DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....
The blade element momentum (BEM) method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre
2017-01-01
The current chapter presents the blade element momentum (BEM) method. The BEM method for a steady uniform inflow is presented in a first section. Some of the ad-hoc corrections that are usually added to the algorithm are discussed in a second section. An exception is made to the tip-loss correction...... which is introduced early in the algorithm formulation for practical reasons. The ad-hoc corrections presented are: the tip-loss correction, the high-thrust correction (momentum breakdown) and the correction for wake rotation. The formulation of an unsteady BEM code is given in a third section...
Improved fixed point iterative method for blade element momentum computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Zhenye; Shen, Wen Zhong; Chen, Jin
2017-01-01
The blade element momentum (BEM) theory is widely used in aerodynamic performance calculations and optimization applications for wind turbines. The fixed point iterative method is the most commonly utilized technique to solve the BEM equations. However, this method sometimes does not converge...
Improved blade element momentum theory for wind turbine aerodynamic computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Zhenye; Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong
2016-01-01
Blade element momentum (BEM) theory is widely used in aerodynamic performance predictions and design applications for wind turbines. However, the classic BEM method is not quite accurate which often tends to under-predict the aerodynamic forces near root and over-predict its performance near tip....... The reliability of the aerodynamic calculations and design optimizations is greatly reduced due to this problem. To improve the momentum theory, in this paper the influence of pressure drop due to wake rotation and the effect of radial velocity at the rotor disc in the momentum theory are considered. Thus...... the axial induction factor in far downstream is not simply twice of the induction factor at disc. To calculate the performance of wind turbine rotors, the improved momentum theory is considered together with both Glauert's tip correction and Shen's tip correction. Numerical tests have been performed...
Is blade element momentum theory (BEM) enough for smart rotor design
Yu, W.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; van Kuik, G.A.M.
2014-01-01
Smart rotor emerges as an innovation technique to reduce the impact of dynamic loading on wind turbines. Local movements of distributed aerodynamic devices will enhance the non-uniformity and dynamic effects of loading, which will challenge the applicability of the blade element momentum theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Døssing, Mads
2010-01-01
A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non-dimensiona......A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non...... although the loading is uniform. Based on the findings we derived two small engineering sub-models to be included in the BEM model to account for the physical mechanisms causing the deviations. Finally, the influence of using the corrected BEM model, BEMcor on two rotor designs is presented. Copyright...
Calibrated Blade-Element/Momentum Theory Aerodynamic Model of the MARIN Stock Wind Turbine: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goupee, A.; Kimball, R.; de Ridder, E. J.; Helder, J.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.
2015-04-02
In this paper, a calibrated blade-element/momentum theory aerodynamic model of the MARIN stock wind turbine is developed and documented. The model is created using open-source software and calibrated to closely emulate experimental data obtained by the DeepCwind Consortium using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. The provided model will be useful for those interested in validating interested in validating floating wind turbine numerical simulators that rely on experiments utilizing the MARIN stock wind turbine—for example, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30’s Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continued, with Correlation project.
Nonlinear blade element-momentum analysis of Betz-Goldstein rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wood, D. H.; Okulov, Valery
2017-01-01
•We analyze Betz-Goldstein (BG) rotors for maximum power at any tip speed ratio and number of blades.•We prove that Glauert's incorporation of tip loss in the blade torque and thrust equation are correct.•We show the nonlinear angular momentum terms can contribute 12% of the total torque....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.
2014-12-01
Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.
Numerical Simulations of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines Using the Blade Element Momentum Theory
Javaherchi, Teymour; Thulin, Oskar; Aliseda, Alberto
2011-11-01
Energy extraction from the available kinetic energy in tidal currents via Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines has recently attracted scientists' attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. The strongest tidal resources have a concentrated nature that require close turbine spacing in a farm of MHK turbines. This tight spacing, however, will lead to interaction of the downstream turbines with the turbulent wake generated by upstream turbines. This interaction can significantly reduce the power generated and possibly result in structural failure before the expected service life is completed. Development of a numerical methodology to study the turbine-wake interaction can provide a tool for optimization of turbine spacing to maximize the power generated in turbine arrays. In this work, we will present numerical simulations of the flow field in a farm of horizontal axis MHK turbines using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). We compare the value of integral variables (i.e. efficiency, power, torque and etc.) calculated for each turbine in the farm for different arrangements with varying streamwise and lateral offsets between turbines. We find that BEMT provides accurate estimates of turbine efficiency under uniform flow conditions, but overpredicts the efficiency of downstream turbines when they are strongly affected by the wakes. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Døssing, Mads; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian
2012-01-01
The blade element momentum (BEM) method is widely used for calculating the quasi-steady aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. Recently, the BEM method has been expanded to include corrections for wake expansion and the pressure due to wake rotation (), and more accurate solutions can now...... by the positive effect of wake rotation, which locally causes the efficiency to exceed the Betz limit. Wake expansion has a negative effect, which is most important at high tip speed ratios. It was further found that by using , it is possible to obtain a 5% reduction in flap bending moment when compared with BEM....... In short, allows fast aerodynamic calculations and optimizations with a much higher degree of accuracy than the traditional BEM model. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Blade-Element/Momentum Technique for Rotors operating in Wind Tunnels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft
2003-01-01
small, since important properties of the blade boundary layer otherwise cannot be captured correctly. On the other hand, severe problems with wind tunnel blockage may be the result if the ratio between the areas of the rotor and the wind tunnel cross section is too big. In all cases, wind tunnel...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)
1997-08-01
Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)
Theory/test correlation of helicopter rotor blade element airloads in the blade stall regime
Bobo, C. J.
1972-01-01
The effects of stall on a rotor blade element in a three-dimensional rotating environment was investigated. The model rotor test provided blade element airloads and local boundary layer flow characteristics at the three-quarter blade radius position for a wide range of rotor operating conditions. A description of the test program and the test results are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shashishekara S. Talya
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Design optimization of a gas turbine blade geometry for effective film cooling toreduce the blade temperature has been done using a multiobjective optimization formulation. Three optimization formulations have been used. In the first, the average blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint has been imposed on the maximum blade temperature. In the second, the maximum blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized with an upper bound constraint on the average blade temperature. In the third formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. Shape optimization is performed using geometric parameters associated with film cooling and blade external shape. A quasi-three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver for turbomachinery flows is used to solve for the flow field external to the blade with appropriate modifications to incorporate the effect of film cooling. The heat transfer analysis for temperature distribution within the blade is performed by solving the heat diffusion equation using the finite element method. The multiobjective Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser function approach has been used in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique for optimization. The results obtained using both formulations are compared with reference geometry. All three formulations yield significant reductions in blade temperature with the multiobjective formulation yielding largest reduction in blade temperature.
Active Robust Control of Elastic Blade Element Containing Magnetorheological Fluid
Sivrioglu, Selim; Cakmak Bolat, Fevzi
2018-03-01
This research study proposes a new active control structure to suppress vibrations of a small-scale wind turbine blade filled with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and actuated by an electromagnet. The aluminum blade structure is manufactured using the airfoil with SH3055 code number which is designed for use on small wind turbines. An interaction model between MR fluid and the electromagnetic actuator is derived. A norm based multi-objective H2/H∞ controller is designed using the model of the elastic blade element. The H2/H∞ controller is experimentally realized under the impact and steady state aerodynamic load conditions. The results of experiments show that the MR fluid is effective for suppressing vibrations of the blade structure.
Vibrations of turbine blades bundles model with rubber damping elements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 45-52 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : mathematical model * bundle of five blades * rubber damping elements * eigenmodes Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/obsahy.html?R=21&C=1
Investigation of blade performance of horizontal axis wind turbine ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The shape of rotor blade plays an important role in determining the overall aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. In this work, blade is designed for a 5KW horizontal axis wind turbine which is already in market. For designing blade, blade element momentum theory (BEMT) is used and a computer ...
Quick Method for Aeroelastic and Finite Element Modeling of Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bennett, Jeffrey; Bitsche, Robert; Branner, Kim
2014-01-01
In this paper a quick method for modeling composite wind turbine blades is developed for aeroelastic simulations and finite element analyses. The method reduces the time to model a wind turbine blade by automating the creation of a shell finite element model and running it through a cross...... the user has two models of the same blade, one for performing a structural finite element model analysis and one for aeroelastic simulations. Here, the method is implemented and applied to reverse engineer a structural layup for the NREL 5MW reference blade. The model is verified by comparing natural...
Coupling analysis of wind turbine blades based on aeroelastics and aerodynsmics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xudong; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Shigiang
2010-01-01
The structural dynamic equations of blades were constructed for blades of wind turbines. The vibration velocity of blades and the relative flow velocity were calculated using the structural dynamics model. Based on the BEM (Blade Element Momentum) theory and traditional areodynamics, the coupling...
Crack modeling of rotating blades with cracked hexahedral finite element method
Liu, Chao; Jiang, Dongxiang
2014-06-01
Dynamic analysis is the basis in investigating vibration features of cracked blades, where the features can be applied to monitor health state of blades, detect cracks in an early stage and prevent failures. This work presents a cracked hexahedral finite element method for dynamic analysis of cracked blades, with the purpose of addressing the contradiction between accuracy and efficiency in crack modeling of blades in rotor system. The cracked hexahedral element is first derived with strain energy release rate method, where correction of stress intensity factors of crack front and formulation of load distribution of crack surface are carried out to improve the modeling accuracy. To consider nonlinear characteristics of time-varying opening and closure effects caused by alternating loads, breathing function is proposed for the cracked hexahedral element. Second, finite element method with contact element is analyzed and used for comparison. Finally, validation of the cracked hexahedral element is carried out in terms of breathing effects of cracked blades and natural frequency in different crack depths. Good consistency is acquired between the results with developed cracked hexahedral element and contact element, while the computation time is significantly reduced in the previous one. Therefore, the developed cracked hexahedral element achieves good accuracy and high efficiency in crack modeling of rotating blades.
Structural dynamic modeling for rotating blades using three dimensional finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kee, Young Jung; Shin, Sang Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
A precise analysis model was developed in this paper to investigate the dynamic characteristics of rotating composite blades. An eighteen-node solid-shell finite element was used to model the blade structures. This study is focused on geometrically nonlinear problems, because the material is assumed linear elastic. Incremental total Lagrangian approach was adopted to allow estimations on arbitrarily large rotations and displacements. The equations of motion for the finite element model were derived by using Hamilton's principle, and the resulting nonlinear equilibrium equations were solved by applying Newton-Raphson method combined with load control. A modified stress-strain relation was adopted to avoid the transverse shear locking problem, and fairly reliable results were obtained with no sign of locking phenomenon. The obtained numerical results were compared to several benchmark problems, and the results show a good correlation with the experimental data and other finite element analysis results. The vibration characteristics of shell- and beam-type blades were investigated. For shell-type blades, the dynamic characteristics may be significantly influenced by blade curvature, pre-twist, and geometric nonlinearity. For beam-type blades, one-dimensional beam and three-dimensional solid models offer comparable predictions for the straight and large aspect ratio blade. As blade aspect ratio decreases, considerable differences appear in the bending and torsion modes. The tip sweep angle tends to decrease the flap bending frequencies, but the torsion frequency increases with the tip sweep angle.
Structural dynamic modeling for rotating blades using three dimensional finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kee, Young Jung; Shin, Sang Joon
2015-01-01
A precise analysis model was developed in this paper to investigate the dynamic characteristics of rotating composite blades. An eighteen-node solid-shell finite element was used to model the blade structures. This study is focused on geometrically nonlinear problems, because the material is assumed linear elastic. Incremental total Lagrangian approach was adopted to allow estimations on arbitrarily large rotations and displacements. The equations of motion for the finite element model were derived by using Hamilton's principle, and the resulting nonlinear equilibrium equations were solved by applying Newton-Raphson method combined with load control. A modified stress-strain relation was adopted to avoid the transverse shear locking problem, and fairly reliable results were obtained with no sign of locking phenomenon. The obtained numerical results were compared to several benchmark problems, and the results show a good correlation with the experimental data and other finite element analysis results. The vibration characteristics of shell- and beam-type blades were investigated. For shell-type blades, the dynamic characteristics may be significantly influenced by blade curvature, pre-twist, and geometric nonlinearity. For beam-type blades, one-dimensional beam and three-dimensional solid models offer comparable predictions for the straight and large aspect ratio blade. As blade aspect ratio decreases, considerable differences appear in the bending and torsion modes. The tip sweep angle tends to decrease the flap bending frequencies, but the torsion frequency increases with the tip sweep angle.
Chortis, Dimitris I
2013-01-01
This book concerns the development of novel finite elements for the structural analysis of composite beams and blades. The introduction of material damping is also an important aspect of composite structures and it is presented here in terms of their static and dynamic behavior. The book thoroughly presents a new shear beam finite element, which entails new blade section mechanics, capable of predicting structural blade coupling due to composite coupling and/or internal section geometry. Theoretical background is further expanded towards the inclusion of nonlinear structural blade models and damping mechanics for composite structures. The models effectively include geometrically nonlinear terms due to large displacements and rotations, improve the modeling accuracy of very large flexible blades, and enable the modeling of rotational stiffening and buckling, as well as, nonlinear structural coupling. Validation simulations on specimen level study the geometric nonlinearities effect on the modal frequencies and...
Stability analysis of flexible wind turbine blades using finite element method
Kamoulakos, A.
1982-08-01
Static vibration and flutter analysis of a straight elastic axis blade was performed based on a finite element method solution. The total potential energy functional was formulated according to linear beam theory. The inertia and aerodynamic loads were formulated according to the blade absolute acceleration and absolute velocity vectors. In vibration analysis, the direction of motion of the blade during the first out-of-lane and first in-plane modes was examined; numerical results involve NASA/DOE Mod-0, McCauley propeller, north wind turbine and flat plate behavior. In flutter analysis, comparison cases were examined involving several references. Vibration analysis of a nonstraight elastic axis blade based on a finite element method solution was performed in a similar manner with the straight elastic axis blade, since it was recognized that a curved blade can be approximated by an assembly of a sufficient number of straight blade elements at different inclinations with respect to common system of axes. Numerical results involve comparison between the behavior of a straight and a curved cantilever beam during the lowest two in-plane and out-of-plane modes.
Stress analysis of composite wind turbine blade by finite element method
Yeh, Meng-Kao; Wang, Chen-Hsu
2017-10-01
In this study, the finite element analysis software ANSYS was used to analyze the composite wind turbine blade. The wind turbine blade model used is adopted from the 5 MW model of US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The wind turbine blade is a sandwich structure, comprising outermost carbon fiber cloth/epoxy composites, the inner glass fiber/vinylester layers, and PVC foam core, together with stiffeners. The wind pressure is converted into the load on the blade structure. The stress distribution and deformation of wind turbine blade were obtained by considering different pitch angles and at different angular positions. The Tsai-Hill criterion was used to determine the failure of wind turbine blade. The results show that at the 0° pitch angle, the wind turbine blade is subjected to the largest combined load and therefore the stress is the largest; with the increasing pitch angle, the load gradually decreases and the stress is also smaller. The stress and displacement are the greatest when the wind blade is located at 120° angular position from its highest vertex.
Imposed Rubber Elements for Bladed Wheel Vibration Suppression
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Luděk; Půst, Ladislav; Bula, Vítězslav; Cibulka, Jan
2015-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 6 (2015), s. 733-741 ISSN 2321-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : blade * vibration * damping Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.098, year: 2015
Structural optimization study of composite wind turbine blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong; Wang, Quan
2013-01-01
In this paper the initial layout of a 2. MW composite wind turbine blade is designed first. The new airfoils families are selected to design a 2. MW wind turbine blade. The finite element parametric model for the blade is established. Based on the modified Blade Element Momentum theory, a new one......-way fluid-structure interaction method is introduced. A procedure combining finite element analysis and particle swarm algorithm to optimize composite structures of the wind turbine blade is developed. The procedure proposed not only allows thickness variation but also permits the spar cap location...
Base excitation testing system using spring elements to pivotally mount wind turbine blades
Cotrell, Jason; Hughes, Scott; Butterfield, Sandy; Lambert, Scott
2013-12-10
A system (1100) for fatigue testing wind turbine blades (1102) through forced or resonant excitation of the base (1104) of a blade (1102). The system (1100) includes a test stand (1112) and a restoring spring assembly (1120) mounted on the test stand (1112). The restoring spring assembly (1120) includes a primary spring element (1124) that extends outward from the test stand (1112) to a blade mounting plate (1130) configured to receive a base (1104) of blade (1102). During fatigue testing, a supported base (1104) of a blad (1102) may be pivotally mounted to the test stand (1112) via the restoring spring assembly (1120). The system (1100) may include an excitation input assembly (1140) that is interconnected with the blade mouting plate (1130) to selectively apply flapwise, edgewise, and/or pitch excitation forces. The restoring spring assemply (1120) may include at least one tuning spring member (1127) positioned adjacent to the primary spring element (1124) used to tune the spring constant or stiffness of the primary spring element (1124) in one of the excitation directions.
Design of Thermal Barrier Coatings Thickness for Gas Turbine Blade Based on Finite Element Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biao Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs are deposited on the turbine blade to reduce the temperature of underlying substrate, as well as providing protection against the oxidation and hot corrosion from high temperature gas. Optimal ceramic top-coat thickness distribution on the blade can improve the performance and efficiency of the coatings. Design of the coatings thickness is a multiobjective optimization problem due to the conflicts among objectives of high thermal insulation performance, long operation durability, and low fabrication cost. This work developed a procedure for designing the TBCs thickness distribution for the gas turbine blade. Three-dimensional finite element models were built and analyzed, and weighted-sum approach was employed to solve the multiobjective optimization problem herein. Suitable multiregion top-coat thickness distribution scheme was designed with the considerations of manufacturing accuracy, productivity, and fabrication cost.
Nonlinear Legendre Spectral Finite Elements for Wind Turbine Blade Dynamics: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Q.; Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J.; Johnson, N.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a numerical implementation and examination of new wind turbine blade finite element model based on Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT) and a high-order spectral finite element method. The displacement-based GEBT is presented, which includes the coupling effects that exist in composite structures and geometric nonlinearity. Legendre spectral finite elements (LSFEs) are high-order finite elements with nodes located at the Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto points. LSFEs can be an order of magnitude more efficient that low-order finite elements for a given accuracy level. Interpolation of the three-dimensional rotation, a major technical barrier in large-deformation simulation, is discussed in the context of LSFEs. It is shown, by numerical example, that the high-order LSFEs, where weak forms are evaluated with nodal quadrature, do not suffer from a drawback that exists in low-order finite elements where the tangent-stiffness matrix is calculated at the Gauss points. Finally, the new LSFE code is implemented in the new FAST Modularization Framework for dynamic simulation of highly flexible composite-material wind turbine blades. The framework allows for fully interactive simulations of turbine blades in operating conditions. Numerical examples showing validation and LSFE performance will be provided in the final paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Luczak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents selected results and aspects of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research oriented for the experimental and numerical study of the structural dynamics of a bend-twist coupled full scale section of a wind turbine blade structure. The main goal of the conducted research is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement outcomes.
Multiple orbital angular momentum generated by dielectric hybrid phase element
Wang, Xuewen; Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Hu, Dejiao; Li, Xiangping
2017-09-01
Vortex beam carrying multiple orbital angular momentum provides a new degree of freedom to manipulate light leading to the various exciting applications as trapping, quantum optics, information multiplexing, etc. Helical wavefront can be generated either via the geometric or the dynamic phase arising from a space-variant birefringence (q-plate) or from phase accumulation through propagation (spiral-phase-plate), respectively. Using fast direct laser writing technique we fabricate and characterize novel hybrid q-plate generating vortex beam simultaneously carrying two different high-order topological charges, which arise from the spin-orbital conversion and the azimuthal height variation of the recorded structures. We approve the versatile concept to generate multiple-OAM vortex beams combining the spin-orbital interaction and the phase accumulation in a single micro-scale device, a hybrid dielectric phase plate.
Experimental and numerical investigation of friction element dissipative effects in blade shrouding
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Luděk; Hajžman, M.; Půst, Ladislav; Zeman, V.; Byrtus, M.; Brůha, J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 1711-1726 ISSN 0924-090X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : turbine blades * contact * friction * finite element method Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11071-014-1769-3
Turnbull, Heather; Omenzetter, Piotr
2017-04-01
The recent shift towards development of clean, sustainable energy sources has provided a new challenge in terms of structural safety and reliability: with aging, manufacturing defects, harsh environmental and operational conditions, and extreme events such as lightning strikes wind turbines can become damaged resulting in production losses and environmental degradation. To monitor the current structural state of the turbine, structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques would be beneficial. Physics based SHM in the form of calibration of a finite element model (FEMs) by inverse techniques is adopted in this research. Fuzzy finite element model updating (FFEMU) techniques for damage severity assessment of a small-scale wind turbine blade are discussed and implemented. The main advantage is the ability of FFEMU to account in a simple way for uncertainty within the problem of model updating. Uncertainty quantification techniques, such as fuzzy sets, enable a convenient mathematical representation of the various uncertainties. Experimental frequencies obtained from modal analysis on a small-scale wind turbine blade were described by fuzzy numbers to model measurement uncertainty. During this investigation, damage severity estimation was investigated through addition of small masses of varying magnitude to the trailing edge of the structure. This structural modification, intended to be in lieu of damage, enabled non-destructive experimental simulation of structural change. A numerical model was constructed with multiple variable additional masses simulated upon the blades trailing edge and used as updating parameters. Objective functions for updating were constructed and minimized using both particle swarm optimization algorithm and firefly algorithm. FFEMU was able to obtain a prediction of baseline material properties of the blade whilst also successfully predicting, with sufficient accuracy, a larger magnitude of structural alteration and its location.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Tian-Yuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Blade is one of the core components of turbine machinery. The reliability of blade is directly related to the normal operation of plant unit. However, with the increase of blade length and flow rate, non-linear effects such as finite deformation must be considered in strength computation to guarantee enough accuracy. Parallel computation is adopted to improve the efficiency of classical nonlinear finite element method and shorten the blade design period. So it is of extraordinary importance for engineering practice. In this paper, the dynamic partial differential equations and the finite element method forms for turbine blades under centrifugal load and flow load are given firstly. Then, according to the characteristics of turbine blade model, the classical method is optimized based on central processing unit + graphics processing unit heterogeneous parallel computation. Finally, the numerical experiment validations are performed. The computation speed of the algorithm proposed in this paper is compared with the speed of ANSYS. For the rectangle plate model with mesh number of 10 k to 4000 k, a maximum speed-up of 4.31 can be obtained. For the real blade-rim model with mesh number of 500 k, the speed-up of 4.54 times can be obtained.
Blade element momentum modeling of inflow with shear in comparison with advanced model results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Riziotis, V.; Zahle, Frederik
2012-01-01
shear is present in the inflow. This gives guidance to how the BEM modeling of shear should be implemented. Another result from the advanced vortex model computations is a clear indication of influence of the ground, and the general tendency is a speed up effect of the flow through the rotor giving...
Lillo Gallardo, Patricio Andres
Canada has aggressive targets for introducing wind energy across the country, but also faces challenges in achieving these goals due to the harsh Canadian climate. One issue which has received little attention in other countries not experiencing these extremes is the behaviour of composite blades in winter conditions. The scope of the work presented is to analyze the static stresses and fatigue response in cold climates using finite element models of the blade. The work opens with a quantification of the extremes of cold experienced in candidate Canadian wind turbine deployment locations. The thesis then narrows its focus to a consideration of the stresses in the root of the composite blades, specifically two common blade-hub connection methods: embedded root carrots and T-bolts. Finite element models of the root are proposed to properly simulate boundary conditions, applied loading and thermal stresses for a 1.5 MW wind turbine. It is shown that the blade root is strongly affected by the thermal stresses caused by the mismatch and orthotrophy of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the blade root constituents. Fatigue analysis of a blade is then presented using temperature dependent material properties including estimated fatigue coefficients.It was found that the natural frequencies of a 1.5 MW wind turbine blade are not significantly altered at cold temperatures. Additionally, cold temperatures slightly increase stresses in the composite blade skin when the blade is loaded, due to an increase in stiffness. Cold temperatures also lead to higher cyclic flapwise bending moments acting on the blade. However, this increase was found not to affect the lifetime fatigue damage. Finally, it was found that the cold climate as seen in Canada improves the fatigue strength of the saturated composite materials used in the blade. The predicted fatigue damage of the triaxial fabric and the spar cap layers in cold climates was therefore predicted to be half that of the
Soil-blade orientation effect on tillage forces determined by 3D finite element models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayadi Ibrahmi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the cutting parameters of a blade on the tillage force components using finite element modeling. A three-dimensional model was carried out with Abaqus Explicit in order to study the interaction between the tool and soil. The soil was modeled with linear forms of the Drucker-Pager model, while the tool was considered as a rigid body with a reference point taken at its tip. The effect of tillage depth and the width of a vertical blade were studied. It was found that the amounts of the draught and vertical forces increase linearly with a slope of 0.037 and 0.0143 respectively when the width increases. The narrow tool (width< 60mm has a greater effect on the specific draught force than a larger tool. Draught and specific draught force increase with polynomial and linear curve respectively versus the depth. However, this effect was reduced for the vertical force. These results were in a good agreement with previously published works. The second part of this paper is focused on the oblique position of the blade to evaluate the effect of the attack angles on both the tillage forces (draught, lateral and vertical and the cutting process of the soil during and after its failure. For all considered angles, the draught force presents the highest values compared to the vertical and lateral forces. Results showed that working with small cutting and an average rake angles (30° to 60° and 45° respectively can produce a good soil inversion.
Operational model updating of spinning finite element models for HAWT blades
Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew; Loh, Kenneth J.; Zhao, Yingjun; La Saponara, Valeria; Kamisky, Robert J.; van Dam, Cornelis P.
2014-04-01
Structural health monitoring (SHM) relies on collection and interrogation of operational data from the monitored structure. To make this data meaningful, a means of understanding how damage sensitive data features relate to the physical condition of the structure is required. Model-driven SHM applications achieve this goal through model updating. This study proposed a novel approach for updating of aero-elastic turbine blade vibrational models for operational horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The proposed approach updates estimates of modal properties for spinning HAWT blades intended for use in SHM and load estimation of these structures. Spinning structures present additional challenges for model updating due to spinning effects, dependence of modal properties on rotational velocity, and gyroscopic effects that lead to complex mode shapes. A cyclo-stationary stochastic-based eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) is applied to operational turbine data to identify data-driven modal properties including frequencies and mode shapes. Model-driven modal properties are derived through modal condensation of spinning finite element models with variable physical parameters. Complex modes are converted into equivalent real modes through reduction transformation. Model updating is achieved through use of an adaptive simulated annealing search process, via Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) with complex-conjugate modes, to find the physical parameters that best match the experimentally derived data.
Shape Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2009-01-01
of the rotor. The design variables used in the current study are the blade shape parameters, including chord, twist and relative thickness. To validate the implementation of the aerodynamic/aero-elastic model, the computed aerodynamic results are compared to experimental data for the experimental rotor used......This paper presents a design tool for optimizing wind turbine blades. The design model is based on an aerodynamic/aero-elastic code that includes the structural dynamics of the blades and the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. To model the main aero-elastic behaviour of a real wind turbine...... in the European Commision-sponsored project Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions, (MEXICO) and the computed aero-elastic results are examined against the FLEX code for flow post the Tjereborg 2 MW rotor. To illustrate the optimization technique, three wind turbine rotors of different sizes (the MEXICO 25 k...
Rigorous constraints on the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Lowdon
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The structure of the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor play an important role in determining the properties of the form factors A(q2, B(q2 and C(q2 which appear in the Lorentz covariant decomposition of the matrix elements. In this paper we apply a rigorous frame-independent distributional-matching approach to the matrix elements of the Poincaré generators in order to derive constraints on these form factors as q→0. In contrast to the literature, we explicitly demonstrate that the vanishing of the anomalous gravitomagnetic moment B(0 and the condition A(0=1 are independent of one another, and that these constraints are not related to the specific properties or conservation of the individual Poincaré generators themselves, but are in fact a consequence of the physical on-shell requirement of the states in the matrix elements and the manner in which these states transform under Poincaré transformations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAVI PRAKASH BABU KOCHARLA
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The presence of crack in a structure tends to modify its modal parameters (natural frequencies and mode shapes. The fact can be used inversely to predict the crack parameters (crack depth and its location from measurement of the changes in the modal parameters, once a functional relationship between them has been established. The machine components like turbine blade can be treated as a cantilever beam. Vibration analysis of cantilever beam can be extended successfully to develop online crack detection methodology in turbine blade. In the present work, finite element model of a cantilever beam for flexural vibrations has been considered by including two transverse open U-notches. The modal analysis has been carried out on cantilever beam with two U-notches and observed the influence of one U-notch on the other for natural frequencies and mode shapes. It is found that a certain frequency may correspond to different crack depths and locations. Later, by using a central difference approximation, curvature mode shapes were then calculated from the displacement mode shapes. The location and depth corresponding to any peak on this curve becomes a possible notch location and depth. The identification procedure presented in this study is a useful tool for detection of multiple cracks in a turbine blade.
Implementation of creep-fatigue model into finite-element code to assess cooled turbine blade.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dedekind, MO
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Turbine blades which are designed with airfoil cooling are subject to thermo-mechanical fatigue as well as creep damage. These problems arise due to thermal cycling and high operating temperatures in service. An implementation of fatigue and creep...
Selection of a high performance alloy for gas turbine blade using finite element methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khawaja, H.A.; Khan, A.M.; Ali, S.T.
2007-01-01
With the extensive increase in the utilization of energy resources in the modern era, the need of energy extraction from various resources has pronounced in recent years. Thus comprehensive efforts have been made around the globe in the technological development of turbo machines where means of energy extraction is energized fluids. This development led the eviation industry to power boost due to better performing engines. Meanwhile, the structural conformability requirements relative to the functional requirements have also increased with the advent of newer, better performing materials. Thus there is a need to study the material behavior and its usage with the idea of selecting the best possible material for its application. In this work a gas turbine blade of a small turbofan engine, where geometry and aerodynamic data was available, was analyzed for its structural behavior in the proposed mission envelope, where the engine turbine is subjected to high thermal, inertial and aerodynamic loads. FE linear stress analysis was carried out on the turbine blade. The results revealed the upper limit of UTS for the blade. Based on the limiting factor, high performance alloys were selected from the literature. The two most recommended alloy categories for gas turbine blades are NIMONIC and INCONEL from where total of 21 types of INCONEL alloys and 12 of NIMONIC alloys, available on on commercial bases, were analyzed individually to meet the INCONEL alloys for further analysis. On the basis of stress-strain behavior of finalized alloys, the FE restriction of UFOS of 1.33 and yield strength. Final selection is made keeping in view other factors like manufacturability and workability in due consideration. (author)
The Influence of Eroded Blades on Wind Turbine Performance Using Numerical Simulations
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Matthias Schramm
2017-09-01
Full Text Available During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer blade region. In order to prevent strong erosion, it is possible to install a leading edge protection, which can be applied to the blades after the initial installation, but changes the shape of the initial airfoil sections. It is unclear how this modification influences the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. Hence, it is investigated in this work. The NREL 5 MW turbine is simulated with clean and eroded blades, which are compared to coated blades equipped with leading edge protection. Aerodynamic polars are generated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and load calculations are conducted using the blade element momentum theory. The analysis in this work shows that, compared to clean rotor blades, the worse aerodynamic behaviour of strongly eroded blades can lead to power losses of 9 % . In contrast, coated blades only have a small impact on the turbine power of less than 1 % .
Multi-Objective Aerodynamic and Structural Optimization of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Zhu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A procedure based on MATLAB combined with ANSYS is presented and utilized for the multi-objective aerodynamic and structural optimization of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT blades. In order to minimize the cost of energy (COE and improve the overall performance of the blades, materials of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP combined with glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP are applied. The maximum annual energy production (AEP, the minimum blade mass and the minimum blade cost are taken as three objectives. Main aerodynamic and structural characteristics of the blades are employed as design variables. Various design requirements including strain, deflection, vibration and buckling limits are taken into account as constraints. To evaluate the aerodynamic performances and the structural behaviors, the blade element momentum (BEM theory and the finite element method (FEM are applied in the procedure. Moreover, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II, which constitutes the core of the procedure, is adapted for the multi-objective optimization of the blades. To prove the efficiency and reliability of the procedure, a commercial 1.5 MW HAWT blade is used as a case study, and a set of trade-off solutions is obtained. Compared with the original scheme, the optimization results show great improvements for the overall performance of the blade.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2016-01-01
The classical blade-element/momentum (BE/M) method, which is used together with different types of corrections (e.g. the Prandtl or Glauert tip correction), is today the most basic tool in the design of wind turbine rotors. However, there are other classical techniques based on a combination...
An Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Icing on Wind Turbine Rotor Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raja, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen
2016-01-01
are printed with 3D printer and tested one by one in a Wind Tunnel. Lift, drag and moment coefficients are calculated from the measured experimental data and program WT-Perf based on blade-element momentum (BEM) theory is used to predict the performance of wind turbine. Cp curves generated from the test...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergienko Alexander V.
2014-01-01
The potential for efficient identification of objects carrying elements of high-order symmetry using correlated orbital angular momentum (OAM states is demonstrated. The enhanced information capacity of this approach allows the recognition of specific spatial symmetry signatures present in objects with the use of fewer resources than in a conventional pixel-by-pixel imaging, representing the first demonstration of compressive sensing using OAM states. This approach demonstrates the capability to quickly evaluate multiple Fourier coefficients directly linked with the symmetry features of the object. The results suggest further application in small-scale biological contexts where symmetry and small numbers of noninvasive measurements are important.
A finite element multigrid-framework to solve the sea ice momentum equation
Mehlmann, C.; Richter, T.
2017-11-01
We present a multigrid framework for the solution of the momentum equation arising in Hibler's viscous-plastic (VP) sea ice model. This model is used in global climate models, for seasonal prediction and high-resolution short-term forecasting systems. The development of fast and robust solvers for the strongly nonlinear momentum equation is still a big issue. There are mainly three approaches to solve the momentum equation: a fixed-point iteration (Picard solver), an inexact Newton method and a subcycling procedure based on an elastic-viscous-plastic (EVP) model approximation. Simple fixed-point iterations call for a vast number of cycles. The Jacobian arising in Newton linearizations is ill-conditioned and unstructured. No efficient linear solvers are available up to date. One possibility to solve the linear systems arising within a Newton method is the preconditioned GMRES iteration that however still requires many steps. The commonly used line SOR preconditioner is computationally expensive. Especially on fine meshes, literature recommends to revise common solution strategies. We introduce a geometric multigrid method as a preconditioner to the GMRES iteration for accelerating the solution of the linear problems. We show that the convergence rate of the multigrid method is robust with respect to mesh refinement. This makes it an appealing method for high resolution simulations. We validate the robustness of the linear solver and compare the multigrid with ILU preconditioning. In particular on fine meshes (∼16 km-2 km), multigrid preconditioning can substantially reduce the computational effort and decreases iteration counts by 80%.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougle, Prasad Devendra
. Mainly, there is the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). HAWTs are more popular than VAWTs due to failure of VAWT commercialization during the late of 1980s on a large scale. However, in recent research work it has been documented that VAWTs are more economical...... for validation. In this PhD research, a development of wind turbine rotor is planned based on the multi-element airfoil technology used in aviation for aeroplanes. A method of experimental and numerical analysis is combined together for successful research. A double-element airfoil design is carried out...
Application and Analysis of Sandwich Elements in the Primary Structure of Large Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berggreen, Christian; Branner, Kim; Jensen, Jacob Fisker
2007-01-01
The present work studies the advantages of applying a sandwich construction as opposed to traditional single skin composites in the flanges of a load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. A parametric finite element model is used to analyze two basic designs with single skin...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Truong, Q T; Nguyen, Q V; Park, H C; Goo, N S [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Truong, V T; Byun, D Y, E-mail: hcpark@konkuk.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Biomimetics and Intelligent Microsystems, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-09-15
We present an unsteady blade element theory (BET) model to estimate the aerodynamic forces produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. Added mass and rotational forces are included to accommodate the unsteady force. In addition to the aerodynamic forces needed to accurately estimate the time history of the forces, the inertial forces of the wings are also calculated. All of the force components are considered based on the full three-dimensional (3D) motion of the wing. The result obtained by the present BET model is validated with the data which were presented in a reference paper. The difference between the averages of the estimated forces (lift and drag) and the measured forces in the reference is about 5.7%. The BET model is also used to estimate the force produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. The wing kinematics used in the BET calculation of a real beetle and the flapping wing system are captured using high-speed cameras. The results show that the average estimated vertical force of the beetle is reasonably close to the weight of the beetle, and the average estimated thrust of the beetle-mimicking flapping wing system is in good agreement with the measured value. Our results show that the unsteady lift and drag coefficients measured by Dickinson et al are still useful for relatively higher Reynolds number cases, and the proposed BET can be a good way to estimate the force produced by a flapping wing system.
Aerodynamic and Structural Integrated Optimization Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Zhu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A procedure based on MATLAB combined with ANSYS is presented and utilized for the aerodynamic and structural integrated optimization design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT blades. Three modules are used for this purpose: an aerodynamic analysis module using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory, a structural analysis module employing the Finite Element Method (FEM and a multi-objective optimization module utilizing the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. The former two provide a sufficiently accurate solution of the aerodynamic and structural performances of the blade; the latter handles the design variables of the optimization problem, namely, the main geometrical shape and structural parameters of the blade, and promotes function optimization. The scope of the procedure is to achieve the best trade-off performances between the maximum Annual Energy Production (AEP and the minimum blade mass under various design requirements. To prove the efficiency and reliability of the procedure, a commercial 1.5 megawatt (MW HAWT blade is used as a case study. Compared with the original scheme, the optimization results show great improvements for the overall performance of the blade.
BWR control blade replacement strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.
2000-01-01
The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)
Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott
2016-01-01
Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation; (2) data from unsteady delayed detached eddy simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D; and (3) data from...... agreement between the model and the experimental data in many cases, which suggests that the current two-dimensional dynamic stall model as used in blade element momentum-based aeroelastic codes may provide a reasonably accurate representation of three-dimensional rotor aerodynamics when used in combination...
Linearization of friction effects in vibration of two rotating blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajžman M.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of friction effects in blade shrouding which are realized by means of friction elements placed between blades. In order to develop a methodology of modelling, two blades with one friction element in between are considered only. Flexible blades fixed to a rotating disc are discretized by FEM using 1D Rayleigh beam elements derived in rotating space as well as the friction element modelled as a rigid body. The blades and the friction element are connected through two concurrent friction planes, where the friction forces arise on the basis of centrifugal force acting on the friction element. The linearization of friction is performed using the harmonic balance method to determine equivalent damping coefficients in dependence on the amplitudes of relative slip motion between the blades and the friction element. The methodology is applied to a model of two real blades and will be extended for the whole bladed disc with shrouding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi-Jeng Bai
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In designing a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT blade, system integration between the blade design and the performance test of the generator is important. This study shows the aerodynamic design of a HAWT blade operating with an axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM generator. An experimental platform was built to measure the performance curves of the AFPM generator for the purpose of designing the turbine blade. An in-house simulation code was developed based on the blade element momentum (BEM theory and was used to lay out the geometric shape of the turbine blade, including the pitch angle and chord length at each section. This simulation code was combined with the two-dimensional (2D airfoil data for predicting the aerodynamic performance of the designed blades. In addition, wind tunnel experiments were performed to verify the simulation results for the various operating conditions. By varying the rotational speeds at four wind speeds, the experimental and simulation results for the mechanical torques and powers presented good agreement. The mechanical power of the system, which maximizes at the best operating region, provided significant information for designing the HAWT blade.
