WorldWideScience

Sample records for bladder urothelium surveillance

  1. Expression and functional role of β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder urothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Shinbo, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Rikiya; Kurita, Yutaka; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the presence of β-adrenoceptor subtypes in human urinary bladder urothelium and examined whether β-adrenoceptors in the urothelium modulate the relaxation responses of isolated human detrusor strips to a β-adrenoceptor agonist. Expression of β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptor mRNA in urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the distribution of β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors in human urinary bladder urotheliu...

  2. Loss of β1-integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Kanasaki, Keizo; Yu, Weiqun; von Bodungen, Maximilian; Larigakis, John D.; Kanasaki, Megumi; Ayala de la Pena, Francisco; Kalluri, Raghu; Hill, Warren G.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder urothelium senses and communicates information about bladder fullness. However, the mechanoreceptors that respond to tissue stretch are poorly defined. Integrins are mechanotransducers in other tissues. Therefore, we eliminated β1-integrin selectively in urothelium of mice using Cre-LoxP targeted gene deletion. β1-Integrin localized to basal/intermediate urothelial cells by confocal microscopy. β1-Integrin conditional-knockout (β1-cKO) mice lacking urothelial β1-integrin exhibited dow...

  3. Tissue uptake of docetaxel loaded hydrophobically derivatized hyperbranched polyglycerols and their effects on the morphology of the bladder urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabe, Clement; Raven, Peter A; Fazli, Ladan; Baker, Jennifer H E; Jackson, John K; Liggins, Richard T; So, Alan I; Gleave, Martin E; Minchinton, Andrew I; Brooks, Donald E; Burt, Helen M

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have reported that docetaxel (DTX) loaded, amine terminated hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2)) nanoparticles significantly increased drug uptake in mouse bladder tissues and was the most effective formulation to significantly inhibit tumor growth in an orthotopic model of bladder cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles on bladder urothelial morphology and integrity, DTX uptake and permeability in bladder tissue and the extent of bladder urothelial recovery following exposure to, and then washout of, HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles. HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles significantly increased the uptake of DTX in both isolated pig bladder as well as in live mouse bladder tissues. Furthermore, HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles were demonstrated to increase the permeability of the urinary bladder wall by causing changes to the urothelial barrier function and morphology through opening of tight junctions and exfoliation of the superficial umbrella cells. These data suggest that exfoliation may be triggered by an apoptosis mechanism, which was followed by a rapid recovery of the urothelium within 24 h post-instillation of HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles. HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles cause significant but rapidly recoverable changes in the bladder urothelial morphology, which we believe may make them suitable for increasing drug permeability of bladder tissue and intravesical drug delivery. PMID:22014457

  4. Loss of β1-integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasaki, Keizo; Yu, Weiqun; von Bodungen, Maximilian; Larigakis, John D; Kanasaki, Megumi; Ayala de la Pena, Francisco; Kalluri, Raghu; Hill, Warren G

    2013-05-01

    Bladder urothelium senses and communicates information about bladder fullness. However, the mechanoreceptors that respond to tissue stretch are poorly defined. Integrins are mechanotransducers in other tissues. Therefore, we eliminated β1-integrin selectively in urothelium of mice using Cre-LoxP targeted gene deletion. β1-Integrin localized to basal/intermediate urothelial cells by confocal microscopy. β1-Integrin conditional-knockout (β1-cKO) mice lacking urothelial β1-integrin exhibited down-regulation and mislocalization of α3- and α5-integrins by immunohistochemistry but, surprisingly, had normal morphology, permeability, and transepithelial resistance when compared with Cre-negative littermate controls. β1-cKO mice were incontinent, as judged by random urine leakage on filter paper (4-fold higher spotting, Pbladder overfilling with 80% longer intercontractile intervals (Phyperactivity (3-fold more prevoid contractions, Pbladder due to abnormal mechanotransduction; more broadly, our findings indicate that urothelium itself directly modulates voiding. PMID:23395910

  5. Substance P induces localization of MIF/α1-inhibitor-3 complexes to umbrella cells via paracellular transit through the urothelium in the rat bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pedro L

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is released into the intraluminal fluid during bladder inflammation in the rat complexed to α1-inhibitor-3 (A1-I3; a rodent proteinase inhibitor in the α-macroglobulin family. The location of A1-I3 in the bladder had not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the location of A1-I3 and MIF/A1-I3 complexes in the bladder and changes due to experimental inflammation. Methods Anesthetized male rats had bladders removed with no treatment (intact or were injected with Substance P (SP; s.c.; saline vehicle. After one hour intraluminal fluid was removed, bladder was excised and MIF and A1-I3 levels were determined using ELISA and/or western-blotting. MIF co-immunoprecipitation determined MIF/A1-I3 complexes in the bladder. Bladder sections were immunostained for A1-I3 and MIF/A1-I3. Results A1-I3 immunostaining was observed in interstitial spaces throughout the bladder (including submucosa but not urothelium in intact and saline-treated rats. RT-PCR showed that the bladder does not synthesize A1-I3, therefore, A1-I3 in the interstitial space of the bladder must be plasma derived. In SP-treated rats, A1-I3 in the bladder increased and A1-I3 was observed traversing through the urothelium. Umbrella cells that do not show MIF and/or A1-I3 immunostaining in intact or saline-treated rats, showed co-localization of MIF and A1-I3 after SP-treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that in the bladder MIF formed non-covalent interactions and also binds covalently to A1-I3 to form high molecular weight MIF/A1-I3 complexes (170, 130 and 75-kDa, respectively, verified by co-immunoprecipitation. SP-induced inflammation selectively reduced 170-kDa MIF/A1-I3 in the bladder while increasing 170 and 130-kDa MIF/A1-I3 in the intraluminal fluid. Conclusion A1-I3 and MIF/A1-I3 complexes are resident in bladder interstitium. During SP-induced inflammation, MIF/A1-I3 complexes are released from the bladder

  6. Changes produced in the urothelium by traditional and newer therapeutic procedures for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Beltran, A.; Luque, R J; Mazzucchelli, R; Scarpelli, M; Montironi, R

    2002-01-01

    A handful of traditional and newer therapeutic procedures, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, photodynamic and laser treatment, and gene therapy, are used to treat epithelial malignancies of bladder origin. These treatment modalities, used either intravesically or systemically, produce morphological changes in the urothelial mucosa that can be mistaken for carcinoma. The pathologist must be able to separate toxic and drug related alterations from tumour related changes. The cl...

  7. Correlation between Urothelial Differentiation and Sensory Proteins P2X3, P2X5, TRPV1, and TRPV4 in Normal Urothelium and Papillary Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sterle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of urothelium is a prerequisite for blood-urine barrier formation and enables normal sensory function of the urinary bladder. In this study, urothelial differentiation of normal human urothelium and of low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas was correlated with the expression and localization of purinergic receptors (P2X3, and P2X5 and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1, and TRPV4. Western blotting and immunofluorescence of uroplakins together with scanning electron microscopy of urothelial apical surface demonstrated terminal differentiation of normal urothelium, partial differentiation of low grade carcinoma, and poor differentiation of high grade carcinoma. P2X3 was expressed in normal urothelium as well as in low grade carcinoma and in both cases immunolabeling was stronger in the superficial cells. P2X3 expression decreased in high grade carcinoma. P2X5 expression was detected in normal urothelium and in high grade carcinoma, while in low grade carcinoma its expression was diminished. The expression of TRPV1 decreased in low grade and even more in high grade carcinoma when compared with normal urothelium, while TRPV4 expression was unchanged in all samples. Our results suggest that sensory proteins P2X3 and TRPV1 are in correlation with urothelial differentiation, while P2X5 and TRPV4 have unique expression patterns.

  8. Growth factors in bladder epithelium : a study on the expression and functions of growth factors in mouse urothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Pim

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe urogenital tract is one of the major excretory paths for small metabolites and ions. The excreted liquid, urine, is produced by the kidneys, flows through the ureters into the urinary bladder and is finally excreted through the urethra. The mammalian urinary bladder has the important capacity to retain urine for some time. Normally, the bladder is resistant to toxic effects of products in the urine. But after damage to the epithelium of the bladder, bladder epithelial cells ma...

