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children’s conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and six-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Results Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children’s conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Conclusions Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of group PCIT in community settings. PMID:27018531

  20. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Rémi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on