A CFD Analysis of a Micro Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. M. Ngala
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of a micro Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT blade using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The 1.5 m long micro HAWT blade was designed using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM. Parameters such as the chord length lift force, drag force, tip speed ratio, solidity, coefficient of performance, angle of attack, wind relative angle, Reynolds number, efficiency, axial and induction factors were determined. Based on the design parameters the micro blade was created, meshed and boundary conditions identified in a 2D pre-processor Gambit interface. The meshed blade was exported to Fluent where it was processed and analyzed based on the identified boundary condition. The blade was simulated based on Maiduguri environment which has a recorded average wind speed of 3.89 m/s and the result showed that the maximum extractable power was 142.66 watts at a wind relative velocity of 4.8m/s when the blade was at 8o angle of attack and 3 x 106 Reynolds Number. Measured power increased consistently with increased in wind speed, and with a turbine efficiency of 28% the blade satisfied the Newton’s third law and the Bernoulli’s effect. The profile had the ability to perform and serve as a means of extracting and generating energy from wind, which is a renewable, clean and locally available source of energy in Maiduguri and its environs. The use of this energy source will reduce the large dependence on non-renewable, expensive and environmentally unfriendly means of energy generation. Further studies could be carried experimentally to verify the simulation results.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of non-straight small wind turbine blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Xin; Yang, Hong; Chen, Jinge; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Du, Zhaohui
2016-01-01
Graphical abstract: Small wind turbine blades with 3D stacking lines (sweep and bend) have been considered and analyzed with an optimization code based on the lifting surface method. The results indicated that the power capture and the rotor thrust can be improved with these more complex geometries. The starting behavior of the small wind turbines can be improved by the optimization of the blade chord and twist angle distribution. - Highlights: • The small wind turbine blade was optimized with non-straight shape. • Lifting surface method with free wake was used for aerodyanmic performace evaluation. • The non-straight shape can be used to increase energy production and decrease the thrust. • The energy production should be sacrificed in order to increase the starting behavior. - Abstract: Small wind turbines usually operate in sub-optimal wind conditions in order to satisfy the demand where it is needed. The aerodynamic performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines highly depends on the geometry. In the present study, the geometry of wind turbine blades are optimized not only in terms of the distribution of the chord and twist angle but also with 3-dimensional stacking line. As the blade with 3-dimensional stacking line is given sweep in the plan of rotation and dihedral in the plan containing the blade and rotor axis, the common used blade element momentum method can no longer provide accurate aerodynamic performance solution. A lifting surface method with free wake model is used as the aerodynamic model in the present work. The annual energy production and the starting performance are selected as optimization objective. The starting performance is evaluated based on blade element method. The optimization of the geometry of the non-straight wind turbine blades is carried out by using a micro-genetic algorithm. Results show that the wind turbine blades with properly designed 3-dimensional stacking line can increase the annual energy production and have
Gamberg, L. P.; Mukherjee, A.B.; Mulders, P.J.G.
2011-01-01
Gluonic pole matrix elements explain the appearance of single spin asymmetries (SSA) in high-energy scattering processes. They involve a combination of operators which are odd under time reversal (T-odd). Such matrix elements appear in principle both for parton distribution functions and parton
Structural modification of a steam turbine blade
Heidari, M.; Amini, K.
2017-05-01
Blades are significant components of steam turbines which are failed due to stresses arising from centrifugal and bending forces. The turbine blade has a number of geometrical variables that need to be considered at the design stage. Hence, this paper investigated a three-dimensional model of steam turbine blade with different lengths and thicknesses using finite element method. A three-dimensional model of blade was developed using a computer-aided design software. All materials were assumed linear, homogenous, elastic and isotropic. A 5 N widespread force was applied to the blade. The results of this study showed that longer blades are experienced higher maximum Von Mises stress and strain than shorter ones. The blade with the length of 400 mm and thickness of 20 mm experienced the lowest maximum Von Mises stress at 51 kPa. Furthermore, blade with the length of 400 mm and 600 mm experienced the lowest and highest strain at 3.07 × 10-6 and 4.3 × 10-6 respectively. In addition, thicker blades were undergone less maximum Von Mises stress and strain than thinner ones. Understanding stress and strain pattern in turbine blades provides useful knowledge which can be useful to estimate the fatigue in turbine blades.
OPTIMIZING THE SHAPE OF ROTOR BLADES FOR MAXIMUM POWER EXTRACTION IN MARINE CURRENT TURBINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.A. Esfahani
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the shape of rotor blades in Marine Current Turbines (MCTs are investigated. The evaluation of hydrodynamic loads on blades is performed based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory. The shape of blades is optimized according to the main parameters in the configuration and operation of these devices. The optimization is conducted based on the ability of the blades to harness the maximum energy during operating. The main parameters investigated are the tip speed ratio and angle of attack. Furthermore, the influence of these parameters on the maximum energy extraction from fluid flow over a hydrofoil is evaluated. It is shown that the effect of the angle of attack on power extraction is greater than that of the tip speed ratio, while both are found to be significant. Additionally, the proper angle of attack is the angle at which the lift to drag ratio is at its maximum value. However, if a proper angle of attack is chosen, the variations in power coefficient would not be effectively changed with small variations in the tip speed ratio.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najafian Ashrafi, Z.; Ghaderi, M.; Sedaghat, A.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A pitch controlled 200 kW HAWT blade is designed with BEM for off-design conditions. • Parametric study conducted on power coefficient, axial and angular induction factors. • The optimal pitch angles were determined at off-design operating conditions. - Abstract: In this paper, a 200 kW horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade is designed using an efficient iterative algorithm based on the blade element momentum theory (BEM) on aerodynamic of wind turbines. The effects of off-design variations of wind speed are investigated on the blade performance parameters according to constant rotational speed of the rotor. The performance parameters considered are power coefficient, axial and angular induction factors, lift and drag coefficients on the blade, angle of attack and angle of relative wind. At higher or lower wind speeds than the designed rated speed, the power coefficient is reduced due to considerable changes in the angle of attacks. Therefore, proper pitch control angles were calculated to extract maximum possible power at various off-design speeds. The results showed a considerable improvement in power coefficient for the pitch controlled blade as compared with the baseline design in whole operating range. The present approach can be equally employed for determining pitch angles to design pitch control system of medium and large-scale wind turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, R.O.
1984-01-01
The content of the portion of the workshop concerned with momentum distributions in condensed matter is outlined and the neutron scattering approach to their measurement is briefly described. Results concerning helium systems are reviewed. Some theoretical aspects are briefly mentioned
Metallurgy of gas turbine blades with integral shroud and its influence on blades performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazur, Z.; Marino, C.; Kubiak, J.
1999-01-01
The influence of the microstructure of the gas turbine blades with integral shroud on the blades performance is presented. The analysis of the solidification process of the gas turbine blades during conventionally casting process (equiaxed grains) with all elements which has influence on the mode of its solidification and variation of the microstructure is carried out. Also, the evaluation of the failure of the gas turbine blade is present. A detailed analysis of the blade tip shroud microstructure (presence of the equiaxed and columnar grains) and its influence on the failure initiation and propagation is carried out. Finally, conclusions and some necessary improvements of the blades casting process to prevent blades failures are presented. (Author) 2 refs
Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors
Wu, Yu-Ting; Lyu, Shao-Dong; Chen, Bo-Wei
2016-04-01
Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors were carried out using a hot-wire probe system in an open jet wind tunnel. Hot-wire anemometry was adopted to characterize the spanwise profiles of mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and momentum flux for downwind locations at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 rotor diameters. The results showed that the 2-bladed rotor spun faster than the 3-bladed one, where the ratio of the two blade angular velocities was 1.065:1 under the same inflow condition with a uniform distribution of 5.4 m/s flow velocity. The turbulence flow statistics of the rotor wakes showed that the wake originated from the 3-bladed rotor has larger velocity deficit, streamwise turbulence intensity, momentum flux magnitude, but smaller spanwise turbulence intensity. The velocity spectrum showed peaks associated with the presence of the blade-induced tip vortices in the near wake region (approximately within 3 rotor diameters).
Modeling of uncertainties for wind turbine blade design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Toft, Henrik Stensgaard
2014-01-01
Wind turbine blades are designed by a combination of tests and numerical calculations using finite element models of the blade. The blades are typically composite structures with laminates of glass-fiber and/or carbon-fibers glued together by a matrix material. This paper presents a framework...
Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades
Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kray, Nicholas
2012-01-01
Resonant vibrations of aircraft engine blades cause blade fatigue problems in engines, which can lead to thicker and aerodynamically lower performing blade designs, increasing engine weight, fuel burn, and maintenance costs. In order to mitigate undesirable blade vibration levels, active piezoelectric vibration control has been investigated, potentially enabling thinner blade designs for higher performing blades and minimizing blade fatigue problems. While the piezoelectric damping idea has been investigated by other researchers over the years, very little study has been done including rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. The particular objectives of this study were: (a) to develop and analyze a multiphysics piezoelectric finite element composite blade model for harmonic forced vibration response analysis coupled with a tuned RLC circuit for rotating engine blade conditions, (b) to validate a numerical model with experimental test data, and (c) to achieve a cost-effective numerical modeling capability which enables simulation of rotating blades within the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. A numerical and experimental study for rotating piezoelectric composite subscale fan blades was performed. It was also proved that the proposed numerical method is feasible and effective when applied to the rotating blade base excitation model. The experimental test and multiphysics finite element modeling technique described in this paper show that piezoelectric vibration damping can significantly reduce vibrations of aircraft engine composite fan blades.
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Hrgovan, Iva; Okulov, Valery
2014-01-01
/reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using......This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline...... the concepts of Betz and Joukowski, and the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils. Performance analysis shows that the newly designed turbine rotors can achieve an overall noise reduction of 6 dB and 1.5 dB(A) with a similar power output as compared to the reference rotor....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Zhu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization method for the structural design of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT blades is presented. The main goal is to minimize the weight and cost of the blade which uses glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP coupled with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP materials. The number and the location of layers in the spar cap, the width of the spar cap and the position of the shear webs are employed as the design variables, while the strain limit, blade/tower clearance limit and vibration limit are taken into account as the constraint conditions. The optimization of the design of a commercial 1.5 MW HAWT blade is carried out by combining FEM analysis and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm under ultimate (extreme flap-wise load and edge-wise load conditions. The best solutions are described and the comparison of the obtained results with the original design is performed to prove the efficiency and applicability of the method.
Lightning transient analysis in wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find
2013-01-01
The transient behavior of lightning surges in the lightning protection system of wind turbine blades has been investigated in this paper. The study is based on PSCAD models consisting of electric equivalent circuits with lumped and distributed parameters involving different lightning current...... waveforms. The aim of the PSCAD simulations is to study the voltages induced by the lightning current in the blade that may cause internal arcing. With this purpose, the phenomenon of current reflections in the lightning down conductor of the blade and the electromagnetic coupling between the down conductor...... and other internal conductive elements of the blade is studied. Finally, several methods to prevent internal arcing are discussed in order to improve the lightning protection of the blade....
Aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades
Tang, Xinzi
This work investigates the aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades via the blade element momentum (BEM) based approach and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based approach. From this research, it is possible to draw a series of detailed guidelines on small wind turbine blade design and analysis. The research also provides a platform for further comprehensive study using these two approaches. The wake induction corrections and stall corrections of the BEM method were examined through a case study of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine. A hybrid stall correction model was proposed to analyse wind turbine power performance. The proposed model shows improvement in power prediction for the validation case, compared with the existing stall correction models. The effects of the key rotor parameters of a small wind turbine as well as the blade chord and twist angle distributions on power performance were investigated through two typical wind turbines, i.e. a fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine and a fixed-pitch fixed-speed (FPFS) wind turbine. An engineering blade design and analysis code was developed in MATLAB to accommodate aerodynamic design and analysis of the blades.. The linearisation for radial profiles of blade chord and twist angle for the FPFS wind turbine blade design was discussed. Results show that, the proposed linearisation approach leads to reduced manufacturing cost and higher annual energy production (AEP), with minimal effects on the low wind speed performance. Comparative studies of mesh and turbulence models in 2D and 3D CFD modelling were conducted. The CFD predicted lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil S809 were compared with wind tunnel test data and the 3D CFD modelling method of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine were validated against measurements. Airfoil aerodynamic characterisation and wind turbine power performance as well as 3D flow details were studied. The detailed flow
Torsional Performance of Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Berggreen, Christian
2007-01-01
The present work investigates how well different finite element modeling techniques can predict bending and torsion behavior of a wind turbine blade. Two shell models are investigated. One model has element offsets and the other has the elements at the mid-thickness surfaces of the model. The las...
New Design of Blade Untwisting Device of Cyclone Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. I. Misiulia
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a new design of a blade untwisting device where blades are considered as a main element of the device. A profile of the blades corresponds to a circular arch. An inlet angle of the blades is determined by stream aerodynamics in an exhaust pipe, and an exit angle is determined by rectilinear gas motion. Optimum geometrical parameters of the untwisting device have been determined and its application allows to reduce a pressure drop in the ЦН-15 cyclones by 28–30 % while screw-blade untwisting device recovers only 19–20 % of energy.
Torsional Performance of Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Berggreen, Christian
2007-01-01
The present work investigates how well different finite element modeling techniques can predict bending and torsion behavior of a wind turbine blade. Two shell models are investigated. One model has element offsets and the other has the elements at the mid-thickness surfaces of the model. The last...... two models investigated use a combination of shell and solid elements. The results from the numerical investigations are compared with measurements from testing of a section of a full-scale wind turbine blade. It is found that only the combined shell/solid models give reliable results in torsion. Both...
Investigate plow blade optimization.
2015-08-01
The main technique for removing accumulated snow from roadways is through the use of snow plows and snow plow : blades (blades), or cutting edges. The blade is bolted to the snow plow, and it is the component of the plowing system that : makes contac...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...
Vibration analysis of gas turbine blade using FEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, M.J.; Chohan, G.Y.; Khusnood, S.; Khan, M.A.
2003-01-01
In a typical turbo-machine, there is a stator row of blades, which guide the gases onto a rotor row of blades, to extract the mechanical power from the machine. A typical rotor blade was sees upstream disturbance from the stator row and as it rotates, receive a corresponding number of increasing and decreasing lift and moment forces alternating periodically, depending on the number of stator blades/nozzles/guide vanes. Thus all the blades in a turbo-machine receiver their major periodic excitation at a frequency equal to nozzle passing frequency. Since these forces are periodic, one has to consider several number of these harmonics in determining whether resonance takes place, when one of these harmonics coincides with any of the natural frequencies of the blades. Turbine blades have a variety of natural modes of vibration, predominantly as blade alone but also in combination with flexing of the disc rim. These mode occur at characteristic frequencies, which are determined by the distribution of mass and stiffness (in bending or torsion), resulting from the variable thickness over the blade area. Since the advent of steam turbines and their application in various sectors of industry, it is a common experience that a blade failure is a major cause of breakdown in these machines. Blade failures due to fatigue are predominantly vibration related. The dynamic loads on the blading can arise from many sources, the predominant being the source of the operation principles on which the machine is designed. This work deals with vibration analysis of a gas turbine blade using a finite element package ANSYS. Determined the natural frequencies and mode shapes for a turbine blade and a rectangular blade. Results have been validated experimentally using a rectangular blade. ANSYS results have also been compared against published results. (author)
Blade reliability collaborative :
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.
2013-04-01
The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffith, Daniel
2013-11-01
A series of design studies are performed to investigate the effects of advanced core materials and a new core material strategy on blade weight and performance for large blades using the Sandia 100-meter blade designs as a starting point. The initial core material design studies were based on the SNL100-01 100- meter carbon spar design. Advanced core material with improved performance to weight was investigated with the goal to reduce core material content in the design and reduce blade weight. A secondary element of the core study was to evaluate the suitability of core materials from natural, regrowable sources such as balsa and recyclable foam materials. The new core strategy for the SNL100-02 design resulted in a design mass of 59 tons, which is a 20% reduction from the most recent SNL100-01 carbon spar design and over 48% reduction from the initial SNL100-00 all-glass baseline blade. This document provides a description of the final SNL100-02 design, includes a description of the major design modifications, and summarizes the pertinent blade design information. This document is also intended to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-02 that are made publicly available.
Parametric study of composite wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Taeseong; Branner, Kim; Hansen, Anders Melchior
2011-01-01
In this paper an anisotropic beam element for a composite wind turbine blades is developed. Eigenvalue analysis with the new beam element is conducted in order to understand its responses associated with the wind turbine performances. From the results of natural frequencies and mode shapes it is ...
Blade Group Fatigue Life Calculation under Resonant Stresses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zlatko Petreski
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The results of the simulations of the blade group resonant stresses in a FE environment and fatigue life calculation are presented in this paper. Numerical calculation for determination of natural frequencies, mode shapes and dynamic stresses, based on FEM and NISA package is used. Analyses are made on the blade group with three blades with rectangular cross section and typical turbine blades with taper, pretwist and asymmetric airfoil as well. The influence of the position of the lacing wire on the resonant stresses is analyzed. Three-dimensional finite element models of the blade group are made by using twenty node isoparametric solid elements. The number of degrees of freedom is different for each model (more than 30000 DOF. The fatigue life and consequent life prediction according the stress load history of the blades is made. The results of the investigation are given in tables and graphics.
Stress analysis and life prediction of gas turbine blade
Hsiung, H. C.; Dunn, A. J.; Woodling, D. R.; Loh, D. L.
1988-01-01
A stress analysis procedure is presented for a redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blades. The analysis consists of the one-dimensional scoping analysis to support the design layout and the follow-on three-dimensional finite element analysis to confirm the blade design at operating loading conditions. Blade life is evaluated based on high-cycle fatigue and low-cycle fatigue.
Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra
Williams, H. T.; Silbar, Richard R.
1992-04-01
We present a set of heuristic rules for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem reduces to that of finding an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). The method lends itself to implementation on a microcomputer, and we have developed such an implementation using a dialect of LISP. We describe both how our code, called RACAH, works and how it appears to the user. We illustrate the use of RACAH for several transition and scattering amplitude matrix elements occurring in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics.
Kielb, R. E.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1985-01-01
The effect of sweep on fan blade flutter is studied by applying the analytical methods developed for aeroelastic analysis of advance turboprops. Two methods are used. The first method utilizes an approximate structural model in which the blade is represented by a swept, nonuniform beam. The second method utilizes a finite element technique to conduct modal flutter analysis. For both methods the unsteady aerodynamic loads are calculated using two dimensional cascade theories which are modified to account for sweep. An advanced fan stage is analyzed with 0, 15 and 30 degrees of sweep. It is shown that sweep has a beneficial effect on predominantly torsional flutter and a detrimental effect on predominantly bending flutter. This detrimental effect is shown to be significantly destabilizing for 30 degrees of sweep.
Lawrence, Daphne
2009-03-01
Blade servers and virtualization can reduce infrastructure, maintenance, heating, electric, cooling and equipment costs. Blade server technology is evolving and some elements may become obsolete. There is very little interoperability between blades. Hospitals can virtualize 40 to 60 percent of their servers, and old servers can be reused for testing. Not all applications lend themselves to virtualization--especially those with high memory requirements. CIOs should engage their vendors in virtualization discussions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ramzan Luhur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This contribution provides the development of a stochastic lift and drag model for an airfoil FX 79-W-151A under unsteady wind inflow based on wind tunnel measurements. Here we present the integration of the stochastic model into a well-known standard BEM (Blade Element Momentum model to obtain the corresponding aerodynamic forces on a rotating blade element. The stochastic model is integrated as an alternative to static tabulated data used by classical BEM. The results show that in comparison to classical BEM, the BEM with stochastic approach additionally reflects the local force dynamics and therefore provides more information on aerodynamic forces that can be used by wind turbine simulation codes
Design of a Hydro-Turbine Blade for Acoustic and Performance Validation Studies
Johnson, E.; Barone, M.
2011-12-01
To meet the growing, global energy demands governments and industry have recently begun to focus on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices as an additional form of power generation. Water turbines have become a popular design choice since they are able to leverage experience from the decades-old wind industry in the hope of decreasing time-to-market. However, the difference in environments poses challenges that need to be addressed. In particular, little research has addressed the acoustic effects of common aerofoils in a marine setting. This has both a potential impact on marine life and may cause early fatigue by exciting new structural modes. An initial blade design is presented, which has been used to begin characterization of any structural and acoustic issues that may arise from a direct one-to-one swap of wind technologies into MHK devices. The blade was optimized for performance using blade-element momentum theory while requiring that it not exceed the allowable stress under a specified extreme operating design condition. This limited the maximum power generated, while ensuring a realizable blade. A stress analysis within ANSYS was performed to validate the structural integrity of the design. Additionally, predictions of the radiated noise from the MHK rotor will be made using boundary element modeling based on flow results from ANSYS CFX, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The FEA and CFD results demonstrate good comparison to the expected design. Determining a range for the anticipated noise produced from a MHK turbine provides a look at the environmental impact these devices will have. Future efforts will focus on the design constraints noise generation places on MHK devices.
Shoulder Blade Squeeze (Posture Exercise)
... Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Shoulder Blade Squeeze Shoulder Blade Squeeze Make an Appointment Ask a Question Find ... do it: Stand straight and tall. Pull your shoulder blades back and slightly downward to bring your elbows ...
The influence on energy conversion and induction from large blade deflections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aagaard Madsen, H.; Rasmussen, F. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
Flexible blades or coning means that the swept area is no longer a plane disc as assumed in the blade element momentum (BEM) theory. How is the induced flow field of the rotor influenced by such changes and what does this mean for the loading and energy conversion? This has been investigated by studying the flow through four different rotor geometries on basis of a numerical, axis-symmetric actuator disc model. Volume forces perpendicular to the local blade surface were applied and the converted power is the work performed by these forces. To simplify the comparisons, only a constant load distribution was used. The numerical results show that the shape of the rotor disc has considerable influence on the induction or axial velocity. The axial velocities vary with radial position in the case of constant loading where BEM theory gives constant velocities. There is considerable variation of the local power coefficient C{sub p,loc} even for constant loading. Locally, C{sub p,loc} can exceed the Betz limit. However, integrating C{sub p,loc} over the rotor plane, the total power coefficient for the different rotors are exactly the same. (au)
Trávníčková, T. (Tereza); Havlica, J. (Jaromír); Kohout, M.
2016-01-01
Mixing of granular systems is one of the most used chemical engineering unit operations. However, detailed description of the dynamics of granular flows through experiments is difficult. Therefore, usage of mathematical modeling increases. In this paper we deal with DEM (Discreet Element Method) simulations of mixing glass beads in a cylindrical vertical bladed mixer. The aim of this work is to describe the influence of blade rake on the development of granular secondary flows for different s...
Hermans, Thomas C. (Inventor); Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Hauser, Ambrose A. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
In one type of aircraft propulsion system, propeller blades are mounted on a ring which surrounds a turbine. An annular space exists between the turbine and the ring. If a propeller blade should break free, the unbalanced centrifugal load tends to deform the ring. The invention reduces the deformation, as by locating spacers between the turbine and the ring.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert
2016-01-01
The crossflow principle is one of the key elements used in engineering models for prediction of the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades in standstill or blade installation situations, where the flow direction relative to the wind turbine blade has a component in the direction of the blade span...... direction. In the present work, the performance of the crossflow principle is assessed on the DTU 10MW reference blade using extensive 3D CFD calculations. Analysis of the computational results shows that there is only a relatively narrow region in which the crossflow principle describes the aerodynamic...... for the key aerodynamic loads in crossflow situations. The general validity of this model for other blade shapes should be investigated in subsequent works....
Instrumented composite turbine blade for health monitoring
Robison, Kevin E.; Watkins, Steve E.; Nicholas, James; Chandrashekhara, K.; Rovey, Joshua L.
2012-04-01
A health monitoring approach is investigated for hydrokinetic turbine blade applications. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs have advantages that include long life in marine environments and great control over mechanical properties. Experimental strain characteristics are determined for static loads and free-vibration loads. These experiments are designed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of hydrokinetic turbine blades. Carbon/epoxy symmetric composite laminates are manufactured using an autoclave process. Four-layer composite beams, eight-layer composite beams, and two-dimensional eight-layer composite blades are instrumented for strain. Experimental results for strain measurements from electrical resistance gages are validated with theoretical characteristics obtained from in-house finite-element analysis for all sample cases. These preliminary tests on the composite samples show good correlation between experimental and finite-element strain results. A health monitoring system is proposed in which damage to a composite structure, e.g. delamination and fiber breakage, causes changes in the strain signature behavior. The system is based on embedded strain sensors and embedded motes in which strain information is demodulated for wireless transmission.
Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations
Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.
2011-01-01
Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it
Methodology for Structural Integrity Analysis of Gas Turbine Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiago de Oliveira Vale
2012-03-01
Full Text Available One of the major sources of stress arising in turbomachinery blades are the centrifugal loads acting at any section of the airfoil. Accounting for this phenomenon stress evaluation of the blade attachment region in the disc has to be performed in order to avoid blade failure. Turbomachinery blades are generally twisted, and the cross section area varies from the root of the blade to the tip. The blade root shape at the attachment region is of great concern. Stress concentrations are predictable at this contact region. In this paper, a finite element model has been created for the purpose of assessing stress at the joint region connecting the blade to the disc slot. Particular attention was paid to the geometric modeling of the "fir-tree" fixing, which is now used in the majority of gas turbine engines. This study has been performed using the commercial software ANSYS 13.0. The disc and blade assembly are forced to move with a certain rotational velocity. Contact connections are predicted on the common faces of the blade and on the disc at the root. Solutions can be obtained to allow the evaluation of stresses. Results can be compared with the mechanical properties of the adopted material.
E. Korkmaz; M. Gölcü; C. Kurbanoğlu
2017-01-01
Impellers with splitter blades are used for pumps and compressors in the design of turbomachines. Design parameters such as the number of blades, blade discharge angle and impeller discharge diameter impact affect pump performance and energy consumption. In this study, the effect of the number of blades (z=5, 6, and 7), blade discharge angles (β2b=25, and β2b=35) and splitter blade lengths (40, 55, 70, and 85% of the main blade length) on Deep Well Pump (DWP) performance has been studied ex...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wazir Muhammad
Full Text Available The importance of Atomic Form Factors (f is well-known to the scientific community. Tabulated values for f are mostly used in calculating cross-sections and Monte Carlo sampling for the coherent scattering of photons. The uses of these values are subjected to different approximations and interpolation techniques because the available data points for f in the literature for specified momentum-transfer-grids are very limited. In order to make it easier to accurately use the tabulated data, a mathematical expression for f functions would be a great achievement. Therefore, the current study was designed to suggest an empirical expression for the f functions. In the results, an empirical equation for Hubbell's tabulated data for f is created in the momentum transfer range, q=0-50 Å(-1 for the elements in the range 1 ≤ Z ≤ 30. The number of applied parameters was seven. The fitting to f showed that the maximum deviation was within 3%, 4% and 5% for the element having, Z=1-11, Z=12-22 and Z=23-30, respectively, while the average deviations were within 0.3-2.25% for all elements (i.e., Z=1-30. The values generated by the analytical equation were used in the Monte Carlo code instead of Hubbell's tabulated values. The statistical noise in the Probability Distribution Functions of coherently scattered photons was efficiently removed. Furthermore, it also reduced the dependence on different interpolation techniques and approximations, and on the use of large tabulated data for f with the specified elements.
Muhammad, Wazir; Lee, Sang Hoon
2013-01-01
The importance of Atomic Form Factors (f) is well-known to the scientific community. Tabulated values for f are mostly used in calculating cross-sections and Monte Carlo sampling for the coherent scattering of photons. The uses of these values are subjected to different approximations and interpolation techniques because the available data points for f in the literature for specified momentum-transfer-grids are very limited. In order to make it easier to accurately use the tabulated data, a mathematical expression for f functions would be a great achievement. Therefore, the current study was designed to suggest an empirical expression for the f functions. In the results, an empirical equation for Hubbell's tabulated data for f is created in the momentum transfer range, q = 0–50 Å−1 for the elements in the range 1≤ Z ≤30. The number of applied parameters was seven. The fitting to f showed that the maximum deviation was within 3%, 4% and 5% for the element having, Z = 1–11, Z = 12–22 and Z = 23–30, respectively, while the average deviations were within 0.3–2.25% for all elements (i.e., Z = 1–30). The values generated by the analytical equation were used in the Monte Carlo code instead of Hubbell’s tabulated values. The statistical noise in the Probability Distribution Functions of coherently scattered photons was efficiently removed. Furthermore, it also reduced the dependence on different interpolation techniques and approximations, and on the use of large tabulated data for f with the specified elements. PMID:23936339
Active Piezoelectric Vibration Control of Subscale Composite Fan Blades
Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Min, James B.; Kray, Nicholas
2012-01-01
As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are investigating new technologies supporting the development of lighter, quieter, and more efficient fans for turbomachinery applications. High performance fan blades designed to achieve such goals will be subjected to higher levels of aerodynamic excitations which could lead to more serious and complex vibration problems. Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing engine blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. To investigate this idea, spin testing was performed on two General Electric Aviation (GE) subscale composite fan blades in the NASA GRC Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. The first bending mode (1B) was targeted for vibration control. Because these subscale blades are very thin, the piezoelectric material was surface-mounted on the blades. Three thin piezoelectric patches were applied to each blade two actuator patches and one small sensor patch. These flexible macro-fiber-composite patches were placed in a location of high resonant strain for the 1B mode. The blades were tested up to 5000 rpm, with patches used as sensors, as excitation for the blade, and as part of open- and closed-loop vibration control. Results show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to about 1.0% damping at 0 RPM. As the rotor speed approaches 5000 RPM, the actively controlled blade damping ratio decreases to about 0.5% damping. This occurs primarily because of centrifugal blade stiffening, and can be observed by the decrease in the generalized electromechanical coupling with rotor speed.
Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guntur, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sorensen, N. N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bergami, L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)
2015-04-22
It is well known that airfoils under unsteady flow conditions with a periodically varying angle of attack exhibit aerodynamic characteristics different from those under steady flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as dynamic stall. It is also well known that the steady aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in the inboard region of a rotating blade differ from those under steady two-dimensional (2D) flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as rotational augmentation. This paper presents an investigation of these two phenomena together in the inboard parts of wind turbine blades. This analysis is carried out using data from three sources: (1) the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation, (2) data from unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D, and (3) data from a simplified model based on the blade element momentum method with a dynamic stall subroutine that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional 2D nonrotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared to three select cases of the N sequence experimental data, which serves as a validation of the DDES method. Results show reasonable agreement between the two data in two out of three cases studied. Second, the dynamic time series of the lift and the moment polars obtained from the experiments are compared to those from the dynamic stall subroutine that uses the rotationally augmented steady polars. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in 2D flow to be
Momentum considerations on the New MEXICO experiment
Parra, E. A.; Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.; Snel, H.
2016-09-01
The present paper regards axial and angular momentum considerations combining detailed loads from pressure sensors and the flow field mapped with particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For this end, the study implements important results leaning on experimental data from wind tunnel measurements of the New MEXICO project. The measurements, taken on a fully instrumented rotor, were carried out in the German Dutch Wind tunnel Organisation (DNW) testing the MEXICO rotor in the open section. The work revisits the so-called momentum theory, showing that the integral thrust and torque measured on the rotor correspond with an extent of 0.7 and 2.4% respectively to the momentum balance of the global flow field using the general momentum equations. Likewise, the sectional forces combined with the local induced velocities are found to plausibly obey the annular streamtube theory, albeit some limitations in the axial momentum become more apparent at high inductions after a=0.3. Finally, azimuth induced velocities are measured and compared to predictions from models of Glauert and Burton et al., showing close-matching forecasts for blade spans above 25%.
Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
2012-01-01
I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…
Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades
Jackson, K. J.; Zuteck, M. D.; van Dam, C. P.; Standish, K. J.; Berry, D.
2005-04-01
A preliminary design study of an advanced 50 m blade for utility wind turbines is presented and discussed. The effort was part of the Department of Energy WindPACT Blade System Design Study with the goal to investigate and evaluate design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the 1-10 MW size range. Two different blade designs are considered and compared in this article. The first is a fibreglass design, while the second design selectively incorporates carbon fibre in the main structural elements. The addition of carbon results in modest cost increases and provides significant benefits, particularly with respect to blade deflection. The structural efficiency of both designs was maximized by tailoring the thickness of the blade cross-sections to simplify the construction of the internal members. Inboard the blades incorporate thick blunt trailing edge aerofoils (flatback aerofoils), while outboard more conventional sharp trailing edge high-lift aerofoils are used. The outboard section chord lengths were adjusted to yield the least complex and costly internal blade structure. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of studs has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness. The aerodynamic performance of the blade aerofoils was predicted using computational techniques that properly simulate blunt trailing edge flows. The performance of the rotor was predicted assuming both clean and soiled blade surface conditions. The rotor is shown to provide excellent performance at a weight significantly lower than that of current rotors of this size. Copyright
Failure Analysis of Fencing Blades
Kibaroglu, D.; Baydogan, M.; Cimenoglu, H.; Bas, B.; Yagsi, C.; Aliyeva, N.
2017-05-01
This study deals with the failure analysis of broken fencing blades (one épée and one foil). For the characterization of the broken blades, metallographic examinations, chemical analysis, hardness measurements, fracture surface examinations and tensile tests were performed. Maximum stress occurred at the outer fibres of the blades was estimated as high as 1456 MPa and 1298 MPa for épée and foil, respectively. Results showed that failure of the blades was initiated from a notch, which has been formed as the result of an impact action during training, or from the groove machined along the blade for inserting an electrical wire. In order to increase resistance of the blades against such failures, alternative blade material, modified blade geometry and a surface hardening treatment were proposed.
Flow separation on wind turbines blades
Corten, G. P.
2001-01-01
effects of rotation on stall. By using the stall flag method, we were able to clear up two practical problems that seriously threatened the performance of stall turbines. These topics will be described briefly. 1. Inherent Heat Generation The classic result for an actuator disk representing a wind turbine is that the power extracted equals the kinetic power transferred. This is a consequence of disregarding the flow around the disk. When this flow is included, we need to introduce a heat generation term in the energy balance. This has the practical consequence that an actuator disk at the Lanchester-Betz limit transfers 50% more kinetic energy than it extracts. This surplus is dissipated in heat. Using this new argument, together with a classic argument on induction, we see no reason to introduce the concept of edge-forces on the tips of the rotor blades (Van Kuik, 1991). We rather recommend following the ideas of Lanchester (1915) on the edge of the actuator disk and on the wind speed at the disc. We analyse the concept induction, and show that correcting for the aspect ratio, for induced drag and application of Blade Element Momentum Theory all have the same significance for a wind turbine. Such corrections are sometimes made twice (Viterna & Corrigan, 1981). 2. Rotational Effects on Flow Separation In designing wind turbine rotors, one uses the aerodynamic characteristics measured in the wind tunnel on fixed aerodynamic profiles. These characteristics are corrected for the effects of rotation and subsequently used for wind turbine rotors. Such a correction was developed by Snel (1990-1999). This correction is based on boundary layer theory, the validity of which we question in regard to separated flow. We estimated the effects of rotation on flow separation by arguing that the separation layer is thick so the velocity gradients are small and viscosity can be neglected. We add the argument that the chord-wise speed and its derivative normal to the wall is zero at the
Refined Betz limit for rotors with a finite number of blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2008-01-01
coefficient. Especially, they fail to reproduce the results of the general momentum theory when the number of blades goes to infinity. The present theory is a modification to the original model of Goldstein using a new analytical solution to the wake vortex problem. In contrast to earlier models, the new......The criterion of Betz for optimum rotors with a finite number of blades is revisited and used to determine the performance of wind turbines. The Betz criterion states that ideal efficiency is obtained when the distribution of circulation along the blade produces a rigidly helicoid wake that moves...... model is consistent with the general momentum theory and enables for the first time to determine the theoretical maximum efficiency of rotors with an arbitrary number of blades....
A blade deflection monitoring system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2017-01-01
A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...
Modal Analysis for Crack Detection in Small Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Skov, Jonas falk; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens
2013-01-01
The aim of the present paper is to evaluate structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques based on modal analysis for crack detection in small wind turbine blades. A finite element (FE) model calibrated to measured modal parameters will be introduced to cracks with different sizes along one edge...... of the blade. Changes in modal parameters from the FE model are compared with data obtained from experimental tests. These comparisons will be used to validate the FE model and subsequently discuss the usability of SHM techniques based on modal parameters for condition monitoring of wind turbine blades....
Rotating turbine blade pyrometer
Buchele, D. R.; Lesco, D. J.
1974-01-01
Non-contacting pyrometer system optically measures surface temperature distribution on rotating turbine blade, comprising line-by-line scan via fiber optic probe. Each scan line output is converted to digital signals, temporarily stored in buffer memory, and then processed in minicomputer for display as temperature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branner, Kim; Ghadirian, Amin
This report deals with the importance of measuring the reliability of the rotor blades and describing how they can fail. The Challenge is that very little non-confidential data is available and that the quality and detail in the data is limited....
Deflection estimation of a wind turbine blade using FBG sensors embedded in the blade bonding line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Woo-Ram; Jeong, Min-Soo; Lee, In; Kwon, Il-Bum
2013-01-01
Estimating the deflection of flexible composite wind turbine blades is very important to prevent the blades from hitting the tower. Several researchers have used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors—a type of optical fiber sensor (OFS)—to monitor the structural behavior of the blades. They can be installed on the surface and/or embedded in the interior of composites. However, the typical installation positions of OFSs present several problems, including delamination of sensing probes and a higher risk of fiber breakage during installation. In this study, we proposed using the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap as a new installation position of embedded OFSs for estimating the deflection of the blades. Laboratory coupon tests were undertaken preliminarily to confirm the strain measuring capability of embedded FBG sensors in adhesive layers, and the obtained values were verified by comparison with results obtained by electrical strain gauges and finite element analysis. We performed static loading tests on a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade to evaluate its deflections using embedded FBG sensors positioned in the bonding line. The deflections were estimated by classical beam theory considering a rigid body rotation near the tip of the blade. The evaluated tip deflections closely matched those measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Therefore, we verified the capability of embedded FBG sensors for evaluating the deflections of wind turbine blades. In addition, we confirmed that the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap is a practical location to embed the FBG sensors. (paper)
Large momentum transfer phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.
1978-01-01
The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)
A new dynamic model of rotor-blade systems
Ma, Hui; Lu, Yang; Wu, Zhiyuan; Tai, Xingyu; Li, Hui; Wen, Bangchun
2015-11-01
A new dynamic model of rotor-blade systems is developed in this paper considering the lateral and torsional deformations of the shaft, gyroscopic effects of the rotor which consists of shaft and disk, and the centrifugal stiffening, spin softening and Coriolis force of the blades. In this model, the rotating flexible blades are represented by Timoshenko beams. The shaft and rigid disk are described by multiple lumped mass points (LMPs), and these points are connected by massless springs which have both lateral and torsional stiffness. LMPs are represented by the corresponding masses and mass moments of inertia in lateral and rotational directions, where each point has five degrees of freedom (dofs) excluding axial dof. Equations of motion of the rotor-blade system are derived using Hamilton's principle in conjunction with the assumed modes method to describe blade deformation. The proposed model is compared with both finite element (FE) model and real experiments. The proposed model is first validated by comparing the model natural frequencies and vibration responses with those obtained from an FE model. A further verification of the model is then performed by comparing the model natural frequencies at zero rotational speed with those obtained from experimental studies. The results shown a good agreement between the model predicted system characteristics and those obtained from the FE model and experimental tests. Moreover, the following interesting phenomena have been revealed from the new model based analysis: The torsional natural frequency of the system decreases with the increase of rotational speed, and the frequency veering phenomenon has been observed at high rotational speed; The complicated coupling modes, such as the blade-blade coupling mode (BB), the coupling mode between the rotor lateral vibration and blade bending (RBL), and the coupling mode between the rotor torsional vibration and blade bending (RBT), have also been observed when the number of
Structural dynamic analysis of turbine blade
Antony, A. Daniel; Gopalsamy, M.; Viswanadh, Chaparala B. V.; Krishnaraj, R.