  9. Tumors of the upper urothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two cases of malignant tumors of renal pelvis were reviewed: 28 were transitional cell carcinomas; and 14 were squamous cell carcinomas. The natural history and spread of the disease is discussed in detail. Transitional cell carcinomas spread primarily to the ureter (40 percent), followed closely by the renal bed (33 percent) and bladder (30 percent). Squamous cell carcinomas spread primarily through the renal bed (60 percent), followed by the draining lymph nodes (28 percent). The spread to other regions (bones, splanchnic organs, chest, etc.), occurred with relatively less frequency, but more in squamous than transitional cell carcinomas. Transitional cell carcinomas seem to have a longer natural history than squamous cell carcinomas. Recurrences in bladder and the remainder of the urothelium seem to be controlled for relatively long periods of time, while those in lymph nodes and renal bed seem to be rapidly fatal. The results of treatment and factors influencing them are discussed. Patients suffering from transitional cell carcinomas faired better than those with squamous cell carcinomas at the 5 year mark (25 and 15 percent, respectively), but the 10 year results are poor in both. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of these tumors and the influencing factors are also discussed in detail. The response of these tumors to radiotherapy seems to be akin to that of the lower urothelium (bladder), provided adequate dosage is delivered to the relevant volume at the proper moment in time. (U.S.)

  10. Presence of Cleaved Synaptosomal-Associated Protein-25 and Decrease of Purinergic Receptors P2X3 in the Bladder Urothelium Influence Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A injection and Lipotoxin (liposomes with 200 U of BoNT-A instillation target different proteins, including P2X3, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, and SNAP-25, in the bladder mucosa, leading to different treatment outcomes.This was a retrospective study performed in a tertiary teaching hospital. We evaluated the clinical results of 27 OAB patients treated with intravesical BoNT-A injection (n = 16 or Lipotoxin instillation (n = 11. Seven controls were treated with saline. Patients were injected with 100 U of BoNT-A or Lipotoxinin a single intravesical instillation. The patients enrolled in this study all had bladder biopsies performed at baseline and one month after BoNT-A therapy. Treatment outcome was measured by the decreases in urgency and frequency episodes at 1 month. The functional protein expressions in the urothelium were measured at baseline and after 1 month. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and ordinal logistic regression were used to compare the treatment outcomes.Both BoNT-A injection and Lipotoxin instillation treatments effectively decreased the frequency of urgency episodes in OAB patients. Lipotoxin instillation did not increase post-void residual volume. BoNT-A injection effectively cleaved SNAP-25 (p < 0.01. Liposome encapsulated BoNT-A decreased urothelial P2X3 expression in the five responders (p = 0.04, while SNAP-25 was not significantly cleaved.The results of this study provide a possible mechanism for the therapeutic effects of BoNT-A for the treatment of OAB via different treatment forms. BoNT-A and Lipotoxin treatments effectively decreased the frequency of urgency episodes in patients with OAB.

  11. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  12. Molecular markers for detection, surveillance and prognostication of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrooman, O.P.; Witjes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Many markers for the detection of bladder cancers have been tested and almost all urinary markers reported are better than cytology with regard to sensitivity, but they score lower in specificity. Currently molecular and genetic changes play an important role in the discovery of new molecular marker

  13. Purinergic and muscarinic modulation of ATP release from the urothelium and its paracrine actions

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Guiping; Fry, Chris H.; Montgomery, Bruce; Roberts, Max; Wu, Rui; Wu, Changhao

    2013-01-01

    The urothelium is a newly recognized sensory structure that detects bladder fullness. Pivotal to this sensory role is the release of ATP from the urothelium. However, the routes for urothelial ATP release, its modulation by receptor-mediated pathways, and the autocrine/paracrine role of ATP are poorly understood, especially in native tissue. We examined the action of key neurotransmitters: purinergic and muscarinic agonists on ATP release and its paracrine effect. Guinea pig and human urothel...

  14. Autoradiographic studies on age-dependent physiological regeneration of rat urothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological regeneration of the urothelium in 60, 100, and 165 days old rats was determined by both single and repeated 3H-thymidine pulse-labelling with following autoradigraphy. The urothelial proliferation was most clear in the youngest rats with the sequence of the organs being ureter, renal pelvis and urinary bladder

  15. Human Cystathionine-β-Synthase Phosphorylation on Serine227 Modulates Hydrogen Sulfide Production in Human Urothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca

    Full Text Available Urothelium, the epithelial lining the inner surface of human bladder, plays a key role in bladder physiology and pathology. It responds to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli by releasing several factors and mediators. Recently it has been shown that hydrogen sulfide contributes to human bladder homeostasis. Hydrogen sulfide is mainly produced in human bladder by the action of cystathionine-β-synthase. Here, we demonstrate that human cystathionine-β-synthase activity is regulated in a cGMP/PKG-dependent manner through phosphorylation at serine 227. Incubation of human urothelium or T24 cell line with 8-Bromo-cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP but not dibutyryl-cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (d-cAMP causes an increase in hydrogen sulfide production. This result is congruous with the finding that PKG is robustly expressed but PKA only weakly present in human urothelium as well as in T24 cells. The cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation elicited by 8-Br-cGMP is selectively reverted by KT5823, a specific PKG inhibitor. Moreover, the silencing of cystathionine-β-synthase in T24 cells leads to a marked decrease in hydrogen sulfide production either in basal condition or following 8-Br-cGMP challenge. In order to identify the phosphorylation site, recombinant mutant proteins of cystathionine-β-synthase in which Ser32, Ser227 or Ser525 was mutated in Ala were generated. The Ser227Ala mutant cystathionine-β-synthase shows a notable reduction in basal biosynthesis of hydrogen sulfide becoming unresponsive to the 8-Br-cGMP challenge. A specific antibody that recognizes the phosphorylated form of cystathionine-β-synthase has been produced and validated by using T24 cells and human urothelium. In conclusion, human cystathionine-β-synthase can be phosphorylated in a PKG-dependent manner at Ser227 leading to an increased catalytic activity.

  16. Chromosomal imbalances in successive moments of human bladder urothelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento e Pontes, Merielen Garcia; da Silveira, Sara Martorelli; Trindade Filho, José Carlos de Souza;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand developmental characteristics of urinary bladder carcinomas (UBC) by evaluating genomic alterations and p53 protein expression in primary tumors, their recurrences, and in the morphologically normal urothelium of UBC patients. METHODS: Tumors and their respective recurren...

  17. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed the...

  18. Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, J. B.; Aaboe, M; Borden, E C; Goloubeva, O G; Hassel, B. A.; Ørntoft, T F

    2006-01-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent malignancies, and is characterised by frequent tumour recurrences and localised inflammation, which may promote tissue invasion and metastasis. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in normal bladder urothelium with that in tumours at different stages of progression. The innate immune response gene, interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa (ISG15, GIP2), was highly expressed at all stages of bladder cancer as compared to normal urothelium....

  19. Overactive and Underactive Bladder Dysfunction is Reflected by Alterations in Urothelial ATP and NO Release

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Alvaro; Smith, Christopher P.; Boone, Timothy B.; Somogyi, George T.

    2010-01-01

    ATP and NO are released from the urothelium in the bladder. Detrusor Overactivity (DO) following spinal cord injury results in higher ATP and lower NO release from the bladder urothelium. Our aim was to study the relationship between ATP and NO release in 1) early diabetic bladders, an overactive bladder model; and 2) in “diuretic” bladders, an underactive bladder model. To induce diabetes mellitus female rats received 65 mg/kg streptozocin (i.v.). To induce chronic diuresis rats were fed wit...

  20. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  1. Impact of diabetes mellitus on bladder uroepithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T.; Ruiz, Giovanni W.; Daneshgari, Firouz; Liu, Guiming; Apodaca, Gerard; Birder, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD), a prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is characterized by a broad spectrum of symptoms including urinary urgency, frequency, and incontinence. As DBD is commonly diagnosed late, it is important to understand the chronic impact of DM on bladder tissues. While changes in bladder smooth muscle and innervation have been reported in diabetic patients, the impact of DM on the specialized epithelial lining of the urinary bladder, the urothelium (UT),...

  2. Stepwise Application of Urine Markers to Detect Tumor Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Surveillance for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Todenhöfer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal use of urine markers in the surveillance of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC remains unclear. Aim of the present study was to investigate the combined and stepwise use of the four most broadly available urine markers to detect tumor recurrence in patients undergoing surveillance of NMIBC. Patients and Methods. 483 patients with history of NMIBC were included. Cytology, UroVysion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, immunocytology (uCyt+, and NMP22 ELISA were performed before surveillance cystoscopy. Characteristics of single tests and combinations were assessed by contingency analysis. Results. 128 (26.5% patients had evidence of tumor recurrence. Sensitivities and negative predictive values (NPVs of the single tests ranged between 66.4–74.3 and 82.3–88.2%. Two-marker combinations showed sensitivities and NPVs of 80.5–89.8 and 89.5–91.2%. A stepwise application of the two-test combinations with highest accuracy (cytology and FISH; cytology and uCyt+; uCyt+ and FISH showed NPVs for high-risk recurrences (G3/Cis/pT1 of 98.8, 98.8, and 99.1%, respectively. Conclusions. Combinations of cytology, FISH, immunocytology, and NMP22 show remarkable detection rates for recurrent NMIBC. Stepwise two-test combinations of cytology, FISH, and immunocytology have a low probability of missing a high-risk tumor. The high sensitivities may justify the use of these combinations in prospective studies assessing the use of urine markers to individualize intervals between cystoscopies during follow-up.