2017-10-01
In any gas turbine design cycle, blade design is a crucial element which needs maximum attention to meet the aerodynamic performance, structural safety margins, manufacturing feasibility, material availability etc. In present day gas turbine engines, most of the failures occur during engine development test and in-service, in rotor and stator blades due to fatigue and resonance failures. To address this issue, an extensive structural dynamic analysis is carried out to predict the natural frequencies and mode shapes using FE methods. Using the dynamics characteristics, the Campbell diagram is constructed to study the possibility of resonance at various operating speeds. In this work, the feasibility of using composite material in place of titanium alloy from the structural dynamics point of view. This is being attempted in a Low-pressure compressor where the temperatures are relatively low and fixed with the casings. The analysis will be carried out using FE method for different composite material with different lamina orientations chosen through the survey. This study will focus on the sensitivity of blade mode shapes to different laminae orientations, which will be used to alter the natural frequency and tailor the mode shapes. Campbell diagrams of existing titanium alloy are compared with the composite materials with different laminae at all critical operating conditions. The existing manufacturing methods and the proven techniques for blade profiles will also be discussed in this report.
Influence of rotation and pretwist on cantilever fan blade flutter
Sisto, F.; Chang, A. T.
1985-01-01
The fundamental and lowest frequency natural modes in a cantilever fan blade exhibit significant amounts of flexure and torsion coupled by pretwist and operation in a rotational force field. Consequently the flutter estimation of such blades requires an accurate structural description that incorporates these two effects, amongst others. A beam-type finite element model is used in this study with up to six spanwise elements, each element being pretwisted. Coalescence-type flutter is found with subsonic aerodynamics. Evidence of the aerodynamic resonance phenomenon is exhibited and the importance of including radially varying aerodynamic forces is brought out.
Introducing Conservation of Momentum
Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff
2013-01-01
The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse
across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk......We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities....
Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.
2016-07-01
Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.
Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rogers, Thomas H. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be driven at a at a design speed by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool. Rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades includes an airfoil body. The leading edge of the airfoil body has a swept profile such that, at the design speed, a component of a relative velocity vector of a working gas that is normal to the leading edge is subsonic along the entire radial span.
Performance of Savonius Blade Waterwheel with Variation of Blade Number
Sule, L.; Rompas, P. T. D.
2018-02-01
The utilization of water energy source is mainly used as a provider of electrical energy through hydroelectric power. The potential utilization of water flow energy is relatively small. The objective of this study is to know the best blade of Savonius waterwheel with various variables such as water discharge, blade number, and loading. The data used the efficiency of waterwheel, variation of blade number, variable water discharge, and loading in the shaft. The test results have shown that the performances of a top-water mill with the semicircular curve where the variation in the number of blades are 4, 6, and 8 at discharge and loading of 0.01587 m3/s and 1000 grams respectively were 9.945%, 13.929%, and 17.056% respectively. The blades number of 8 obtained the greatest performance. The more number of blades the greater the efficiency of the waterwheel Savonius.
Shankar Verma, Amrit; Petter Vedvik, Nils; Gao, Zhen
2017-12-01
The use of floating crane vessel for installation of offshore wind turbine blades presents a great challenge in terms of its random motions and is likely to increase the probability of the blade hitting the preassembled tower during lifting operation. To evaluate the consequences of such scenarios and to determine the allowable motions or sea states for such operations, it is very important to understand the damage development in the blade due to impact. The present paper employs the application of high fidelity finite element method to investigate the damage behavior in the blade when the leading edge of the blade hits the tower. A nonlinear time domain structural analysis using ABAQUS was conducted on the DTU 10 MW reference blade model which is based on shell elements. Damage assessment along with the nature of evolution of various energies is examined and presented for two different impact velocities with modified layup stacking sequence at the contact region.
Blade Vibration Measurement System
Platt, Michael J.
2014-01-01
The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.
Modelling of lightning streamer formation and propagation in wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find
2013-01-01
The positioning of lightning air terminations along a wind turbine blade is a complex issue to consider when designing the lightning protection of wind turbine blades. According to the IEC 61400-24 on lightning protection of wind turbines, the interception efficiency depends on the effectiveness ...... models can involve a high level of detail and therefore be used in the detailed positioning of air terminations in blades equipped with conductive elements such as carbon fiber or electrical monitoring systems (load, temperature, etc.)....
Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade design
Violette, John A.; Sullivan, William E.; Turnberg, Jay E.
1984-01-01
This report covers the design analysis of a very thin, highly swept, propeller blade to be used in the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) test program. The report includes: design requirements and goals, a description of the blade configuration which meets requirements, a description of the analytical methods utilized/developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements, and the results of these analyses. The methods described include: finite element modeling, predicted aerodynamic loads and their application to the blade, steady state and vibratory response analyses, blade resonant frequencies and mode shapes, bird impact analysis, and predictions of stalled and unstalled flutter phenomena. Summarized results include deflections, retention loads, stress/strength comparisons, foreign object damage resistance, resonant frequencies and critical speed margins, resonant vibratory mode shapes, calculated boundaries of stalled and unstalled flutter, and aerodynamic and acoustic performance calculations.
Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment
Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J
2015-01-27
Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.
Structural damage and chemical contaminants on reprocessed arthroscopic shaver blades.
Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Takashi
2009-02-01
In response to socioeconomic pressure to cut budgets in medicine, single-use surgical instruments are often reprocessed despite potential biological hazard. To evaluate the quality and contaminants of reprocessed shaver blades. Reprocessed shaver blades have mechanical damage and chemical contamination. Controlled laboratory study. Seven blades and 3 abraders were reprocessed 1 time or 3 times and then were assessed. In the first part of the study, structural damage on the blades after 3 reprocessings was compared to that after 1 reprocessing using optical microscopy. In the second part, surface damage was observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; elemental and chemical analyses of contaminants found by the microscopy were performed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical microscopic examination revealed abrasion on the surface of the inner blade and cracks on the inner tube after 1 reprocessing. These changes were more evident after 3 reprocessings. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the blade reprocessed once showed contaminants containing calcium, carbon, oxygen, and silicon, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated biological protein consisting mainly of collagen, some type of salts, and polycarbonate used in plastic molding. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the reprocessed abrader revealed contaminants containing carbon, calcium, phosphorous, and oxygen, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed H2O, hydroxyapatite, and hydroxyl proteins. Scanning Auger microscopy showed that the tin-nickel plating on the moving blade and abrader was missing in some locations. This is the first study to evaluate both mechanical damage and chemical contaminants containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and salts
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Heje Pedersen, Lasse
2013-01-01
are negatively correlated with each other, both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three-factor model. Global funding liquidity risk is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value......We find consistent value and momentum return premia across eight diverse markets and asset classes, and a strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum returns correlate more strongly across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes, but value and momentum...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arimondo, Ennio
2004-01-01
For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on
2016-01-01
Momentum is the quarterly magazine of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. In this issue: Lead-free piezoelectric material in development; Harnessing the energy of ocean waves; Meet the Hyperloop team; Maleshia Jones - Graduate student with focus.
On the inverse problem of blade design for centrifugal pumps and fans
Kruyt, N. P.; Westra, R. W.
2014-06-01
The inverse problem of blade design for centrifugal pumps and fans has been studied. The solution to this problem provides the geometry of rotor blades that realize specified performance characteristics, together with the corresponding flow field. Here a three-dimensional solution method is described in which the so-called meridional geometry is fixed and the distribution of the azimuthal angle at the three-dimensional blade surface is determined for blades of infinitesimal thickness. The developed formulation is based on potential-flow theory. Besides the blade impermeability condition at the pressure and suction side of the blades, an additional boundary condition at the blade surface is required in order to fix the unknown blade geometry. For this purpose the mean-swirl distribution is employed. The iterative numerical method is based on a three-dimensional finite element method approach in which the flow equations are solved on the domain determined by the latest estimate of the blade geometry, with the mean-swirl distribution boundary condition at the blade surface being enforced. The blade impermeability boundary condition is then used to find an improved estimate of the blade geometry. The robustness of the method is increased by specific techniques, such as spanwise-coupled solution of the discretized impermeability condition and the use of under-relaxation in adjusting the estimates of the blade geometry. Various examples are shown that demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the method in finding a solution for the blade geometry of different types of centrifugal pumps and fans. The influence of the employed mean-swirl distribution on the performance characteristics is also investigated.
A CFD analysis of the actuator disc flow compared with momentum theory results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aagaard Madsen, H. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-08-01
The blade element momentum (BEM) model is still used in many aerodynamic and aeroelastic models for design and load calculations. This is due to its simplicity, robustness, computational speed and good accuracy for a wide range of applications. The question about accuracy is however closely connected to the airfoil section data and therefore correlation/lack of correlation with experimental results can both be due to the specific input data used and due to the induced velocity field predicted by the BEM method. It is also well-known that the BEM method for some applications is used under operational conditions that violates the assumptions made for the development of the model, e.g. operation in yaw and operation at high loading. The main objective with the present study is to investigate this part of the BEM method (the momentum strip theory MST) on which the determination of the induced velocities is based. This is done by comparing the results of the MST model with velocities predicted on basis of the Navier Stokes equations for the flow through an actuator disc. (au)
Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven
2017-08-29
A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.
A comprehensive investigation of trailing edge damage in a wind turbine rotor blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Eder, Martin Alexander; Belloni, Federico
2016-01-01
model, compared with experimental data of a blade test conducted at Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU) Wind Energy (Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark), showed to be in good agreement. Subsequently, the effects of geometrical non-linear cross-section deformation and trailing-edge...... separate production of the multi-material subcomponents of which a blade is comprised and which are commonly joined through adhesives. Adhesive joints are known to represent a weak link in the structural integrity of blades, where particularly, the trailing-edge joint is notorious for its susceptibility...... for adhesive joint failure in blades is scarce. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical investigation of energy release rates at the tip of a transversely oriented crack in the trailing edge of a 34m long blade for a 1.5MW wind turbine. First, results of a non-linear finite element analysis of a 3D blade...
Technical Assessment of the National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex Fan Blades Repair
Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Dixon, Peter G.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Johns, William E.
1998-01-01
This report describes the principal activities of a technical review team formed to address National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) blade repair problems. In particular, the problem of lack of good adhesive bonding of the composite overwrap to the Hyduliginum wood blade material was studied extensively. Description of action plans and technical elements of the plans are provided. Results of experiments designed to optimize the bonding process and bonding strengths obtained on a full scale blade using a two-step cure process with adhesive primers are presented. Consensus recommendations developed by the review team in conjunction with the NASA Ames Fan Blade Repair Project Team are provided along with lessons learned on this program. Implementation of recommendations resulted in achieving good adhesive bonds between the composite materials and wooden blades, thereby providing assurance that the repaired fan blades will meet or exceed operational life requirements.
Roughness Sensitivity Comparisons of Wind Turbine Blade Sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilcox, Benjamin J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; White, Edward B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.
2017-10-01
One explanation for wind turbine power degradation is insect roughness. Historical studies on insect-induced power degradation have used simulation methods which are either un- representative of actual insect roughness or too costly or time-consuming to be applied to wide-scale testing. Furthermore, the role of airfoil geometry in determining the relations between insect impingement locations and roughness sensitivity has not been studied. To link the effects of airfoil geometry, insect impingement locations, and roughness sensitivity, a simulation code was written to determine representative insect collection patterns for different airfoil shapes. Insect collection pattern data was then used to simulate roughness on an NREL S814 airfoil that was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 1.6 x 10^{6} and 4.0 x 10^{6}. Results are compared to previous tests of a NACA 63_{3} -418 airfoil. Increasing roughness height and density results in decreased maximum lift, lift curve slope, and lift-to-drag ratio. Increasing roughness height, density, or Reynolds number results in earlier bypass transition, with critical roughness Reynolds numbers lying within the historical range. Increased roughness sensitivity on the 25% thick NREL S814 is observed compared to the 18% thick NACA 63 3 -418. Blade-element-momentum analysis was used to calculate annual energy production losses of 4.9% and 6.8% for a NACA 63_{3} -418 turbine and an NREL S814 turbine, respectively, operating with 200 μm roughness. These compare well to historical field measurements.
Spacecraft momentum control systems
Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A
2015-01-01
The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...
Influence of Icing on the Modal Behavior of Wind Turbine Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudhakar Gantasala
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Wind turbines installed in cold climate sites accumulate ice on their structures. Icing of the rotor blades reduces turbine power output and increases loads, vibrations, noise, and safety risks due to the potential ice throw. Ice accumulation increases the mass distribution of the blade, while changes in the aerofoil shapes affect its aerodynamic behavior. Thus, the structural and aerodynamic changes due to icing affect the modal behavior of wind turbine blades. In this study, aeroelastic equations of the wind turbine blade vibrations are derived to analyze modal behavior of the Tjaereborg 2 MW wind turbine blade with ice. Structural vibrations of the blade are coupled with a Beddoes-Leishman unsteady attached flow aerodynamics model and the resulting aeroelastic equations are analyzed using the finite element method (FEM. A linearly increasing ice mass distribution is considered from the blade root to half-length and thereafter constant ice mass distribution to the blade tip, as defined by Germanischer Lloyd (GL for the certification of wind turbines. Both structural and aerodynamic properties of the iced blades are evaluated and used to determine their influence on aeroelastic natural frequencies and damping factors. Blade natural frequencies reduce with ice mass and the amount of reduction in frequencies depends on how the ice mass is distributed along the blade length; but the reduction in damping factors depends on the ice shape. The variations in the natural frequencies of the iced blades with wind velocities are negligible; however, the damping factors change with wind velocity and become negative at some wind velocities. This study shows that the aerodynamic changes in the iced blade can cause violent vibrations within the operating wind velocity range of this turbine.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse
2012-01-01
We document significant “time series momentum” in equity index, currency, commodity, and bond futures for each of the 58 liquid instruments we consider. We find persistence in returns for one to 12 months that partially reverses over longer horizons, consistent with sentiment theories of initial...... under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...... of speculators and hedgers, we find that speculators profit from time series momentum at the expense of hedgers....
Failure analysis of turbine blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.
1989-01-01
Two 20 MW gas turbines suffered damage in blades belonging to the 2nd. stage of the turbine after 24,000 hours of duty. From research it arises that the fuel used is not quite adequate to guarantee the blade's operating life due to the excess of SO 3 , C and Na existing in combustion gases which cause pitting to the former. Later, the corrosion phenomenon is presented under tension produced by working stress enhanced by pitting where Pb is its main agent. A change of fuel is recommended thus considering the blades will reach the operational life they were designed for. (Author) [es
Design Procedure of 4-Bladed Propeller
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU
2013-09-01
Sep 1, 2013 ... Diameter – The diameter of the imaginary cycle scribed by the blade ... Blade root – Fillet area. The region of transition from .... Propeller diameter. To estimate the weight of all blades and the polar moment of inertia of a blade, the approximate formula given by [8] was adopted. 3. 982.1. ,. YR. B. W. Weight.
Rotations and angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nyborg, P.; Froyland, J.
1979-01-01
This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nashed, Gamal G.L. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Mathematics Dept.
2010-09-15
We show that the definition of the energy-momentum complex given by Moeller using Weitzenboeck spacetime in the calculations of gravitational energy gives results which are different from those obtained from other definitions given in the framework of general relativity. (author)
2016-01-01
Momentum is the quarterly magazine of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. In this issue: Nano engineering - Scaling up; Coating 3D objects quickly Energy Harvesting - from soldier's backpacks to nuclear monitoring Hyperloop - team readies pod, university to build test track.
Momentum constraint relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marronetti, Pedro
2006-01-01
Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly
Fission fragment angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frenne, D. De
1991-01-01
Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Bladed disc crack diagnostics using blade passage signals
Hanachi, Houman; Liu, Jie; Banerjee, Avisekh; Koul, Ashok; Liang, Ming; Alavi, Elham
2012-12-01
One of the major potential faults in a turbo fan engine is the crack initiation and propagation in bladed discs under cyclic loads that could result in the breakdown of the engines if not detected at an early stage. Reliable fault detection techniques are therefore in demand to reduce maintenance cost and prevent catastrophic failures. Although a number of approaches have been reported in the literature, it remains very challenging to develop a reliable technique to accurately estimate the health condition of a rotating bladed disc. Correspondingly, this paper presents a novel technique for bladed disc crack detection through two sequential signal processing stages: (1) signal preprocessing that aims to eliminate the noises in the blade passage signals; (2) signal postprocessing that intends to identify the crack location. In the first stage, physics-based modeling and interpretation are established to help characterize the noises. The crack initiation can be determined based on the calculated health monitoring index derived from the sinusoidal effects. In the second stage, the crack is located through advanced detrended fluctuation analysis of the preprocessed data. The proposed technique is validated using a set of spin rig test data (i.e. tip clearance and time of arrival) that was acquired during a test conducted on a bladed military engine fan disc. The test results have demonstrated that the developed technique is an effective approach for identifying and locating the incipient crack that occurs at the root of a bladed disc.
Rotor blade assembly having internal loading features
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soloway, Daniel David
2017-05-16
Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drenkelfort, Gunnar [GDC Consulting GmbH, Guetersloh (Germany)
2009-11-30
An integrated concept for automatic manufacturing of wind power systems is presented for the first time. Automatic grinding of rotor blades by robots is a key element, which saves up to 70 percent of the production cost. (orig.)
Fan blade crack diagnosis method study
Sheng Fu; Yinbo Gao
2016-01-01
This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under di...
Efficient Beam-Type Structural Modeling of Rotor Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen
2015-01-01
The present paper presents two recently developed numerical formulations which enable accurate representation of the static and dynamic behaviour of wind turbine rotor blades using little modeling and computational effort. The first development consists of an intuitive method to extract fully...... coupled six by six cross-section stiffness matrices with limited meshing effort. Secondly, an equilibrium based beam element accepting directly the stiffness matrices and accounting for large variations in geometry and material along the blade is presented. The novel design tools are illustrated...
KNOW-BLADE task-4 report: Navier-Stokes aeroelasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Politis, E.S.; Nikolaou, I.G.; Chaviaropoulos, P.K.
2004-01-01
The problem of the aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blades is addressed in this report by advancing the aerodynamic modelling in the beam element type codes from the engineering-type empirical models to unsteady, 2D or 3D, Navier-Stokes solvers. Inthis project, structural models for the full...... wind turbine blade have been combined with 2D and 3D unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. The relative disadvantage of the quasi-3D approach (where the elastic solver is coupled with a 2D Navier-Stokes solver) isits inability to model induced flow. The lack of a validation test case did not allow...
Wavelet Transformation for Damage Identication in Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Skov, Jonas falk; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2014-01-01
The present paper documents a proposed modal and wavelet analysis-based structural health monitoring (SHM) method for damage identification in wind turbine blades. A finite element (FE) model of a full-scale wind turbine blade is developed and introduced to a transverse surface crack. Hereby, post......-damage mode shapes are derived through modal analysis and subsequently analyzed with continuous two-dimensional wavelet transformation for damage identification, namely detection, localization and assessment. It is found that valid damage identification is obtained even when utilizing the mode shape...
Power generation and blade flow measurements of a full scale wind turbine
Gaunt, Brian
Experimental research has been completed using a custom designed and built 4m wind turbine in a university operated wind facility. The primary goals of turbine testing were to determine the power production of the turbine and to apply the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to produce flow visualization images and velocity vector maps near the tip of a blade. These tests were completed over a wide range of wind speeds and turbine blade rotational speeds. This testing was also designed to be a preliminary study of the potential for future research using the turbine apparatus and to outline it's limitations. The goals and results of other large scale turbine tests are briefly discussed with a comparison outlining the unique aspects of the experiment outlined in this thesis. Power production tests were completed covering a range of mean wind speeds, 6.4 m/s to 11.1 m/s nominal, and rotational rates, 40 rpm to 220 rpm. This testing allowed the total power produced by the blades to be determined as a function of input wind speed, as traditionally found in power curves for commercial turbines. The coefficient of power, Cp, was determined as a function of the tip speed ratio which gave insight into the peak power production of the experimental turbine. It was found, as expected, that the largest power production occurred at the highest input wind speed, 11.1 m/s, and reached a mean value of 3080 W at a rotational rate of 220 rpm. Peak Cp was also found, as a function of the tip speed ratio, to approach 0.4 at the maximum measurable tip speed ratio of 8. Blade element momentum (BEM) theory was also implemented as an aerodynamic power and force prediction tool for the given turbine apparatus. Comparisons between the predictions and experimental results were made with a focus on the Cp power curve to verify the accuracy of the initial model. Although the initial predictions, based on lift and drag curves found in Abbot and Von Deonhoff 1, were similar to experimental
The Analysis of the Aerodynamic Character and Structural Response of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Zhu
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A process of detailed CFD and structural numerical simulations of the 1.5 MW horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT blade is present. The main goal is to help advance the use of computer-aided simulation methods in the field of design and development of HAWT-blades. After an in-depth study of the aerodynamic configuration and materials of the blade, 3-D mapping software is utilized to reconstruct the high fidelity geometry, and then the geometry is imported into CFD and structure finite element analysis (FEA software for completely simulation calculation. This research process shows that the CFD results compare well with the professional wind turbine design and certification software, GH-Bladed. Also, the modal analysis with finite element method (FEM predicts well compared with experiment tests on a stationary blade. For extreme wind loads case that by considering a 50-year extreme gust simulated in CFD are unidirectional coupled to the FE-model, the results indicate that the maximum deflection of the blade tip is less than the distance between the blade tip (the point of maximum deflection and the tower, the material of the blade provides enough resistance to the peak stresses the occur at the conjunction of shear webs and center spar cap. Buckling analysis is also included in the study.
Optical angular momentum and atoms.
Franke-Arnold, Sonja
2017-02-28
Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Large transverse momentum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1977-09-01
It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references
Lift capability prediction for helicopter rotor blade-numerical evaluation
Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Luculescu, Doru
2016-06-01
The main objective of this paper is to describe the key physical features for modelling the unsteady aerodynamic effects found on helicopter rotor blade operating under nominally attached flow conditions away from stall. The unsteady effects were considered as phase differences between the forcing function and the aerodynamic response, being functions of the reduced frequency, the Mach number and the mode forcing. For a helicopter rotor, the reduced frequency at any blade element can't be exactly calculated but a first order approximation for the reduced frequency gives useful information about the degree of unsteadiness. The sources of unsteady effects were decomposed into perturbations to the local angle of attack and velocity field. The numerical calculus and graphics were made in FLUENT and MAPLE soft environments. This mathematical model is applicable for aerodynamic design of wind turbine rotor blades, hybrid energy systems optimization and aeroelastic analysis.
Angular momentum projected semiclassics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, R.W.
1986-10-01
By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle- one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space (r, r') the relevant quantities depend on vertical stroker - r 3 vertical stroke instead of vertical stroker - r'vertical stroke and in Wigner space (R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(vertical strokeRxPvertical stroke/ℎ - l) and δ((RxP) z /ℎ - m). As applications we calculate the single-particle and one particle- one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction. (orig.)
Active and semiactive vibration damping of turbine blades with piezoceramics
Hohl, A.; Neubauer, M.; Schwarzendahl, S. M.; Panning, L.; Wallaschek, J.
2009-03-01
In this paper the damping capability of piezoelectric shunting is analysed for bladings. Beside the broadly used inductance-resistance networks, negative capacitance techniques are considered. For the validation of the theoretic results, a test rig with a model of a bladed disk with eight blades has been manufactured and equipped with two collocated piezoceramics at each blade. One of the piezoceramics is used as an actuator for an engine order excitation. The second piezoceramics is used for shunt damping. The experimental results of the test rig are compared with numerical results. Therefore, the structure and the piezoceramics are modeled in a finite element program. The modal excitation forces of the piezoelectric actuators are derived for all modes of the structure by a static analysis with a specific voltage applied to the piezoceramics. In addition, using the modal displacement field of the static analysis the modal excitation forces can be calculated. Furthermore, the number of degrees of freedom of the system is reduced by a modal reduction technique. The electrical behavior of the piezoceramics connected to each blade is modeled by one degree of freedom and coupled with the mechanical system described above. The different damping concepts are compared with respect of their effectiveness.
Design for the automation of composite wind turbine blade manufacture
Polcari, M. J.; White, K. D.; Sherwood, J. A.
2016-10-01
The majority of large wind turbine blades are manufactured from textile-reinforced resin-infused composites using an open mold. The placement of the textile reinforcements in the mold is traditionally accomplished by a manual process where dozens of workers hand place each dry fabric in the mold. Depending on the level of skill and experience of each worker and the relative complexity of the mold geometry, local areas may exhibit out-of-plane wrinkling and in-plane waviness. Fabric imperfections such as these can adversely impact the strength and stiffness of the blade, thereby compromising its durability in service. In an effort to reduce the variabilities associated with a manual-labor process, an automated piecewise shifting method has been proposed for fabric placement. This automated layup method saves time on the preform process and reduces variability from blade to blade. In the current research the automated shifting layup method is investigated using a robust and easy-to-use finite element modelling approach. User-defined material models utilizing a mesoscopic unit-cell modeling approach are linked with Abaqus to capture the evolution of the fabric shear stiffness and changes in the fiber orientations during the fabric-placement process. The simulation approach is demonstrated for the geometry of the trailing edge of a typical wind turbine blade. The simulation considers the mechanical behavior of the fabric and reliably predicts fabric deformation and failure zones.
The heat transfer analysis of the first stage blade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Yong Ju; Choi, Bum Seog; Park, Byung Gyu; Yoon, Eui Soo
2001-01-01
To get higher efficiency of gas turbine, the designer should have more higher Turbine Inlet Temperature(TIT). Today, modern gas turbine having sophisticated cooling scheme has TIT above 1,700 .deg. C. In the Korea, many gas turbine having TIT above 1,300 .deg. C was imported and being operated, but the gas with high TIT above 1,300 .deg. C in the turbine will give damage to liner of combustor, and blade of turbine and etc. So frequently maintenance for parts enduring high temperature was performed. In this study, the heat transfer analysis of cooling air in the internal cooling channel (network analysis) and temperature analysis of the blade (Finite Element Analysis) in the first stage rotor was conducted for development of the optimal cooling passage design procedure. The results of network analysis and FEM analysis of blade show that the high temperature spot are occurred at the leading edge, trailing edge near tip, and platform. So to get more reliable performance of gas turbine, the more efficient cooling method should be applied at the leading edge and tip section and the thermal barrier coating on the blade surface has important role in cooling blade
Critique of the angular momentum sum rules and a new angular momentum sum rule
Bakker, B.L.G.; Leader, E.; Trueman, T. L.
2004-01-01
We present a study of the tensorial structure of the hadronic matrix elements of the angular momentum operators J. Well known results in the literature are shown to be incorrect, and we have taken pains to derive the correct expressions in three different ways, two involving explicit physical wave
Effect of a Damage to Modal Parameters of a Wind Turbine Blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Berring, Peter; Tcherniak, Dmitri
2014-01-01
This study reports structural dynamic characteristics obtained experimentally from an extensive testing campaign on a 34m long wind turbine blade mounted on a test-rig under laboratory conditions. Further, these experimental results have been compared with analog numerical results obtained from a...... the mode shapes - especially if decomposed into the flapwise, edgewise and torsional components - contain information which might be helpful for detecting and localizing wind turbine blade damages....... a very detailed FE model of the same blade using 3D solid elements. Both an undamaged and a damaged blade are investigated, and it is observed that the natural frequencies of the first few modes of the blade change very little due to a significant artificial damage imposed in trailing edge, whereas...
Free flow wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben Juul; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2018-01-01
This paper presents a method for obtaining the free-inflow velocities from a 3-D flow sensor mounted on the blade of a wind turbine. From its position on the rotating blade, e.g. one-third from the tip, a blade-mounted flow sensor (BMFS) is able to provide valuable information about the turbulent...... and procedures to estimate the induced velocities, i.e. the disturbance of the flow field caused by the wind turbine. These velocities are subtracted from the flow velocities measured by the BMFS to obtain the free-inflow velocities. Aeroelastic codes, like HAWC2, typically use a similar approach to calculate...... the induction, but they use it for the reversed process, i.e. they add the induction to the free inflow to get the flow velocities at the blades, which are required to calculate the resulting aerodynamic forces. The aerodynamic models included in the current method comprise models based on blade element...
Aerodynamic Analysis of Morphing Blades
Harris, Caleb; Macphee, David; Carlisle, Madeline
2016-11-01
Interest in morphing blades has grown with applications for wind turbines and other aerodynamic blades. This passive control method has advantages over active control methods such as lower manufacturing and upkeep costs. This study has investigated the lift and drag forces on individual blades with experimental and computational analysis. The goal has been to show that these blades delay stall and provide larger lift-to-drag ratios at various angles of attack. Rigid and flexible airfoils were cast from polyurethane and silicone respectively, then lift and drag forces were collected from a load cell during 2-D testing in a wind tunnel. Experimental data was used to validate computational models in OpenFOAM. A finite volume fluid-structure-interaction solver was used to model the flexible blade in fluid flow. Preliminary results indicate delay in stall and larger lift-to-drag ratios by maintaining more optimal angles of attack when flexing. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong, C.; Bang, J.; Sugiyama, Y.
2005-01-01
This study proposes a structural design for developing a medium scale composite wind turbine blade made of E-glass/epoxy for a 750 kW class horizontal axis wind turbine system. The design loads were determined from various load cases specified at the IEC61400-1 international specification and GL regulations for the wind energy conversion system. A specific composite structure configuration, which can effectively endure various loads such as aerodynamic loads and loads due to accumulation of ice, hygro-thermal and mechanical loads, was proposed. To evaluate the proposed composite wind turbine blade, structural analysis was performed by using the finite element method. Parametric studies were carried out to determine an acceptable blade structural design, and the most dominant design parameters were confirmed. In this study, the proposed blade structure was confirmed to be safe and stable under various load conditions, including the extreme load conditions. Moreover, the blade adapted a new blade root joint with insert bolts, and its safety was verified at design loads including fatigue loads. The fatigue life of a blade that has to endure for more than 20 years was estimated by using the well-known S-N linear damage theory, the service load spectrum, and the Spera's empirical equations. With the results obtained from all the structural design and analysis, prototype composite blades were manufactured. A specific construction process including the lay-up molding method was applied to manufacturing blades. Full-scale static structural test was performed with the simulated aerodynamic loads. From the experimental results, it was found that the designed blade had structural integrity. In addition, the measured results of deflections, strains, mass, and radial center of gravity agreed well with the analytical results. The prototype blade was successfully certified by an international certification institute, GL (Germanisher Lloyd) in Germany
New type of wind turbine with composite rotor blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rys, J. [Cracow Univ. of Technology, Krakow (Poland)
1995-11-01
During the last three years a new type of a wind turbine has been designed and tested in Division of Machine Design at Cracow University of Technology. The wind turbine consists of four main units: (1) rotor with two blades, each of them having an aerodynamically formed surface made of a laminated composite material bordered by a metallic frame; (2) directing system consisting of one rotor unit which drives blades about their own axis and controls the orientation of the turbine towards the wind; (3) supporting and transmissing system; and (4) foundation consisting of typical reinforced concrete plates fastened together, convenient to transport. The paper presents the method describing simulation of motion of the turbine. Such an approach gives one the possibility to analyze the maximum load acting in the vicinity of the blade and the load response of the elements of the turbine. A certain useful technique is demonstrated which can be applied to determine the load distribution. It is used to find e.g. the optimal fastening of internal metallic frame of the rotor blade. Specific and important advantages of the new type of engine are summarized in the final remarks as follows: perfect static and dynamic balancing, nice geometric shape of rotor which can be made of typical materials, low mass and cost per unit, typical technology of elements, easy mounting and dismounting. Several designing and technological solutions are illustrated in graphs and drawings.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2014-01-01
and casting speed (belt velocity). In the present work, the flow in both doctor blade regions of a slurry is described with a steady state momentum equation in combination with a Bingham plastic constitutive equation, and this is integrated to a closed form analytical solution for both reservoirs based...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mangesh S. Kotambkar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Investigations of modal parameters for a mistuned packet of turbine blades due to lacing wire damage are reported using analytical and numerical studies with a simplified model. The turbine blade is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam connected with a lacing wire which is modeled as a mass less linear elastic spring. Thus, the blade is considered as a continuous system and lacing wire as a discrete system. The analytical results using Eigen value analysis are compared with numerical results obtained using commercial finite element package. In real life situation, though not reported in the literature, it is the failure of lacing wire that occurs quite often compared to the turbine blade and acts as precursor to the subsequent blade damage if it goes undetected. Therefore, studying the modal parameters of the grouped turbine blades in the context of lacing wire failure becomes important. The effect of variation of lacing wire location and stiffness indicative of damage resulting in the loss of stiffness on modal parameters is investigated. The study reveals a lot of fundamental understandings pertaining to dynamic behavior of grouped blades compared to the stand-alone blade under the influence of damaged lacing wire.
Gönnenwein, F.; Bunakov, V.; Dorvaux, O.; Gagarski, A.; Guseva, I.; Hanappe, F.; Kadmensky, S.; von Kalben, J.; Khlebnikov, S.; Kinnard, V.; Kopatch, Yu.; Mutterer, M.; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Petrov, G.; Prokhorova, E.; Rubchenya, V.; Sillanpää, M.; Simpson, G.; Sokolov, V.; Soldner, T.; Stuttgé, L.; Tiourine, G.; Trzaska, W.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Wagemans, C.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Zavarukhina, T.; Zimmer, O.
2008-04-01
Three novel experiments in spontaneous and thermal neutron induced fission all with a bearing on angular momentum in fission are reviewed. In the first experiment it was observed that, in the reaction 235U(n, f) with incident polarized cold neutrons, the nucleus undergoing scission is rotating. This was inferred from the shift in angular distributions of ternary particles being dependent on the orientation of neutron spin. In the second study the properties of the angular momentum of spherical fission fragments was investigated. Current theories trace the spin of fragments to their deformations allowing for collective rotational vibrations at scission. However, in particular the spherical 132Te isotope exhibits a large spin at variance with theory. Exploiting the specific properties of cold deformed fission it could be proven that, for 132Te, single particle excitations instead of collective modes are responsible for the large spin observed. In a third project a pilot study was exploring the possibility to search for an evaporation of neutrons from fragments being anisotropic in their own cm-system. Due to fragment spin this anisotropy is claimed since decades to exist. It was so far never observed. A scheme has been devised and tested were triple coincidences between a fragment and two neutrons are evaluated in a way to bring the cm-anisotropy into the foreground while getting rid of the kinematical anisotropy in the lab-system due to evaporation from moving fragments. The test was run for spontaneous fission of 252Cf.
Investigation of UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing with a Tip Antenna inside a Blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej
2016-01-01
An UWB blade deflection sensing system with a tip antenna inside a blade is investigated in this paper. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is utilized. This system composes of two UWB radio links between one antenna inside the blade tip and two antennas outside the blade root. Blade deflections...... are tracked via two radio links using delay-based distance estimation and triangulation. In order to build reliable radio links, time-domain pulse field distributions are simulated to optimize the in-blade tip antenna polarization and the locations of the two root antennas around the root surface. Full......-blade time-domain measurements are proposed to verify the simulations and realize the blade deflection sensing with an in-blade tip antenna. With the optimized in-blade tip antenna polarization and two root antenna locations, an accuracy of 2 cm is achieved for the tip-root antenna distance estimation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McGugan, Malcolm
2016-01-01
In this section the research program framework for European PhD network MARE-WINT is presented, particularly the technology development work focussing on reliability/maintenance and the models describing multi-body fluid structure interaction for the Rotor Blade structure. In order to give...
Composite blade damaging under impact
Menouillard, T.; Réthoré, J.; Bung, H.; Suffis, A.
2006-01-01
Composites materials are now being used in primary aircraft structures, and other domains because of numerous advantages. A part of a continuous in-flight operating costs, gas turbine engine manufacturers are always looking for ways to decrease engine weight. This is the case of compressor blades
Advanced LP turbine blade design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Termuehlen, H.
1990-01-01
In the 1960's and early 1970's, the development of steam turbines for the utility industry was mainly influenced by the demand for increasing unit sizes. Nuclear plants in particular, required the design of LP turbines with large annulus areas for substantial mass and volumetric steam flows. Since then the development of more efficient LP turbines became an ongoing challenge. Extensive R and D work was performed in order to build efficient and reliable LP turbines often exposed to severe corrosion, erosion and dynamic excitation conditions. This task led to the introduction of an advanced disk-type rotor design for 1800 rpm LP turbines and the application of a more efficient, reaction-type blading for all steam turbine sections including the first stages of LP turbines. The most recent developments have resulted in an advanced design of large LP turbine blading, typically used in the last three stages of each LP turbine flow section. Development of such blading required detailed knowledge of the three dimensional, largely transonic, flow conditions of saturated steam. Also the precise assessment of blade stressing from dynamic conditions, such as speed and torsional resonance, as well as stochastic and aerodynamic excitation is of extreme importance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munera, Hector A.
2010-01-01
Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.
Design of fault tolerant control system for individual blade control helicopters
Tamayo, Sergio
This dissertation presents the development of a fault tolerant control scheme for helicopters fitted with individually controlled blades. This novel approach attempts to improve fault tolerant capabilities of helicopter control system by increasing control redundancy using additional actuators for individual blade input and software re-mixing to obtain nominal or close to nominal conditions under failure. An advanced interactive simulation environment has been developed including modeling of sensor failure, swashplate actuator failure, individual blade actuator failure, and blade delamination to support the design, testing, and evaluation of the control laws. This simulation environment is based on the blade element theory for the calculation of forces and moments generated by the main rotor. This discretized model allows for individual blade analysis, which in turn allows measuring the consequences of a stuck blade, or loss of the surface area of the blade itself, with respect to the dynamics of the whole helicopter. The control laws are based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation, which is a mix of linear and nonlinear methods that compensates for model inaccuracies due to linearization or failure. A stability analysis based on the Lyapunov function approach has shown that bounded tracking error is guaranteed, and under specific circumstances, global stability is guaranteed as well. An analysis over the degrees of freedom of the mechanical system and its impact over the helicopter handling qualities is also performed to measure the degree of redundancy achieved with the addition of individual blade actuators as compared to a classic swashplate helicopter configuration. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation, using reconfiguration of the individual blade control under failure have shown that this control architecture can potentially improve the survivability of the aircraft and reduce pilot workload under failure
Efficient Beam-Type Structural Modeling of Rotor Blades
Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen
2015-01-01
The present paper presents two recently developed numerical formulations which enable accurate representation of the static and dynamic behaviour of wind turbine rotor blades using little modeling and computational effort. The first development consists of an intuitive method to extract fully coupled six by six cross-section stiffness matrices with limited meshing effort. Secondly, an equilibrium based beam element accepting directly the stiffness matrices and accounting for large variations ...
Quantum scattering theory on the momentum lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubtsova, O. A.; Pomerantsev, V. N.; Kukulin, V. I.