  3. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias; Simon, Judith; Nagenborg, Michael

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...

  4. Role of KIT-Positive Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Urinary Bladder and Possible Therapeutic Target for Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Shoichi Sasaki; Makoto Imura; Yasuhiro Shibata; Yoshiyuki Kojima; Yasue Kubota; Kenjiro Kohri

    2011-01-01

    In the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) act as pacemaker cells to generate slow wave activity. Interstitial cells that resemble ICCs in the gastrointestinal tract have been identified by their morphological characteristics in the bladder. KIT is used as an identification marker of ICCs. ICCs in the bladder may be involved in signal transmission between smooth muscle bundles, from efferent nerves to smooth muscles, and from the urothelium to afferent nerves. Recent re...

  5. Enterococcus faecalis subverts and invades the host urothelium in patients with chronic urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Horsley

    Full Text Available Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI are a major growing concern worldwide. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been shown to invade the urothelium during acute UTI in mice and humans, forming intracellular reservoirs that can evade antibiotics and the immune response, allowing recurrence at a later date. Other bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella enterica have also been shown to be invasive in acute UTI. However, the role of intracellular infection in chronic UTI causing more subtle lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, a particular problem in the elderly population, is poorly understood. Moreover, the species of bacteria involved remains largely unknown. A previous study of a large cohort of non-acute LUTS patients found that Enterococcus faecalis was frequently found in urine specimens. E. faecalis accounts for a significant proportion of chronic bladder infections worldwide, although the invasive lifestyle of this uropathogen has yet to be reported. Here, we wanted to explore this question in more detail. We harvested urothelial cells shed in response to inflammation and, using advanced imaging techniques, inspected them for signs of bacterial pathology and invasion. We found strong evidence of intracellular E. faecalis harboured within urothelial cells shed from the bladder of LUTS patients. Furthermore, using a culture model system, these patient-isolated strains of E. faecalis were able to invade a transitional carcinoma cell line. In contrast, we found no evidence of cellular invasion by E. coli in the patient cells or the culture model system. Our data show that E. faecalis is highly competent to invade in this context; therefore, these results have implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of chronic LUTS.

  6. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced bladder hyperactivity via the 5-HT2A receptor in partial bladder outlet obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takumi; Kasahara, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effects of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the function and gene expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes in rat bladder. Isometric contractions of the isolated bladders from sham-operated control and BOO rats were examined. The contractile responses to 5-HT were significantly increased in BOO rat bladder strips, while the responses to KCl, carbachol, or phenylephrine were not different from the control. The 5-HT-induced hypercontraction in BOO rat bladder strips was inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist. The contractile responses to 5-HT in bladder strips were not affected by urothelium removal from the intact bladder. The gene expression of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the bladders was analyzed by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of the 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(7) receptors was detected in both the control and BOO rat bladders. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed there was a significant increase of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA in the BOO rat bladder compared with the control bladder. On the other hand, the gene expression of the 5-HT(4) receptor was not changed in the BOO rat bladder. These results suggest that the increased contractile responses to 5-HT in BOO rat bladder may be partly caused by 5-HT(2A) receptor upregulation in the detrusor smooth muscles. PMID:23344575

  7. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  8. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  9. Dual isotope scintiscan. New method for evaluating bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m radioactive colloid particles were suspended in an iodine-131 Hippuran radioactive fluid medium and placed into the bladders of six patients. Two normal patients and one with only one urinary tract infection voided the fluid and particles synchronously, while three with recurrent urinary tract infections eliminated the particles at a much slower rate than the fluid. A change in either the physical contour or secretory activity of the bladder urothelium is postulated as the cause of particle retention in these patients with chronic infections

  10. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and bladder oversensitivity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60% or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO. Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP solution (5mM, pH 3.3 was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.

  11. Upk3b is dispensable for development and integrity of urothelium and mesothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Rudat

    Full Text Available The mesothelium, the lining of the coelomic cavities, and the urothelium, the inner lining of the urinary drainage system, are highly specialized epithelia that protect the underlying tissues from mechanical stress and seal them from the overlying fluid space. The development of these epithelia from simple precursors and the molecular characteristics of the mature tissues are poorly analyzed. Here, we show that uroplakin 3B (Upk3b, which encodes an integral membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, is specifically expressed both in development as well as under homeostatic conditions in adult mice in the mesothelia of the body cavities, i.e., the epicardium and pericardium, the pleura and the peritoneum, and in the urothelium of the urinary tract. To analyze Upk3b function, we generated a creERT2 knock-in allele by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. We show that Upk3bcreERT2 represents a null allele despite the lack of creERT2 expression from the mutated locus. Morphological, histological and molecular analyses of Upk3b-deficient mice did not detect changes in differentiation or integrity of the urothelium and the mesothelia that cover internal organs. Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only.

  12. Bladder uptake of liposomes after intravesical administration occurs by endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Raja Rajaganapathy

    Full Text Available Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery.

  13. Bladder Retraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a better voiding pattern around the clock. Do Kegel Exercises Help People with IC? Some bladder retraining programs recommend practicing Kegel exercises as part of bladder retraining. Kegel exercises ...

  14. Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symphysis pubis, and below the parietal peritoneum . The size and shape of the urinary bladder ... outer layer of the bladder wall is parietal peritoneum. In all other regions, the outer layer is ...

  15. Bladder Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life (the person’s level of health, comfort, and happiness). In fact, people with bladder problems may have a lower quality of life than people with diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Bladder problems ...

  16. Impact of diabetes mellitus on bladder uroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T; Ruiz, Giovanni W; Daneshgari, Firouz; Liu, Guiming; Apodaca, Gerard; Birder, Lori A

    2013-01-15

    Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD), a prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is characterized by a broad spectrum of symptoms including urinary urgency, frequency, and incontinence. As DBD is commonly diagnosed late, it is important to understand the chronic impact of DM on bladder tissues. While changes in bladder smooth muscle and innervation have been reported in diabetic patients, the impact of DM on the specialized epithelial lining of the urinary bladder, the urothelium (UT), is largely unknown. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and electron microscopy were used to evaluate UT gene expression and cell morphology 3, 9, and 20 wk following streptozotocin (STZ) induction of DM in female Sprague-Dawley rats compared with age-matched control tissue. Desquamation of superficial (umbrella) cells was noted at 9 wk DM, indicating a possible breach in barrier function. One causative factor may be metabolic burden due to chronic hyperglycemia, suggested by upregulation of the polyol pathway and glucose transport genes in DM UT. While superficial UT repopulation occurred by 20 wk DM, the phenotype was different, with significant upregulation of receptors associated with UT mechanosensation (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1; TRPV1) and UT autocrine/paracrine signaling (acetylcholine receptors AChR-M2 and -M3, purinergic receptors P2X(2) and P2X(3)). Compromised barrier function and alterations in UT mechanosensitivity and cell signaling could contribute to bladder instability, hyperactivity, and altered bladder sensation by modulating activity of afferent nerve endings, which appose the urothelium. Our results show that DM impacts urothelial homeostasis and may contribute to the underlying mechanisms of DBD. PMID:23174855

  17. Analysis on Pathogenesis of 50 Cases of Bladder Proliferative Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 蓝儒竹; 叶章群; 杨为民

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the pathogenesis, clinical and pathological characteristics of prolifera-tive lesions of the bladder, 50 cases of proliferative lesions of the bladder from 150 patients withcomplaints of frequency, urgency, hematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopic biopsy ofthe suspicious foci in the bladder. In combination with the symptoms, urine routine and urodynam-ics, the relationship of proliferative lesions of the bladder to the inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract was analyzed. Of the 50 cases of proliferative bladder lesions, 44 cases (88%)had lower urinary tract infection and 29 (58%) lower urinary tract obstruction. The patients withlower urinary tract obstruction were all complicated with infection. Three cases were associatedwith transitional cell carcinoma. Malignant cells were detected in 1 case by urinary cytologic exami-nation. Proliferative lesions of the bladder, especially those without other obvious mucosa changesunder cystoscopy, are common histological variants of urothelium in the patients with chronic in-flammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract. Chronic inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract might be the causes for proliferative lesions of the bladder. It is suggested thatdifferent treatments should be applied according to the scope and histological type of the prolifera-tive lesions.

  18. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  19. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the urothelial cells of naturally occurring urinary bladder tumors in cattle and water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E and late (L protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. CONCLUSION: This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo.

  20. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma: clinical aspects and in vitro functional characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed the...... strongly impaired cell viability and promoted apoptosis. To characterize downstream target genes and SOX4-induced pathways, we used a time-course global expression study of the overexpressed SOX4. Analysis of the microarray data showed 130 novel SOX4-related genes, some involved in signal transduction (MAP...

  1. The Expression of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Tae Jung; Kim, Sung Woo; Lee, Kyung Seop

    2012-01-01

    Background Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic factor. The purpose of this study is to examine the involvement of PEDF in the angiogenesis and biological behavior of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Methods We examined the expression of PEDF in 99 bladder TCCs and ten non-neoplastic tissues, and evaluated microvessel density (MVD). Results The positive immunoreactivity for PEDF was seen in normal urothelium in 60% (6/10) and TCC in 13% (13/99). The PEDF ex...

  2. Next generation of optical diagnostics for bladder cancer using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Chang, Timothy C.; Pan, Ying; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2012-02-01

    Real-time imaging with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) probes that fit in standard endoscopes has emerged as a clinically feasible technology for optical biopsy of bladder cancer. Confocal images of normal, inflammatory, and neoplastic urothelium obtained with intravesical fluorescein can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. We compiled a confocal atlas of the urinary tract using these diagnostic criteria to be used in a prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor underwent white light cystoscopy (WLC), followed by CLE, and histologic confirmation of resected tissue. Areas that appeared normal by WLC were imaged and biopsied as controls. We imaged and prospectively analyzed 135 areas in 57 patients. We show that CLE improves the diagnostic accuracy of WLC for diagnosing benign tissue, low and high grade cancer. Interobserver studies showed a moderate level of agreement by urologists and nonclinical researchers. Despite morphologic differences between inflammation and cancer, real-time differentiation can still be challenging. Identification of bladder cancer-specific contrast agents could provide molecular specificity to CLE. By using fluorescently-labeled antibodies or peptides that bind to proteins expressed in bladder cancer, we have identified putative molecular contrast agents for targeted imaging with CLE. We describe one candidate agent - anti-CD47 - that was instilled into bladder specimens. The tumor and normal urothelium were imaged with CLE, with increased fluorescent signal demonstrated in areas of tumor compared to normal areas. Thus, cancer-specificity can be achieved using molecular contrast agents ex vivo in conjunction with CLE.

  3. Temporal expression of elastic fiber components in bladder development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, H P; Macarak, E J; Chang, S L; Rosenbloom, J; Howard, P S

    1998-01-01

    Fetal and postnatal bovine bladders were examined for expression of elastic fiber components by immunohistochemistry as well as by measurement of steady state mRNA levels. Expression of fibrillin-1, microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) and elastin during the fetal period were compared with that of postnatal two year old animals (heifers) and adults. Each bladder was separated into two distinct tissue samples: 1) the outer smooth muscle layer (detrusor) and 2) the inner epithelium (urothelium) lined lamina propria (urotherial-lamina propria). Each of these samples was analyzed separately. Distribution of the elastic fiber components, determined by immunohistochemistry with matrix-specific antibodies, was different depending upon the region of the bladder wall examined and its developmental stage. In particular, MAGP and fibrillin-1 were conspicuously present in the urothelium during the later fetal stages. RNA products of elastic fiber genes were detectable both in the detrusor smooth muscle and urothelial-lamina propria fractions. The highest level of expression occurred in the urothelial-lamina propria fraction during the late second-early third trimester. Elastin expression was different from that of MAGP and fibrillin-1. The highest levels of steady-state elastin mRNA occurred at the earliest developmental stages examined and then progressively decreased through term. A high level of elastin expression occurred within the inner or lamina propria layer of the bladder. Since this layer is the functional capacitance layer within the bladder, its flexibility is likely related to the structural integration of elastin and associated microfibrillar components. PMID:9643643

  4. Antimutagenic dietary phenolics as antigenotoxic substances in urothelium of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1998-06-18

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of PhIP-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified ABP-dG adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n=18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (e.g., quercetin, isorhamnetin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited non-competitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Onion, lettuce, apples and red wine are important sources of dietary flavonoids which are probably responsible for the anti-mutagenicity associated with foods and beverages. After HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts, the distribution profile of anti-mutagenic activity corresponded roughly to that of onion and wine extract combined. Overall, our study strongly suggests that smokers ingesting dietary phenolics, probably flavonoids, are partially protected against the harmful effects by tobacco carcinogens within their bladder mucosal cells. PMID:9675288

  5. Increased expression of interleukin (IL-6 family members and receptors in urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced bladder inflammation in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MargaretAVizzard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that JAK-STAT signaling pathways contribute to increased voiding frequency and referred pain of CYP-induced cystitis in rats. Potential upstream chemical mediator(s that may be activated by CYP-induced cystitis to stimulate JAK/STAT signaling are not known in detail. In these studies, members of the interleukin (IL-6 family of cytokines including, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and associated receptors, IL-6 receptor (R α, LIFR and gp130 were examined in the urinary bladder in control and CYP-treated rats. Cytokine and receptor transcript and protein expression and distribution were determined in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Acute (4 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p., intermediate (48 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p. or chronic (75 mg/kg; i.p., once every 3 days for 10 days cystitis was induced in adult, female Wistar rats with CYP treatment. Q-PCR analyses revealed significant (p ≤ 0.01 CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor dependent increases in LIF, IL-6, IL-6Rα, LIFR and gp130 mRNA expression. Western blotting demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.01 increases in IL-6, LIF and gp130 protein expression in whole urinary bladder with CYP treatment. CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.01 increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. These studies suggest that IL-6 and LIF may be potential upstream chemical mediators that activate JAK/STAT signaling in urinary bladder pathways.

  6. Use of Aleuria alantia Lectin Affinity Chromatography to Enrich Candidate Biomarkers from the Urine of Patients with Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Ambrose

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing a urine test to detect bladder tumours with high sensitivity and specificity is a key goal in bladder cancer research. We hypothesised that bladder cancer-specific glycoproteins might fulfill this role. Lectin-ELISAs were used to study the binding of 25 lectins to 10 bladder cell lines and serum and urine from bladder cancer patients and non-cancer controls. Selected lectins were then used to enrich glycoproteins from the urine of bladder cancer patients and control subjects for analysis by shotgun proteomics. None of the lectins showed a strong preference for bladder cancer cell lines over normal urothlelial cell lines or for urinary glycans from bladder cancer patients over those from non-cancer controls. However, several lectins showed a strong preference for bladder cell line glycans over serum glycans and are potentially useful for enriching glycoproteins originating from the urothelium in urine. Aleuria alantia lectin affinity chromatography and shotgun proteomics identified mucin-1 and golgi apparatus protein 1 as proteins warranting further investigation as urinary biomarkers for low-grade bladder cancer. Glycosylation changes in bladder cancer are not reliably detected by measuring lectin binding to unfractionated proteomes, but it is possible that more specific reagents and/or a focus on individual proteins may produce clinically useful biomarkers.

  7. Downregulation of toll-like receptor 4 and IL-6 following irradiation of the rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, D; Wasén, C; Mölne, J; Suchy, D; Swanpalmer, J; Jabonero Valbuena, J; Tobin, G; Ny, L

    2016-07-01

    The pathophysiology behind radiation cystitis is poorly understood. Here we investigated whether bladder irradiation affects the immune system of the rat urinary bladder. Female rats were sedated and exposed to one single radiation dose of 20 Gy or only sedated (controls) and killed 16 h to 14 days later. Rats were placed in a metabolic cage at 16 h, 3 days, 7 days and 14 days following bladder irradiation. The urinary bladders were harvested and analysed with qPCR, immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot for the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, nitric oxide synthases (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Urine was collected and analysed for IL-6 and nitrite (reflecting nitric oxide activity) with ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Irradiation increased bladder frequency and decreased voiding volumes 14 days following bladder irradiation. Bladder irradiation increased the expression of IL-10 and collagen in the bladder, while TLR4 and IL-6 expressions were decreased in the urothelium concomitantly with a decrease in mast cells in the submucosa and urine levels of IL-6 and nitrite. The present findings show that bladder irradiation leads to urodynamic changes in the bladder and may suppress important immunoregulatory pathways in the urinary bladder. PMID:27117224

  8. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... in boys and is often linked to other birth defects. Surgery is necessary to: Allow the child to ...