2009-01-01
A new approach based on the wave-packet continuum discretization method recently developed by the present authors for solving quantum-mechanical scattering problems for atomic and nuclear scattering processes and few-body physics is described. The formalism uses the complete continuum discretization scheme in terms of the momentum stationary wave-packet basis, which leads to formulation of the scattering problem on a lattice in the momentum space. The solution of the few-body scattering problem can be found in the approach from linear matrix equations with nonsingular matrix elements, averaged on energy over lattice cells. The developed approach is illustrated by the solution of numerous two- and three-body scattering problems with local and nonlocal potentials below and well above the three-body breakup threshold.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Bitsche, Robert; Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral
2017-01-01
This paper presents a methodology for structural reliability analysis of wind turbine blades. The study introduces several novel elements by taking into account loading direction using a multiaxial probabilistic load model, considering random material strength, spatial correlation between materia...
Alter, Scott M; Haim, Eithan D; Sullivan, Alex H; Clayton, Lisa M
2018-02-17
Direct laryngoscopy can be performed using curved or straight blades, and providers usually choose the blade they are most comfortable with. However, curved blades are anecdotally thought of as easier to use than straight blades. We seek to compare intubation success rates of paramedics using curved versus straight blades. Design: retrospective chart review. hospital-based suburban ALS service with 20,000 annual calls. prehospital patients with any direct laryngoscopy intubation attempt over almost 9years. First attempt and overall success rates were calculated for attempts with curved and straight blades. Differences between the groups were calculated. 2299 patients were intubated by direct laryngoscopy. 1865 had attempts with a curved blade, 367 had attempts with a straight blade, and 67 had attempts with both. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. First attempt success was 86% with a curved blade and 73% with a straight blade: a difference of 13% (95% CI: 9-17). Overall success was 96% with a curved blade and 81% with a straight blade: a difference of 15% (95% CI: 12-18). There was an average of 1.11 intubation attempts per patient with a curved blade and 1.13 attempts per patient with a straight blade (2% difference, 95% CI: -3-7). Our study found a significant difference in intubation success rates between laryngoscope blade types. Curved blades had higher first attempt and overall success rates when compared to straight blades. Paramedics should consider selecting a curved blade as their tool of choice to potentially improve intubation success. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Accelerating momentum for change!
Wenzel, S; Panetta, J
1995-05-01
As we develop strategies to compete globally, we are challenged with integrating our resources to execute these strategies effectively. Many companies are in the midst of dramatic shifts in corporate cultures, giving more responsibility to employees while raising expectations for their performance. The extent of these changes is far reaching and brings significant challenges to both employees and corporations. This article is a continuation of the evolution (over five years) of a corrective action/continuous improvement process implemented at Exide Electronics. It discusses organizational structures, including steering committees, corrective action teams, task teams, and work cells. Specific expectations, goals, and results of the teams are presented, along with ground rules for functioning within the organization. After structuring the organization and coordinating the resources effectively, the next challenge is accelerating momentum for change. The presentation also discusses the evolutionary process required to make a culture focused on change, including ongoing communication and feedback, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung Chun Kim
2014-11-01
Full Text Available A new type of horizontal axis wind turbine adopting the Archimedes spiral blade is introduced for urban-use. Based on the angular momentum conservation law, the design formula for the blade was derived using a variety of shape factors. The aerodynamic characteristics and performance of the designed Archimedes wind turbine were examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD simulations showed that the new type of wind turbine produced a power coefficient (Cp of approximately 0.25, which is relatively high compared to other types of urban-usage wind turbines. To validate the CFD results, experimental studies were carried out using a scaled-down model. The instantaneous velocity fields were measured using the two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV method in the near field of the blade. The PIV measurements revealed the presence of dominant vortical structures downstream the hub and near the blade tip. The interaction between the wake flow at the rotor downstream and the induced velocity due to the tip vortices were strongly affected by the wind speed and resulting rotational speed of the blade. The mean velocity profiles were compared with those predicted by the steady state and unsteady state CFD simulations. The unsteady CFD simulation agreed better with those of the PIV experiments than the steady state CFD simulations.
Anisotropic beam model for analysis and design of passive controlled wind turbine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Branner, K.; Blasques, J.P.; Kim, T.; Fedorov, V.A.; Berring, P.; Bitsche, R.D.; Berggreen, C.
2012-02-15
The main objective of the project was, through theoretical and experimental research, to develop and validate a fully coupled, general beam element that can be used for advanced and rapid analysis of wind turbine blades. This is fully achieved in the project and the beam element has even been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2. It has also been demonstrated through a parametric study in the project that a promising possibility with the tool is to reduce fatigue loads through structural couplings. More work is needed before these possibilities are fully explored and blades with structural couplings can be put into production. A cross section analysis tool BECAS (BEam Cross section Analysis Software) has been developed and validated in the project. BECAS is able to predict all geometrical and material induced couplings. This tool has obtained great interest from both industry and academia. The developed fully coupled beam element and cross section analysis tool has been validated against both numerical calculations and experimental measurements. Numerical validation has been performed against beam type calculations including Variational Asymptotical Beam Section Analysis (VABS) and detailed shell and solid finite element analyses. Experimental validation included specially designed beams with built-in couplings, a full-scale blade section originally without couplings, which subsequently was modified with extra composite layers in order to obtain measurable couplings. Both static testing and dynamic modal analysis tests have been performed. The results from the project now make it possible to use structural couplings in an intelligent manner for the design of future wind turbine blades. The developed beam element is especially developed for wind turbine blades and can be used for modeling blades with initial curvature (pre-bending), initial twist and taper. Finally, it have been studied what size of structural couplings can be obtained in current and future
A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lachenal, X; Daynes, S; Weaver, P M
2013-01-01
This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements. (paper)
Eutectic Composite Turbine Blade Development
1976-11-01
Eutectic alloys evaluated included MC (metallic carbide ) fiber reinforced nickel- and cobalt -base eutectics (NiTaC and CoTaC) and NisCb lamella reinforced...blade superalloy . The results in Figure 68 indicated that carbide defect structures tend to decrease 1500CHCF strength somewhat, but all...Surface finishes were in the range of 5 to 15 AA. Drilling - Parallel tests were made with carbide and cobalt H.S.S. drills under conditions listed in
Aerodynamical calculation of turbomachinery bladings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fruehauf, H.H.
1978-01-01
Various flow models are presented in comparison to one another, these flow models being obtained from the basic equations of turbomachinery aerodynamics by means of a series of simplifying assumptions on the spatial distribution of the flow quantities. The simplifying assumptions are analysed precisely. With their knowledge it is possible to construct more accurate simplified flow models, which are necessary for the efficient aerodynamical development of highperformance turbomachinery bladings by means of numerical methods. (orig.) 891 HP [de
Zirin, R. M.; Witmer, E. A.
1972-01-01
An approximate collision analysis, termed the collision-force method, was developed for studying impact-interaction of an engine rotor blade fragment with an initially circular containment ring. This collision analysis utilizes basic mass, material property, geometry, and pre-impact velocity information for the fragment, together with any one of three postulated patterns of blade deformation behavior: (1) the elastic straight blade model, (2) the elastic-plastic straight shortening blade model, and (3) the elastic-plastic curling blade model. The collision-induced forces are used to predict the resulting motions of both the blade fragment and the containment ring. Containment ring transient responses are predicted by a finite element computer code which accommodates the large deformation, elastic-plastic planar deformation behavior of simple structures such as beams and/or rings. The effects of varying the values of certain parameters in each blade-behavior model were studied. Comparisons of predictions with experimental data indicate that of the three postulated blade-behavior models, the elastic-plastic curling blade model appears to be the most plausible and satisfactory for predicting the impact-induced motions of a ductile engine rotor blade and a containment ring against which the blade impacts.
Study of design and technology factors influencing gas turbine blade cooling
Shevchenko, I. V.; Garanin, I. V.; Rogalev, A. N.; Kindra, V. O.; Khudyakova, V. P.
2017-11-01
The knowledge of aerodynamic and thermal parameters of turbulators used in order to design an efficient blade cooling system. However, all experimental tests of the hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the turbulators were conducted on the rectangular shape channels with a strongly defined air flow direction. The actual blades have geometry of the channels that essentially differs from the rectangular shape. Specifically, the air flow in the back cavity of a blade with one and half-pass cooling channel changes its direction throughout the feather height. In most cases the ribs and pins are made with a tilt to the channel walls, which is determined by the moving element design of a mould for the ceramic rod element fabrication. All of the factors described above may result in the blade thermohydraulic model being developed failing to fully simulate the air flow and the heat exchange processes in some sections of the cooling path. Hence, the design temperature field will differ from the temperature field of an actual blade. This article studied the numerical data of design and technology factors influencing heat transfer in the cooling channels. The results obtained showed their substantial impact on the blade cooling efficiency.
Comparison of beam and shell theories for the vibrations of thin turbomachinery blades
Leissa, A. W.; Ewing, M. S.
1982-01-01
Vibration analysis of turbomachinery blades has traditionally been carried out by means of beam theory. In recent years two-dimensional methods of blade vibration analysis have been developed, most of which utilize finite elements and tend to require considerable computation time. More recently a two-dimensional method of blade analysis has evolved which does not require finite elements and is based upon shell equations. The present investigation has the primary objective to demonstrate the accuracy and limitations of blade vibration analyses which utilize one-dimensional, beam theories. It is found that beam theory is generally inadequate to determine the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of moderate to low aspect ratio turbomachinery blades. The shallow shell theory, by contrast, is capable of representing all the vibration modes accurately. However, the one-dimensional beam theory has an important advantage over the two-dimensional shell theory for blades and vibration modes. It uses fewer degrees of freedom, thus requiring less computer time.
Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade
Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.
2003-01-07
A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.
Fan blade crack diagnosis method study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Fu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under different crack cases and then to build the database in MATLAB. Subsequently, the damaged blade can be detected using changes in natural frequencies by solving the reverse problem. The experimental result shows that this discrete mathematical model can get the exact solution of natural frequency, and the method has certain application value.
FOD impact testing of composite fan blades
Johns, R. H.
1974-01-01
The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin, and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.
Impact testing on composite fan blades
Johns, R. H.
1974-01-01
The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.
The use of an optical data acquisition system for bladed disk vibration analysis
Lawrence, C.; Meyn, E. H.
1985-01-01
A new concept in instrumentation was developed by engineers at NASA Lewis Research Center to collect vibration data from multi-bladed rotors. This new concept, known as the optical data acquisition system, uses optical transducers to measure bladed tip deflections by reflection of light beams off the tips of the blades as they pass in front of the optical transducer. By using an array of transducers around the perimeter of the rotor, detailed vibration signals can be obtained. In this study, resonant frequencies and mode shapes were determined for a 56 bladed rotor using the optical system. Frequency data from the optical system was also compared to data obtained from strain gauge measurements and finite element analysis and was found to be in good agreement.
Calculation of the Stiffness in the Roll Tensioning of the Circular Saw Blade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linh Vo Tung
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The circular blade has been widely used in some projects such as cutting stone, wood and other projects. Owing to its particularity and wide use, it has an important position in cutting industry. Roll tensioning is considered as an effective method which can be used to improve the stiffness and performance of the circular saw blade. The effect of rolling position and width in the roll tensioning is obvious. In this paper the calculation of the maximum stiffness at different rolling position and width in the rolling were carried out through the finite -element. The results show that three ideal points are found. And when rolling position is Ø950mm and rolling width is 20mm, the maximum stiffness of the circular saw blade whose minimum deformation is 0.028mm is found. The roll tensioning can increase the stiffness of the saw blade. It will provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the actual production.
Active Control of a Small-Scale Wind Turbine Blade Containing Magnetorheological Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fevzi Cakmak Bolat
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This research study proposes a new active control structure to suppress vibrations of a small-scale wind turbine blade filled with magnetorheological (MR fluid and actuated by an electromagnet. The aluminum blade structure is manufactured using the SH3055 (Bergey Windpower Co. Inc., Norman, OK, USA code numbered airfoil which is designed for use on small wind turbines. A dynamic interaction model between the MR fluid and the electromagnetic actuator is constructed to obtain a force relation. A detailed characterization study is presented for the proposed actuator to understand the nonlinear behavior of the electromagnetic force. A norm based multi-objective H2/H∞ controller is designed using the model of the elastic blade element. The H2/H∞ controller is experimentally implemented under the impact and steady state aerodynamic load conditions. The results of experiments show that the MR fluid- electromagnetic actuator is effective for suppressing vibrations of the blade structure.
The impact of inertial forces on morphing wind turbine blade in vertical axis configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butbul, Jonathan; MacPhee, David; Beyene, Asfaw
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A novel flexible VAWT has been experimentally tested alongside numerically simulations. • Using FEA and CFD, direction of blade bending was predicted from inertial and aerodynamic forces. • High-speed camera footage has been used to validate the model. • The flexible VAWT was found to self-start in the majority of tests, while the rigid one did not. • It is suggested that flexible VAWTs can have improved performance in part-load applications. - Abstract: A novel flexible blade concept with the ability to morph and geometrically adapt to changing flow conditions has been proposed to improve part-load performance of horizontal-axis wind turbines. The extension of these benefits to a vertical axis wind turbine would make wind technology a more competitive player in the energy market. Both flexible and rigid wind turbine rotor blades for vertical axis application were modeled, designed, manufactured and tested. Their performances were tested in a low speed wind tunnel. The predicted magnitude and direction of blade morph was validated using a high speed camera as well as finite element analysis. The comparative results of straight rigid and straight morphing blades show that the coefficient of performance greatly depends on the tip speed ratio. Overall, the morphing blade has better performance at low RPMs, but the rigid blade performed better at high RPMs. It was observed that the flexible blade self-started in the majority of the experiments. At high RPM, the centrifugal force overwhelmed the lift force, bending the flexible blade out of phase in an undesired direction increasing drag and therefore reducing the coefficient of performance
HLH Rotor Blade Manufacturing Technology Development Report
1977-09-01
length, and weighing approximately 350 pounds, is the largest blade presently produced at Boeing Vertol. A blade of this size can still oe manually ...to check contour during core siachining. The fairings will have a trim operacion added to remove the rough edges along the skin. 142 The assembly will...through-transmission evaluation required that the root end specimen be filled -,tith water and the search unit be manipulated manually .) BLADE
Measuring Fan-Blade-Tip Displacements
Berry, Robert F., Jr.
1988-01-01
Magnets and Hall-effect transducers used to monitor tip-to-shroud clearances. Mounting permanent magnet in end of fan blade and monitoring tip-to-shroud distance by use of output of Hall-effect transducers affixed to surface of shroud. Transducers provide real-time information. By placing magnets in each fan-blade tip, complete set monitored sequentially as each blade rotates past sensor. Application in many rotating machines, providing surrounding materials nonmagnetic and temperatures not severe.
Lidar Orbital Angular Momentum Sensor
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recognition in recent decades that electromagnetic fields have angular momentum (AM) in the form of not only polarization (or spin AM) but also orbital (OAM) has...
Angular momentum from tidal torques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Cambridge Univ., England)
1987-01-01
The origin of the angular momentum of bound objects in large N-body simulations is studied using three sets of models. One model with white-noise initial conditions is analyzed as well as two in which the initial conditions have more power on large scales, as predicted in models with cold dark matter. The growth and distribution of angular momentum in individual objects is studied and it is found that the specific angular momentum distribution of bound clumps increases in a near linear fashion with radius while the orientation of the angular momentum in the inner high-density regions is often poorly correlated with that of the outer parts. It is also found that the dimensionless spin parameter is insensitive to the initial perturbation spectrum and has a median value of about 0.05. 61 references
Using NASTRAN To Analyze Vibrations Of Rotor Blades
Lawrence, Charles; Aiello, Robert A.; Ernst, Michael A.; Mcgee, Oliver G.
1989-01-01
Report gives information on use of NASTRAN computer program in finite-element analysis of rotating flexible blades like in compressors and on turboprop engines. Predicts steady-state components of deflections and stresses under centrifugal forces, generates data for plots of natural frequency versus rotational speed, and provides vibration-mode data for calculations of flutter. Describes use of NASTRAN solution sequence 64 for geometrical nonlinear analysis and solution sequence 63 for determination of frequencies and vibrational-mode shapes. Includes sample problem with NASTRAN input data. Emphasizes key factors in analysis of rotating blades, such as setting angle and centrifugal softening effects. Combined analyses of solution sequences 64 and 63 reduces computer time and number of output listings, in comparison with separate analyses. In central-processing-unit time cut in half.
Wind turbine blade testing under combined loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Magda; Branner, Kim
2011-01-01
The paper presents full-scale blade tests under a combined flap- and edgewise loading. The main aim of this paper is to present the results from testing a wind turbine blade under such conditions and to study the structural behavior of the blade subjected to combined loading. A loading method using...... anchor plates was applied, allowing transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the reproducibility of the test was studied and the results from the investigations are presented....
Fan Blade Deflection Measurement and Analyses Correlation
Mehmed, Oral; Janetzke, David C.
1997-01-01
Steady deflection measurements were taken of two identical NASA/Pratt & Whitney-designed fan blades while they were rotating in a vacuum in NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Facility. The one-fifth-scale fan blades, which have a tip diameter of 22 in. and a pinroot retention, are of sparshell construction and were unducted for this test. The purpose of the test was to measure the change of the radial deflection of the blade tip and blade angle at selected radial stations along the blade span with respect to rotational speed. The procedure for radial deflection measurement had no precedent and was newly developed for this test. Radial deflection measurements were made to assure adequate tip clearance existed between the fan blades and the duct for a follow-on wind tunnel test. Also, blade angle deflection measurements were desired before pitchsetting parts for the wind tunnel test were finish machined. During the test, laser beams were aimed across the blade path into photodiodes to give signals that were used to determine blade angle change or tip radial deflection. These laser beams were set parallel to the spin axis at selected radial stations.
Erler, Engin
region, this approach would entail a nominal performance penalty. Therefore, the chosen rotor design philosophy aims to keep the spanwise loading constant to avoid trading performance for desensitization. The rotor designs that resulted from this exercise are simulated in ANSYS CFX at different tip clearance sizes. The change in their performance with respect to tip clearance size (sensitivity) is compared both on an integral level in terms of pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency, as well as on a detailed level in terms of aerodynamic losses and blockage associated with tip clearance flow. The sensitivity of aerodynamic stability is evaluated either directly through the simulations of the rotor characteristics up to the stall point (expensive in time and resources) for a few designs or indirectly through the position of the interface between the incoming and tip clearance flow with respect to the rotor leading edge plane. The latter approach is based on a generally observed stall criteria in modern axial compressors. The rotor designs are then assessed according to their sensitivity in comparison to that of the reference rotor design to detect features that can explain the trend in sensitivity to tip clearance size. These features can then be validated and the associated flow mechanisms explained through numerical simulations and modelling. Analysis of the database from the rotor parametric study shows that the observed trend in sensitivity cannot be explained by the shifting of the aerodynamic loading along the blade chord, as initially hypothesized based on the literature review. Instead, two flow features are found to reduce sensitivity of performance and stability to tip clearance, namely an increase in incoming meridional momentum in the tip region and a reduction/elimination of double leakage flow. Double leakage flow is the flow that exits the tip clearance of one blade and proceeds into the clearance of the adjacent blade rather than convecting downstream out
Energy saving in a deep well pump with splitter blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goelcue, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Pamukkale University, 20017 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: mgolcu@pamukkale.edu.tr; Pancar, Yasar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osman Gazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Sekmen, Yakup [Karabuk Vocational Collage, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 78100 Karabuk (Turkey)
2006-03-15
Design parameters, like blade number, blade outlet angle and impeller outlet diameter, affect pump performance and energy consumption. Deep well pumps with splitter blades (DWPwsb) are manufactured to achieve energy saving and improve efficiency. Splitter blades are generally located at the centerline of the main blades. Blade number and blade discharge angle should be conveniently determined when splitter blades are used on the impellers. In this study, impellers having different numbers of blades (z = 5, 6, 7) with and without splitter blades (35%, 60% and 80% of the main blade length) were tested in a deep well pump. Tests have been conducted on a total of 12 impellers, and the characteristics of deep well pumps without splitter blade (DWPwosb) and DWPwsb were obtained experimentally. These results show that splitter blades cause negative effects on pump performance in impellers with blade numbers of 6 and 7. When the splitter blade is added to the impeller with the blade number of 5, the efficiency increases with flow up to 10 l/s flow rate, after which it decreases as the splitter blade length increases. The highest efficiency and the lowest energy consumption were obtained in DWPwsb with 80% of the main blade length. At the best efficiency point (b.e.p), an energy saving of 6.6% and an improvement of 1.14% in efficiency were achieved. An analysis of the additional cost of the splitter blade and the application in an agricultural area were performed.
Energy saving in a deep well pump with splitter blade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goelcue, Mustafa; Pancar, Yasar; Sekmen, Yakup
2006-01-01
Design parameters, like blade number, blade outlet angle and impeller outlet diameter, affect pump performance and energy consumption. Deep well pumps with splitter blades (DWPwsb) are manufactured to achieve energy saving and improve efficiency. Splitter blades are generally located at the centerline of the main blades. Blade number and blade discharge angle should be conveniently determined when splitter blades are used on the impellers. In this study, impellers having different numbers of blades (z = 5, 6, 7) with and without splitter blades (35%, 60% and 80% of the main blade length) were tested in a deep well pump. Tests have been conducted on a total of 12 impellers, and the characteristics of deep well pumps without splitter blade (DWPwosb) and DWPwsb were obtained experimentally. These results show that splitter blades cause negative effects on pump performance in impellers with blade numbers of 6 and 7. When the splitter blade is added to the impeller with the blade number of 5, the efficiency increases with flow up to 10 l/s flow rate, after which it decreases as the splitter blade length increases. The highest efficiency and the lowest energy consumption were obtained in DWPwsb with 80% of the main blade length. At the best efficiency point (b.e.p), an energy saving of 6.6% and an improvement of 1.14% in efficiency were achieved. An analysis of the additional cost of the splitter blade and the application in an agricultural area were performed
Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.
Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J
2001-05-01
The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Feringa, Jelle; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for cost-effective, robotic production of double curved formwork in Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) for in situ and prefabricated concrete construction. A rationalization and segmentation procedure is developed, which allows for the transliteration of double curved...... NURBS surfaces to Euler elastica surface segments, while respecting various constraints of production. An 18 axis, tri-robot system approximates double curved NURBS surfaces by means of an elastically deformed and heated blade, mounted on the flanges of two manipulators. Re-orienting or translating...
Dual electromagnetism: helicity, spin, momentum and angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco; Bekshaev, Aleksandr Y
2013-01-01
The dual symmetry between electric and magnetic fields is an important intrinsic property of Maxwell equations in free space. This symmetry underlies the conservation of optical helicity and, as we show here, is closely related to the separation of spin and orbital degrees of freedom of light (the helicity flux coincides with the spin angular momentum). However, in the standard field-theory formulation of electromagnetism, the field Lagrangian is not dual symmetric. This leads to problematic dual-asymmetric forms of the canonical energy–momentum, spin and orbital angular-momentum tensors. Moreover, we show that the components of these tensors conflict with the helicity and energy conservation laws. To resolve this discrepancy between the symmetries of the Lagrangian and Maxwell equations, we put forward a dual-symmetric Lagrangian formulation of classical electromagnetism. This dual electromagnetism preserves the form of Maxwell equations, yields meaningful canonical energy–momentum and angular-momentum tensors, and ensures a self-consistent separation of the spin and orbital degrees of freedom. This provides a rigorous derivation of the results suggested in other recent approaches. We make the Noether analysis of the dual symmetry and all the Poincaré symmetries, examine both local and integral conserved quantities and show that only the dual electromagnetism naturally produces a complete self-consistent set of conservation laws. We also discuss the observability of physical quantities distinguishing the standard and dual theories, as well as relations to quantum weak measurements and various optical experiments. (paper)
Modal dynamics of structures with bladed isotropic rotors and its complexity for 2-bladed rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2016-01-01
The modal dynamics of structures with bladed isotropic rotors is analyzed using Hill’s method. First, analytical derivation of the periodic system matrix shows that isotropic rotors with more than two blades can be represented by an exact Fourier series with 3/rev as the highest order. For 2-bladed...... problem is introduced. The corresponding periodic eigenvectors can be used to compute symmetric and anti-symmetric components of the 2-bladed rotor motion, and the additional forward and backward whirling components for rotors with more than two blades. Finally, the generic methods are used on a simple...
Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence
1997-02-01
A Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence (SORBET) model has been : developed for realtime aircraft simulation that accommodates stochastic : turbulence and distributed discrete gusts as a function of the terrain. This : model is applicable to c...
Design Procedure of 4-Bladed Propeller
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU
2013-09-01
Sep 1, 2013 ... ... by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and the rear surfaces of the air foil-shaped blade, and a fluid (such as air or water) is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics can be modeled by both Bernoulli's principle and. Newton's third law.
Massachusetts Large Blade Test Facility Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahul Yarala; Rob Priore
2011-09-02
Project Objective: The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (CEC) will design, construct, and ultimately have responsibility for the operation of the Large Wind Turbine Blade Test Facility, which is an advanced blade testing facility capable of testing wind turbine blades up to at least 90 meters in length on three test stands. Background: Wind turbine blade testing is required to meet international design standards, and is a critical factor in maintaining high levels of reliability and mitigating the technical and financial risk of deploying massproduced wind turbine models. Testing is also needed to identify specific blade design issues that may contribute to reduced wind turbine reliability and performance. Testing is also required to optimize aerodynamics, structural performance, encourage new technologies and materials development making wind even more competitive. The objective of this project is to accelerate the design and construction of a large wind blade testing facility capable of testing blades with minimum queue times at a reasonable cost. This testing facility will encourage and provide the opportunity for the U.S wind industry to conduct more rigorous testing of blades to improve wind turbine reliability.
Effect of blade sweep on inlet flow in axial compressor cascades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Chang
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents comparative numerical studies to investigate the effects of blade sweep on inlet flow in axial compressor cascades. A series of swept and straight cascades was modeled in order to obtain a general understanding of the inlet flow field that is induced by sweep. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD package was used to simulate the cascades and obtain the required three-dimensional (3D flow parameters. A circumferentially averaged method was introduced which provided the circumferential fluctuation (CF terms in the momentum equation. A program for data reduction was conducted to obtain a circumferentially averaged flow field. The influences of the inlet flow fields of the cascades were studied and spanwise distributions of each term in the momentum equation were analyzed. The results indicate that blade sweep does affect inlet radial equilibrium. The characteristic of radial fluid transfer is changed and thus influencing the axial velocity distributions. The inlet flow field varies mainly due to the combined effect of the radial pressure gradient and the CF component. The axial velocity varies consistently with the incidence variation induced by the sweep, as observed in the previous literature. In addition, factors that might influence the radial equilibrium such as blade camber angles, solidity and the effect of the distance from the leading edge are also taken into consideration and comparatively analyzed.
Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
POORE, ROBERT Z.
1999-08-01
The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffith, Daniel
2013-02-01
A series of design studies to investigate the effect of carbon on blade weight and performance for large blades was performed using the Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Blade design as a starting point. This document provides a description of the final carbon blade design, which is termed as SNL100-01. This report includes a summary of the design modifications applied to the baseline all-glass 100-meter design and a description of the NuMAD model files that are made publicly available. This document is intended primarily to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-01.
A Two-Bladed Concept Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Taeseong
2012-01-01
This article shows the potential for reducing extreme loads with an innovative design of wind turbine, a partial pitch two-bladed concept turbine. The most extreme conditions to test a turbine are considered to be stand-still combined with a grid failure in which the wind comes from all directions...... from 0 to 360 degrees. All aeroelastic load simulations are done by using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. From the load comparisons between the partial pitch two-bladed turbine and a conventional three-bladed turbine it is observed that the partial pitch two-bladed turbine can reduce the extreme tower...... bottom bending moment by approximately 33% compared to the three-bladed turbine....
Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips
Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.
2015-05-01
This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.
Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moelholt Jensen, Find
2008-05-15
The present PhD project contains a study of the structural static strength of wind turbine blades loaded in flap-wise direction. A combination of experimental and numerical work has been used to address the most critical failure mechanisms and to get an understanding of the complex structural behaviour of wind turbine blades. Four failure mechanisms observed during the fullscale tests and the corresponding FE-analysis are presented. Elastic mechanisms associated with failure, such as buckling, localized bending and the Brazier effect, are studied. Six different types of structural reinforcements helping to prevent undesired structural elastic mechanisms are presented. The functionality of two of the suggested structural reinforcements was demonstrated in full-scale tests and the rest trough FE-studies. The blade design under investigation consisted of an aerodynamic airfoil and a load carrying box girder. In total, five full-scale tests have been performed involving one complete blade and two shortened box girders. The second box girder was submitted to three independent tests covering different structural reinforcement alternatives. The advantages and disadvantages of testing a shortened load carrying box girder vs. an entire blade are discussed. Changes in the boundary conditions, loads and additional reinforcements, which were introduced in the box girder tests in order to avoid undesired structural elastic mechanisms, are presented. New and advanced measuring equipment was used in the fullscale tests to detect the critical failure mechanisms and to get an understanding of the complex structural behaviour. Traditionally, displacement sensors and strain gauges in blade tests are arranged based on an assumption of a Bernoulli-Euler beam structural response. In the present study it is shown that when following this procedure important information about distortions of the cross sections is lost. In the tests presented here, one of the aims was to measure distortion
Vibration response comparison of twisted shrouded blades using different impact models
Xie, Fangtao; Ma, Hui; Cui, Can; Wen, Bangchun
2017-06-01
On the basis of our previous work (Ma et al., 2016, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 378, 92-108) [36], an improved analytical model (IAM) of a rotating twisted shrouded blade with stagger angle simulated by flexible beam with a tip-mass is established based on Timoshenko beam theory, whose effectiveness is verified using finite element (FE) method. The effects of different parameters such as shroud gaps, contact stiffness, stagger angles and twist angels on the vibration responses of the shrouded blades are analyzed using two different impact models where the adjacent two shrouded blades are simulated by massless springs in impact model 1 (IM1) and those are simulated by Timoshenko beam in impact model 2 (IM2). The results indicate that two impact models agree well under some cases such as big shroud gaps and small contact stiffness due to the small vibration effects of adjacent blades, but not vice versa under the condition of small shroud gaps and big contact stiffness. As for IM2, the resonance appears because the limitation of the adjacent blades is weakened due to their inertia effects, however, the resonance does not appear because of the strong limitation of the springs used to simulate adjacent blades for IM1. With the increase of stagger angles and twist angles, the first-order resonance rotational speed increases due to the increase of the dynamic stiffness under no-impact condition, and the rotational speeds of starting impact and ending impact rise under the impact condition.
Momentum-Space Josephson Effects
Hou, Junpeng; Luo, Xi-Wang; Sun, Kuei; Bersano, Thomas; Gokhroo, Vandna; Mossman, Sean; Engels, Peter; Zhang, Chuanwei
2018-03-01
The Josephson effect is a prominent phenomenon of quantum supercurrents that has been widely studied in superconductors and superfluids. Typical Josephson junctions consist of two real-space superconductors (superfluids) coupled through a weak tunneling barrier. Here we propose a momentum-space Josephson junction in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate, where states with two different momenta are coupled through Raman-assisted tunneling. We show that Josephson currents can be induced not only by applying the equivalent of "voltages," but also by tuning tunneling phases. Such tunneling-phase-driven Josephson junctions in momentum space are characterized through both full mean field analysis and a concise two-level model, demonstrating the important role of interactions between atoms. Our scheme provides a platform for experimentally realizing momentum-space Josephson junctions and exploring their applications in quantum-mechanical circuits.
Momentum transport in gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchholz, Rico
2016-07-01
In this thesis, the gyrokinetic-Vlasov code GKW is used to study turbulent transport, with a focus on radial transport of toroidal momentum. To support the studies on turbulent transport an eigenvalue solver has been implemented into GKW. This allows to find, not only the most unstable mode, but also subdominant modes. Furthermore it is possible to follow the modes in parameter scans. Furthermore, two fundamental mechanisms that can generate an intrinsic rotation have been investigated: profile shearing and the velocity nonlinearity. The study of toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing reveals that the momentum flux can not be accurately described by the gradient in the turbulent intensity. Consequently, a description using the profile variation is used. A linear model has been developed that is able to reproduce the variations in the momentum flux as the profiles of density and temperature vary, reasonably well. It uses, not only the gradient length of density and temperature profile, but also their derivative, i.e. the second derivative of the logarithm of the temperature and the density profile. It is shown that both first as well as second derivatives contribute to the generation of a momentum flux. A difference between the linear and nonlinear simulations has been found with respect to the behaviour of the momentum flux. In linear simulations the momentum flux is independent of the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}, whereas it is linear in ρ{sub *} for nonlinear simulations, provided ρ{sub *} is small enough (≤4.10{sup -3}). Nonlinear simulations reveal that the profile shearing can generate an intrinsic rotation comparable to that of current experiments. Under reactor conditions, however, the intrinsic rotation from the profile shearing is expected to be small due to the small normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}
Plasmons with orbital angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J. T.; Ali, S.; Thide, B.
2009-01-01
Electron plasma waves carrying orbital angular momentum are investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma composed of inertial electrons and static ions. For this purpose, the usual plasmon dispersion relation is employed to derive an approximate paraxial equation. The latter is analyzed with a Gaussian beam solution. For a finite angular momentum associated with the plasmon, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) solutions are employed for solving the electrostatic potential problem which gives approximate solution and is valid for plasmon beams in the paraxial approximation. The LG potential determines the electric field components and energy flux of plasmons with finite angular momentum. Numerical illustrations show that the radial and angular mode numbers strongly modify the profiles of the LG potential.
Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nurbanasari
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The failure of the first stage blade in a steam turbine of 55 MW was investigated. The blade was made of 17-4 PH stainless steel and has been used for 12 years before failure. The current work aims to find out the main cause of the first stage blade failure. The methods for investigation were metallurgical analysis, chemical composition test, and hardness measurement. The result showed that there was no evidence the blade failure was due to material. The damage found on the blade namely crack on the blade root. Two locations of the crack observed at the blade root, which was at the tang and the fillet, with different failure modes. In general, the damage of the blade was started by the corrosion occurred on the blade root. The crack at the blade root tang was due to corrosion fatigue and the crack occurred at the blade root fillet owing to stress corrosion cracking.
Derivation of airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade based on 3D CFD rotor calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, C.; Soerensen, N.N.; Madsen, H.A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
Airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade are derived from 3D CFD computations on a full-scale 41-m rotor. Based on 3D CFD the force distributions on the blades are determined, from which airfoil characteristics are derived using the momentum theory. The final airfoil characteristics are constructed using both wind tunnel measurements and 3D CFD. Compared to 2D wind tunnel measurements they show a low lift in stall for the airfoil sections at the tip. At the airfoil sections at the inner part of the blade, they show a high lift in stall. At about 60% radius the lift agrees well to 2D wind tunnel measurements. Aero-elastic calculations using the final airfoil characteristics show good agreement to measured power and flap moments. Furthermore, a fatigue load analysis shows a reduction of up to 15% of the load compared to commonly used data. (au)
Hayat, Imran; Chatterjee, Tanmoy; Peet, Julia; Chamorro, Leonardo P.
2017-11-01
With offshore wind farms gaining substantial momentum in recent years, 2-bladed turbines (2BT) are increasingly becoming a viable alternative to 3-bladed counterparts (3BT). Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with wind farms containing 2BT and 3BT in alternating rows were performed to explore potential benefits associated with the relatively higher momentum available in the wake of 2BT. The flow within and above the wind farm and power measurements were inspected for various wind farm layouts. Large-Eddy simulations complemented with wind-tunnel measurements at various locations revealed distinctive effects of the 2BT on the power output of the wind farms as well as the distribution and structure of the surrounding flow. During the talk, we will discuss the potential of using a combination of 2BT and 3BT for practical applications.
Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William
2013-01-01
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the
Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.
2000-01-01
High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.
Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
1996-12-31
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.
Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States)
1997-08-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. (au)
Renormalization in Large Momentum Effective Theory of Parton Physics
Ji, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Yong
2018-03-01
In the large-momentum effective field theory approach to parton physics, the matrix elements of nonlocal operators of quark and gluon fields, linked by straight Wilson lines in a spatial direction, are calculated in lattice quantum chromodynamics as a function of hadron momentum. Using the heavy-quark effective theory formalism, we show a multiplicative renormalization of these operators at all orders in perturbation theory, both in dimensional and lattice regularizations. The result provides a theoretical basis for extracting parton properties through properly renormalized observables in Monte Carlo simulations.
3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragni, D.; Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)
2012-02-15
The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data. (orig.)
3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV
Ragni, D.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.
2012-02-01
The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data.
Advanced 3D inverse method for designing turbomachine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dang, T. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical/Aerospace/Manufacturing Engineering
1995-12-31
To meet the goal of 60% plant-cycle efficiency or better set in the ATS Program for baseload utility scale power generation, several critical technologies need to be developed. One such need is the improvement of component efficiencies. This work addresses the issue of improving the performance of turbo-machine components in gas turbines through the development of an advanced three-dimensional and viscous blade design system. This technology is needed to replace some elements in current design systems that are based on outdated technology.
Mathematical model of blades bundle with damping connections
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Luděk; Půst, Ladislav; Cibulka, Jan; Bula, Vítězslav
2013-01-01
Roč. 63, č. 3 (2013), s. 43-46 ISSN 1729-3774. [Международная научнo-техническая конференция /5./. Alušta, 24.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : blades vibration * damping elements * rubber * mathematic models Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Inverse design-momentum, a method for the preliminary design of horizontal axis wind turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battisti, L; Soraperra, G; Fedrizzi, R; Zanne, L
2007-01-01
Wind turbine rotor prediction methods based on generalized momentum theory BEM routinely used in industry and vortex wake methods demand the use of airfoil tabulated data and geometrical specifications such as the blade spanwise chord distribution. They belong to the category of 'direct design' methods. When, on the other hand, the geometry is deduced from some design objective, we refer to 'inverse design' methods. This paper presents a method for the preliminary design of wind turbine rotors based on an inverse design approach. For this purpose, a generalized theory was developed without using classical tools such as BEM. Instead, it uses a simplified meridional flow analysis of axial turbomachines and is based on the assumption that knowing the vortex distribution and appropriate boundary conditions is tantamount to knowing the velocity distribution. The simple conservation properties of the vortex components consistently cope with the forces and specific work exchange expressions through the rotor. The method allows for rotor arbitrarily radial load distribution and includes the wake rotation and expansion. Radial pressure gradient is considered in the wake. The capability of the model is demonstrated first by a comparison with the classical actuator disk theory in investigating the consistency of the flow field, then the model is used to predict the blade planform of a commercial wind turbine. Based on these validations, the authors postulate the use of a different vortex distribution (i.e. not-uniform loading) for blade design and discuss the effect of such choices on blade chord and twist, force distribution and power coefficient. In addition to the method's straightforward application to the pre-design phase, the model clearly shows the link between blade geometry and performance allowing quick preliminary evaluation of non uniform loading on blade structural characteristics
Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koleen McCrink
2017-12-01
Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.
Wind turbine blade waste in 2050.
Liu, Pu; Barlow, Claire Y
2017-04-01
Wind energy has developed rapidly over the last two decades to become one of the most promising and economically viable sources of renewable energy. Although wind energy is claimed to provide clean renewable energy without any emissions during operation, but it is only one side of the coin. The blades, one of the most important components in the wind turbines, made with composite, are currently regarded as unrecyclable. With the first wave of early commercial wind turbine installations now approaching their end of life, the problem of blade disposal is just beginning to emerge as a significant factor for the future. This paper is aimed at discovering the magnitude of the wind turbine blade waste problem, looking not only at disposal but at all stages of a blade's lifecycle. The first stage of the research, the subject of this paper, is to accurately estimate present and future wind turbine blade waste inventory using the most recent and most accurate data available. The result will provide a solid reference point to help the industry and policy makers to understand the size of potential environmental problem and to help to manage it better. This study starts by estimating the annual blade material usage with wind energy installed capacity and average blade weight. The effect of other waste contributing factors in the full lifecycle of wind turbine blades is then included, using industrial data from the manufacturing, testing and in-service stages. The research indicates that there will be 43 million tonnes of blade waste worldwide by 2050 with China possessing 40% of the waste, Europe 25%, the United States 16% and the rest of the world 19%. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flowfield Characteristics on a Retreating Rotor Blade
2015-12-03
fixed wing, and then as a rotor blade in a low-speed wind tunnel . Fixed-wing results from load measurements and flow visualization showed that the sharp...wing airloads (Figure 1.3) and tuft visualization, to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) under a blade held fixed as part of a rotor in a wind tunnel [43...were performed in the 2.13m×2.74m John Harper wind tunnel at our institution. The untwisted rectangular blade has a NACA 0013 planform. The rotor used
Wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping
Sievers, Ryan A.; Mullings, Justin L.
2017-01-10
A wind turbine blade (60) damped by viscoelastic material (54, 54A-F) sandwiched between stiffer load-bearing sublayers (52A, 52B, 56A, 56B) in portions of the blade effective to damp oscillations (38) of the blade. The viscoelastic material may be located in one or more of: a forward portion (54A) of the shell, an aft portion (54D) of the shell, pressure and suction side end caps (54B) of an internal spar, internal webbing walls (54C, 54E), and a trailing edge core (54F).
Mass balancing of hollow fan blades
Kielb, R. E.
1986-01-01
A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, Jolanta
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Systematic approach to eco-design of steam turbine rotor blades was applied. • Eco-innovative solutions are based on structural and technological change. • At the stage of detailed design the variants were analyzed using LCA. • Main achieved benefits: energy and material savings, lower environmental impact. • Benefits related to the possible scale of the solution practical application. - Abstract: Eco-design of steam turbine blades could be one of the possibilities of decreasing the environmental impact of energy systems based on turbines. The paper investigates the eco-design approach to elaboration of the rotor blades and packages. The purpose is to present the course of eco-design of the rotor blades and the rotor packages taking account of eco-design assumptions, solutions and the concept itself. The following eco-design variants of the rotor blades and the rotor packages are considered: elements of the rotor blades made separately (baseline variant of the rotor blades); elements of the rotor blades made of one piece of material; blades in packages made separately and welded (baseline variant of the rotor packages); packages milled as integral elements. At the stage of detailed design, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in relation to a functional unit – the rotor blades and packages ready for installation in a steam turbine, which is the stage of the turbine. The obtained results indicate that eco-innovative solutions for the turbine blades and packages could be achieved through structural and technological changes. Applying new solutions of the rotor blades may produce the following main benefits: 3.3% lower use of materials, 29.4% decrease in energy consumption at the manufacturing stage, 7.7% decrease in the environmental impact in the life cycle. In relation to the rotor packages, the following main benefits may be achieved: 20.5% lower use of materials, 25.0% decrease in energy consumption at the production stage, 16
New morphing blade section designs and structural solutions for smart blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karakalas, Anargyros A.; Machairas, Theodore; Solomou, Alexandros
2015-01-01
of helicopter and wind turbine blade research have shown the potential of shape morphing in reducing blade loads. Morphing technologies, along with other control concepts, are investigated under Task 2.3 of WP “Lightweight Rotor”, against aerodynamic compliance and requirements of the complete wind turbine.......e. no loss of local/global stiffness or strength and/or fatigue life. The purpose is to report efforts towards the use of new morphing blade section designs and the structural solutions for smart blades (developed in Task 2.3). The objective is to define, assess and demonstrate innovative concepts...... and manufacturing processes constraints. Down selection of design based on results of analysis (for input to Task 2.3) was also performed. Following solutions were investigated: Morphing blade sections with Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) by University of Patras Morphing blade sections using an elastomer of zero...
Energy, momentum and angular momentum conservations in de Sitter gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Jia-An
2016-01-01
In de Sitter (dS) gravity, where gravity is a gauge field introduced to realize the local dS invariance of the matter field, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a dS-covariant current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and angular momentum (AM) tensors. The second kind presents a dS-invariant current which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes. The dS-invariant current unites the total (matter plus gravity) EM and AM currents. It is well known that the AM current contains an inherent part, called the spin current. Here it is shown that the EM tensor also contains an inherent part, which might be observed by its contribution to the deviation of the dust particle’s world line from a geodesic. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity. (paper)
Slave finite elements: The temporal element approach to nonlinear analysis
Gellin, S.
1984-01-01
A formulation method for finite elements in space and time incorporating nonlinear geometric and material behavior is presented. The method uses interpolation polynomials for approximating the behavior of various quantities over the element domain, and only explicit integration over space and time. While applications are general, the plate and shell elements that are currently being programmed are appropriate to model turbine blades, vanes, and combustor liners.
Topological photonic orbital-angular-momentum switch
Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2018-04-01
The large number of available orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states of photons provides a unique resource for many important applications in quantum information and optical communications. However, conventional OAM switching devices usually rely on precise parameter control and are limited by slow switching rate and low efficiency. Here we propose a robust, fast, and efficient photonic OAM switch device based on a topological process, where photons are adiabatically pumped to a target OAM state on demand. Such topological OAM pumping can be realized through manipulating photons in a few degenerate main cavities and involves only a limited number of optical elements. A large change of OAM at ˜10q can be realized with only q degenerate main cavities and at most 5 q pumping cycles. The topological photonic OAM switch may become a powerful device for broad applications in many different fields and motivate a topological design of conventional optical devices.
Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades
Shaffer, J.E.
1995-07-25
In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.
Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans
Marscher, William
2014-01-01
With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.
Aircraft rotor blade with passive tuned tab
Campbell, T. G. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A structure for reducing vibratory airloading in a rotor blade with a leading edge and a trailing edge includes a cut out portion at the trailing edge. A substantially wedge shaped cross section, inertially deflectable tab, also with a leading edge and a trailing edge is pivotally mounted in the cut out portion. The trailing edge of the tab may move above and below the rotor blade. A torsion strap applies force against the tab when the trailing edge of the tab is above and below the rotor blade. A restraining member is slidably movable along the torsion strap to vary torsional biasing force supplied by the torsion bar to the tab. A plurality of movable weights positioned between plates vary a center of gravity of the tab. Skin of the tab is formed from unidirectional graphite and fiberglass layers. Sliders coupled with a pinned degree of freedom at rod eliminate bending of tab under edgewise blade deflection.
Adhesive Joints in Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn
The industrial goal of this PhD project is to enable manufacturing of larger wind turbine blades by improving the existing design methods for adhesive joints. This should improve the present joint design such that more efficient wind turbine blades can be produced. The main scientific goal...... of the project is to develop new- and to improve the existing design rules for adhesive joints in wind turbine blades. The first scientific studies of adhesive joints were based on stress analysis, which requires that the bond-line is free of defects, but this is rarely the case for a wind turbine blade. Instead...... curing and test temperatures) on the formation of transverse cracks in the adhesive were tested experimentally. It was assumed that the transverse cracks evolved due to a combination of mechanical- and residual stresses in the adhesive. A new approach was developed that allows the residual stress...
Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells
Cho, Nam Chul
2016-10-25
In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.
Structural transformations and temperature state of rotating blades of E1893 alloy under operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pigrova, G.D.; Rybnikov, A.I.; Kryukov, I.I. [Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
1998-12-31
The composition and quantity of different phase component of EI893 alloy after long term operation as base metal for rotating blades of gas turbines GT-6, GTN-9, GTK-10 and GT-100 types were studied. The obtained date were analysed with regard to the chemical composition of alloys and of initial condition of heat treatment. Data of metal phase analysis owned alter operation can provide the basis for evaluation of tempera field of rotating blades in the course of operation since structural condition of phase components and redistribution of alloying elements are being specified by temperature and in-service time. (orig.)
Rotor blade construction for circulation control aircraft
Carter, Sr., Donald R. (Inventor); Krauss, Timothy A. (Inventor); Sedlak, Matthew (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A circulation control aircraft rotor blade having a spanwise Coanda surface 16 and a plurality of spanwise extending flexible composite material panels 18 cooperating with the surface to define slots for the discharge of compressed air from within the blade with each panel having first flexure means 60 associated with screw adjustments 36 for establishing a slot opening preload and second flexure means 62 associated with screw adjustments 38 for establishing a slot maximum opening.
High efficiency turbine blade coatings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-06-01
The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni_{2}Al_{3} bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Tcherniak, Dmitri; Hansen, Lasse Majgaard
2017-01-01
stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. The proposed extension is based on outlier analysis of the characteristic stress resultants to discriminate between damaged elements and healthy ones; a procedure that previously, in the context of experiments with a small-scale blade, has...... proved to mitigate noise-induced anomalies and systematic, non-damage-associated adverse effects....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsbek, Lisa; Tønder, Esben Sandvik
2016-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the pilot study was to examine the use of a smartphone application as a modern decision aid to support shared decision making in mental health. METHOD: 78 people using mental health services and 116 of their providers participated in a 4-month pilot study. At the end of the ...
Recent Development in Turbine Blade Film Cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Je-Chin Han
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and industrial applications. Thermal efficiency and power output of gas turbines increase with increasing turbine rotor inlet temperature (RIT. The current RIT level in advanced gas turbines is far above the .melting point of the blade material. Therefore, along with high temperature material development, a sophisticated cooling scheme must be developed for continuous safe operation of gas turbines with high performance. Gas turbine blades are cooled internally and externally. This paper focuses on external blade cooling or so-called film cooling. In film cooling, relatively cool air is injected from the inside of the blade to the outside surface which forms a protective layer between the blade surface and hot gas streams. Performance of film cooling primarily depends on the coolant to mainstream pressure ratio, temperature ratio, and film hole location and geometry under representative engine flow conditions. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine film cooling research and this paper is limited to review a few selected publications to reflect recent development in turbine blade film cooling.
Super titanium blades for advanced steam turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coulon, P.A.
1990-01-01
In 1986, the Alsthom Steam Turbines Department launched the manufacture of large titanium alloy blades: airfoil length of 1360 mm and overall length of 1520 mm. These blades are designed for the last-stage low pressure blading of advanced steam turbines operating at full speed (3000 rpm) and rating between 300 and 800 MW. Using titanium alloys for steam turbine exhaust stages as substitutes for chrome steels, due to their high strength/density ratio and their almost complete resistance to corrosion, makes it possible to increase the length of blades significantly and correspondingly that steam passage section (by up to 50%) with a still conservative stresses level in the rotor. Alsthom relies on 8 years of experience in the field of titanium, since as early as 1979 large titanium blades (airfoil length of 1240 mm, overall length of 1430 mm) were erected for experimental purposes on the last stage of a 900 MW unit of the Dampierre-sur-Loire power plant and now totals 45,000 operating hours without problems. The paper summarizes the main properties (chemical, mechanical and structural) recorded on very large blades and is based in particular on numerous fatigue corrosion test results to justify the use of the Ti 6 Al 4 V alloy in a specific context of micrographic structure
Angular momentum in QGP holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett McInnes
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.
The Role of Free Stream Turbulence on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Wind Turbine Blade
Maldonado, Victor; Thormann, Adrien; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano; Turbulence Group Collaboration
2012-11-01
In the present research, a 2-D wind turbine blade section based on the S809 airfoil was manufactured and tested at Johns Hopkins University in the Stanley Corrsin wind tunnel facility. A free stream velocity of 10 m/s produced a Reynolds number based on blade chord of 2.08.x105. Free stream turbulence was generated using an active grid placed 5.5 m upstream of the blade which generated a turbulence intensity, Tu of up to 6.1% and an integral length scale, L∞ of about 0.15 m. The blade was pitched to a range of angles of attack, α from 0 to 18 degrees in order to study the effects of the integral length scales on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wind turbine under fully attached and separated flow conditions. Pressure measurements around the blade and wake velocity deficit measurements utilizing a hot-wire probe were acquired to compute the lift and drag coefficient. Results suggest that turbulence generally increases aerodynamic performance as measured by the lift to drag ratio, L / D except at 0 degrees angle of attack. A significant enhancement in L / D results with free stream turbulence at post-stall angles of attack of 16 and 18 degrees, where L / D increase from 2.49 to 5.43 and from 0.64 to 4.00 respectively. This is a consequence of delaying flow separation with turbulence (which is observed in the suction pressure distribution) which in turn reduces the momentum loss in the wake particularly at 18 degrees angle of attack.
Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.
1977-05-01
The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, B.
1996-05-01
The study presented concerns the final blade assembly of a low-pressure body in an electric power station. The ultimate objective of the study is to check whether the fatigue damage is acceptable and that the actual stresses do not excite the bladed disk assembly in its own modes. A combined methodology of calculations and tests was adopted to carry out this test. The calculation part involves modelization, by finite elements, of the bladed disk assembly. This paper presents only the experimental part, i.e. the tests, and experimental analysis methods and models. Experimental analysis poses special problems on account of the complexity of the dynamic behaviour of this type of structure and the limited number of available measuring points. (author). 9 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Colone, L.; Hovgaard, K.; Glavind, Lars
2018-01-01
A method for mass change detection on wind turbine blades using natural frequencies is presented. The approach is based on two statistical tests. The first test decides if there is a significant mass change and the second test is a statistical group classification based on Linear Discriminant...... Analysis. The frequencies are identified by means of Operational Modal Analysis using natural excitation. Based on the assumption of Gaussianity of the frequencies, a multi-class statistical model is developed by combining finite element model sensitivities in 10 classes of change location on the blade......, the smallest area being 1/5 of the span. The method is experimentally validated for a full scale wind turbine blade in a test setup and loaded by natural wind. Mass change from natural causes was imitated with sand bags and the algorithm was observed to perform well with an experimental detection rate of 1...
Fiber-Optic Defect and Damage Locator System for Wind Turbine Blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Vahid Sotoudeh; Dr. Richard J. Black; Dr. Behzad Moslehi; Mr. Aleks Plavsic
2010-10-30
IFOS in collaboration with Auburn University demonstrated the feasibility of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated sensor system capable of providing real time in-situ defect detection, localization and quantification of damage. In addition, the system is capable of validating wind turbine blade structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. This new generation method makes it possible to analyze wind turbine blades not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting intrusive electrical elements and transducers into the structure. Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technology with the construction of a 1.5 kHz sensor interrogator and preliminary instrumentation and testing of both composite material coupons and a wind turbine blade.
Momentum in Transformation of Technical Infrastructure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten
1999-01-01
Current infrastructure holds a considerable momentum and this momentum is a barrier of transformation towards more sustainable technologies and more sustainable styles of network management. Using the sewage sector in Denmark as an example of a technical infrastructure system this paper argues...... that there are technical, economical and social aspects of the current infrastructures momentum....
Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian
2005-01-01
The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...
Blade couple connected by damping element with dry friction contacts
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, Luděk; Půst, Ladislav
2014-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2014), s. 815-826 ISSN 1429-2955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dry friction * three masses system * damping of vibrations * irregular vibrations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2014 http://www.ptmts.org.pl/article.xsl?vol=52&no=3&page=815
Electro-thermal protection system design against atmospheric frost on turbine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noui, M.A.; Perron, J.; Fortin, G. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory
2010-07-01
This presentation discussed a research program developed to adapt de-icing thermal heating systems for use in wind turbines. The presence of ice on turbine blades can significantly deteriorate rotor performance. Accumulations of ice can increase the radial load on the turbine blades. The uneven formations of ice can lead to vibrations and the expulsion of pieces of ice into surrounding areas. Ice can also reduce the accuracy of various wind measuring devices. A recent study in Finland showed that turbine heating systems consume 3.6 per cent of annual wind production energy. De-icing systems include protective covers; air inlets; sealing systems; inflation tubes; elastomeric ply; and bond ply. The systems also include blade trailing and loading edges, and blade roots. The energy dissipated by the system's heating element is lost by conduction to the interior of the profile. The research program is now developing a system to improve electrothermal protection against frost that is suitable for turbine blades, as well as a thermal model for simulating its operation in a wind turbine. tabs., figs.
Design and Evaluation of Glass/epoxy Composite Blade and Composite Tower Applied to Wind Turbine
Park, Hyunbum
2018-02-01
In the study, the analysis and manufacturing of small class wind turbine blade was performed. In the structural design, firstly the loading conditions are defined through the load case analysis. The proposed structural configuration of blade has a sandwich type composite structure with the E-glass/Epoxy face sheets and the Urethane foam core for lightness, structural stability, low manufacturing cost and easy manufacturing process. And also, this work proposes a design procedure and results of tower for the small scale wind turbine systems. Structural analysis of blade including load cases, stress, deformation, buckling, vibration and fatigue life was performed using the finite element method, the load spectrum analysis and the Miner rule. Moreover, investigation on structural safety of tower was verified through structural analysis by FEM. The manufacturing of blade and tower was performed based on structural design. In order to investigate the designed structure, the structural tests were conducted and its results were compared with the calculated results. It is confirmed that the final proposed blade and tower meet the design requirements.
Bladed wheels damage detection through Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis improved algorithm
Neri, P.
2017-05-01
Recent papers introduced the Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection. This technique showed its potential in estimating the frequency of sinusoidal signals even when the acquisition time is short with respect to the vibration period, provided that some hypothesis are fulfilled. Anyway, previously proposed algorithms showed severe limitations in cracks detection at their early stage. The present paper proposes an improved algorithm which allows to detect a blade vibration frequency shift due to a crack whose size is really small compared to the blade width. Such a technique could be implemented for condition-based maintenance, allowing to use non-contact methods for vibration measurements. A stator-fixed laser sensor could monitor all the blades as they pass in front of the spot, giving precious information about the wheel health. This configuration determines an acquisition time for each blade which become shorter as the machine rotational speed increases. In this situation, traditional Discrete Fourier Transform analysis results in poor frequency resolution, being not suitable for small frequency shift detection. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis instead showed high reliability in vibration frequency estimation even with data samples collected in a short time range. A description of the improved algorithm is provided in the paper, along with a comparison with the previous one. Finally, a validation of the method is presented, based on finite element simulations results.
Parametric dependence of a morphing wind turbine blade on material elasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puterbaugh, Martin; Beyene, Asfaw
2011-01-01
A few recent works have suggested a morphing blade for wind turbine energy conversion. The concept is derived from fin and wing motions that better adapt to varying load conditions. Previous research has provided the fluid mechanic justification of this new concept. This paper establishes a parametric relationship between an asymmetric wind turbine blade and constituent material modulus to predict the geometric response of the morphing blade for a given material characteristic. The airfoil's trailing edge deflection is associated to a prescribed fluid exit angle via the Moment Area (MA) method. Subsequently, a mathematical model is derived to predict material deformation with respect to imparted aerodynamic forces. Results show that an airfoil, much like a tapered beam, can be modeled as a non-prismatic cantilevered beam using this well established method. -- Research highlights: →A mathematical model relating morphing airfoil thickness and elastic modulus was established. →For non-prismatic beam under a uniform distributive load, the slope and deflection of the airfoil's trailing edge were related to the fluid exit angle. →The main driver of blade deformation was the angular drag force. The Moment Area method was used, verified by Finite Element method. →Displacement to the exit angle is predicated upon the elastic modulus value given that other parameters are constant. →Optimum power output is obtained in part load conditions when the blade deforms to the applicable exit angle.
Method of calculating blade-to-blade plane flow in centrifugal pump
Jackson, E. D.
1970-01-01
Steam filament solution determines velocity distribution due to potential flow in the blade-to-blade plane of the radial impeller. This is used to determine the mass-averaged relative fluid angle, which is in turn used in an axisymmetric program to obtain steam surfaces of the assumed axisymmetric flow.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stensgaard Toft, Henrik; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter
2009-01-01
on the assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models additional information about number, type and size of the defects is included as stochastic variables. The probability of failure for a wind turbine blade will not only depend on variations in the material......In the present paper two stochastic models for the distribution of defects in wind turbine blades are proposed. The first model assumes that the individual defects are completely randomly distributed in the blade. The second model assumes that the defects occur in clusters of different size based...... properties and the load but also on potential defects in the blades. As a numerical example the probability of failure is calculated for the main spar both with and without defects in terms of delaminations. The delaminations increase the probability of failure compared to a perfect blade, but by applying...
Optical angular momentum in classical electrodynamics
Mansuripur, Masud
2017-06-01
Invoking Maxwell’s classical equations in conjunction with expressions for the electromagnetic (EM) energy, momentum, force, and torque, we use a few simple examples to demonstrate the nature of the EM angular momentum. The energy and the angular momentum of an EM field will be shown to have an intimate relationship; a source radiating EM angular momentum will, of necessity, pick up an equal but opposite amount of mechanical angular momentum; and the spin and orbital angular momenta of the EM field, when absorbed by a small particle, will be seen to elicit different responses from the particle.
On the Classical and Quantum Momentum Map
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esposito, Chiara
In this thesis we study the classical and quantum momentum maps and the theory of reduction. We focus on the notion of momentum map in Poisson geometry and we discuss the classification of the momentum map in this framework. Furthermore, we describe the so-called Poisson Reduction, a technique...... that allows us to reduce the dimension of a manifold in presence of symmetries implemented by Poisson actions. Using techniques of deformation quantization and quantum groups, we introduce the quantum momentum map as a deformation of the classical momentum map, constructed in such a way that it factorizes...
Vortex-induced vibrations on a modern wind turbine blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heinz, Joachim Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik
2016-01-01
-body-based structural model of HAWC2 and the incompressible computational fluid dynamics solver EllipSys3D. The study utilizes detached eddy simulation computations and considers the three-dimensional blade geometry including blade twist and taper. A preliminary frequency analysis of the load variations on a stiff...... blade showed that an inclined inflow with a velocity component along the blade axis can trigger a spanwise correlated vortex shedding over large parts of the blade. Moderate wind speeds were sufficient to generate vortex shedding with frequencies close to the first edgewise eigenfrequency of the blade...
Spacer grid with mixing blades for nuclear fuel assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noailly, J.
1986-01-01
The spacer grid for nuclear fuel assembly has two sets of intersecting metal plates provided with blades and defining cells. The plates are fitted only with half-blades associated with a single grid opening. The half-blades of adjacent cells are arranged at 90deg C to each other and each plate has at most one half-blade at each corner of a cell. The invention concerns fuel assemblies of pressurized water reactors. The blades arranged on a single side of the plate provide a good hydraulic uniformity. The invention provides a uniform distribution of blades (and thus of absorbing material in each hydraulic cell) [fr
Photon momentum and optical forces in cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani
2016-01-01
During the past century, the electromagnetic field momentum in material media has been under debate in the Abraham-Minkowski controversy as convincing arguments have been advanced in favor of both the Abraham and Minkowski forms of photon momentum. Here we study the photon momentum and optical...... forces in cavity structures in the cases of dynamical and steady-state fields. In the description of the single-photon transmission process, we use a field-kinetic one-photon theory. Our model suggests that in the medium photons couple with the induced atomic dipoles forming polariton quasiparticles...... with the Minkowski form momentum. The Abraham momentum can be associated to the electromagnetic field part of the coupled polariton state. The polariton with the Minkowski momentum is shown to obey the uniform center of mass of energy motion that has previously been interpreted to support only the Abraham momentum...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zayas, Jose R.; Johnson, Wesley D.
2008-03-01
In support of a Work-For-Other (WFO) agreement between the Wind Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories and 3TEX, one of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas, has been used to test a set of 9 meter wind turbine blades, manufactured by TPI composites using the 3TEX carbon material for the spar cap. Data collected from the test has been analyzed to evaluate both the aerodynamic performance and the structural response from the blades. The blades aerodynamic and structural performance, the meteorological inflow and the wind turbine structural response has been monitored with an array of 57 instruments: 15 to characterize the blades, 13 to characterize inflow, and 15 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For the test, data was sampled at a rate of 40 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow, as well as both modeling and field testing results.
Service failure of hot-stage turbine blades:
Oldfield, William; Oldfield, Freda M.
1993-10-01
Surface-connected porosity in current military aircraft hot-stage turbine engine blades is associated with blade failure. Oxidation ratcheting is suggested as the failure mechanism. Sta- tistical comparison of new and used blade populations showed that for blades cast with an equiaxed structure, the porosity in new blades was associated with crack formation on the con- cave surface of the used blades. The pores did not tend to develop into cracks on the compressed (convex) surface of the blade. Insufficient suitable data on directionally solidified blades pre- vented similar statistical correlations. However, metallography of the directionally solidified blades showed that the in-service cracks were related to oxidation inside surface-connected pores and that the cracks were oriented in the same direction as the (axial) casting pores. Thus, the proposed failure mechanism through ratcheting is based on the following insights: (1) the blades are thermally cycled as a normal part of service; (2) the hot blades expand and the open pores are filled with oxide; (3) when the blade is cooled, thermal contraction of the metal is greater than the oxide, causing compressive stress and yield; and (4) thermal expansion of the blades opens the pores again, since yield relaxed compressive stress at low temperature. These insights were supported by metallographic and computer-simulation studies which showed that the pores grow 20 to 50 pct in width per 100 missions (about 90 hours of operation) for a military aircraft on a typical mission profile.
Non-intrusive aerodynamic loads analysis of an aircraft propeller blade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragni, D.; Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)
2011-08-15
The flow field in a cross-sectional plane of a scaled Beaver DHC aircraft propeller has been measured by means of a stereoscopic PIV setup. Phase-locked measurements are obtained in a rotational frequency range from 18,900 to 21,000 rpm, at a relative Mach number of 0.6 at 3/4 propeller radius. The use of an adapted formulation of the momentum equation in differential form for rotating frame of references, integrated with isentropic relations as boundary conditions, allowed to compute the pressure field around the blade and the surface pressure distribution directly from the velocity data in the compressible regime. The procedure, extended to the computation of the aerodynamic lift and drag coefficients by a momentum contour integral approach, proved to be able to couple the aerodynamical loads to the flow field on the moving propeller blade, comparing favorably with a numerical simulation of the entire scaled model. Results are presented for two propeller rotation speeds and three different yawing angles. (orig.)
Non-intrusive aerodynamic loads analysis of an aircraft propeller blade
Ragni, D.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.
2011-08-01
The flow field in a cross-sectional plane of a scaled Beaver DHC aircraft propeller has been measured by means of a stereoscopic PIV setup. Phase-locked measurements are obtained in a rotational frequency range from 18,900 to 21,000 rpm, at a relative Mach number of 0.6 at ¾ propeller radius. The use of an adapted formulation of the momentum equation in differential form for rotating frame of references, integrated with isentropic relations as boundary conditions, allowed to compute the pressure field around the blade and the surface pressure distribution directly from the velocity data in the compressible regime. The procedure, extended to the computation of the aerodynamic lift and drag coefficients by a momentum contour integral approach, proved to be able to couple the aerodynamical loads to the flow field on the moving propeller blade, comparing favorably with a numerical simulation of the entire scaled model. Results are presented for two propeller rotation speeds and three different yawing angles.
Bolt Cutter Blade's Imprint in Toolmarks Examination.
Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok
2015-11-01
Bolt cutters are known as cutting tools which are used for cutting hard objects and materials, such as padlocks and bars. Bolt cutter blades leave their imprint on the cut objects. When receiving a cut object from a crime scene, forensic toolmarks examiners can determine whether the suspected cutting tool was used in a specific crime or not based on class characteristic marks and individual marks that the bolt cutter blades leave on the cut object. The paper presents preliminary results of a study on ten bolt cutters and suggests a quick preliminary examination-the comparison between the blade thickness and the width of the imprint left by the tool on the cut object. Based on the comparison result, if there is not a match, the examiner can eliminate the feasibility of the use of the suspected cutting tool in a specific crime. This examination simplifies and accelerates the comparison procedure. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Model-Trained Neural Networks and Electronic Holography Demonstrated to Detect Damage in Blades
Decker, Arthur J.; Fite, E. Brian; Mehmed, Oral; Thorp, Scott A.
1998-01-01
Detect Damage in Blades Electronic holography can show damaged regions in fan blades at 30 frames/sec. The electronic holograms are transformed by finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks to visualize the damage. The trained neural networks are linked with video and graphics to visualize the bending-induced strain distribution, which is very sensitive to damage. By contrast, it is very difficult to detect damage by viewing the raw, speckled, characteristic fringe patterns. For neural-network visualization of damage, 2 frames or 2 fields are used, rather than the 12 frames normally used to compute the displacement distribution from electronic holograms. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, finite element models are used to compute displacement and strain distributions for the vibration modes of undamaged and cracked blades. A model of electronic time-averaged holography is used to transform the displacement distributions into finite-element-resolution characteristic fringe patterns. Then, a feedforward neural network is trained with the fringe-pattern/strain-pattern pairs, and the neural network, electronic holography, and video are implemented on a workstation. Now that the neural networks have been tested successfully at 30 frames/sec on undamaged and cracked cantilevers, the electronic holography and neural-network processing are being adapted for onsite damage inspection of twisted fan blades and rotormounted blades. Our conclusion is that model-trained neural nets are effective when they are trained with good models whose application is well understood. This work supports the aeromechanical testing portion of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Project.
Remote Monitoring of the Structural Health of Hydrokinetic Composite Turbine Blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.L. Rovey
2012-09-21
A health monitoring approach is investigated for hydrokinetic turbine blade applications. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs have advantages that include long life in marine environments and great control over mechanical properties. Experimental strain characteristics are determined for static loads and free-vibration loads. These experiments are designed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of hydrokinetic turbine blades. Carbon/epoxy symmetric composite laminates are manufactured using an autoclave process. Four-layer composite beams, eight-layer composite beams, and two-dimensional eight-layer composite blades are instrumented for strain. Experimental results for strain measurements from electrical resistance gages are validated with theoretical characteristics obtained from in-house finite-element analysis for all sample cases. These preliminary tests on the composite samples show good correlation between experimental and finite-element strain results. A health monitoring system is proposed in which damage to a composite structure, e.g. delamination and fiber breakage, causes changes in the strain signature behavior. The system is based on embedded strain sensors and embedded motes in which strain information is demodulated for wireless transmission. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs provide a medium for embedding sensors into the blades for in-situ health monitoring. The major challenge with in-situ health monitoring is transmission of sensor signals from the remote rotating reference frame of the blade to the system monitoring station. In the presented work, a novel system for relaying in-situ blade health measurements in hydrokinetic systems is described and demonstrated. An ultrasonic communication system is used to transmit
Interpretation of intensities in electron-momentum and photoelectron spectroscopies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, I.E.
1984-06-01
Relative intensities for the photoelectron reaction on atoms and molecules are not related to structure calculations in the same way as those for the noncoplanar symmetric (e,2e) reaction. The photoelectron dipole matrix element is dependent on recoil momentum only through its unique relationship to the photon energy and is much harder to calculate for chemically-interesting momenta. Relative intensities for binary (e,2e) reactions are independent of total energy at high enough energies and strongly dependent on symmetry and recoil momentum, for which an intensity profile can be measured for values starting at zero. In comparing with structure calculations, binary (e,2e) intensities for low recoil momentum may be compared directly with pole strengths in calculations of the one-electron Green's function or corresponding configuration-interaction calculations. In the case of states within a single symmetry manifold the relative intensities will be independent of recoil momentum up to some maximum, usually at least a few atomic units
Magnus wind turbines as an alternative to the blade ones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychkov, N M; Dovgal, A V; Kozlov, V V
2007-01-01
Experimental and calculated data on a wind turbine equipped with rotating cylinders instead of traditional blades are reported. Optimal parameters and the corresponding operational characteristics of the windwheel are given in comparison with those of the blade wind turbines
Computational method for the design of wind turbine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7.5, CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)
2008-07-15
Zeus Disenador was developed to design low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbine blades, by means of an iterative algorithm. With this software, it is possible to obtain the optimum blade shape for a wind turbine to satisfy energy requirements of an electric system with optimum rotor efficiency. The number of blades, the airfoil curves and the average wind velocity can be specified by the user. The user can also request particular edge conditions for the width of the blades and for the pitch angle. Results are provided in different windows. Two- and three-dimensional graphics show the aspect of the resultant blade. Numerical results are displayed for blade length, blade surface, pitch angle variation along the blade span, rotor angular speed, rotor efficiency and rotor output power. Software verifications were made by comparing rotor power and rotor efficiency for different designs. Results were similar to those provided by commercial wind generator manufacturers. (author)
Wind blade spar cap and method of making
Mohamed, Mansour H [Raleigh, NC
2008-05-27
A wind blade spar cap for strengthening a wind blade including an integral, unitary three-dimensional woven material having a first end and a second end, corresponding to a root end of the blade and a tip end of the blade, wherein the material tapers in width from the first to the second end while maintaining a constant thickness and decreasing weight therebetween, the cap being capable of being affixed to the blade for providing increased strength with controlled variation in weight from the root end to the tip end based upon the tapered width of the material thereof. The present inventions also include the method of making the wind blade spar cap and a wind blade including the wind blade spar cap.
Ion beam analysis of gas turbine blades: evaluation of refurbishment ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. To evaluate the refurbishment quality of used gas turbine blades, scanning proton microscopy was employed to study the cross-sections of four samples of turbine blades denoted ... explain this conflict, one should note that matrix composi-.
Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades
Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.
1991-01-01
Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.
Design and fabrication of a wind turbine blade | Laryea | Ghana ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Institute of Industrial Research, Accra. Earlier turbine blades were manufactured from seasoned wood. The designed blade reported in the study was fabricated from fiberglass and epoxy resin compositions using wood for the mould pattern.
New airfoil sections for straight bladed turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boumaza, B.
1987-07-01
A theoretical investigation of aerodynamic performance for vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine with new airfoils sections is carried out. The blade section aerodynamics characteristics are determined from turbomachines cascade model. The model is also adapted to the vertical Darrieus turbine for the performance prediction of the machine. In order to choose appropriate value of zero-lift-drag coefficient in calculation, an analytical expression is introduced as function of chord-radius ratio and Reynolds numbers. New airfoils sections are proposed and analyzed for straight-bladed turbine
Designing for hot-blade cutting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn
2016-01-01
by authors of the paper, which facilitates high-speed production of doubly-curved foam moulds. Complementary to design rationalisation, in which arbitrary surfaces are translated to hot-blade-cuttable geometries, the presented method enables architects and designers to design directly with the non......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...
Individual Blade Control of a 5-bladed Rotor Using the Multiple Swashplate System
Küfmann, Philip; Bartels, Rainer; van der Wall, Berend G.; Schneider, Oliver; Holthusen, Hermann; Postma, Jos
2017-01-01
After its first wind tunnel test in 2015, the multiple swashplate system (META) as well as the DLR's rotor test rig were modified and upgraded extensively to allow IBC operation on a five-bladed rotor system. In late 2016 a second wind tunnel test was performed on a Mach-scaled, five-bladed model rotor with the goal to reduce Vibration, noise and required rotor power on a five-bladed rotor in different flight conditions using proven IBC strategies. Highlights of the test matrix were 2/rev swe...
Aerodynamics and Optimal Design of Biplane Wind Turbine Blades
Chiu, Phillip
In order to improve energy capture and reduce the cost of wind energy, in the past few decades wind turbines have grown significantly larger. As their blades get longer, the design of the inboard region (near the blade root) becomes a trade-off between competing structural and aerodynamic requirements. State-of-the-art blades require thick airfoils near the root to efficiently support large loads inboard, but those thick airfoils have inherently poor aerodynamic performance. New designs are required to circumvent this design compromise. One such design is the "biplane blade", in which the thick airfoils in the inboard region are replaced with thinner airfoils in a biplane configuration. This design was shown previously to have significantly increased structural performance over conventional blades. In addition, the biplane airfoils can provide increased lift and aerodynamic efficiency compared to thick monoplane inboard airfoils, indicating a potential for increased power extraction. This work investigates the fundamental aerodynamic aspects, aerodynamic design and performance, and optimal structural design of the biplane blade. First, the two-dimensional aerodynamics of biplanes with relatively thick airfoils are investigated, showing unique phenomena which arise as a result of airfoil thickness. Next, the aerodynamic design of the full biplane blade is considered. Two biplane blades are designed for optimal aerodynamic loading, and their aerodynamic performance quantified. Considering blades with practical chord distributions and including the drag of the mid-blade joint, it is shown that biplane blades have comparable power output to conventional monoplane designs. The results of this analysis also show that the biplane blades can be designed with significantly less chord than conventional designs, a characteristic which enables larger blade designs. The aerodynamic loads on the biplane blades are shown to be increased in gust conditions and decreased under
Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tesauro, Angelo; Pavese, Christian; Branner, Kim
Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology is an important way to find blade failure mechanisms and thereby improve the blade design. Condition monitoring of rotor blades is necessary in order to ensure the safe operation of the wind turbine, make the maintenance more economical...... of the rotor, icing and lightning. Research is done throughout the world in order to develop and improve such measurement systems. Commercial hardware and software available for the described purpose is presented in the report....
Electromagnetic energy momentum in dispersive media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Philbin, T. G.
2011-01-01
The standard derivations of electromagnetic energy and momentum in media take Maxwell's equations as the starting point. It is well known that for dispersive media this approach does not directly yield exact expressions for the energy and momentum densities. Although Maxwell's equations fully describe electromagnetic fields, the general approach to conserved quantities in field theory is not based on the field equations, but rather on the action. Here an action principle for macroscopic electromagnetism in dispersive, lossless media is used to derive the exact conserved energy-momentum tensor. The time-averaged energy density reduces to Brillouin's simple formula when the fields are monochromatic. The time-averaged momentum density for monochromatic fields corresponds to the familiar Minkowski expression DxB, but for general fields in dispersive media the momentum density does not have the Minkowski value. The results are unaffected by the debate over momentum balance in light-matter interactions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yrigoyen Lazzeri, Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1986-12-31
In this article a research is made of the change of natural frequencies of groups formed by different number of blades. To estimate the natural frequencies and the vibration modes, the finite element is used, modeling real blades with beam elements. The models employed represent groups of two to ten blades tied up together by two dampening wires and an external belt, also modeled with beam elements . The angular rigidities at the intersection between the blades and the dampening wires and with the external belt were simulated with border elements. The analytical results were compared with laboratory and field values for a single blade and a group of ten blades. [Espanol] En este articulo se investiga el cambio de frecuencias naturales en grupos formados por diferente numero de alabes. Para calcular las frecuencias naturales y los modos de vibracion, se utiliza el metodo del elemento finito, modelando alabes reales con elementos viga. Los modelos utilizados representan grupos de dos a diez alabes unidos por dos alambres amortiguadores y un cinturon externo. Los alambres amortiguadores y el cinturon externo tambien se modelaron con elementos viga. Las rigideces angulares en los puntos de interseccion entre los alabes con los alambres amortiguadores y con el cinturon externo se simularon con elementos frontera. Se comparan resultados analiticos con valores de laboratorio y de campo para un alabe sencillo y un grupo de diez alabes.
A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2017-01-01
A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...
Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field
Katsanis, T.
1973-01-01
The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.
Vibration-based SHM System: Application to Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tcherniak, D.; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti
2015-01-01
This study presents an vibration-based system designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades. Mechanical energy is introduced by means of an electromechanical actuator mounted inside the blade. The actuator's plunger periodically hits the blade structure; the induced vibrations ...
Analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade using CFD | Nigam ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Blade is very essential part of HAWT (horizontal axis wind turbine). Forces for Lift and drag on the blade has an important role in the wind turbine performance. The main purpose of this work is to perform CFD analysis of a blade and airfoil of wind turbine using k-ω SST model. In this present study NACA 634 -221 airfoil ...
Manufacture of Power Hacksaw Blades From Locally Available ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The manufacture of power hacksaw blades using worn out sawmill blades made of medium carbon steel has bean achieved. They were produced through carburization, hardening and tempering processes. The produced power hacksaw blade when compared with the imported one showed the former having a slightly ...
Genetic control of leaf-blade morphogenesis by the INSECATUS ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2010-08-03
Aug 3, 2010 ... domain bears compound pinna blades of tendrilled leaflets in mfp leaf blades. The interactions among uni-tac, af, tl and mfp mutations have revealed the functional roles of the four genes in leaf-blade morphogenesis (Marx 1987; Hofer and Ellis 1998; Gourlay et al. 2000; DeMason 2005; Mishra et al. 2009).
Momentum management strategy during Space Station buildup
Bishop, Lynda; Malchow, Harvey; Hattis, Philip
1988-01-01
The use of momentum storage devices to control effectors for Space Station attitude control throughout the buildup sequence is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of providing satisfactory management of momentum storage effectors throughout buildup while experiencing variable torque loading. Continuous and discrete control strategies are compared and the effects of alternative control moment gyro strategies on peak momentum storage requirements and on commanded maneuver characteristics are described.
Angular Momentum of Topologically Structured Darkness.
Alperin, Samuel N; Siemens, Mark E
2017-11-17
We theoretically analyze and experimentally measure the extrinsic angular momentum contribution of topologically structured darkness found within fractional vortex beams, and show that this structured darkness can be explained by evanescent waves at phase discontinuities in the generating optic. We also demonstrate the first direct measurement of the intrinsic orbital angular momentum of light with both intrinsic and extrinsic angular momentum, and explain why the total orbital angular momenta of fractional vortices do not match the winding number of their generating phases.
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.
2011-01-01
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan, Kan; Liu, Huiwen; Yang, Chunxia; Zheng, Yuan; Fu, Shifeng; Zhang, Xin
2017-01-01
Current research on the stability of tubular pumps is mainly concerned with the transient hydrodynamic characteristics. However, the structural response under the influence of fluid-structure interaction hasn't been taken fully into consideration. The instability of the structure can cause vibration and cracks, which may threaten the safety of the unit. We used bidirectional fluid-structure interaction to comprehensively analyze the dynamic stress characteristics of the impeller blades of the shaft extension tubular pump device. Furthermore, dynamic stress of impeller blade of shaft extension tubular pump device was solved under different lift conditions of 0° blade angle. Based on Reynolds-average N-S equation and SST k-ω turbulence model, numerical simulation was carried out for three-dimensional unsteady incompressible turbulent flow field of the pump device whole flow passage. Meanwhile, the finite element method was used to calculate dynamic characteristics of the blade structure. The blade dynamic stress distribution was obtained on the basis of fourth strength theory. The research results indicate that the maximum blade dynamic stress appears at the joint between root of inlet side of the blade suction surface and the axis. Considering the influence of gravity, the fluctuation of the blade dynamic stress increases initially and decreases afterwards within a rotation period. In the meantime, the dynamic stress in the middle part of inlet edge presents larger relative fluctuation amplitude. Finally, a prediction method for dynamic stress distribution of tubular pump considering fluid-structure interaction and gravity effect was proposed. This method can be used in the design stage of tubular pump to predict dynamic stress distribution of the structure under different operating conditions, improve the reliability of pump impeller and analyze the impeller fatigue life
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kan, Kan; Liu, Huiwen; Yang, Chunxia [Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Zheng, Yuan [National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering Safety, Nanjing (China); Fu, Shifeng; Zhang, Xin [Power China Huadong Engineering Corporation, Hangzhou (China)
2017-04-15
Current research on the stability of tubular pumps is mainly concerned with the transient hydrodynamic characteristics. However, the structural response under the influence of fluid-structure interaction hasn't been taken fully into consideration. The instability of the structure can cause vibration and cracks, which may threaten the safety of the unit. We used bidirectional fluid-structure interaction to comprehensively analyze the dynamic stress characteristics of the impeller blades of the shaft extension tubular pump device. Furthermore, dynamic stress of impeller blade of shaft extension tubular pump device was solved under different lift conditions of 0° blade angle. Based on Reynolds-average N-S equation and SST k-ω turbulence model, numerical simulation was carried out for three-dimensional unsteady incompressible turbulent flow field of the pump device whole flow passage. Meanwhile, the finite element method was used to calculate dynamic characteristics of the blade structure. The blade dynamic stress distribution was obtained on the basis of fourth strength theory. The research results indicate that the maximum blade dynamic stress appears at the joint between root of inlet side of the blade suction surface and the axis. Considering the influence of gravity, the fluctuation of the blade dynamic stress increases initially and decreases afterwards within a rotation period. In the meantime, the dynamic stress in the middle part of inlet edge presents larger relative fluctuation amplitude. Finally, a prediction method for dynamic stress distribution of tubular pump considering fluid-structure interaction and gravity effect was proposed. This method can be used in the design stage of tubular pump to predict dynamic stress distribution of the structure under different operating conditions, improve the reliability of pump impeller and analyze the impeller fatigue life.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gębura Andrzej
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper represents a series of the authors’ publications concerning effects of atmospheric conditions on aircraft [5-6, 11]. Hazards connected with separation ( delamination of heating elements from blade’s spar , namely: increased susceptibility to ice formation as a result of change in aerodynamic profile, decreased deicing effectiveness, shortened life of heating elements , weakened strength of blade’s structure, are described. In order to monitor the above mentioned delamination process during its early phase, these authors proposed to measure systematically electric capacity between the heating element and blade’s spar by means of a technical method. The electric capacity measurements performed by these authors on blades both in laboratory and service conditions demonstrated their practical usefulness for assessing delamination extent as well as for identifying areas where heating element separation from spar occurred. The method in question is simple , cheap , fast and non-interferring (non-destructive as well as it does not require dismounting the blades off the helicopter. As proved in practice , it is especially useful in sea-rescue or military operational conditions. Special attention was paid to application of the method to composite blades where coming-off the heating element tape causes local overheating the blade structure , that impairs flexibility of composite’s layers and may lead even to local cracks which may trigger helicopter crash. These authors desire to apply the method as a standard unit of on-board diagnostic system in the future.
Lattice study of the Boer-Mulders transverse momentum distribution in the pion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engelhardt, Michael; Musch, Bernhard; Haegler, Philipp; Negele, John; Schaefer, Andreas
2014-11-01
The Boer-Mulders transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution (TMD) characterizes polarized quark transverse momentum in an unpolarized hadron. Techniques previously developed for lattice calculations of nucleon TMDs are applied to the pion. These techniques are based on the evaluation of matrix elements of quark bilocal operators containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection. Results for the Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shift in the pion, obtained at a pion mass of mπ=518MeV, are presented and compared to corresponding results in the nucleon.
Scale transformations, the energy-momentum tensor, and the equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carruthers, P.
1989-01-01
The Equation of State (EOS) relates diagonal elements of the energy-momentum tensor θ μν . The first moment of the energy-momentum tensor generates scale transformations. The virial theorem, a consequence of the behavior of the energy density under scale transformations, allows one to eliminate the kinetic energy in terms of the potential terms. The trace theorem for the energy-momentum tensor expresses ε-3p in terms of ensemble averages of scale-breaking operators, allowing a new approach to the EOS. 10 refs
A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena
2002-01-01
This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...
Gvozdev, Alexander S.; Melentjev, Vladimir S.
2018-01-01
When you create a modern gas turbine engines urgent task is to improve the reliability by preventing fatigue damages of rotor blades. Such damage is largely determined by the level of vibration stresses. In this paper, using the finite element method and transient analysis of propose a method calculating the damping characteristics of the plates of the pressed wire material “MR” around the root attachment of the compressor blades of a gas turbine engine. Where taken into account contact interaction between the blades and the impeller disk.
Structural experiment of wind turbine blades; Fushayo blade no zairyo rikigakuteki jikken kenkyu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Kuroyanagi, H. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)
1997-11-25
Aluminum, GFRP and composite of aluminum coated with carbon as structural materials for wind turbine blades were bending-tested, to improve blade bending stiffness, understand stress conditions at each position, and clarify structural dynamic strength by the bending-failure test. It is possible to estimate stress conditions at each position from the test results of displacement and strain at each load. The test results with GFRP are well explained qualitatively by the boundary theory, known as a theory for composite materials. The test gives reasonable material strength data, useful for designing wind turbines of high functions and safety. The results of the blade bending-failure test are in good agreement with the calculated structural blade strength. It is also found that GFRP is a good material of high structural strength for wind turbines. 8 refs., 6 tabs.
Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton
2016-01-01
. The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...
49 CFR 236.707 - Blade, semaphore.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blade, semaphore. 236.707 Section 236.707 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...
Gas Turbine Blade Damper Optimization Methodology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. K. Giridhar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The friction damping concept is widely used to reduce resonance stresses in gas turbines. A friction damper has been designed for high pressure turbine stage of a turbojet engine. The objective of this work is to find out effectiveness of the damper while minimizing resonant stresses for sixth and ninth engine order excitation of first flexure mode. This paper presents a methodology that combines three essential phases of friction damping optimization in turbo-machinery. The first phase is to develop an analytical model of blade damper system. The second phase is experimentation and model tuning necessary for response studies while the third phase is evaluating damper performance. The reduced model of blade is developed corresponding to the mode under investigation incorporating the friction damper then the simulations were carried out to arrive at an optimum design point of the damper. Bench tests were carried out in two phases. Phase-1 deals with characterization of the blade dynamically and the phase-2 deals with finding optimal normal load at which the blade resonating response is minimal for a given excitation. The test results are discussed, and are corroborated with simulated results, are in good agreement.
Head injury from fan blades among children.
Alias, Azmi; Krishnapillai, Ravi; Teng, Hong Wah; Abd Latif, Ahmad Zubaidi; Adnan, Johari Siregar
2005-07-01
Head injury caused by fan blades is rare among children. We analysed 14 cases of such injury and discuss the causes, type of injury and preventive measures. A retrospective analysis of 14 cases of children who were admitted to the Pediatric Neurosurgical Unit of Hospital Kuala Lumpur after sustaining head injuries caused by fan blades between January 2000 and December 2002 was performed. The causes of fan-blade head injury included jumping on the upper bunk of a bunk-bed, climbing on a ladder, climbing up onto a table, and being lifted by an adult. Thirteen patients were injured by ceiling fans and one by falling onto an uncovered table fan. School-aged boys were the predominant victims. Mean patient age was 7.9 years (range, 1.0-12.2 years). There was a twin peak incidence of when the accidents occurred: just before lunch in the afternoon and bedtime at night. The types of injury were scalp lacerations, compound depressed fractures and multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Two patients had the complication of wound infection, and one of these patients developed cerebral spinal fluid leak. One patient died from severe head injuries. Safety awareness among parents and caretakers are important as fan-blade head injury among children is preventable.
Mathematical Model of Two Blades System
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk
2014-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 4 (2014), s. 361-369 ISSN 2321-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : turbine blades * dry friction * vibration damping * torsion Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Family of airfoil shapes for rotating blades. [for increased power efficiency and blade stability
Noonan, K. W. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
An airfoil which has particular application to the blade or blades of rotor aircraft such as helicopters and aircraft propellers is described. The airfoil thickness distribution and camber are shaped to maintain a near zero pitching moment coefficient over a wide range of lift coefficients and provide a zero pitching moment coefficient at section Mach numbers near 0.80 and to increase the drag divergence Mach number resulting in superior aircraft performance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen
2017-01-01
of blade number on the performance of VAWTs and dynamic behavior of floating VAWTs was comprehensively studied in a fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic way. Three VAWTs with straight and parallel blades, with identical solidity and with a blade number varying from two to four, were designed using...
Lightning protection of flap system for wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Candela Garolera, Anna; Madsen, Søren Find
The aim of this PhD project was to investigate the behaviour of a Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) in a wind turbine blade when it is exposed to lightning discharges, and find the best technical solution to protect the CRTEF and the controlling system against lightning, based......, the current transmission, including the study of the induced electromagnetic fields, and the effects of degradation of the flap material due to the exposure to the lightning high electric fields. The main tools for this analysis were the simulation by the finite elements method and testing in the high voltage......, as well as general the general principles of lightning protection and the experience acquired in the analysis of lightning damages in field performed during the PhD, were the base for the design and validation of an vi effective and reliable lightning protection for the flap. Regarding the design...
Investigation of Structural Behavior due to Bend-Twist Couplings in Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorov, Vladimir; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Berggreen, Christian
2010-01-01
One of the problematic issues concerning the design of future large composite wind turbine blades is the prediction of bend-twist couplings and torsion behaviour. The current work is a continuation of a previous work [1,2], and it examines different finite element modelling approaches for predict...... in torsion with deviations in the range of 15 to 35%, when employing the section input for the off-set definition. However, the ANSYS model generated using matrix input for the off-set definition was found to perform adequately....... work attention was aimed specifically at shell element based FEA models for predicting torsional behaviour of the blade. Three models were developed in different codes: An ANSYS and ABAQUS model with standard section input and an ANSYS model with matrix input. All models employed the outer surface...
Vibration reduction of a woven composite fan blade by piezoelectric shunted devices
Thierry, Olivier; De Smet, Olivier; Deü, Jean-François
2016-09-01
This study concerns the vibration reduction in the low frequency range of a composite fan blade of a turbojet engine with piezoelectric devices. The interest is to increase lifespan and avoid flutter phenomena by reducing the vibration amplitude. The solution considered in the work consists in using piezoelectric elements connected to a passive electric circuit usually called shunt. The use of woven composite materials for fan blades enables to plan on embedding piezoelectric materials, for instance in the form of patches inserted between the composite and the coating material. The work presented during this conference will illustrate the feasibility of a piezoelectric shunted device integrated in an industrial application that doesn't require electrical supply. For such a structure, it is shown that a purely passive resonant shunt can significantly reduce the level of vibration of the second bending mode and that a good correlation between experiments and simulations validates the best fitting finite element model.
Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE fatigue database trends for wind turbine blade materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mandell, John F. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Ashwill, Thomas D.; Wilson, Timothy J. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Sears, Aaron T. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Agastra, Pancasatya (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Laird, Daniel L.; Samborsky, Daniel D. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)
2010-12-01
This report presents an analysis of trends in fatigue results from the Montana State University program on the fatigue of composite materials for wind turbine blades for the period 2005-2009. Test data can be found in the SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue of Composite Materials Database which is updated annually. This is the fifth report in this series, which summarizes progress of the overall program since its inception in 1989. The primary thrust of this program has been research and testing of a broad range of structural laminate materials of interest to blade structures. The report is focused on current types of infused and prepreg blade materials, either processed in-house or by industry partners. Trends in static and fatigue performance are analyzed for a range of materials, geometries and loading conditions. Materials include: sixteen resins of three general types, five epoxy based paste adhesives, fifteen reinforcing fabrics including three fiber types, three prepregs, many laminate lay-ups and process variations. Significant differences in static and fatigue performance and delamination resistance are quantified for particular materials and process conditions. When blades do fail, the likely cause is fatigue in the structural detail areas or at major flaws. The program is focused strongly on these issues in addition to standard laminates. Structural detail tests allow evaluation of various blade materials options in the context of more realistic representations of blade structure than do the standard test methods. Types of structural details addressed in this report include ply drops used in thickness tapering, and adhesive joints, each tested over a range of fatigue loading conditions. Ply drop studies were in two areas: (1) a combined experimental and finite element study of basic ply drop delamination parameters for glass and carbon prepreg laminates, and (2) the development of a complex structured resin-infused coupon including ply drops, for comparison studies of
Measurements of blade aerodynamics on a rotor in the field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, J.M.R. [Imperical College, Dept. of Aeronautics, London (United Kingdom)
1997-12-31
This contribution describes the field test measurements undertaken on an instrumented rotor at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK, during the period 1994 - 97. The programme was directed at improving the prediction of the steady and unsteady rotor blade loading, particularly the loads arising from the stalling of the blade. The measured data consisted of blade surface pressure distributions sampled at 50Hz at 6 sections along the span of one blade of the 17m diameter, 3 bladed, fixed pitch, upwind H.A.W.T., together with measurements of the incident velocity. (au)
Controller Design for Blade Load Reduction Using Synthetic Jets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Mahmood
2014-01-01
actuators to damp structural vibration. This paper, presents the design of a control system that acts on blade synthetic jets to reduce and damp the vibration of the desired blade modes. The design of model-based estimators is addressed. These estimators use the measurements of several accelerometers...... and strain gauges along the blade and the tower to estimate the contribution of each blade modal state to the vibration of the tower and the blades. The synthetic jet actuators are then controlled, such that the desired vibration modes are damped effectively. Designed estimator and controller are implemented...
Rogers, T.C.; Mulders, P.J.G.
2010-01-01
It has by now been established that standard QCD factorization using transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions fails in hadroproduction of nearly back-to-back hadrons with high transverse momentum. The essential problem is that gauge-invariant transverse momentum dependent parton
Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data
Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.
2013-01-01
It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) TMF, (2) Oxidation/erosion (O/E), and (3) Other. From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L10 blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to O/E equaled that attributed to TMF. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were no blade failures attributed to O/E and TMF, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.
Development of 52 inch last stage blade for steam turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadoya, Yoshiki; Harada, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Eiichiro
1985-01-01
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the last stage blades with 1320 mm length for a 1800 rpm LP turbine, and the verification by rotating vibration test using actual blades was finished, thus the blades were completed. In a nuclear power plant with an A-PWR of 3800 MW thermal output, the 1350 MW steam turbine has one HP turbine and three LP turbines coupled in tandem, and the optimum last stage blades for the LP turbines became the 1320 mm blades. The completion of these blades largely contributes to the improvement of thermal efficiency and the increase of generator output in large nuclear power plants, and has the possibility to decrease three LP turbines to two in 900 MW plants, which reduces the construction cost. The velocity energy of steam coming out of last stage blades is abandoned as exhaust loss in a condenser, which is the largest loss in a turbine. The increase of exhaust area using long blades reduces this loss. The economy of the 1320 mm blades, the features of the 1320 mm blades, the aerodynamic design and its verification, the prevention of the erosion of the 1320 mm blades due to wet steam, the strength design, the anti-vibration design and its verification, and the CAD/CAM system are reported. (Kako, I.)
Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao
1986-01-01
The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)
Modal analysis by holographic interferometry of a turbine blade for aircraft engines
Caponero, Michele A.; De Angelis, Alberto; Filetti, V. R.; Gammella, S.
1994-11-01
Within the planning stage devoted to realize an innovative turbine for an aircraft engine, an experimental prototype has been made. Several measurements have been carried out to experimentally verify the expected structural and dynamic features of such a prototype. Expected properties were worked out by finite elements method, using the well-known Nastran software package. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of the designed prototype were computed assuming the turbine being in both `dynamic condition' (rotating turbine at running speed and temperature), and in `static condition' (still turbine at room temperature). We present the experimental modal analysis carried out by time average holographic interferometry, being the prototype in `static condition;' results show the modal behavior of the prototype. Experimental and computed modal features are compared to evaluate the reliability of the finite elements model of the turbine used for computation by the Nastran package; reliability of the finite elements model must be checked to validate results computed assuming the turbine blade is in hostile environments, such as `dynamic condition,' which could hardly be tested by experimental measurements. A piezoelectric transducer was used to excite the turbine blade by sine variable pressure. To better estimate the natural vibration modes, two holographic interferograms have been made for each identified natural frequency, being the sensitivity vector directions of the two interferograms perpendicular to each other. The first ten lower natural frequencies and vibration modes of the blade have been analyzed; experimental and computed results are compared and discussed. Experimental and computed values of natural frequencies are in good agrement between each other. Several differences are present between experimental and computed modal patterns; a possible cause of such discrepancies is identified in wrong structural constraints imposed at nodes of the finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sullivan, W. N.; Leonard, T. M.
1980-11-01
An important aspect of structural design of the Darrieus rotor is the determination of aerodynamic blade loads. This report describes a load generator which has been used at Sandia for quasi-static and dynamic rotor analyses. The generator is based on the single streamtube aerodynamic flow model and is constructed as a FORTRAN IV subroutine to facilitate its use in finite element structural models. Input and output characteristics of the subroutine are described and a complete listing is attached as an appendix.
Rotor blade full-scale fatigue testing technology and research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Berring, Peter; Pavese, Christian
was started in the beginning of the 1980´s and has been further developed since then. Structures in composite materials are generally difficult and time consuming to test for fatigue resistance. Therefore, several methods for testing of blades have been developed and exist today. These methods......Full scale fatigue test is an important part of the development and design of wind turbine blades. Testing is also needed for the approval of the blades in order for them to be used on large wind turbines. However, usually only one prototype blade is tested. Fatigue test of wind turbine blades...... will be presented in this report giving the blade test facility operator a guide to choose the method that best fit the needs and economic constraints. The state of the art method is currently dual axis mass resonance, where the purpose of the test is to emulate the loads the blades encounter in operation....
Antenna Gain Impact on UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Byskov, Claus
2018-01-01
effective (or equivalent) isotropic radiated power (EIRP), an HG tip antenna inside a blade gives stronger direct pulse amplitudes and better pulse waveforms for accurate and reliable distance estimations than the LG. Moreover, the direct pulse with the HG antenna is also closer to the blade surface, which...... a blade). Higher antenna gain enlarges both direct pulse and multipath but in different levels. To verify the simulations, time-domain measurements are performed with a full 37-meter blade. Pulse waveforms and power delay profiles are measured. From all the studies, it follows that: with the similar......Antenna gain impact on UWB wind turbine blade deflection sensing is studied in this paper. Simulations are applied with a 4.5-meter blade tip. The antennas with high gain (HG) and low gain (LG) in free space are simulated inside a blade. It is interesting to find that tip antennas with HG and LG...
Turbine blade squealer tip rail with fence members
Little, David A
2012-11-20
A turbine blade includes an airfoil, a blade tip section, a squealer tip rail, and a plurality of chordally spaced fence members. The blade tip section includes a blade tip floor located at an end of the airfoil distal from the root. The blade tip floor includes a pressure side and a suction side joined together at chordally spaced apart leading and trailing edges of the airfoil. The squealer tip rail extends radially outwardly from the blade tip floor adjacent to the suction side and extends from a first location adjacent to the airfoil trailing edge to a second location adjacent to the airfoil leading edge. The fence members are located between the airfoil leading and trailing edges and extend radially outwardly from the blade tip floor and axially from the squealer tip rail toward the pressure side.
Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... of wind turbine blades. The final part of the book describes advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing, including biobased composites, surface protection and coatings, structural performance testing and the design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine blades. Advances...... in wind turbine blade design and materials offers a comprehensive review of the recent advances and challenges encountered in wind turbine blade materials and design, and will provide an invaluable reference for researchers and innovators in the field of wind energy production, including materials...
Antenna Gain Impact on UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Byskov, Claus
2018-01-01
effective (or equivalent) isotropic radiated power (EIRP), an HG tip antenna inside a blade gives stronger direct pulse amplitudes and better pulse waveforms for accurate and reliable distance estimations than the LG. Moreover, the direct pulse with the HG antenna is also closer to the blade surface, which...... in free space have similar realized gain when allocated inside blades, so that the emission power for the HG and LG antennas in blades can be the same. The antenna gain impacts on time-domain pulse waveforms and power distributions around a blade are carefully investigated (with the tip antenna inside...... a blade). Higher antenna gain enlarges both direct pulse and multipath but in different levels. To verify the simulations, time-domain measurements are performed with a full 37-meter blade. Pulse waveforms and power delay profiles are measured. From all the studies, it follows that: with the similar...
Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We assume that the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles measured in final state are contributed by a few energy sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an ...
Transport processes: Momentum, heat and mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geankoplis, C.J.
1983-01-01
This book discusses basic transport processes including mass transport. Topics covered are as follows: an introduction to engineering principles and units; principles of momentum transfer and overall balances; principles of momentum transfer and applications; principles of steady-state heat transfer; principles of unsteady-state heat transfer; principles of mass transfer; principles of unsteady-state and convective mass transfer
Essays on Momentum Strategies in Finance
J.A. van Oord (Arco)
2016-01-01
textabstractThis section briefly summarizes in which way we have investigated momentum in this thesis. In Chapter 2 we alter the momentum strategy to improve its performance, while in Chapter 3 we leave the strategy as is, but aim at improving its performance by hedging. In Chapter 4 we develop a
Representational momentum in memory for pitch.
Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L
1990-11-01
When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.
Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade Hub using Aluminium Alloy AA 6061-T6
Ravikumar, S.; Jaswanthvenkatram, V.; Sai kumar, Y. J. N. V.; Sohaib, S. Md.
2017-05-01
This work presents the design and analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade hub using different material. The hub is very crucial part of the wind turbine, which experience the loads from the blades and the loads were transmitted to the main shaft. At present wind turbine is more expensive and weights more than a million pounds, with the nacelle, rotor hub and blades accounting for most of the weight. In this work Spheroidal graphite cast iron GGG 40.3 is replaced by aluminium alloy 6061-T6 to enhance the casting properties and also to improve the strength-weight ratio. This transition of material leads to reduction in weight of the wind turbine. All the loads caused by wind and extreme loads on the blades are transferred to the hub. Considering the IEC 61400-1 standard for defining extreme loads on the hub the stress and deflection were calculated on the hub by using Finite element Analysis. Result obtained from ANSYS is compared and discussed with the existing design.
The influence of gyroscopic forces on the dynamic behavior and flutter of rotating blades
Sisto, F.; Chang, A. T.
1983-01-01
The structural dynamics of a cantilever turbomachine blade mounted on a spinning and precessing rotor are investigated. Both stability and forced vibration are considered with a blade model that increases in complexity (and verisimilitude) from a spring-restrained point mass, to a uniform cantilever, to a twisted uniform cantilever turbomachine blade mounted on a spinning and precessing rotor are investigated. Both stability and forced vibration are considered with a blade model that increases in complexity (and verisimilitude) from a spring-restrained point mass, to a uniform cantilever, to a twisted uniform cantilever, to a tapered twisted cantilever of arbitrary cross-section. In every instance the formulation is from first principles using a finite element based on beam theory. Both ramp-type and periodic-type precessional angular displacements are considered. In concluding, forced vibrating and flutter are studied using the final and most sophisticated structural model. The analysis of stability is presented and a number of numerical examples are worked out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tai-Hong Cheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Composite materials are increasingly used in wind blade because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio. This paper presents vibration and damping analysis of fiberreinforced composite wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping treatment. The finite element method based on full layerwise displacement theory was employed to analyze the damping, natural frequency, and modal loss factor of composite shell structure. The lamination angle was considered in mathematical modeling. The curved geometry, transverse shear, and normal strains were exactly considered in present layerwise shell model, which can depict the zig-zag in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. The frequency response functions of curved composite shell structure and wind blade were calculated. The results show that the damping ratio of viscoelastic layer is found to be very sensitive to determination of magnitude of composite structures. The frequency response functions with variety of thickness of damping layer were investigated. Moreover, the natural frequency, modal loss factor, and mode shapes of composite fiber reinforced wind blade with viscoelastic damping control were calculated.
A concept study of a carbon spar cap design for a 80m wind turbine blade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosemeier, M; Bätge, M
2014-01-01
The buckling resistance is a key design driver for large wind turbine blades with a significant influence on the material costs. During the structural design process the choice was made for carbon spar caps and two shear webs, which were set relatively far apart in order to stabilize the panels. This design presented a major challenge for the stability of the spar caps. The topology of these spar caps has been modified with regard to stability, comparing a continuous spar cap with split spar cap concepts and considering both lay-ups with hybrid carbon glass spar caps or sandwich concepts. Within those concepts, parametric studies were conducted varying different geometrical parameters of the spar caps and its layups. In order to determine the buckling resistance of the spar cap, an analytical model considering a 2D cross section discretized blade model was utilized to select the basic concept, after which a 3D numerical finite element model taking the whole blade into account was used to evaluate the chosen design concepts. The stability limit state analysis was conducted according to the certification scheme of GL guideline 2012. The various concepts were evaluated based on the blade's mass, tip deflection and modal properties. The results of this design process of the spar caps and the evaluation of the used analysis tools are presented within the paper
Corrosion fatigue of bladed disk attachments of low-pressure turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asai, K.; Sakurai, S.; Nomura, K.; Saito, E.; Namura, K.
2004-01-01
The mechanism of a disk cracking in a low-pressure steam turbine was investigated by finite-element and fracture mechanics analysis and, based on the results of the investigation, a life assessment method was derived. The disk cracking was found to be caused by growth of corrosion pits, superposition of multiple vibration modes, and an increase in the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades after long-term operation. Taking these findings into consideration, the authors then developed a life-assessment method for disk cracking composed of evaluations (1) maximum corrosion pit size at the current situation, (2) corrosion pit growth after a certain term, and (3) failure-occurrence ratio for the estimated corrosion pit depth. Maximum corrosion-pit size is evaluated by extreme value statistical analysis using the data obtained by replica inspection. The failure-occurrence ratio is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation considering two uncertainties, namely, the standard deviation of the natural frequency of grouped blades and the stimulus ratio. The values of both uncertainties were determined by the inverse problem analysis of the disk cracking. In light of these results, the authors found that replacing conventional tenon-shroud grouped blades with continuous-cover blades is effective from the view point of vibratory behavior. (orig.)
Study Orientation Ply of Fiberglass on Blade Salt Water Pump Windmill using Abaqus
Badruzzaman, B.; Sifa, A.
2018-02-01
Windmill is one tool to generate energy from wind energy is converted into energy motion, salt production process still using traditional process by utilizing windmill to move sea water to salt field With a windmill driven water system, a horizontal axis type windmill with an average windmill height of 3-4 m, with a potential wind speed of 5-9 m / s, the amount of blade used for salt water pumps as much as 4 blades, one of the main factor of the windmill component is a blade, blade designed for the needs of a salt water pump by using fiberglass material. On layer orientation 0°,30°,45°,60° and 90° with layer number 10 and layer thickness 2 mm, the purpose of this study was to determine the strength of fiberglass that was influenced by the orientation of the layer, and to determine the orientation of fiberglass layer before making. This method used Finite Element Analysis method using ABAQUS, with homogenous and heterogeneous layer parameters. The simulation result shows the difference in von misses value at an angle of 0°, 30°, 45°,60° homogeneous value is greater than heterogeneous value, whereas in orientation 90 heterogeneous values have value 1,689e9 Pa, greater than homogenous 90 orientation value of 1,296e9 Pa.
A concept study of a carbon spar cap design for a 80m wind turbine blade
Rosemeier, M.; Bätge, M.
2014-06-01
The buckling resistance is a key design driver for large wind turbine blades with a significant influence on the material costs. During the structural design process the choice was made for carbon spar caps and two shear webs, which were set relatively far apart in order to stabilize the panels. This design presented a major challenge for the stability of the spar caps. The topology of these spar caps has been modified with regard to stability, comparing a continuous spar cap with split spar cap concepts and considering both lay-ups with hybrid carbon glass spar caps or sandwich concepts. Within those concepts, parametric studies were conducted varying different geometrical parameters of the spar caps and its layups. In order to determine the buckling resistance of the spar cap, an analytical model considering a 2D cross section discretized blade model was utilized to select the basic concept, after which a 3D numerical finite element model taking the whole blade into account was used to evaluate the chosen design concepts. The stability limit state analysis was conducted according to the certification scheme of GL guideline 2012. The various concepts were evaluated based on the blade's mass, tip deflection and modal properties. The results of this design process of the spar caps and the evaluation of the used analysis tools are presented within the paper.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laustsen, Steffen; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Lund, Erik
2012-01-01
The stress and strain field developed locally in-situ the core of grid-scored sandwich structures in wind turbine blades is investigated. Due to the many singularities occurring from the “tri-material corners”, a full 3D analysis of the sandwich structure in terms of the Finite Element Method is ...
Momentum Maps and Stochastic Clebsch Action Principles
Cruzeiro, Ana Bela; Holm, Darryl D.; Ratiu, Tudor S.
2018-01-01
We derive stochastic differential equations whose solutions follow the flow of a stochastic nonlinear Lie algebra operation on a configuration manifold. For this purpose, we develop a stochastic Clebsch action principle, in which the noise couples to the phase space variables through a momentum map. This special coupling simplifies the structure of the resulting stochastic Hamilton equations for the momentum map. In particular, these stochastic Hamilton equations collectivize for Hamiltonians that depend only on the momentum map variable. The Stratonovich equations are derived from the Clebsch variational principle and then converted into Itô form. In comparing the Stratonovich and Itô forms of the stochastic dynamical equations governing the components of the momentum map, we find that the Itô contraction term turns out to be a double Poisson bracket. Finally, we present the stochastic Hamiltonian formulation of the collectivized momentum map dynamics and derive the corresponding Kolmogorov forward and backward equations.
Population momentum across vertebrate life histories
Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.
2006-01-01
Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.
Momentum Maps and Stochastic Clebsch Action Principles
Cruzeiro, Ana Bela; Holm, Darryl D.; Ratiu, Tudor S.
2017-11-01
We derive stochastic differential equations whose solutions follow the flow of a stochastic nonlinear Lie algebra operation on a configuration manifold. For this purpose, we develop a stochastic Clebsch action principle, in which the noise couples to the phase space variables through a momentum map. This special coupling simplifies the structure of the resulting stochastic Hamilton equations for the momentum map. In particular, these stochastic Hamilton equations collectivize for Hamiltonians that depend only on the momentum map variable. The Stratonovich equations are derived from the Clebsch variational principle and then converted into Itô form. In comparing the Stratonovich and Itô forms of the stochastic dynamical equations governing the components of the momentum map, we find that the Itô contraction term turns out to be a double Poisson bracket. Finally, we present the stochastic Hamiltonian formulation of the collectivized momentum map dynamics and derive the corresponding Kolmogorov forward and backward equations.
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State University; Musch, Bernhard U. [Tech. University Munich; Haegler, Philipp G. [Tech. University Munich; Negele, John W. [MIT; Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg
2013-08-01
A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.
Khaimovich, A. I.; Khaimovich, I. N.
2018-01-01
The articles provides the calculation algorithms for blank design and die forming fitting to produce the compressor blades for aircraft engines. The design system proposed in the article allows generating drafts of trimming and reducing dies automatically, leading to significant reduction of work preparation time. The detailed analysis of the blade structural elements features was carried out, the taken limitations and technological solutions allowed to form generalized algorithms of forming parting stamp face over the entire circuit of the engraving for different configurations of die forgings. The author worked out the algorithms and programs to calculate three dimensional point locations describing the configuration of die cavity.
BeamDyn: A High-Fidelity Wind Turbine Blade Solver in the FAST Modular Framework: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Q.; Sprague, M.; Jonkman, J.; Johnson, N.
2015-01-01
BeamDyn, a Legendre-spectral-finite-element implementation of geometrically exact beam theory (GEBT), was developed to meet the design challenges associated with highly flexible composite wind turbine blades. In this paper, the governing equations of GEBT are reformulated into a nonlinear state-space form to support its coupling within the modular framework of the FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool. Different time integration schemes (implicit and explicit) were implemented and examined for wind turbine analysis. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this new beam solver. An example analysis of a realistic wind turbine blade, the CX-100, is also presented as validation.
Martin, Thomas Joseph
This dissertation presents the theoretical methodology, organizational strategy, conceptual demonstration and validation of a fully automated computer program for the multi-disciplinary analysis, inverse design and optimization of convectively cooled axial gas turbine blades and vanes. Parametric computer models of the three-dimensional cooled turbine blades and vanes were developed, including the automatic generation of discretized computational grids. Several new analysis programs were written and incorporated with existing computational tools to provide computer models of the engine cycle, aero-thermodynamics, heat conduction and thermofluid physics of the internally cooled turbine blades and vanes. A generalized information transfer protocol was developed to provide the automatic mapping of geometric and boundary condition data between the parametric design tool and the numerical analysis programs. A constrained hybrid optimization algorithm controlled the overall operation of the system and guided the multi-disciplinary internal turbine cooling design process towards the objectives and constraints of engine cycle performance, aerodynamic efficiency, cooling effectiveness and turbine blade and vane durability. Several boundary element computer programs were written to solve the steady-state non-linear heat conduction equation inside the internally cooled and thermal barrier-coated turbine blades and vanes. The boundary element method (BEM) did not require grid generation inside the internally cooled turbine blades and vanes, so the parametric model was very robust. Implicit differentiations of the BEM thermal and thereto-elastic analyses were done to compute design sensitivity derivatives faster and more accurately than via explicit finite differencing. A factor of three savings of computer processing time was realized for two-dimensional thermal optimization problems, and a factor of twenty was obtained for three-dimensional thermal optimization problems
Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton
2016-01-01
variability in the (economically allowed) designs - i.e., to allow them to think out of the box. To address this challenge The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation (now InnovationsFonden) is currently supporting the BladeRunner project that involves several Danish companies and public institutions......The constructions of advanced architectural designs are presently very labour intensive, time consuming, and expensive. They are therefore only applied to a few prestige projects, and it is a major challenge for the building industry to bring the costs down and thereby offer the architects more....... The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
The finite-bladed optimum Betz rotor is treated. It is first very recently that a complete description of this rotor has been derived. In the chapter, a full analytical solution to the Betz rotor problem will be given, and the results will be compared to other optimum rotor models, both with resp......The finite-bladed optimum Betz rotor is treated. It is first very recently that a complete description of this rotor has been derived. In the chapter, a full analytical solution to the Betz rotor problem will be given, and the results will be compared to other optimum rotor models, both...... with respect to performance and resulting rotor geometry. It is here shown that for tip speed ratios greater than three, all models result in the same geometry at the outer part of the rotor, whereas the inner part always is different, both with respect to plan form and with respect to twist distribution....
Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections
Kurkov, A. P.
1990-01-01
A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.
Structural Reliability of Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov
and design. Reliability-based analysis methods have the potential of being a valuable tool which can improve the state of knowledge by explaining the uncertainties, and form the probabilistic basis for calibration of deterministic design tools. The present thesis focuses on reliability-based design of wind...... turbine blades. The main purpose is to draw a clear picture of how reliability-based design of wind turbines can be done in practice. The objectives of the thesis are to create methodologies for efficient reliability assessment of composite materials and composite wind turbine blades, and to map...... the uncertainties in the processes, materials and external conditions that have an effect on the health of a composite structure. The study considers all stages in a reliability analysis, from defining models of structural components to obtaining the reliability index and calibration of partial safety factors...
Momentum scale in the HARP TPC
Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Meurer, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M
2007-01-01
Recently a claim was made that the reconstruction of the large angle tracks in the HARP TPC was affected by a momentum bias as large as 15% at 500 MeV/c transverse momentum. In the following we recall the main issues with the momentum measurement in the HARP TPC, and describe the cross-checks made to validate the momentum scale. Proton-proton elastic scattering data off the hydrogen target are used to alibrate the momentum of charged particles with a precision evaluated to be 3.5%. A full description of the time development of the dynamic distortions in the TPC during physics spills is now available together with a correction algorithm. This allows a new cross-check using an enlarged data set made by comparing positive and negative pion elasticscattering data collected with negative polarity of the solenoid magnet. These data confirm the absence of a bias in the sagitta measurement. The dE/dx versus momentum curves are revisited, and shown to provide a confirmation that the HARP momentum calibration is correc...