  9. Utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is often lethal and non-MIBC (NMIBC) can recur and progress, yet prognostic markers are currently inadequate. SAM68, a member of RNA-binding proteins, has been reported to contribute to progression of other cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis of bladder cancer. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to examine the expression of SAM68 in ten pairs of MIBC and adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and eight pairs of MIBC and non-MIBC (NMIBC) tissues from the same patient. Moreover, SAM68 protein expression level and localization were examined by immunohistochemistry in 129 clinicopathologically characterized MIBC samples. Prognostic associations were determined by multivariable analysis incorporating standard prognostic factors. SAM68 expression was elevated in MIBC tissues compared with adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and was increased at both transcriptional and translational levels in MIBC tissues compared with NMIBC tissues of the same patient. For MIBC, high expression and nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression of SAM68 were associated with higher T-stage, higher N-stage and worse recurrence-free survival. Five-year recurrence-free survival was 80% and 52.9% for MIBC patients with low and high SAM68 expression, respectively (p = 0.001). SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression associated with worse 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (49.2%) than SAM68 expression confined to the nucleus (82.5%) or cytoplasm (75.5%) alone. On multivariable analysis SAM68 expression level, SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression, T-stage, and N-stage were all independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival of MIBC patients. SAM68 expression is increased in MIBC when compared to normal urothelium and NMIBC, and appears to be a potentially useful prognostic marker for MIBC

  10. Cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in human urinary bladder disorders and clinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benham Christopher D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1, provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the urinary bladder in patients with overactive and painful bladder syndromes, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods Bladder specimens obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 16, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 14, and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (controls, n = 17, were immunostained using specific antibodies to TRPM8; nerve fibre and urothelial immunostaining were analysed using fibre counts and computerized image analysis respectively. The results of immunohistochemistry were compared between the groups and correlated with the Pain, Frequency and Urgency scores. Results TRPM8-immunoreactive staining was observed in the urothelium and nerve fibres scattered in the suburothelium. The nerve fibre staining was seen in fine-calibre axons and thick (myelinated fibres. There was marked increase of TRPM8-immunoreactive nerve fibres in IDO (P = 0.0249 and PBS (P Conclusion This study demonstrates increased TRPM8 in nerve fibres of overactive and painful bladders, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. TRPM8 may play a role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of these disorders, and may provide an additional target for future overactive and painful bladder pharmacotherapy.

  11. Effects of nicotinic receptor agonists on bladder afferent nerve activity in an in vitro bladder-pelvic nerve preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongbei; Daugherty, Stephanie L; de Groat, William C

    2016-04-15

    Effects of nicotinic receptor agonists (epibatidine and nicotine) on mechano-sensitive bladder afferent nerve (MS-BAN) activity were studied in an in vitro bladder-pelvic afferent nerve preparation. MS-BAN activity was induced by isotonic distention of the bladder at pressures of 10-40cmH2O. The effect of epibatidine varied according to the concentration, route of administration and the intravesical pressure stimulus. Epibatidine (300-500nM) administered in the perfusate to the serosal surface of the bladder decreased distension evoked afferent firing by 30-50% depending on the bladder pressure. However these concentrations also produced an immediate increase in tonic afferent firing in the empty bladder. Lower concentrations (50-100nM) elicited weaker and more variable effects. The inhibitory effects were blocked by bath application of mecamylamine (150µM) a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Bath application of nicotine (20µM) elicited similar effects. Intravesical administration of epibatidine (500nM) significantly increased MS-BAN firing by 15-30%; while lower concentrations (200-300nM) were ineffective. This facilitatory effect of epibatidine was blocked by intravesical administration of mecamylamine (250µM). Electrical stimulation on the surface of the bladder elicited action potentials (AP) in BAN. Bath application of epibatidine (300nM) or nicotine (20µM) did not change either the voltage threshold or the area of evoked AP. These results indicate that nicotinic agonists: (1) enhance MS-BAN activity originating at afferent receptors near the urothelium, (2) inhibit MS-BAN activity originating at afferent receptors located at other sites in the bladder, (3) directly excite unidentified afferents, (4) do not alter afferent axonal excitability. PMID:26876739

  12. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    that their urinary condition had improved enough to repeat the treatment. At 1 and 3 months after RTX the number of episodes of urgency decreased to 39 ± 9 (p = 0.002 and 37 ± 6 (p = 0.02, respectively (p indicates statistical differences against vehicle. The percentage of patients with subjective improvement after RTX and willing to repeat the instillation at a later occasion was 69%. Conclusion In OAB patients with refractory urgency bladder desensitization should be further investigated as an alternative to the standard management. Additionally, the specific effect of RTX on TRPV1 receptors suggests that urothelium and sub-urothelial C-fibers play an important role to the generation of urgency sensation.

  13. Characterization of the early proliferative response of the rodent bladder to subtotal cystectomy: a unique model of mammalian organ regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Peyton

    Full Text Available Subtotal cystectomy (STC; surgical removal of ∼75% of the rat urinary bladder elicits a robust proliferative response resulting in complete structural and functional bladder regeneration within 8-weeks. The goal of these studies was to characterize the early cellular response that mediates this regenerative phenomenon, which is unique among mammalian organ systems. STC was performed on eighteen 12-week-old female Fischer F344 rats. At 1, 3, 5 and 7-days post-STC, the bladder was harvested 2-hours after intraperitoneal injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Fluorescent BrdU labeling was quantified in cells within the urothelium, lamina propria (LP, muscularis propria (MP and serosa. Cell location was confirmed with fluorescently co-labeled cytokeratin, vimentin or smooth muscle actin (SMA, to identify urothelial, interstitial and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh, Gli-1 and bone morphogenic factor-4 (BMP-4 were evaluated with immunochemistry. Three non-operated rats injected with BrdU served as controls. Less than 1% of cells in the bladder wall were labeled with BrdU in control bladders, but this percentage significantly increased by 5-8-fold at all time points post-STC. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the proliferative response were defined by a significantly higher percentage of BrdU-labeled cells within the urothelium at 1-day than in the MP and LP. A time-dependent shift at 3 and 5-days post-STC revealed significantly fewer BrdU-labeled cells in the MP than LP or urothelium. By 7-days the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells was similar among urothelium, LP and MP. STC also caused an increase in immunostaining for Shh, Gli-1 and BMP-4. In summary, the early stages of functional bladder regeneration are characterized by time-dependent changes in the location of the proliferating cell population, and expression of several evolutionarily conserved developmental signaling proteins. This report extends

  14. TOX3 (TNRC9) Over Expression in Bladder Cancer Cells Decreases Cellular Proliferation and Triggers an Interferon-Like Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Mansilla Castaño, Francisco; Dyrskjøt, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    identification and immunoprecipitation studies were used for DNA binding studies. Results: Microarray transcript profiling of 89 bladder biopsies showed a significant up-regulation of TOX3 (p<10-4) in non-muscle invasive (Ta-T1) bladder tumors compared to muscle-invasive (T2-T4) bladder tumors and normal...... urothelium. Microarray expression profiling of human bladder cancer cells over expressing TOX3 followed by Pathway analysis showed that TOX3 Overexpression mainly affected the Interferon Signaling Pathway. TOX3 up regulation induced the expression of several genes with a gamma interferon activation site (GAS...... expressing cell extracts with an artificial “GAS”- DNA element resulted in an enrichment of the GAS containing DNA-sequence, providing evidence for a potential interaction of TOX3 with the GAS-sequence of STAT1. Conclusions: These results provide evidence for an alternative activation of the downstream...

  15. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Norsworthy, Allison N; Sun, Tung-Tien; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-04-19

    The catheter-associated uropathogenProteus mirabilisfrequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found thatP. mirabilisrapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistantProteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation byP. mirabilisstands in direct contrast to uropathogenicEscherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism ofP. mirabilissurvival and virulence in the bladder. PMID:27044107

  16. Modulation of fibronectin-mediated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin attachment to murine bladder mucosa by drugs influencing the coagulation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M A; Brown, E J; Ritchey, J K; Ratliff, T L

    1991-07-15

    Adjuvant intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has proved to be an effective treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Intraluminal attachment of BCG organisms via binding to the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin (FN), appears to be required for expression of the antitumor efficacy of BCG against a murine bladder tumor. Initial studies demonstrated that radiolabeled FN localized to the acutely injured urothelium but not to intact urothelium. These studies also demonstrated that exogenous administration of FN enhanced BCG attachment to the injured but not to the intact urothelium. Because FN has been shown to be an integral part of clot formation at sites of urothelial injury, drugs known to affect fibrin clot formation were tested for their effects on BCG attachment and antitumor efficacy in a murine bladder tumor model. A stabilizer of fibrin clot formation was shown to enhance both BCG attachment and antitumor efficacy in the same model. An increased number of BCG organisms were also retained in the lymph nodes and spleens of mice receiving fibrin clot stabilizers, suggesting indirectly that immunological mechanisms are involved in the antitumor efficacy of BCG. The data presented herein provide further support for the hypothesis that BCG attachment to the injured bladder is mediated by FN. Furthermore, modulation of BCG-FN attachment is demonstrated to be possible with drugs influencing the coagulation pathway. This attachment is shown to be required for the antitumor efficacy in a murine bladder tumor model, and thus modulation of BCG-FN attachment appears to have significant influence on the antitumor efficacy of BCG in the murine bladder tumor model. PMID:2065329

  17. Ferritinophagy drives uropathogenic Escherichia coli persistence in bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauckman, Kyle A; Mysorekar, Indira U

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is a cellular recycling pathway, which in many cases, protects host cells from infections by degrading pathogens. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the predominant cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs), persist within the urinary tract epithelium (urothelium) by forming reservoirs within autophagosomes. Iron is a critical nutrient for both host and pathogen, and regulation of iron availability is a key host defense against pathogens. Iron homeostasis depends on the shuttling of iron-bound ferritin to the lysosome for recycling, a process termed ferritinophagy (a form of selective autophagy). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that UPEC shuttles with ferritin-bound iron into the autophagosomal and lysosomal compartments within the urothelium. Iron overload in urothelial cells induces ferritinophagy in an NCOA4-dependent manner causing increased iron availability for UPEC, triggering bacterial overproliferation and host cell death. Addition of even moderate levels of iron is sufficient to increase and prolong bacterial burden. Furthermore, we show that lysosomal damage due to iron overload is the specific mechanism causing host cell death. Significantly, we demonstrate that host cell death and bacterial burden can be reversed by inhibition of autophagy or inhibition of iron-regulatory proteins, or chelation of iron. Together, our findings suggest that UPEC persist in host cells by taking advantage of ferritinophagy. Thus, modulation of iron levels in the bladder may provide a therapeutic avenue to controlling UPEC persistence, epithelial cell death, and recurrent UTIs. PMID:27002654

  18. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  19. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigni, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS is still not well understood and different hypotheses have been formulated, including autoimmune processes, allergic reactions, chronic bacterial infections, exposure to toxins or dietary elements, and psychosomatic factors. The finding of an effective and specific therapy for IC/BPS remains a challenge for the scientific community because of the lack of a consensus regarding the causes and the inherent difficulties in the diagnosis. The last recent hypothesis is that IC/BPS could be pathophysiologically related to a disruption of the bladder mucosa surface layer with consequent loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This class of mucopolysaccharides has hydrorepellent properties and their alteration expose the urothelium to many urinary toxic agents. It has been hypothesized that when these substances penetrate the bladder wall a chain is triggered in the submucosa. In order to improve the integrity and function of the bladder lining, GAG layer replenishment therapy is widely accepted as therapy for patients with IC/BPS who have poor or inadequate response to conventional therapy. Currently, Chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), and combinations of two GAGs (CS and HA) are the available substances with different effectiveness rates in patients with IC/BPS. There are four different commercially available products for GAG replenishment including CS, heparin, HA and PPS. Each product has different concentrations and

  20. A phase II trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jiong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cisplatin-based combinations in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma(TCC of the urothelium. Concern over cisplatin toxicity instigated a search for alternative regimens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity and tolerability of gemcitabine plus carboplatin combination as first-line treatment in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Methods Patients with advanced TCC were treated with gemcitabine 1200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin area under the concentration-time curve(AUC 5 on day 1 every 21 days. Results Out of 41 patients, thirty-nine were evaluable for efficacy and 41 for toxicity. A median of 5 cycles (range 1–6 was administered. Overall response rate was 46.2% (95% confidence interval: 32–65% including 10.3% complete responses and 35.9% partial responses. The median time to progression and median overall survival were 7.5 months (95% confidence interval: 6.6–8.4 months and 13.6 months (95% confidence interval: 10.2–17.0 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 36.6%, 26.8, and 24.4% of patients, respectively. Non-hematological toxicity was generally mild. Grade 3 vomiting occurred in 1 (2.4% patients. Conclusion The gemcitabine plus carboplatin combination is active in advanced TCC with acceptable toxicity and needs to be evaluated further and compared with other non-cisplatin-containing regimens. Trial registration ISRCTN88259320

  1. A phase II trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cisplatin-based combinations in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) of the urothelium. Concern over cisplatin toxicity instigated a search for alternative regimens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity and tolerability of gemcitabine plus carboplatin combination as first-line treatment in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Patients with advanced TCC were treated with gemcitabine 1200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin area under the concentration-time curve(AUC) 5 on day 1 every 21 days. Out of 41 patients, thirty-nine were evaluable for efficacy and 41 for toxicity. A median of 5 cycles (range 1–6) was administered. Overall response rate was 46.2% (95% confidence interval: 32–65%) including 10.3% complete responses and 35.9% partial responses. The median time to progression and median overall survival were 7.5 months (95% confidence interval: 6.6–8.4 months) and 13.6 months (95% confidence interval: 10.2–17.0 months), respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 36.6%, 26.8, and 24.4% of patients, respectively. Non-hematological toxicity was generally mild. Grade 3 vomiting occurred in 1 (2.4%) patients. The gemcitabine plus carboplatin combination is active in advanced TCC with acceptable toxicity and needs to be evaluated further and compared with other non-cisplatin-containing regimens. ISRCTN88259320

  2. Iatrogenic neonatal bladder perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Trigui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic causes. The present study describes the case of a 3-day-old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary probably to manual decompression of the bladder. The infant underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation.

  3. P53 and Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glycans Are Surrogate Markers of Cancerization of the Bladder Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luís; Tavares, Ana; Peixoto, Andreia; Parreira, Beatriz; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Brindley, Paul J.; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%), cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn) and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex), involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed

  4. Does phosphorylation of cofilin affect the progression of human bladder cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined the differently expressed protein profiles and their functions in bladder cancer tissues with the aim of identifying possible target proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms for taking part in their progression. Methods We examined the expression of proteins by proteomic analysis and western blot in normal urothelium, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs, and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs. The function of cofilin was analyzed using T24 human bladder cancer cells. Results The expression levels of 12 proteins were altered between bladder cancers and normal bladder tissues. Of these proteins, 14-3-3σ was upregulated in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with controls. On the other hand, myosin regulatory light chain 2, galectin-1, lipid-binding AI, annexin V, transthyretin, CARD-inhibitor of NF-κB-activating ligand, and actin prepeptide were downregulated in cancer samples. Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, was prominent in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with normal bladder tissues. Furthermore, we confirmed that cofilin phosphorylation was more prominent in MIBCs than in NMIBCs using immunoblotting and immunohistochemcal analyses. Epidermal growth factor (EGF increased the phosphorylation of cofilin and elevated the migration in T24 cells. Knockdown of cofilin expression with small interfering RNA attenuated the T24 cell migration in response to EGF. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the increased expression and phosphorylation of cofilin might play a role in the occurrence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. We suspected that changes in cofilin expression may participate in the progression of the bladder cancer.

  5. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  6. A BAC-based transgenic mouse specifically expresses an inducible Cre in the urothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Huai Shen

    Full Text Available Cre-loxp mediated conditional knockout strategy has played critical roles for revealing functions of many genes essential for development, as well as the causal relationships between gene mutations and diseases in the postnatal adult mice. One key factor of this strategy is the availability of mice with tissue- or cell type-specific Cre expression. However, the success of the traditional molecular cloning approach to generate mice with tissue specific Cre expression often depends on luck. Here we provide a better alternative by using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based recombineering to insert iCreERT2 cDNA at the ATG start of the Upk2 gene. The BAC-based transgenic mice express the inducible Cre specifically in the urothelium as demonstrated by mRNA expression and staining for LacZ expression after crossing with a Rosa26 reporter mouse. Taking into consideration the size of the gene of interest and neighboring genes included in a BAC, this method should be widely applicable for generation of mice with tissue specific gene expression or deletions in a more specific manner than previously reported.

  7. Emmprin and survivin predict response and survival following cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne B; Dyrskjøt, Lars; von der Maase, Hans;

    2007-01-01

    and survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Affymetrix GeneChip expression profiling was carried out using tumor material from 30 patients. A set of genes with an expression highly correlated to survival time after chemotherapy was identified. Two genes were selected for validation by immunohistochemistry in...... strong independent prognostic factors for response and survival after cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer.......PURPOSE: Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. The response rate is approximately 50% and tumor-derived molecular prognostic markers are desirable for improved estimation of response...