A Take Stock of Turbine Blades Failure Phenomenon
Roy, Abhijit
2018-02-01
Turbine Blade design and engineering is one of the most complicated and important aspects of turbine technology. Experiments with blades can be simple or very complicated, depending upon parameters of analysis. Turbine blades are subjected to vigorous environments, such as high temperatures, high stresses, and a potentially high vibration environment. All these factors can lead to blade failures, which can destroy the turbine, and engine, so careful design is the prime consideration to resist those conditions. A high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stress caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operating range of machinery is common failure mode for turbine machine. Continuous study and investigation on failure of turbine blades are going on since last five decades. Some review papers published during these days aiming to present a review on recent studies and investigations done on failures of turbine blades. All the detailed literature related with the turbine blades has not been described but emphasized to provide all the methodologies of failures adopted by various researches to investigate turbine blade. This paper illustrate on various factors of failure.
Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd
2015-02-28
A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview.
Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F
2017-11-09
A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.
Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard
2017-01-01
A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural...... composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed....
Vibration of circular bladed disk with imperfections
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk
2011-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 10 (2011), s. 2893-2904 ISSN 0218-1274 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : circular bladed disk * vibration * imperfection * nonlinear damping Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijbc/21/2110/S0218127411030210.html
Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2004-03-01
This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.
Noise aspects at aerodynamic blade optimisation projects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schepers, J.G. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)
1997-12-31
This paper shows an example of an aerodynamic blade optimisation, using the program PVOPT. PVOPT calculates the optimal wind turbine blade geometry such that the maximum energy yield is obtained. Using the aerodynamic optimal blade design as a basis, the possibilities of noise reduction are investigated. The aerodynamic optimised geometry from PVOPT is the `real` optimum (up to the latest decimal). The most important conclusion from this study is, that it is worthwhile to investigate the behaviour of the objective function (in the present case the energy yield) around the optimum: If the optimum is flat, there is a possibility to apply modifications to the optimum configuration with only a limited loss in energy yield. It is obvious that the modified configurations emits a different (and possibly lower) noise level. In the BLADOPT program (the successor of PVOPT) it will be possible to quantify the noise level and hence to assess the reduced noise emission more thoroughly. At present the most promising approaches for noise reduction are believed to be a reduction of the rotor speed (if at all possible), and a reduction of the tip angle by means of low lift profiles, or decreased twist at the outboard stations. These modifications were possible without a significant loss in energy yield. (LN)
Hsu, Ting-Yu; Shiao, Shen-Yuan; Liao, Wen-I.
2018-01-01
Wind turbines are a cost-effective alternative energy source; however, their blades are susceptible to damage. Therefore, damage detection of wind turbine blades is of great importance for condition monitoring of wind turbines. Many vibration-based structural damage detection techniques have been proposed in the last two decades. The local flexibility method, which can determine local stiffness variations of beam-like structures by using measured modal parameters, is one of the most promising vibration-based approaches. The local flexibility method does not require a finite element model of the structure. A few structural modal parameters identified from the ambient vibration signals both before and after damage are required for this method. In this study, we propose a damage detection approach for rotating wind turbine blades using the local flexibility method based on the dynamic macro-strain signals measured by long-gauge fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors. A small wind turbine structure was constructed and excited using a shaking table to generate vibration signals. The structure was designed to have natural frequencies as close as possible to those of a typical 1.5 MW wind turbine in real scale. The optical fiber signal of the rotating blades was transmitted to the data acquisition system through a rotary joint fixed inside the hollow shaft of the wind turbine. Reversible damage was simulated by aluminum plates attached to some sections of the wind turbine blades. The damaged locations of the rotating blades were successfully detected using the proposed approach, with the extent of damage somewhat over-estimated. Nevertheless, although the specimen of wind turbine blades cannot represent a real one, the results still manifest that FBG-based macro-strain measurement has potential to be employed to obtain the modal parameters of the rotating wind turbines and then locations of wind turbine segments with a change of rigidity can be estimated effectively by
Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steenholen, G.
1996-01-01
The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru
Investigation and Optimization of Blade Tip Winglets Using an Implicit Free Wake Vortex Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawton, Stephen; Crawford, Curran
2014-01-01
Novel outer-blade geometries such as tip winglets can increase the aerodynamic power that can be extracted from the wind by tailoring the relative position and strengths of trailed vorticity. This design space is explored using both parameter studies and gradient-based optimization, with the aerodynamic analysis carried out using LibAero, a free wake vortex-based code introduced in previous work. The starting design is the NREL 5MW reference turbine, which allows comparison of the aerodynamic simulation for the unmodified blade with other codes. The code uses a Prandtl-Weissinger lifting line model to represent the blade, and vortex filaments as the flow elements. A fast multipole method is implemented to accelerate the influence calculations and reduce the computational cost. This results in higher fidelity aerodynamic simulations that can capture the effects of novel geometries while maintaining sufficiently fast run-times (on the order of an hour) to allow the use of optimization. Gradients of the objective function with respect to design variables are calculated using the complex step method which is accurate and efficient. Since the vortex structure behind the rotor is being resolved in detail, insight is also gained into the mechanisms by which these new blade designs affect performance. It is found that adding winglets can increase the power extracted from the wind by around 2%, with a similar increase in thrust. It is also possible to create a winglet that slightly lowers the thrust while maintaining very similar power compared to the standard straight blade
A study of the blade's material performance made of GFRP for 100kW tidal current turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung Min; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Jong Sung
2009-01-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of material of rotary blade which was designed for a energy system which utilizes a tide, a comparatively stable and predictable energy source. The rotary blade design for Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine was carried out to convert an energy. And, considering seawater corrosion and material weight, Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) was applied as the material of rotary blade. GFRP is a light material comparing with metal materials, while it has a sufficient stiffness, and GFRP has durability against seawater corrosion. However, it is suggested that the performance verification of material, since the material was built based on a polymer. And the performance verification of material was carried out comparing the results from experimental test and the results from finite element analysis using Nastran FX.
Advanced Composite Wind Turbine Blade Design Based on Durability and Damage Tolerance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abumeri, Galib [AlphaSTAR Corporation, Long Beach, CA (United States); Abdi, Frank [AlphaSTAR Corporation, Long Beach, CA (United States)
2012-02-16
The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite
Abrasive wear of ploughshare blades made of Austempered Ductile Iron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Votava
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this article consists in exhaustive monitoring of abrasive wear and subsequent evaluation of nodular cast iron with spheroidal graphite used as the base material for production of ploughshare blades. Nodular cast iron has a lot of convenient properties for production of these components. We have tested this material in field tests. For these tests there were manufactured ploughshare blades (directly according to original. These ploughshare blades were tested in practical conditions of agricultural company Farma Nedvězí Ltd. Three ploughshare blades were used in natural cast state and the others were heat-treated. During the test there were measured decreases of weights of the ploughshare blades and subsequently compared with decreases of original ploughshare blades, produced by company Opall Agri which are ordinarily available at our market.
Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashwill, Thomas D.
2010-02-01
Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. M. -T.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. M.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatie, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.
2014-10-16
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using C-12, Al-27, Fe-56, and Pb-208 targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.
Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1975-01-01
The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions
Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Trichili, A
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission...
Energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.
1988-01-01
We consider the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar quantum electrodynamics. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be obtained from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 λ/sup n/). .AE
Momentum and hamiltonian in complex action theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Frits Bech
2012-01-01
In the complex action theory (CAT) we explicitly examine how the momentum and Hamiltonian are defined from the Feynman path integral (FPI) point of view. In arXiv:1104.3381[quant-ph], introducing a philosophy to keep the analyticity in parameter variables of FPI and defining a modified set...... of complex conjugate, hermitian conjugates and bras, we have extended $| q >$ and $| p >$ to complex $q$ and $p$ so that we can deal with a complex coordinate $q$ and a complex momentum $p$. After reviewing them briefly, we describe in terms of the newly introduced devices the time development of a $\\xi......$-parametrized wave function, which is a solution to an eigenvalue problem of a momentum operator $\\hat{p}$, in FPI with a starting Lagrangian. Solving the eigenvalue problem, we derive the momentum and Hamiltonian. Oppositely, starting from the Hamiltonian we derive the Lagrangian in FPI, and we are led...
Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer
Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul
2002-01-01
This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.
Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Since the pioneering work on the entanglement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light, much attention has been devoted to the subject, with particular attention into the quantum aspects of information processing using OAM. Furthermore...
Toward automated forensic fracture matching of snap-off blade knives
Hollevoet, Davy; De Smet, Patrick; De Bock, Johan; Philips, Wilfried
2008-08-01
An interesting problem that has concerned forensic scientist for many years, is their need for accurate, reliable and objective methods for performing fracture matching examinations. The aim of these fracture matching methods is to determine if two broken object halves can be matched together, e.g., when one half is recovered at a crime scene, while the other half is found in the possession of a suspect. In this paper we discuss the use of a commercial white-light profilometer system for obtaining 2D/3D image surface scans of multiple fractured objects. More specifically, we explain the use of this system for digitizing the fracture surface of multiple facing halves of several snap-off blade knives. Next, we discuss the realization and evaluation of several image processing methods for trying to match the obtained image scans corresponding to each of the broken off blade elements used in our experiments. The algorithms that were tested and evaluated include: global template matching based on image correlation and multiple template matching based on local image correlation, using so-called "vote-map" computation. Although many avenues for further research still remain possible, we show that the second method yields very good results for allowing automated searching and matching of the imaged fracture surfaces for each of the examined blade elements.
Do Momentum Strategies Work?: - Australian Evidence
Michael E. Drew; Madhu Veeraraghavan; Min Ye
2004-01-01
This paper investigates the profitability of momentum investment strategy and the predictive power of trading volume for equities listed in the Australian Stock Exchange. Recent research finds that momentum and trading volume appear to predict subsequent returns in U.S. market and past volume helps to reconcile intermediate-horizon “under reaction” and long-horizon “overreaction” effects. However, bulk of the evidence on this important relationship between past returns and future returns is l...
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Parrinello, C. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Soni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1992-12-31
We consider quenched QCD on a 16{sup 3}{times}40 lattice at {beta}=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); Parrinello, C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1992-01-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3][times]40 lattice at [beta]=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States) Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1993-03-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3] x 40 lattice at [beta] = 6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others. (orig.)
Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals
Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen
2018-01-01
Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.
Rindler fluid with weak momentum relaxation
Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Zhang, Yun-Long
2018-01-01
We realize the weak momentum relaxation in Rindler fluid, which lives on the time-like cutoff surface in an accelerating frame of flat spacetime. The translational invariance is broken by massless scalar fields with weak strength. Both of the Ward identity and the momentum relaxation rate of Rindler fluid are obtained, with higher order correction in terms of the strength of momentum relaxation. The Rindler fluid with momentum relaxation could also be approached through the near horizon limit of cutoff AdS fluid with momentum relaxation, which lives on a finite time-like cutoff surface in Anti-de Sitter(AdS) spacetime, and further could be connected with the holographic conformal fluid living on AdS boundary at infinity. Thus, in the holographic Wilson renormalization group flow of the fluid/gravity correspondence with momentum relaxation, the Rindler fluid can be considered as the Infrared Radiation(IR) fixed point, and the holographic conformal fluid plays the role of the ultraviolet(UV) fixed point.
Design Of Rotor Blade For Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Double Aerofoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology in practice for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double aerofoil elements mainly used in aeroplane wing design....... In this current work two aerofoils are used to design a rotor blade for a vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency on the rotor. Double aerofoil blade design consists of a main aerofoil and a slat aerofoil. The parameters related to position and orientation of the slat aerofoil with respect...... to the main aerofoil defines the high lift. Orientation of slat aerofoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double aerofoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using Star CCM+ v7.04 (CD-adapco, UK...
Tarfaoui, M.; Nachtane, M.; Khadimallah, H.; Saifaoui, D.
2018-04-01
Issues such as energy generation/transmission and greenhouse gas emissions are the two energy problems we face today. In this context, renewable energy sources are a necessary part of the solution essentially winds power, which is one of the most profitable sources of competition with new fossil energy facilities. This paper present the simulation of mechanical behavior and damage of a 48 m composite wind turbine blade under critical wind loads. The finite element analysis was performed by using ABAQUS code to predict the most critical damage behavior and to apprehend and obtain knowledge of the complex structural behavior of wind turbine blades. The approach developed based on the nonlinear FE analysis using mean values for the material properties and the failure criteria of Tsai-Hill to predict failure modes in large structures and to identify the sensitive zones.
Modal characteristics and fatigue strength of compressor blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyung Kook; Lee, Young Shin
2014-01-01
High-cycle fatigue (HCF) has been identified as one of the primary causes of gas turbine engine failure. The modal characteristics and endurance strength of a 5 MW gas turbine engine blade developed by Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd. in HCF fracture were verified through analysis and tests to determine the reliability of the compressor blade. A compressor blade design procedure that considers HCF life was performed in the following order: airfoil and blade profile design, modal analysis, stress distribution test, stress endurance limit test, and fatigue life verification. This study analyzed the Campbell diagram and estimated resonance risk on the basis of the natural frequency analysis and modal test of the compressor blade to guarantee safe and operational reliability. In addition, the maximum stress point of the compressor blade was determined through stress distribution analysis and test. The bonding point of the strain gage was determined by using fatigue test. Stress endurance limit test was performed based on the results of these tests. This research compared and verified the modal characteristics and endurance strengths of the compressor blades to prevent HCF fracture, which is among the major causes of gas turbine engine damage. A fatigue life design procedure of compressor blades was established. The 5 MW class gas turbine compressor blade is well designed in terms of resonance stability and fatigue endurance limit.
Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts
Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.
2004-01-01
The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.
Accelerated rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Shizhong
During operation, the fast-moving blades of wind turbines are exposed to continuous impacts with rain droplets, hail, insects, or solid particles. This can lead to erosion of the blades, whereby the electrical efficiency is compromised and expensive repairs may be required. One possible solution...... to this problem is elastic blade coatings, which are able to absorb the impact energy without crack formation. The purpose of the work presented in this thesis has been to design and construct a laboratory experimentation device, which allows an accelerated and reliable evaluation of existing or novel blade...
Static Structural and Modal Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade
Ranjan Kumar, Ravi; Pandey, K. M., Prof.
2017-08-01
Gas turbine is one of the most versatile items of turbo machinery nowadays. It is used in different modes such as power generation, oil and gas, process plants, aviation, domestic and related small industries. This paper is based on the problems concerning blade profile selection, material selection and turbine rotor blade vibration that seriously impact the induced stress-deformation and structural functioning of developmental gas turbine engine. In this paper for generating specific power by rotating blade at specific RPM, blade profile and material has been decided by static structural analysis. Gas turbine rotating blade RPM is decided by Modal Analysis so that the natural frequency of blade should not match with the excitation frequency. For the above blade profile has been modeled in SOLIDWORKS and analysis has been done in ANSYS WORKBENCH 14. Existing NACA6409 profile has been selected as base model and then it is modified by bending it through 72.5° and 145°. Hence these three different blade profiles have been analyzed for three different materials viz. Super Alloy X, Nimonic 80A and Inconel 625 at three different speed viz. 20000, 40000 and 60000RPM. It is found that NACA6409 with 72.5° bent gives best result for all material at all speed. Among all the material Inconel 625 gives best result. Hence Blade of Inconel 625 having 72.5° bent profile is the best combination for all RPM.
川添, 強; 松尾, 信太郎; 錦戸, 真吾
1994-01-01
The first report showed the difficulty to consider the small material defects and the low fluctuating stress by the hydrodynamic force as the main factors of the propeller blade failure. For the purpose of the elucidation of resonance between vibrations of the propeller shaft and the propeller blade, this paper presents the measurements and calculations of the flexural natural frequency of the full scale propeller blade in .air and in water, the vibratory stress due to the resonance and the l...
The SNL100-03 Blade: Design Studies with Flatback Airfoils for the Sandia 100-meter Blade.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffith, Daniel; Richards, Phillip William
2014-09-01
A series of design studies were performed to inv estigate the effects of flatback airfoils on blade performance and weight for large blades using the Sandi a 100-meter blade designs as a starting point. As part of the study, the effects of varying the blade slenderness on blade structural performance was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of blad e slenderness with respect to tip deflection, flap- wise & edge-wise fatigue resistance, panel buckling capacity, flutter speed, manufacturing labor content, blade total weight, and aerodynamic design load magn itude are quantified. Following these design studies, a final blade design (SNL100-03) was prod uced, which was based on a highly slender design using flatback airfoils. The SNL100-03 design with flatback airfoils has weight of 49 tons, which is about 16% decrease from its SNL100-02 predecessor that used conventional sharp trailing edge airfoils. Although not systematically optimized, the SNL100 -03 design study provides an assessment of and insight into the benefits of flatback airfoils for la rge blades as well as insights into the limits or negative consequences of high blade slenderness resulting from a highly slender SNL100-03 planform as was chosen in the final design definition. This docum ent also provides a description of the final SNL100-03 design definition and is intended to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-03, which are made publicly available. A summary of the major findings of the Sandia 100-meter blade development program, from the initial SNL100-00 baseline blade through the fourth SNL100-03 blade study, is provided. This summary includes the major findings and outcomes of blade d esign studies, pathways to mitigate the identified large blade design drivers, and tool development that were produced over the course of this five-year research program. A summary of large blade tec hnology needs and research opportunities is also presented.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade...
Smart actuation mechanisms for helicopter blades: design case for a mach-scaled model blade
Paternoster, Alexandre
2013-01-01
This work is part of the European project “Clean Sky”, which aims at improving the efficiency and the global transport quality of aircraft. The research, in this project, is currently focussing on active flap systems for helicopters to adapt the blade aerodynamic properties to local aerodynamic
KNOW-BLADE task-3.3 report: Rotor blade computations with 3D vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Reck, M.
2005-01-01
. They are: 1) A non-rotating airfoil section with VGs. 2) A rotating airfoil section with VGs. 3) A non-rotating wind turbine blade with VGs. The airfoil section was the FFA-W3-241 airfoil, which has beenmeasured in the VELUX wind tunnel with and without VGs placed at different chord wise positions. Three......The present report describes the work done in work package WP3.3: Aerodynamic Accessories in 3D in the EC project KNOW-BLADE. Vortex generators (VGs) are modelled in 3D Navier-Stokes solvers and applied on the flow around an airfoil and a wind turbineblade. Three test cases have been investigated...... of the partners have modelled the airfoil section as a thin airfoil section with symmetry boundary conditions in the span wise direction to simulate anarray of VGs. The wind turbine blade is the LM19.1 blade equipped with one pair of VGs placed at radius = 8.5 m. In general all partners have successfully modelled...
Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2010-01-01
formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model....... The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes....
Atmospheric Plasma Blade for Surgical Purposes
Oksuz, Lutfi; Yurdabak Karaca, Gozde; Özkaptan, Emir; Uygun, Emre; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul
2017-10-01
Atmospheric plasma cut is a process at the minimum level due to the ions, radicals and free electrons generated by the active electrode and target tissue. Atmospheric plasma cutting devices provide significant advantages as a non-contact electrocautery system that can operate in isotonic environment. During operations where plasma cutting is applied, bleeding is controlled and the side effects that would create the isotonic environment are eliminated. In this study in vivo and in vitro studies will be carried out by producing and optimizing the atmospheric plasma blade. Once the optimum parameters of the instrument are determined, in vivo studies will be performed and the pathology results will be evaluated.
Active Blade Vibration Control Being Developed and Tested
Johnson, Dexter
2003-01-01
Gas turbine engines are currently being designed to have increased performance, lower weight and manufacturing costs, and higher reliability. Consequently, turbomachinery components, such as turbine and compressor blades, have designs that are susceptible to new vibration problems and eventual in-service failure due to high-cycle fatigue. To address this problem, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing and testing innovative active blade vibration control concepts. Preliminary results of using an active blade vibration control system, involving a rotor supported by an active magnetic bearing in Glenn's Dynamic Spin Rig, indicate promising results (see the photograph). Active blade vibration control was achieved using feedback of blade strain gauge signals within the magnetic bearing control loop. The vibration amplitude was reduced substantially (see the graphs). Also, vibration amplitude amplification was demonstrated; this could be used to enhance structural mode identification, if desired. These results were for a nonrotating two-bladed disk. Tests for rotating blades are planned. Current and future active blade vibration control research is planned to use a fully magnetically suspended rotor and smart materials. For the fully magnetically suspended rotor work, three magnetic bearings (two radial and one axial) will be used as actuators instead of one magnetic bearing. This will allow additional degrees of freedom to be used for control. For the smart materials work, control effectors located on and off the blade will be considered. Piezoelectric materials will be considered for on-the-blade actuation, and actuator placement on a stator vane, or other nearby structure, will be investigated for off-the-blade actuation. Initial work will focus on determining the feasibility of these methods by performing basic analysis and simple experiments involving feedback control.
Blade profile optimization of kaplan turbine using cfd analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janjua, A.B.; Khalil, M.S.
2013-01-01
Utilization of hydro-power as renewable energy source is of prime importance in the world now. Hydropower energy is available in abundant in form of falls, canals rivers, dams etc. It means, there are various types of sites with different parameters like flow rate, heads, etc. Depending upon the sites, water turbines are designed and manufactured to avail hydro-power energy. Low head turbines on runof-river are widely used for the purpose. Low head turbines are classified as reaction turbines. For runof-river, depending upon the variety of site data, low head Kaplan turbines are selected, designed and manufactured. For any given site requirement, it becomes very essential to design the turbine runner blades through optimization of the CAD model of blades profile. This paper presents the optimization technique carried out on a complex geometry of blade profile through static and dynamic computational analysis. It is used through change of the blade profile geometry at five different angles in the 3D (Three Dimensional) CAD model. Blade complex geometry and design have been developed by using the coordinates point system on the blade in PRO-E /CREO software. Five different blade models are developed for analysis purpose. Based on the flow rate and heads, blade profiles are analyzed using ANSYS software to check and compare the output results for optimization of the blades for improved results which show that by changing blade profile angle and its geometry, different blade sizes and geometry can be optimized using the computational techniques with changes in CAD models. (author)
Blade Profile Optimization of Kaplan Turbine Using CFD Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aijaz Bashir Janjua
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Utilization of hydro-power as renewable energy source is of prime importance in the world now. Hydropower energy is available in abundant in form of falls, canals rivers, dams etc. It means, there are various types of sites with different parameters like flow rate, heads, etc. Depending upon the sites, water turbines are designed and manufactured to avail hydro-power energy. Low head turbines on runof-river are widely used for the purpose. Low head turbines are classified as reaction turbines. For runof river, depending upon the variety of site data, low head Kaplan turbines are selected, designed and manufactured. For any given site requirement, it becomes very essential to design the turbine runner blades through optimization of the CAD model of blades profile. This paper presents the optimization technique carried out on a complex geometry of blade profile through static and dynamic computational analysis. It is used through change of the blade profile geometry at five different angles in the 3D (Three Dimensional CAD model. Blade complex geometry and design have been developed by using the coordinates point system on the blade in PRO-E /CREO software. Five different blade models are developed for analysis purpose. Based on the flow rate and heads, blade profiles are analyzed using ANSYS software to check and compare the output results for optimization of the blades for improved results which show that by changing blade profile angle and its geometry, different blade sizes and geometry can be optimized using the computational techniques with changes in CAD models.
Analysis and Tests of Pultruded Blades for Wind Turbine Rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheney, M. C.(PS Enterprises, Glastonbury, Connecticut); Olsen, T.; Quandt, G.; Archidiacono, P.
1999-07-19
PS Enterprises, Inc. investigated a flexible, downwind, free-yaw, five-blade rotor system employing pultruded blades. A rotor was designed, manufactured and tested in the field. A preliminary design study and proof of concept test were conducted to assess the feasibility of using pultruded blades for wind turbine rotors. A 400 kW turbine was selected for the design study and a scaled 80 kW rotor was fabricated and field tested as a demonstration of the concept. The design studies continued to support the premise that pultruded blades offer the potential for significant reductions in rotor weight and cost. The field test provided experimental performance and loads data that compared well with predictions using the FLEXDYNE aeroelastic analysis. The field test also demonstrated stable yaw behavior and the absence of stall flutter over the wind conditions tested. During the final year of the contract, several studies were conducted by a number of independent consultants to address specific technical issues related to pultruded blades that could impact the commercial viability of turbines using this technology. The issues included performance, tower strikes, yaw stability, stall flutter, fatigue, and costs. While the performance of straight pultruded blades was projected to suffer a penalty of about 13% over fully twisted and tapered blades, the study showed that an aerodynamic fairing over the inner 40% could recover 85% of that loss while still keeping the blade cost well below that of conventional blades. Other results of the study showed that with proper design, rotors using pultruded blades could operate without aeroelastic problems, have acceptable fatigue life, and cost less than half that of rotors employing conventionally manufactured blades.
Mass and momentum conservation for fluid simulation
Lentine, Michael
2011-01-01
Momentum conservation has long been used as a design principle for solid simulation (e.g. collisions between rigid bodies, mass-spring elastic and damping forces, etc.), yet it has not been widely used for fluid simulation. In fact, semi-Lagrangian advection does not conserve momentum, but is still regularly used as a bread and butter method for fluid simulation. In this paper, we propose a modification to the semi-Lagrangian method in order to make it fully conserve momentum. While methods of this type have been proposed earlier in the computational physics literature, they are not necessarily appropriate for coarse grids, large time steps or inviscid flows, all of which are common in graphics applications. In addition, we show that the commonly used vorticity confinement turbulence model can be modified to exactly conserve momentum as well. We provide a number of examples that illustrate the benefits of this new approach, both in conserving fluid momentum and passively advected scalars such as smoke density. In particular, we show that our new method is amenable to efficient smoke simulation with one time step per frame, whereas the traditional non-conservative semi-Lagrangian method experiences serious artifacts when run with these large time steps, especially when object interaction is considered. Copyright © 2011 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.
The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, Yuntao [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); He, Song [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ, 08540 (United States); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2015-02-10
We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the “momentum-twistor diagrams”. These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized “boundary measurement” directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.
Matrix elements from moments of correlation functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chia Cheng [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bouchard, Chris [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Richards, David G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-10-01
Momentum-space derivatives of matrix elements can be related to their coordinate-space moments through the Fourier transform. We derive these expressions as a function of momentum transfer Q2 for asymptotic in/out states consisting of a single hadron. We calculate corrections to the finite volume moments by studying the spatial dependence of the lattice correlation functions. This method permits the computation of not only the values of matrix elements at momenta accessible on the lattice, but also the momentum-space derivatives, providing {\\it a priori} information about the Q2 dependence of form factors. As a specific application we use the method, at a single lattice spacing and with unphysically heavy quarks, to directly obtain the slope of the isovector form factor at various Q2, whence the isovector charge radius. The method has potential application in the calculation of any hadronic matrix element with momentum transfer, including those relevant to hadronic weak decays.
Momentum densities and Compton profiles of alkali-metal atoms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 60; Issue 3 ... Quantum defect theory; wave functions of alkali-metal atoms; momentum properties. ... to study the momentum properties of atoms from 3Li to 37Rb. The numerical results obtained for the momentum density, moments of momentum density and Compton ...
Loizou, Nicolas
2017-12-27
In this paper we study several classes of stochastic optimization algorithms enriched with heavy ball momentum. Among the methods studied are: stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton, stochastic proximal point and stochastic dual subspace ascent. This is the first time momentum variants of several of these methods are studied. We choose to perform our analysis in a setting in which all of the above methods are equivalent. We prove global nonassymptotic linear convergence rates for all methods and various measures of success, including primal function values, primal iterates (in L2 sense), and dual function values. We also show that the primal iterates converge at an accelerated linear rate in the L1 sense. This is the first time a linear rate is shown for the stochastic heavy ball method (i.e., stochastic gradient descent method with momentum). Under somewhat weaker conditions, we establish a sublinear convergence rate for Cesaro averages of primal iterates. Moreover, we propose a novel concept, which we call stochastic momentum, aimed at decreasing the cost of performing the momentum step. We prove linear convergence of several stochastic methods with stochastic momentum, and show that in some sparse data regimes and for sufficiently small momentum parameters, these methods enjoy better overall complexity than methods with deterministic momentum. Finally, we perform extensive numerical testing on artificial and real datasets, including data coming from average consensus problems.
Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Vibrating Turbine Blade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osama N. Alshroof
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI modelling of a vibrating turbine blade using the commercial software ANSYS-12.1. The study has two major aims: (i discussion of the current state of the art of modelling FSI in gas turbine engines and (ii development of a “tuned” one-way FSI model of a vibrating turbine blade to investigate the correlation between the pressure at the turbine casing surface and the vibrating blade motion. Firstly, the feasibility of the complete FSI coupled two-way, three-dimensional modelling of a turbine blade undergoing vibration using current commercial software is discussed. Various modelling simplifications, which reduce the full coupling between the fluid and structural domains, are then presented. The one-way FSI model of the vibrating turbine blade is introduced, which has the computational efficiency of a moving boundary CFD model. This one-way FSI model includes the corrected motion of the vibrating turbine blade under given engine flow conditions. This one-way FSI model is used to interrogate the pressure around a vibrating gas turbine blade. The results obtained show that the pressure distribution at the casing surface does not differ significantly, in its general form, from the pressure at the vibrating rotor blade tip.
Analysis of rotating flexible blades using MSC/NASTRAN
Ernst, Michael A.
1988-01-01
An overview is given of the use of MSC/NASTRAN in the analysis of rotating flexible blades. The geometrically nonlinear analysis using NASTRAN Solution Sequence 64 is discussed along with the determination of frequencies and mode shapes using Solution Sequence 63. Items unique to rotating blade analysis, such as setting angle, centrifugal softening effects, and hub flexibility, are emphasized.
Bacterial contamination of re-usable laryngoscope blades during the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We aimed to assess the level of microbial contamination of re-usable laryngoscope blades at a public hospital in South Africa. Setting. The theatre complex of a secondary-level public hospital in Johannesburg. Methods. Blades from two different theatres were sampled twice daily, using a standardised technique, over a ...
Damage detection in wind turbine blades using acoustic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juengert, A.
2013-01-01
Facing climate change, the use of renewable energy gains importance. The wind energy sector grows very fast. Bigger and more powerful wind turbines will be built in the coming decades and the safety and reliability of the turbines will become more important. Wind turbine blades have to be inspected at regular intervals, because they are highly stressed during operation and a blade breakdown can cause big economic damages. The turbine blades consist of fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP/CFRP) and sandwich areas containing wood or plastic foam. The blades are manufactured as two halves and glued together afterwards. Typical damages are delaminations within the GFRP or the sandwich and missing adhesive or deficient bond at the bonding surfaces. The regular inspections of wind turbine blades are performed manually by experts and are limited to visual appraisals and simple tapping tests. To improve the inspections of wind turbine blades non-destructive testing techniques using acoustic waves are being developed. To detect delaminations within the laminates of the turbine blade, a local resonance spectroscopy was used. To detect missing bond areas from the outside of the blade the impulse-echo-technique was applied. This paper is an updated reprint of an article published on ndt.net in 2008. (author)
IEC-TC88WG8 testing of rotor blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delft, D.R.V. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, STEVIN Lab., Delft (Netherlands)
1996-09-01
In 1994 the TC88 of IEC installed a working group (WG8) to draft a guideline on blade testing. This paper gives a description of the task of the working group. Furthermore it gives a report of the progress of the work and summarizes the possible contents of the working group document on blade testing. (au)
Condensation phenomena in a turbine blade passage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skillings, S.A.
1989-02-01
The mechanisms associated with the formation and growth of water droplets in the large low-pressure (LP) turbines used for electrical power generation are poorly understood and recent measurements have indicated that an unusually high loss is associated with the initial nucleation of these droplets. In order to gain an insight into the phenomena which arise in the turbine situation, some experiments were performed to investigate the behaviour of condensing steam flows in a blade passage. This study has revealed the fundamental significance of droplet nucleation in modifying the single-phase flow structure and results are presented which show the change in shock wave pattern when inlet superheat and outlet Mach number are varied. The trailing-edge shock wave structure appears considerably more robust towards variation of inlet superheat than purely one-dimensional considerations may suggest and the inadequacies of adopting a one-dimensional theory to analyse multi-dimensional condensing flows are demonstrated. Over a certain range of outlet Mach numbers an oscillating shock wave will establish in the throat region of the blade passage and this has been shown to interact strongly with droplet nucleation, resulting in a considerably increased mean droplet size. The possible implications of these results for turbine performance are also discussed. (author)
Dislocation movement and hysteresis in Maraging blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Cintio, Arianna; Ascione, Maria; De Salvo, Riccardo [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, 1200 E.California Blvd., Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Marchesoni, Fabio [INFN-VIRGO Project Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Bhawal, Abhik, E-mail: desalvo@ligo.caltech.ed [Arcadia High School, Arcadia, CA (United States)
2009-10-21
All seismic isolation systems developed for gravitational-wave interferometric detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and TAMA, make use of Maraging steel blades. The dissipation properties of these blades have been studied at low frequencies, by using a geometric anti-spring (GAS) filter, which allowed the exploration of resonant frequencies below 100 mHz. At this frequency an anomalous transfer function was observed in the GAS filter: this is one of several motivations for this work. The many unexpected effects observed and measured are explainable by the collective movement of dislocations inside the material described with the statistic of self-organised criticality. At low frequencies, below 200 mHz, the dissipation mechanism can subtract elasticity from the system even leading to sudden collapse. While Young's modulus is weaker, excess dissipation is observed. At higher frequencies the applied stress is probably too fast to allow the full growth of dislocation avalanches, and less losses are observed, thus explaining the higher Q-factor in this frequency range. The domino effect that leads to the release of entangled dislocations allows the understanding of the random walk of the Virgo and TAMA inverted pendula, the anomalous GAS filter transfer function as well as the loss of predictability of the ring-down decay in the LIGO seismic attenuation system inverted pendula.
Abhishek, Abhishek
This study predicts, analyzes, and isolates the mechanisms of main rotor airloads, structural loads, and swashplate servo loads in a severe unsteady maneuver. The objective is, to develop a comprehensive transient rotor analysis for predicting maneuver loads. The main rotor structural loads encountered during unsteady maneuvers are important to size different critical components of the rotor system, particularly for advanced combat helicopters. These include the blade structural loads, control/pitch-link loads, and swashplate servo loads. Accurate and consistent prediction of maneuver loads is necessary to reduce the risks and costs associated with use of prior flight test data as a basis for design. The mechanism of rotor loads in different level flight regimes is well understood -- transonic shock in high speed flight, inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk at low speed transonic flight, and two dynamic stall cycles on retreating blade during high altitude dynamic stall flight. All these physical phenomena can occur simultaneously during a maneuver. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved in maneuver and model them accurately. To achieve this, the aerodynamics and structural dynamics of UH-60A rotor in unsteady maneuvering flight is studied separately. For identification of prediction deficiencies in each, first, the measured lift, drag, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program for UTTAS pull-up maneuver (C11029: 2.16g pull-up maneuver) are used to obtain an accurate set of deformations. A multibody finite element blade model, developed for this purpose, is used to perform measured airloads analysis. Next, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict the airloads using lifting-line and RANS CFD aerodynamic models. Both lifting-line as well as CFD analyses predict all three stall cycles with prescribed deformations. From the airloads predicted using prescribed deformations, it is established that
Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing
Tweedt, Daniel L.
2012-01-01
Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan
Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2009-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the transverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure
Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions
Bonvini, Marco; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2009-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the trasverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure.
The price momentum of stock in distribution
Liu, Haijun; Wang, Longfei
2018-02-01
In this paper, a new momentum of stock in distribution is proposed and applied in real investment. Firstly, assuming that a stock behaves as a multi-particle system, its share-exchange distribution and cost distribution are introduced. Secondly, an estimation of the share-exchange distribution is given with daily transaction data by 3 σ rule from the normal distribution. Meanwhile, an iterative method is given to estimate the cost distribution. Based on the cost distribution, a new momentum is proposed for stock system. Thirdly, an empirical test is given to compare the new momentum with others by contrarian strategy. The result shows that the new one outperforms others in many places. Furthermore, entropy of stock is introduced according to its cost distribution.
Superscaling and nucleon momentum distributions in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, A.
2005-01-01
The scaling functions f(ψ ' ) and F(y) from the ψ ' - and y-scaling analyses of inclusive electron scattering from nuclei are constructed within the Coherent Density Fluctuation Model (CDFM) using its two equivalent formulations based on either the local density or the nucleon momentum distribution (NMD). The approach is a natural extension of the relativistic Fermi-gas model to finite realistic nuclear systems. The calculations show that the high-momentum components of NMD in the CDFM and their similarity for different nuclei lead to quantitative description of the super-scaling phenomenon and to a good agreement with the experimental data for y ' ' ' - and y-scaling are informative for NMDs at momenta not larger than 2.0-2.5 fm -1 . The work shows the role of both basic quantities, the momentum and density distributions, for the explanation of super-scaling in inclusive electron scattering from nuclei
Accelerated fatigue testing of LM 19.1 blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Ole Jesper Dahl; Jørgensen, E.
2003-01-01
material. In addition to the thermal imaging surveillance the blades were instrumented with strain gauges. This report presents the temperature duringtest, calibration test results, moment range measurements, strain statistics, thermal imaging registrations and a determination of the size and cause......A series of 19.1 metre wind turbine blades manufactured by LM Glasfiber A/S of Lunderskov, Denmark were subjected to a series of flapwise fatigue tests. The object of these fatigue tests is to evaluate the impact of an increased load on the blade in afatigue test and to give information...... if it is possible to increase the load in fatigue test to shorten test time. The tests were carried out as a part of a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. During the fatigue tests the blades have beensurveyed with thermal imaging equipment to determine how an increase in fatigue load affects the blade...
Blade Bearing Friction Estimation of Operating Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2012-01-01
Blade root bearing on a wind turbine (WTG) enables pitching of blades for power control and rotor braking and is a WTG critical component. As the size of modern WTGs is constantly increasing, this leads to relatively less rigid bearings, more sensitive to deformations, thus WTG operational...... reliability can be increased by continuous monitoring of blade bearing. High blade bearing friction is undesirable, as it may be associated with excessive heating of the surfaces, damage and/or inefficient operation. Thus, continuous observation of bearing friction level is crucial for blade bearing health...... monitoring systems. A novel algorithm for online monitoring of bearing friction level is developed combining physical knowledge about pitch system dynamics with state estimator, i.e. observer theory and signal processing assuming realistic sensor availability. Results show estimation of bearing friction...
Wind turbine blade testing system using base excitation
Cotrell, Jason; Thresher, Robert; Lambert, Scott; Hughes, Scott; Johnson, Jay
2014-03-25
An apparatus (500) for fatigue testing elongate test articles (404) including wind turbine blades through forced or resonant excitation of the base (406) of the test articles (404). The apparatus (500) includes a testing platform or foundation (402). A blade support (410) is provided for retaining or supporting a base (406) of an elongate test article (404), and the blade support (410) is pivotally mounted on the testing platform (402) with at least two degrees of freedom of motion relative to the testing platform (402). An excitation input assembly (540) is interconnected with the blade support (410) and includes first and second actuators (444, 446, 541) that act to concurrently apply forces or loads to the blade support (410). The actuator forces are cyclically applied in first and second transverse directions. The test article (404) responds to shaking of its base (406) by oscillating in two, transverse directions (505, 507).
Manufacturing a 9-Meter Thermoplastic Composite Wind Turbine Blade: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murray, Robynne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Snowberg, David R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Derek S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beach, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rooney, Samantha A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swan, Dana [Arkema Inc.