  8. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... Don’t Miss the 2016 BCAN ... Click here for more details Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network 4915 St. Elmo Avenue, Suite 202 Bethesda, Maryland ...

  9. The Potential Role of Polymethyl Methacrylate as a New Packaging Material for the Implantable Medical Device in the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is used in implantable medical devices; however, PDMS is not a completely biocompatible material for electronic medical devices in the bladder. To identify novel biocompatible materials for intravesical implanted medical devices, we evaluated the biocompatibility of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA by analyzing changes in the levels of macrophages, macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF, and inflammatory cytokines in the bladder. A ball-shaped metal coated with PMMA or PDMS was implanted into the bladders of rats, and after intravesical implantation, the inflammatory changes induced by the foreign body reaction were evaluated. In the early period after implantation, increased macrophage activity and MIF in the urothelium of the bladder were observed. However, significantly decreased macrophage activity and MIF in the bladder were observed after implantation with PMMA- or PDMS-coated metal in the later period. In addition, significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were observed with time. Based on these results, we suggest that MIF plays a role in the foreign body reaction and in the biocompatible packaging with PMMA for the implanted medical devices in the bladder.

  10. Stromal mesenchyme cell genes of the human prostate and bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Laura E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal mesenchyme cells play an important role in epithelial differentiation and likely in cancer as well. Induction of epithelial differentiation is organ-specific, and the genes responsible could be identified through a comparative genomic analysis of the stromal cells from two different organs. These genes might be aberrantly expressed in cancer since cancer could be viewed as due to a defect in stromal signaling. We propose to identify the prostate stromal genes by analysis of differentially expressed genes between prostate and bladder stromal cells, and to examine their expression in prostate cancer. Methods Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to cluster designation (CD cell surface antigens was first used to characterize the stromas of the prostate and bladder. Stromal cells were prepared from either prostate or bladder tissue for cell culture. RNA was isolated from the cultured cells and analyzed by DNA microarrays. Expression of candidate genes in normal prostate and prostate cancer was examined by RT-PCR. Results The bladder stroma was phenotypically different from that of the prostate. Most notable was the presence of a layer of CD13+ cells adjacent to the urothelium. This structural feature was also seen in the mouse bladder. The prostate stroma was uniformly CD13-. A number of differentially expressed genes between prostate and bladder stromal cells were identified. One prostate gene, proenkephalin (PENK, was of interest because it encodes a hormone. Secreted proteins such as hormones and bioactive peptides are known to mediate cell-cell signaling. Prostate stromal expression of PENK was verified by an antibody raised against a PENK peptide, by RT-PCR analysis of laser-capture microdissected stromal cells, and by database analysis. Gene expression analysis showed that PENK expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer. Conclusion Our findings show that the histologically similar stromas of the prostate and

  11. Extramedular plasmacytoma in the urinary bladder: Unusual localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabrenović Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple myeloma is a plasmaproliferative disease characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of a pathogenic plasma cell clone engaged in the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. This condition affects the bone marrow, but it can be manifested in any other organ or tissue. The urinary bladder involvement is extremely rare. Case report. We reported a 70-year-old male with the history of multiple myeloma, receiving chemotherapy containing melphalan and prednisone (MP. Two years after the treatment, there was a renal failure associated with oligoanuria, hematuria and bilateral hydronephrosis. The urine cytology tests revealed the atypical cells, so was suspected obstructive uropathy to be caused by urothelium cancer. However, only upon the cystoscopy and biopsy performed on the urinary bladder mass, plasmacytoid infiltration diagnosis was confirmed. This extremely rare variant was presented throughout the illness period and proved to be resistant to the administered chemotherapy. Conclusion. When renal failure associated with hematuria and bilateral hydronephrosis is presented in a patient with multiple myeloma, this unusual and rare extramedular localization should be also considered.

  12. Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Khan, Saara A.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC), the gold standard for imaging bladder cancer. OCT can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, which enables it to stage cancers and detect tumors that are otherwise invisible to WLC. Currently, OCT systems have too slow a speed and too small a field of view for comprehensive bladder imaging, which limits its clinical utility. Validation and feasibility testing of technological refinements aimed to provide faster imaging and wider fields of view necessitates a realistic bladder phantom. We present a novel process to fabricate the first such phantom that mimics both the optical and morphological properties of layers of the healthy and pathologic bladder wall as they characteristically appear with OCT. The healthy regions of the silicone-based phantom comprises three layers: the urothelium, lamina propria and muscularis propria, each containing an appropriate concentration of titanium dioxide to mimic its distinct scattering properties. As well, the layers each possess a unique surface appearance imposed by a textured mold. Within this phantom, pathologic tissue-mimicking regions are created by thickening specific layers or creating inclusions that disrupt the layered appearance of the bladder wall, as is characteristic of bladder carcinomas. This phantom can help to evaluate the efficacy of new OCT systems and software for tumor localization. Moreover, the procedure we have developed is highly generalizable for the creation of OCT-relevant, multi-layer phantoms for tissues that incorporate diseased states characterized by the loss of layered structures.

  13. Prostate-derived ets factor represses tumorigenesis and modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chuang, Sung-Ting; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-05-28

    Prostate-derived Ets (E-twenty six) factor (PDEF), an epithelium-specific member of the Ets family of transcription factors, has been shown to play a role in suppressing the development of many epithelium-derived cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. It is not clear, however, whether PDEF is involved in the development or progression of bladder cancer. In a comparison between normal urothelium and bladder tumor tissue, we identified significant decreases of PDEF in the tumor tissue. Further, the immunohistochemistry assays indicated a significantly higher immunostaining of PDEF in low-grade bladder tumors. Additionally, the highly differentiated transitional-cell bladder carcinoma RT-4 cells expressed significantly more PDEF levels than the bladder carcinoma HT1376 and the T24 cells. Ectopic overexpression of PDEF attenuated proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PDEF enhanced the expression levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN), N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), KAI1, and B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2). PDEF modulated epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by upregulating E-cadherin expression and downregulating the expression of N-cadherin, SNAIL, SLUG, and vimentin, leading to lower migration and invasion abilities of bladder carcinoma cells. Filamentous actin (F-actin) polarization and remodeling were observed in PDEF-knockdown RT-4 cells. Our results suggest that PDEF gene expression is associated with the extent of bladder neoplasia and PDEF modulated the expressions of EMT-related genes. The induction of BTG2, NDRG1, MASPIN, and KAI1 gene expressions by PDEF may explain the inhibitory functions of PDEF on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells. PMID:26965996

  14. Inhalation of tobacco smoke induces increased proliferation of urinary bladder epithelium and endothelium in female C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is the major environmental risk factor for bladder cancer in humans. Aromatic amines, potent DNA-reactive bladder carcinogens present in cigarette smoke, contribute significantly. However, increased cell proliferation, caused by direct mitogenesis or in response to cytotoxicity, may also play a role since urothelial hyperplasia has been observed in human cigarette smokers. We examined the urothelial effects of cigarette smoke (whole body inhalation exposure (Teague) system) in female C57BL/6 mice at various times in two studies, including reversibility evaluations. In both studies, no urothelial hyperplasia was observed by light microscopy in any group. However, in study 1, the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of the urothelium was significantly increased in the smoke exposed group compared to controls through 3 months, but was not present at 6, 9 or 12 months even with continued exposures. In the groups that discontinued smoke exposure, it returned to the same levels as controls or lower. In study 2, the bromodeoxyuridine LI was similar to controls on day 1 but significantly increased at 5 days in the smoke exposed group. In the group that discontinued smoke exposure for 2 days, the LI was increased compared to controls but not significantly. Superficial urothelial cell cytotoxicity and necrosis were detectable by scanning electron microscopy at 5 days. Changes in LI of submucosal endothelial cells generally followed those of the urothelium and effects were reversible upon cessation of exposure. The increased urothelial proliferation appeared to be due to superficial cell cytotoxicity with consequent regeneration

  15. URACHAL CARCINOMA IN BLADDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽燕; 吕宁; 何祖根; 林冬梅; 刘秀云

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in the bladder.Methods: Seven cases of urachal carcinoma in the bladder were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the tumors were found locating in the dome of bladder. Of them, 4 were mucinous adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated papillary enteric adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated squamous carcinoma, and one was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Cystomorphous urachal remnants were found in 4 cases. The main complaint was hematuria and all patients underwent partial excision of bladder and urachus. Conclusion: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the main histo-pathological type, and cystomorphous urachal remnants are often accompanied with urachal carcinoma in the bladder. The key diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in bladder are site and histopathology. And to examine the specimens carefully to find the urachal remnants is important.