2017-12-06
Currently, wind turbine blades are manufactured from a combination of glass and/or carbon fiber composite materials with a thermoset resin such as epoxy, which requires energy-intensive and expensive heating processes to cure. Newly developed in-situ polymerizing thermoplastic resin systems for composite wind turbine blades polymerize at room temperature, eliminating the heating process and significantly reducing the blade manufacturing cycle time and embodied energy, which in turn reduces costs. Thermoplastic materials can also be thermally welded, eliminating the need for adhesive bonds between blade components and increasing the overall strength and reliability of the blades. As well, thermoplastic materials enable end-of-life blade recycling by reheating and decomposing the materials, which is a limitation of existing blade technology. This paper presents a manufacturing demonstration for a 9-m-long thermoplastic composite wind turbine blade. This blade was constructed in the Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. Johns Manville fiberglass and an Arkema thermoplastic resin called Elium were used. Additional materials included Armacell-recycled polyethylene terephthalate foam from Creative Foam and low-cost carbon- fiber pultruded spar caps (manufactured in collaboration with NREL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Huntsman, Strongwell, and Chomarat). This paper highlights the development of the thermoplastic resin formulations, including an additive designed to control the peak exothermic temperatures. Infusion and cure times of less than 3 hours are also demonstrated, highlighting the efficiency and energy savings associated with manufacturing thermoplastic composite blades.
Results on large transverse momentum phenomena
Büsser, F W; Blumenfeld, B; Camilleri, L L; Cool, R L; Di Lella, L; Gladding, G; Lederman, Leon Max; Litt, L; Placci, A; Pope, B G; Segler, S L; Smith, A M; Yoh, J K; Zavattini, E
1973-01-01
Preliminary results of an experiment on large transverse momentum phenomena performed at the CERN-ISR at centre-of-mass energies of 52.7 and 44.8 GeV are presented. The topics studied were the inclusive reaction p+p to pi /sup 0/+'anything', where the pi /sup 0/ was emitted around 90 degrees in the centre- of-mass system, ( pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/) correlations, and the charged multiplicity associated with large transverse momentum pi /sup 0/'s. In addition, results of a search for electrons and electron pairs are included. (4 refs).
Low cycle fatigue analysis of a last stage steam turbine blade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Měšťánek P.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the low cycle fatigue analysis of the low pressure (LP steam turbine blade. The blade is cyclically loaded by the centrifugal force because of the repeated startups of the turbine. The goal of the research is to develop a technique to assess fatigue life of the blade and to determine the number of startups to the crack initiation. Two approaches were employed. First approach is based on the elastic finite element analysis. Fictive 'elastic' results are recalculated using Neuber's rule and the equivalent energy method. Triaxial state of stress is reduced using von Mises theory. Strain amplitude is calculated employing the cyclic deformation curve. Second approach is based on elastic-plastic FE analysis. Strain amplitude is determined directly from the FE analysis by reducing the triaxial state of strain. Fatigue life was assessed using uniaxial damage parameters. Both approaches are compared and their applicability is discussed. Factors that can influence the fatigue life are introduced. Experimental low cycle fatigue testing is shortly described.
Experimental investigation of control absorber blade effects in a modern 10x10 BWR assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Murphy, M.; Luethi, A.; Seiler, R.; Joneja, O.; Meister, A.; Geemert, R. van; Brogli, R.; Chawla, R.; Williams, T.; Helmersson, S.
2001-01-01
The accurate estimation of reactor physics parameters related to the presence of cruciform absorber blades. In Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) is important for safety assessment, and for achieving a flexible operation during the cycle. Characteristics which are affected strongly include the power distribution for controlled core regions and its impact on linear heat generation rate margins, as well as the build-up of plutonium, and its influence on core excess reactivity and the reactivity worth of the shutdown system. PSI and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (UAK) are conducting an experimental reactor physics programme related to modern Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies, as employed in the Swiss nuclear power plants: the so-called. LWR-PROTEUS Phase I project. A significant part of this project has been devoted to the characterization of highly heterogeneous BWR fuel elements in the presence of absorber blades. The paper presents typical results for the performance of modern lattice codes in the estimation of controlled assembly reaction rate distributions, the sensitivity to the geometrical and material characterization, and a preliminary comparison of reflected-test-zone calculations with experimental reaction rate distributions measured in a Westinghouse SVEA-96+ assembly under full-density water moderation conditions in the presence of Westinghouse boron-carbide absorber blades. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiara Gastaldi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on flexible friction dampers (or “strips” mounted on the underside of adjacent turbine blade platforms for sealing and damping purposes. A key parameter to ensure a robust and trustworthy design is the correct prediction of the maximum frequency shift induced by the strip damper coupling adjacent blades. While this topic has been extensively addressed on rigid friction dampers, both experimentally and numerically, no such investigation is available as far as flexible dampers are concerned. This paper builds on the authors’ prior experience with rigid dampers to investigate the peculiarities and challenges of a robust dynamic model of blade-strips systems. The starting point is a numerical tool implementing state-of-the-art techniques for the efficient solution of the nonlinear equations, e.g., multi-harmonic balance method with coupled static solution and state-of-the-art contact elements. The full step-by-step modelling process is here retraced and upgraded to take into account the damper flexibility: for each step, key modelling choices (e.g., mesh size, master nodes selection, contact parameters which may affect the predicted response are addressed. The outcome is a series of guidelines which will help the designer assign numerical predictions the proper level of trust and outline a much-needed experimental campaign.
Study of damage and repair of blades of a 300 kW wind turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marin, J.C.; Barroso, A.; Paris, F.; Canas, J. [School of Engineering, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain)
2008-07-15
The inspection of damages detected in some blades of 300 kW wind turbines revealed that the nature of these damages was probably due to a fatigue mechanism. The causes that had originated the failure (superficial cracks, geometric concentrator, abrupt change of thickness) have been studied, verifying, by means of the simplified evaluation procedure of fatigue life of the ''Germanischer Lloyd'' (GL) standard, that these causes can explain the failure detected in the period of time in which it happened. A suitable configuration for the repair of the damaged blades has been studied, by means of a finite element model. The proposed modifications repair the cracks and in addition contribute to relaxing the stress state in the affected zone. The introduction of a triangular reinforcement, which smoothes the re-entrant corner existing in the original design, incorporating a laminate of reinforcement, produces a significant decrease in the stress level in the damaged zone of the blades. (author)
Definition of a 5MW/61.5m wind turbine blade reference model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Resor, Brian Ray
2013-04-01
A basic structural concept of the blade design that is associated with the frequently utilized %E2%80%9CNREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine%E2%80%9D is needed for studies involving blade structural design and blade structural design tools. The blade structural design documented in this report represents a concept that meets basic design criteria set forth by IEC standards for the onshore turbine. The design documented in this report is not a fully vetted blade design which is ready for manufacture. The intent of the structural concept described by this report is to provide a good starting point for more detailed and targeted investigations such as blade design optimization, blade design tool verification, blade materials and structures investigations, and blade design standards evaluation. This report documents the information used to create the current model as well as the analyses used to verify that the blade structural performance meets reasonable blade design criteria.
Solving few-body scattering problems in the momentum lattice basis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pomerantsev V.N.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The brief description of a new approach based on the Wave-Packet Continuum Discretization method recently developed by the present authors towards solving few-body quantum scattering problems is given. The formalism uses the complete continuum discretization scheme in terms of the momentum stationary wave-packet basis, which leads to formulation of the scattering problem on a lattice in the momentum space. The solution of the few-body scattering problem can be found in the approach from linear matrix equations with non-singular matrix elements, averaged on energy over lattice cells.
Locking of intrinsic angular momentum in collision complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berengolts, Alexander.
1995-04-01
A concept of locking of the intrinsic angular momentum of a fragment of a collision complex to a body-fixed axis is widely used in the description of heavy-particle dynamics. The aim of this work is to provide a semiclassical description of the locking phenomenon which occur in diatomic and three atomic collision complexes. The first part of this work is devoted to the semiclassical study of the locking of the electronic angular momentum that occurs in slow collisions of two atoms, one in the spherically symmetric state and the other in state with j= 1. Here we calculate explicitly the complete locking matrix for different types of interatomic interactions. The elements of this matrix directly enter into the semiclassical expression for the different cross sections of polarized atoms. Limitations to the notion of the the locking radius and slipping probability are discussed in connection with the steepness of the interaction. Numerical calculations confirm analytical result: the optimal criterion for determination of the locking radius is a condition for the accumulated phase difference between two molecular states. Analytical expressions are suggested for the locking angle and the slipping probability. Implication of the locking approximation for calculation of the quasiclassical scattering matrix is discussed. The second part considers the locking of the rotational angular momentum of a diatom in the decomposition of a triatomic complexes. We discuss here cases J = 1,2,3 and 4, but restrict ourselves to calculation of the so-called dynamic orientation of the diatomic fragment. The letter represents one of the characteristics of the locking matrix which in principle can be measured experimentally. The orientation is created as a result of the interplay between the adiabatic interaction in the atom- diatom exit channel and the rotationally non adiabatic coupling in the perturbed rotor region
Selection of High Performance Alloy for Gas Turbine Blade Using Multiphysics Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Khawaja
2016-09-01
Full Text Available With the extensive increase in the utilization of energy resources in the modern era, the need of energy extraction from various resources has pronounced in recent years. Thus comprehensive efforts have been made around the globe in the technological development of turbo machines where means of energy extraction is energized fluids. This development led the aviation industry to power boost due to better performing engines. Meanwhile, the structural conformability requirements relative to the functional requirements have also increased with the advent of newer, better performing materials. Thus there is a need to study the material behavior and its usage with the idea of selecting the best possible material for its application. In this work a gas turbine blade of a small turbofan engine, where geometry and aerodynamic data was available, was analyzed for its structural behavior in the proposed mission envelope, where the engine turbine is subjected to high thermal, inertial and aerodynamic loads. Multiphysics Finite Element (FE linear stress analysis was carried out on the turbine blade. The results revealed the upper limit of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS for the blade. Based on the limiting factor, high performance alloys were selected from the literature. The two most recommended alloy categories for gas turbine blades are NIMONIC and INCONEL from where total of 21 types of INCONEL alloys and 12 of NIMONIC alloys, available on commercial bases, were analyzed individually to meet the structural requirements. After applying selection criteria, four alloys were finalized from NIMONIC and INCONEL alloys for further analysis. On the basis of stress-strain behavior of finalized alloys, the Multiphysics FE nonlinear stress analysis was then carried out for the selection of the individual alloy by imposing a restriction of Ultimate Factor of Safety (UFOS of 1.33 and yield strength. Final selection is made keeping in view other factors
Aerodynamic optimization of the blades of diffuser-augmented wind turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaz, Jerson R.P.; Wood, David H.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An optimization procedure to design shrouded wind turbine blades is proposed. • The procedure relies on the diffuser speed-up ratio. • The diffuser speed-up ratio increases the velocity at the rotor plane. • Chord and twist angle are optimized for typical speed-up ratios. • The procedure is applicable for any tip-speed ratio greater than 1. - Abstract: Adding an exit diffuser is known to allow wind turbines to exceed the classical Betz–Joukowsky limit for a bare turbine. It is not clear, however, if there is a limit for diffuser-augmented turbines or whether the structural and other costs of the diffuser outweigh any gain in power. This work presents a new approach to the aerodynamic optimization of a wind turbine with a diffuser. It is based on an extension of the well-known Blade Element Theory and a simple model for diffuser efficiency. It is assumed that the same conditions for the axial velocity in the wake of an ordinary wind turbine can be applied on the flow far downwind of the diffuser outlet. An algorithm to optimize the blade chord and twist angle distributions in the presence of a diffuser was developed and implemented. As a result, an aerodynamic improvement of the turbine rotor geometry was achieved with the blade shape sensitive to the diffuser speed-up ratio. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, a comparison with the classical Glauert optimization was performed for a flanged diffuser, which increased the efficiency. In addition, a comparative assessment was made with experimental results available in the literature, suggesting better performance for the rotor designed with the proposed optimization procedure.
Mechanisms and actuators for rotorcraft blade morphing
Vocke, Robert D., III
The idea of improved fight performance through changes in the control surfaces dates back to the advent of aviation with the Wright brothers' pioneering work on "wing warping," but it was not until the recent progress in material and actuator development that such control surfaces seemed practical for modern aircraft. This has opened the door to a new class of aircraft that have the ability to change shape or morph, which are being investigated due to the potential to have a single platform serve multiple mission objectives, as well as improve performance characteristics. While the majority of existing research for morphing aircraft has focused on fixedwing aircraft, rotary-wing aircraft have begun to receive more attention. The purpose of this body of work is to investigate the current state of morphing actuation technology for rotorcraft and improve upon it. Specifically, this work looks at two types of morphing: Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuated trailing edge flaps and conformal variable diameter morphing. First, active camber changes through the use of PAM powered trailing edge flaps were investigated due to the potential for reductions in power requirements and vibration/noise levels. A PAM based antagonistic actuation system was developed utilizing a novel combination of mechanism geometry and PAM bias contraction optimization to overcome the natural extension stiffening characteristics of PAMs. In open-loop bench-top testing against a "worst-case" constant torsional loading, the system demonstrated actuation authority suitable for both primary control and vibration/noise reduction. Additionally, closed-loop test data indicated that the system was capable of tracking complex waveforms consistent with those needed for rotorcraft control. This system demonstrated performance on-par with the state of the art pneumatic trailing edge flap actuators, yet with a much smaller footprint and impact on the rotor-blade. The second morphing system developed in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoggard, Christian Steven
2017-01-01
to assess the degree of variance between both blade strategies. Analyses demonstrate considerable difference in both the distribution of edge angles produced, and the mean edge angle values observed. Through the analytical framework it can be demonstrated that both blade production methods would have...... manufacturing techniques. Using an experimental dataset, this article investigates differences in the function of both strategies through a consideration of their edge angle, an important functional attribute of lithic artefacts. A null hypothesis of ‘no difference’ was examined through a statistical framework...... provided distinct differences for past hominin populations, with respect to their microfracturing properties and attrition rate. However, when reviewed against other edge angle analyses, against a functional backdrop, their edge angle in isolation cannot explain their appearance and subsequent use. Further...
Finite Element Based Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics Model for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McWilliam, Michael K; Crawford, Curran
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel aerodynamic model based on Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics (LVD) formulated using a Finite Element (FE) approach. The advantage of LVD is improved fidelity over Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) while being faster than Numerical Navier-Stokes Models (NNSM) in either primitive or velocity-vorticity formulations. The model improves on conventional LVD in three ways. First, the model is based on an error minimization formulation that can be solved with fast root finding algorithms. In addition to improving accuracy, this eliminates the intrinsic numerical instability of conventional relaxed wake simulations. The method has further advantages in optimization and aero-elastic simulations for two reasons. The root finding algorithm can solve the aerodynamic and structural equations simultaneously, avoiding Gauss-Seidel iteration for compatibility constraints. The second is that the formulation allows for an analytical definition for sensitivity calculations. The second improvement comes from a new discretization scheme based on an FE formulation and numerical quadrature that decouples the spatial, influencing and temporal meshes. The shape for each trailing filament uses basis functions (interpolating splines) that allow for both local polynomial order and element size refinement. A completely independent scheme distributes the influencing (vorticity) elements along the basis functions. This allows for concentrated elements in the near wake for accuracy and progressively less in the far-wake for efficiency. Finally the third improvement is the use of a far-wake model based on semi-infinite vortex cylinders where the radius and strength are related to the wake state. The error-based FE formulation allows the transition to the far wake to occur across a fixed plane
Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.
2015-01-01
This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...
Angular and linear momentum of excited ferromagnets
Yan, P.; Kamra, A.; Cao, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2013-01-01
The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist
Orbital momentum and topological phase transformation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Středa, Pavel; Kučera, Jan
2015-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 23 (2015), "235152-1"-"235152-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : orbital momentum * anomalous Hall effect * topological phase transformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Residual Momentum and Reversal Strategies Revisited
J.J. Huij (Joop); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)
2017-01-01
textabstractIn this note we revisit the 2011 and 2013 papers of Blitz, Huij, and Martens (BHM2011), and Blitz, Huij, Lansdorp, and Verbeek (BHLV2013) in which momentum and reversal strategies on residual returns are proposed. Our results indicate that the main findings of these studies, that
Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de- excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly ...
Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical ...
Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the quadrupole deformation is studied in the middle of the sd-shell for 28Si and 27Si isotopes using the spherical shell model approach. The shell model calculations have been performed using the standard universal sd-shell (USD) interaction and the canonical ...
Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
These transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions are of significance for the analysis of azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized hadrons. In this context we also ...
Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront
Boer, Daniel
In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p (T) broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large
Angular momentum gated neutron evaporation studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Mukherjee, G.; Gohil, M.; Meena, J.K.; Pandey, R.; Pai, H.; Dey, A.; Biswas, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, D.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bandhopadhyay, T.
2010-01-01
The inverse level density parameter k (k = A/a, where A is the mass number of the compound nucleus)is investigated as a function of angular momentum by measuring γ-ray fold gated neutron evaporation spectrum in 4 He + 115 In fusion reaction using 35 MeV 4 He ion beam from VECC K130 cyclotron
Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an exponential form. The modelling results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data at high energies.
Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(SSAs) in hard scattering processes when transverse momentum scales are on the order of quarks in hadrons, ... are of particular interest as they emerge from the colour gauge invariant definition of the quark-gluon-quark ..... For n ≥ 3, there are enough powers of l+ to eliminate this divergence. f(p2) is a covariant Gaussian ...
Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Schulze, C
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A 91, 043821 (2015) Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes Christian Schulze, Filippus S. Roux, Angela Dudley, Ronald Rop, Michael Duparr´e, and Andrew Forbes Abstract: We introduce a class of light field that angularly...
The high momentum spectrometer drift chambers
Abbott, D.; Baker, O. K.; Beaufait, J.; Bennett, C.; Bryant, E.; Carlini, R.; Kross, B.; McCauley, A.; Naing, W.; Shin, T.; Vulcan, W.
1992-12-01
The High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C will use planar drift chambers for charged particle track reconstruction. The chambers are constructed using well understood technology and a conventional gas mixture. Two (plus one spare) drift chambers will be constructed for this spectrometers. Each chamber will contain 6 planes of readout channels. This paper describes the chamber design and gas handling system used.
Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Wozniak, G.J.
1989-03-01
The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs
Experimental determination of high angular momentum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barreto, J.L.V.
1985-01-01
The current knowledge of the atomic nucleus structure is summarized. A short abstract of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum and a more detailed description of the experimental methods used in the study of high angular momenta is made. (L.C.) [pt
Momentum transfer in a Brillouin surface scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khater, A.F.
1980-01-01
The theory of acoustic excitation scattering in the surface of Brilloiun of opaque materials, is related to the question of momentum transfexed from radiation fields to the material when the incident eight is scattered in a measurable spectrum. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
High Momentum Probes of Nuclear Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fries, R.
2009-07-24
We discuss how the chemical composition of QCD jets is altered by final state interactions in surrounding nuclear matter. We describe this process through conversions of leading jet particles. We find that conversions lead to an enhancement of kaons at high transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, while their azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} is suppressed.
Angular momentum and the electromagnetic top
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-07-06
Jul 6, 2016 ... standard expression of the force on m, in order to con- serve the linear mechanical momentum of an isolated system. This problem of classical electrodynamics has particular relevance in quantum mechanics in the con- text of the nonlocality of Aharonov–Bohm [6] effects. Specifically, key to understanding ...
Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Heavy-ion reactions; incomplete fusion; isomeric cross-section ratio; 12C, 16O beams; 93Nb; 89Y targets; angular momentum. ... R Tripathi1 A Goswami1. Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India; School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, India ...
Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the quadrupole deformation is studied in the middle of the sd-shell for 28Si and 27Si isotopes using the spherical shell model ... Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, India; Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110 067, India ...
Anomalous momentum transport from drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, R.R.; Staebler, G.M.
1993-01-01
A sheared slab magnetic field model B = B 0 [z + (x/L s )y], with inhomogeneous flows in the y and z directions, is used to perform a fully-kinetic stability analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and dissipative trapped electron (DTE) modes. The concomitant quasilinear stress components that couple to the local perpendicular (y-component) and parallel (z-component) momentum transport are also calculated and the anomalous perpendicular and parallel viscous stresses obtained. A breakdown of the ITG-induced perpendicular viscous stress is generally observed at moderate values of the sheared perpendicular flow. The ITG-induced parallel viscous stress is generally larger and strongly dependent on the sheared flows. The DTE-induced perpendicular viscous stress may sometimes be negative, tending to cancel the ITG contributions while the DTE-induced parallel viscous stress is generally small. The effect of the perpendicular stress component in the momentum balance equations is generally small while the parallel stress component can dominate the usual neoclassical viscous stress terms. The dominant contribution to parallel viscous stress by the ITG mode suggests that bulk plasma toroidal momentum confinement, like energy confinement, is governed by an anomalous ion loss mechanism. Furthermore, the large anomalous effect suggests that the neoclassical explanation of poloidal flows in tokamaks may be incorrect. The present results are in general agreement with existing experimental observations on momentum transport in tokamaks
Effective realistic interactions for low momentum Hilbert spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, Dennis
2012-01-01
Realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials are an essential ingredient of modern microscopic many-body calculations. These potentials can be represented in two different ways: operator representation or matrix element representation. In operator representation the potential is represented by a set of quantum mechanical operators while in matrix element representation it is defined by the matrix elements in a given basis. Many modern potentials are constructed directly in matrix element representation. While the matrix element representation can be calculated from the operator representation, the determination of the operator representation from the matrix elements is more difficult. Some methods to solve the nuclear many-body problem, such as Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) or the Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) method, however require explicitly the operator representation of the potential, as they do not work in a fixed many-body basis. It is therefore desirable to derive an operator representation also for the interactions given by matrix elements. In this work a method is presented which allows the derivation of an approximate operator representation starting from the momentum space partial wave matrix elements of the interaction. For that purpose an ansatz for the operator representation is chosen. The parameters in the ansatz are determined by a fit to the partial wave matrix elements. Since a perfect reproduction of the matrix elements in general cannot be achieved with a finite number of operators and the quality of the results depends on the choice of the ansatz, the obtained operator representation is tested in nuclear many-body calculations and the results are compared with those from the initial interaction matrix elements. For the calculation of the nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts and the deuteron properties a computer code written within this work is used. For larger nuclei the No Core Shell Model (NCSM) and FMD are applied. The described
Ghosn, Louis J.; Min, James B.; Raj, Sai V.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.
2004-01-01
operating range. Operating a blade at or near the resonance frequencies leads to high-cycle fatigue, which ultimately limits the blade's durability and life. So the aim of this study is to determine the variation of the resonance frequencies for an idealized sandwich blade as a function of its face-sheet thickness, core thickness, and foam density. The finite element method is used to determine the natural frequencies for an idealized rectangular sandwich blade. The proven Lanczos method (ref. 7) is used in the study to extract the natural frequency.
Turbine blade with spar and shell
Davies, Daniel O [Palm City, FL; Peterson, Ross H [Loxahatchee, FL
2012-04-24
A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.
Characterization of a Viking Blade Fabricated by Traditional Forging Techniques
Vo, H.; Frazer, D.; Bailey, N.; Traylor, R.; Austin, J.; Pringle, J.; Bickel, J.; Connick, R.; Connick, W.; Hosemann, P.
2016-12-01
A team of students from the University of California, Berkeley, participated in a blade-smithing competition hosted by the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society at the TMS 2015 144th annual meeting and exhibition. Motivated by ancient forging methods, the UC Berkeley team chose to fabricate our blade from historical smithing techniques utilizing naturally-occurring deposits of iron ore. This approach resulted in receiving the "Best Example of a Traditional Blade Process/Ore Smelting Technique" award for our blade named "Berkelium." First, iron-enriched sand was collected from local beaches. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was then extracted from the sand and smelted into individual high- and low-carbon steel ingots. Layers of high- and low-carbon steels were forge-welded together, predominantly by hand, to form a composite material. Optical microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness mechanical testing were conducted at different stages throughout the blade-making process to evaluate the microstructure and hardness evolution during formation. It was found that the pre-heat-treated blade microstructure was composed of ferrite and pearlite, and contained many nonmetallic inclusions. A final heat treatment was performed, which caused the average hardness of the blade edge to increase by more than a factor of two, indicating a martensitic transformation.
Water droplet erosion of stainless steel steam turbine blades
Kirols, H. S.; Kevorkov, D.; Uihlein, A.; Medraj, M.
2017-08-01
Steam turbine blades are highly subjected to water droplet erosion (WDE) caused by high energy impingement of liquid water droplets. However, most of the published research on this wear phenomenon is performed on laboratory test rigs, instead of addressing WDE of actual steam turbine blades. In this work, the progression of erosion on the surface of ex-service low pressure steam turbine blades was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The erosion appearance and mechanisms are compared with laboratory test rig results that are carried out using a rotating disk rig according to ASTM G73 standard. Initial and advanced erosion stages could be observed on the steam turbine blades. Similar to the WDE rig coupons, initial pits and cracks were preceded by blade surface roughening through the formation of asperities and depressions. In addition, it was also observed that the twist angle of the turbine blade around its diagonal, is an important parameter that influences its WDE. Twist angle has an effect on: impact angle, erosion appearance, impact speed, and the affected area. Furthermore, according to the current experimental results, multi-ray rig erosion test results are considered the closest simulation to the actual ex-service blade in terms of damage appearance.
The Concept of Segmented Wind Turbine Blades: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathijs Peeters
2017-07-01
Full Text Available There is a trend to increase the length of wind turbine blades in an effort to reduce the cost of energy (COE. This causes manufacturing and transportation issues, which have given rise to the concept of segmented wind turbine blades. In this concept, multiple segments can be transported separately. While this idea is not new, it has recently gained renewed interest. In this review paper, the concept of wind turbine blade segmentation and related literature is discussed. The motivation for dividing blades into segments is explained, and the cost of energy is considered to obtain requirements for such blades. An overview of possible implementations is provided, considering the split location and orientation, as well as the type of joint to be used. Many implementations draw from experience with similar joints such as the joint at the blade root, hub and root extenders and joints used in rotor tips and glider wings. Adhesive bonds are expected to provide structural and economic efficiency, but in-field assembly poses a big issue. Prototype segmented blades using T-bolt joints, studs and spar bridge concepts have proven successful, as well as aerodynamically-shaped root and hub extenders.
Study of Pumping Capacity of Pitched Blade Impellers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Fořt
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A study was made of the pumping capacity of pitched blade impellers in a cylindrical pilot plant vessel with four standard radial baffles at the wall under a turbulent regime of flow. The pumping capacity was calculated from the radial profile of the axial flow, under the assumption of axial symmetry of the discharge flow. The mean velocity was measured using laser Doppler anemometry in a transparent vessel of diameter T = 400 mm, provided with a standard dished bottom. Three and six blade pitched blade impellers (the pitch angle varied within the interval a Îá24°; 45°ń of impeller/vessel diameter ratio D/T = 0.36, as well as a three blade pitched blade impeller with folded blades of the same diameter, were tested. The calculated results were compared with the results of experiments mentioned in the literature, above all in cylindrical vessels with a flat bottom. Both arrangements of the agitated system were described by the impeller energetic efficiency, i.e, a criterion including in dimensionless form both the impeller energy consumption (impeller power input and the impeller pumping effect (impeller pumping capacity. It follows from the results obtained with various geometrical configurations that the energetic efficiency of pitched blade impellers is significantly lower for configurations suitable for mixing solid-liquid suspensions (low impeller off bottom clearances than for blending miscible liquids in mixing (higher impeller off bottom clearances.
Helicopter blades running elevation measurement using omnidirectional vision
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengtao CAI
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Omnidirectional dynamic space parameters of high-speed rotating helicopter blades are precise 3D vector description of the blades. In particular, the elevation difference is directly related to the aerodynamic performance and maneuverability of the helicopter. The state of the art detection techniques based on optics and common vision have several drawbacks, such as high demands on devices but poor extensibility, limited measurement range and fixed measurement position. In this paper, a novel approach of helicopter blades running elevation measurement is proposed based on omnidirectional vision. With the advantages of panoramic visual imaging integration, 360° field of view and rotation in-variance, high-resolution images of all rotating blades positions are obtained at one time. By studying the non-linear calibration and calculation model of omnidirectional vision system, aiming at solving the problem of inaccurate visual space mapping model, the omnidirectional and full-scale measurement of the elevation difference are finalized. Experiments are carried out on our multifunctional simulation blades test system and the practical blades test tower, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the proposed method can considerably reduce the complexity of measurement. Keywords: Full-scale measurement, Helicopter blades elevation, Non-linear calibration, Omnidirectional vision, Unified sphere model
Shikarpur lithic assemblage: New questions regarding Rohri chert blade production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charusmita Gadekar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Recent excavations at Shikarpur, a fortified Harappan site situated near the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat, Western India, brought to light a large collection of Rohri chert blades. Chert found in the Rohri hill near Sukkur in Sindh, central Pakistan is distinctive and easily identifiable. The wide distribution of standardized Rohri chert blades is often regarded as a testimony to the Harappan efficiency in long distance trade and craft production. The possibility of localized production of Rohri chert blades in Gujarat is often negated due to the constraints of raw-material availability. The absence of Rohri chert working debitage from most of the sites in Gujarat, has lent support to this position. The Shikarpur Rohri blade assemblage however incorporates more than 650 blades, a large fluted blade-core and a few Rohri chert debitage. These have led the excavators to suggest that some of the blades found at Shikarpur were locally produced from raw materials brought to the site from the Rohri hills. Typo-technological features of the Rohri chert assemblage from Shikarpur have been analysed in this background. These along with metrical features of the assemblage are compared with Rohri chert assemblages from other major Harappan sites in the region to check the validity of the proposed ‘limited local production’.
Laser-based gluing of diamond-tipped saw blades
Hennigs, Christian; Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Kaierle, Stefan; Hustedt, Michael; Brand, Helmut; Wloka, Richard; Zobel, Frank; Dültgen, Peter
2016-03-01
To process natural stone such as marble or granite, saw blades equipped with wear-resistant diamond grinding segments are used, typically joined to the blade by brazing. In case of damage or wear, they must be exchanged. Due to the large energy input during thermal loosening and subsequent brazing, the repair causes extended heat-affected zones with serious microstructure changes, resulting in shape distortions and disadvantageous stress distributions. Consequently, axial run-out deviations and cutting losses increase. In this work, a new near-infrared laser-based process chain is presented to overcome the deficits of conventional brazing-based repair of diamond-tipped steel saw blades. Thus, additional tensioning and straightening steps can be avoided. The process chain starts with thermal debonding of the worn grinding segments, using a continuous-wave laser to heat the segments gently and to exceed the adhesive's decomposition temperature. Afterwards, short-pulsed laser radiation removes remaining adhesive from the blade in order to achieve clean joining surfaces. The third step is roughening and activation of the joining surfaces, again using short-pulsed laser radiation. Finally, the grinding segments are glued onto the blade with a defined adhesive layer, using continuous-wave laser radiation. Here, the adhesive is heated to its curing temperature by irradiating the respective grinding segment, ensuring minimal thermal influence on the blade. For demonstration, a prototype unit was constructed to perform the different steps of the process chain on-site at the saw-blade user's facilities. This unit was used to re-equip a saw blade with a complete set of grinding segments. This saw blade was used successfully to cut different materials, amongst others granite.
Anisotropic damping of Timoshenko beam elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, M.H.
2001-01-01
This report contains a description of a structural damping model for Timoshenko beam elements used in the aeroelastic code HawC developed at Risø for modeling wind turbines. The model has been developed to enable modeling of turbine blades which oftenhave different damping characteristics...... for ¤flapwise¤, ¤edgewise¤ and ¤torsional¤ vibrations. The structural damping forces acting on the beam element are modeled by viscous damping described by an element damping matrix. The composition of this matrix is basedon the element mass and stiffness matrices. It is shown how the coefficients for the mass...
Defect distribution and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stensgaard Toft, Henrik; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter
2011-01-01
on the assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models, additional information, such as number, type, and size of the defects, is included as stochastic variables. In a numerical example, the reliability is estimated for a generic wind turbine blade model both...... with and without defects in terms of delaminations. The reliability of the blade decreases when defects are included. However, the distribution of the defects influences how much the reliability is decreased. It is also shown how non-destructive inspection (NDI) after production can be used to update...... the reliability for the wind turbine blade using Bayesian statistics....
Results of the benchmark for blade structural models, part A
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lekou, D.J.; Chortis, D.; Belen Fariñas, A.
2013-01-01
Task 2.2 of the InnWind.Eu project. The benchmark is based on the reference wind turbine and the reference blade provided by DTU [1]. "Structural Concept developers/modelers" of WP2 were provided with the necessary input for a comparison numerical simulation run, upon definition of the reference blade......A benchmark on structural design methods for blades was performed within the InnWind.Eu project under WP2 “Lightweight Rotor” Task 2.2 “Lightweight structural design”. The present document is describes the results of the comparison simulation runs that were performed by the partners involved within...
Acoustic design of rotor blades using a genetic algorithm
Wells, V. L.; Han, A. Y.; Crossley, W. A.
1995-01-01
A genetic algorithm coupled with a simplified acoustic analysis was used to generate low-noise rotor blade designs. The model includes thickness, steady loading and blade-vortex interaction noise estimates. The paper presents solutions for several variations in the fitness function, including thickness noise only, loading noise only, and combinations of the noise types. Preliminary results indicate that the analysis provides reasonable assessments of the noise produced, and that genetic algorithm successfully searches for 'good' designs. The results show that, for a given required thrust coefficient, proper blade design can noticeably reduce the noise produced at some expense to the power requirements.
Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing System Based on UWB Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franek, Ondrej; Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm
2016-01-01
A microwave sensing system for estimating deflection of a wind turbine blade is presented. The system measures distances at two ultrawideband (UWB) wireless links between one antenna at the tip and two antennas at the root of the blade, which allows for determination of the tip position...... by triangulation. An experimental setup with corner reflector antenna mounted at the tip and horn antennas at the root of a 37.3 m long blade is described. Analyzing the data from the experiment, special attention is given to the propagation aspects of the UWB links, with focus on the multipath effects caused...
Dynamic Stability of Rotating Blades with Transverse Cracks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.Y. Ng
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the main objective is to examine the effects of transverse cracks on the dynamic instability regions of an axially loaded rotating blade. The blade is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. To reduce the governing equations to a set of ordinary differential equations in matrix form, Hamilton's principle is used in conjunction with the assumed-mode method. The crack is accounted for by considering the energy release rate and the parametric instability regions are obtained using Bolotin's first approximation. Benchmark results are presented for cracked rotating blades at different rotating speeds, crack lengths and crack positions.
Multipath Suppression with an Absorber for UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.
2017-01-01
The deflection of a wind turbine blade can be monitored with an ultra-wideband (UWB) deflection sensing system which consists of one transmitting antenna at the blade tip and two receiving antennas at the blade root. The blade deflection is calculated by two estimated tip-root antenna distances...
14 CFR 33.94 - Blade containment and rotor unbalance tests.
2010-01-01
... critical compressor or fan blade while operating at maximum permissible r.p.m. The blade failure must occur... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blade containment and rotor unbalance tests... Blade containment and rotor unbalance tests. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, it...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya-feng Li
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The simulation models of the thermal and macrostructural evolutions during directional solidification of Ni-base single crystal (SX turbine blades under high rate solidification (HRS and liquid metal cooling (LMC have been constructed using ProCAST software, coupled with a 3D Cellular Automaton Finite Element (CAFE model. The models were used to investigate the tendencies of stray grain (SG formation in the platform region of turbine blades fabricated by HRS and LMC techniques. The results reveal that the LMC technique can prohibit SG formation by smoothing the concaved isotherm and in turn alleviating the undercooling in the platform ends to let the dendrites fill up the undercooled zone before SG nucleation. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results, indicating that these models could be used to analyze the macrostructural evolution or to optimize process parameters to suppress SG formation. Using these models, the critical withdrawal rate for casting SX turbine blades without SG formation were determined to be around 75 μm·s-1 and 100 μm·s-1 for HRS and LMC respectively, suggesting that LMC can be used as an efficient technique in fabricating SX turbine blades without any SG defect formation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasuyuki Nishi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Single-blade centrifugal impellers for sewage systems undergo both unsteady radial and axial thrusts. Therefore, it is extremely important for the improvement of pump reliability to quantitatively grasp these fluctuating hydrodynamic forces and determine the generation mechanism behind them. In this study, we conducted component analyses of radial and axial thrusts of closed, single-blade centrifugal pumps with different blade outlet angles by numerical analysis while considering leakage flow. The results revealed the effect of the blade outlet angle on the components of radial and axial thrusts. For increased flow rates, the time-averaged values of the pressure component were similar for all impellers, although its fluctuating components were higher for impellers with larger blade outlet angles. Moreover, the fluctuating inertia component of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8° decreased as the flow rate increased, whereas those with 16° and 24° angles increased. Therefore, the radial thrust on the hydraulic part was significantly higher for impellers with high blade outlet angles.
Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenhao Wan
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.
Effect of steady deflections on the aeroelastic stability of a turbine blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose
2011-01-01
This paper deals with effects of geometric non-linearities on the aeroelastic stability of a steady-state defl ected blade. Today, wind turbine blades are long and slender structures that can have a considerable steady-state defl ection which affects the dynamic behaviour of the blade. The fl...... apwise blade defl ection causes the edgewise blade motion to couple to torsional blade motion and thereby to the aerodynamics through the angle of attack. The analysis shows that in the worst case for this particular blade, the edgewise damping can be decreased by half. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons......, Ltd....
Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise
Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.
1985-01-01
A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.
Mixed finite elements for global tide models.
Cotter, Colin J; Kirby, Robert C
2016-01-01
We study mixed finite element methods for the linearized rotating shallow water equations with linear drag and forcing terms. By means of a strong energy estimate for an equivalent second-order formulation for the linearized momentum, we prove long-time stability of the system without energy accumulation-the geotryptic state. A priori error estimates for the linearized momentum and free surface elevation are given in [Formula: see text] as well as for the time derivative and divergence of the linearized momentum. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results regarding both energy damping and convergence rates.
CX-100 and TX-100 blade field tests.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holman, Adam (USDA-Agriculture Research Service, Bushland, TX); Jones, Perry L.; Zayas, Jose R.
2005-12-01
In support of the DOE Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) program two of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas will be used to test two sets of experimental blades, the CX-100 and TX-100. The blade aerodynamic and structural characterization, meteorological inflow and wind turbine structural response will be monitored with an array of 75 instruments: 33 to characterize the blades, 15 to characterize the inflow, and 27 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For both tests, data will be sampled at a rate of 30 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow.
H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Paraschivoiu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal variation of the blades' pitch angle is modeled with an analytical function whose coefficients are used as variables in the optimization process. Two types of variations were considered for the pitch angle: a simple sinusoidal one and one which is more general, relating closely the blades' pitch to the local flow conditions along their circular path. A gain of almost 30% in the annual energy production was obtained with the polynomial optimal pitch control.
Study on visual detection method for wind turbine blade failure
Chen, Jianping; Shen, Zhenteng
2018-02-01
Start your abstract here…At present, the non-destructive testing methods of the wind turbine blades has fiber bragg grating, sound emission and vibration detection, but there are all kinds of defects, and the engineering application is difficult. In this regard, three-point slope deviation method, which is a kind of visual inspection method, is proposed for monitoring the running status of wind turbine blade based on the image processing technology. A better blade image can be got through calibration, image splicing, pretreatment and threshold segmentation algorithm. Design of the early warning system to monitor wind turbine blade running condition, recognition rate, stability and impact factors of the method were statistically analysed. The experimental results shown showed that it has highly accurate and good monitoring effect.