  16. Genomic Alterations in Liquid Biopsies from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen; Christensen, Emil;

    2016-01-01

    Background: At least half of the patients diagnosed with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) experience recurrence and approximately 15% will develop progression to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Biomarkers for disease surveillance are urgently needed. Objective: Development of ass...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  18. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water accelerates N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced bladder tissue damage in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Paul-Yann [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi, Chang Gung University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yung-Lun; Huang, Chin-Chin; Chen, Sin-Syu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yi-Wen, E-mail: ywlss@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-15

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to an arsenic-contaminated environment correlates with the incidence of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is highly recurrent after intravesical therapy, and most of the deaths from this disease are due to invasive metastasis. In our present study, the role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in a mouse model. This work provides the first evidence that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder tissue damage, including the urothelium and submucosal layer. This damage to the bladder epithelium induced by BBN includes thickening of the submucosal layer, the loss of the glycosaminoglycan layer and an increase in both the deoxyguanosine oxidation and cytosine methylation levels in the DNA. Further, when 10 ppm inorganic arsenic is combined with BBN, the number of bladder submucosal capillaries is increased. In addition, inorganic arsenic also increases the deoxyguanosine oxidation level, alters the cytosine methylation state, decreases the activities of glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreases the protein expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and increases the protein expression of specific protein 1 (Sp1) in bladder tissues. In summary, our data reveal that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes the BBN-induced pre-neoplastic damage of bladder tissue in mice, and that the 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 5-methylcytosine, NQO-1 protein and Sp1 protein levels may be pre-neoplastic markers of bladder tumors. -- Highlights: ► The role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in mice. ► We examine the changes in the histology and biochemistry of bladder tissues. ► Inorganic arsenic enhances BBN-induced DNA oxidation while decreases BBN-induced DNA methylation in the mouse bladder. ► Inorganic arsenic alters the activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes in

  19. Nutritional surveillance*

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for i...

  20. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  1. Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPARα+γ Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin B. Oleksiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPARα and γ (here termed PPARα+γ agonists have experienced high attrition rates in preclinical and early clinical development, due to toxicity. In some cases, discontinuation was due to carcinogenic effect in the rat urothelium, the epithelial layer lining the urinary bladder, ureters, and kidney pelvis. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARα is invariably associated with cancer in rats and mice. Chronic pharmacological activation of PPARγ can in some cases also cause cancer in rats and mice. Urothelial cells coexpress PPARα as well as PPARγ, making it plausible that the urothelial carcinogenicity of PPARα+γ agonists may be caused by receptor-mediated effects (exaggerated pharmacology. Based on previously published mode of action data for the PPARα+γ agonist ragaglitazar, and the available literature about the role of PPARα and γ in rodent carcinogenesis, we propose a mode of action hypothesis for the carcinogenic effect of PPARα+γ agonists in the rat urothelium, which combines receptor-mediated and off-target cytotoxic effects. The proposed mode of action hypothesis is being explored in our laboratories, towards understanding the human relevance of the rat cancer findings, and developing rapid in vitro or short-term in vivo screening approaches to faciliate development of new dual-acting PPAR agonist compounds.

  2. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  3. Bladder dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudes, Mathieu; Uvin, Pieter; Pinto, Silvia; Voets, Thomas; Fowler, Clare J; Wenning, Gregor K; De Ridder, Dirk; Stefanova, Nadia

    2013-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder presenting with motor impairment and autonomic dysfunction. Urological function is altered in the majority of MSA patients, and urological symptoms often precede the motor syndrome. To date, bladder function and structure have never been investigated in MSA models. We aimed to test bladder function in a transgenic MSA mouse featuring oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy and define its applicability as a preclinical model to study urological failure in MSA. Experiments were performed in proteolipid protein (PLP)-human α-synuclein (hαSyn) transgenic and control wild-type mice. Diuresis, urodynamics, and detrusor strip contractility were assessed to characterize the urological phenotype. Bladder morphology and neuropathology of the lumbosacral intermediolateral column and the pontine micturition center (PMC) were analyzed in young and aged mice. Urodynamic analysis revealed a less efficient and unstable bladder in MSA mice with increased voiding contraction amplitude, higher frequency of nonvoiding contractions, and increased postvoid residual volume. MSA mice bladder walls showed early detrusor hypertrophy and age-related urothelium hypertrophy. Transgenic hαSyn expression was detected in Schwann cells ensheathing the local nerve fibers in the lamina propria and muscularis of MSA bladders. Early loss of parasympathetic outflow neurons and delayed degeneration of the PMC accompanied the urological deficits in MSA mice. PLP-hαSyn mice recapitulate major urological symptoms of human MSA that may be linked to αSyn-related central and peripheral neuropathology and can be further used as a preclinical model to decipher pathomechanisms of MSA. PMID:23426727

  4. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... red in color). Frequent urination. Pain during urination. Lower back pain. Tests that examine the urine and bladder are used to help detect (find) and diagnose bladder cancer. The following tests and ... left. Treatment given after surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, ...

  5. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  6. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...

  7. Loss of the urothelial differentiation marker FOXA1 is associated with high grade, late stage bladder cancer and increased tumor proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J DeGraff

    Full Text Available Approximately 50% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC develop metastatic disease, which is almost invariably lethal. However, our understanding of pathways that drive aggressive behavior of MIBC is incomplete. Members of the FOXA subfamily of transcription factors are implicated in normal urogenital development and urologic malignancies. FOXA proteins are implicated in normal urothelial differentiation, but their role in bladder cancer is unknown. We examined FOXA expression in commonly used in vitro models of bladder cancer and in human bladder cancer specimens, and used a novel in vivo tissue recombination system to determine the functional significance of FOXA1 expression in bladder cancer. Logistic regression analysis showed decreased FOXA1 expression is associated with increasing tumor stage (p<0.001, and loss of FOXA1 is associated with high histologic grade (p<0.001. Also, we found that bladder urothelium that has undergone keratinizing squamous metaplasia, a precursor to the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC exhibited loss of FOXA1 expression. Furthermore, 81% of cases of SCC of the bladder were negative for FOXA1 staining compared to only 40% of urothelial cell carcinomas. In addition, we showed that a subpopulation of FOXA1 negative urothelial tumor cells are highly proliferative. Knockdown of FOXA1 in RT4 bladder cancer cells resulted in increased expression of UPK1B, UPK2, UPK3A, and UPK3B, decreased E-cadherin expression and significantly increased cell proliferation, while overexpression of FOXA1 in T24 cells increased E-cadherin expression and significantly decreased cell growth and invasion. In vivo recombination of bladder cancer cells engineered to exhibit reduced FOXA1 expression with embryonic rat bladder mesenchyme and subsequent renal capsule engraftment resulted in enhanced tumor proliferation. These findings provide the first evidence linking loss of FOXA1 expression with histological subtypes

  8. In the absence of overt urothelial damage, chondroitinase ABC digestion of the GAG layer increases bladder permeability in ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Robert E; Van Gordon, Samuel; Tyler, Karl; Kropp, Bradley; Towner, Rheal; Lin, HsuehKung; Marentette, John O; McHowat, Jane; Mohammedi, Ehsan; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-05-01

    Loss of integrity of the protective impermeability barrier in the urothelium has been identified as significant in bladder dysfunction. In this study, we tested the theory that the luminal layer of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) serves as an important component of barrier function. The peptide polycation protamine sulfate (PS), 1 mg/ml, was instilled intravesically for 10 min into rat bladders. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), 63 IU/ml, was instilled into an additional six rats for 30 min to digest the GAG layer. Unmanipulated controls and sham-injected controls were also performed. After 24 h, the rats were euthanized, the bladders were removed, and permeability was assessed in the Ussing chamber and by diffusion of FITC-labeled dextran (4 kDa) to measure macromolecular permeability. The status of tight junctions was assessed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. In control and sham treated rat bladders, the transepithelial electrical resistance were means of 2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 2.6 ± 1.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.5 and 1.01 ± 0.7 kΩ·cm(2) in the PS-treated and ChABC-treated rat bladders (P = 0.0016 and P = 0.0039, respectively). Similar differences were seen in dextran permeability. Histopathology showed a mild inflammation following PS treatment, but the ChABC-treated bladders were indistinguishable from controls. Tight junctions generally remained intact. ChABC digestion alone induced bladder permeability, confirming the importance of the GAG layer to bladder barrier function and supports that loss of the GAG layer seen in bladder biopsies of interstitial cystitis patients could be a significant factor producing symptoms for at least some interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome patients. PMID:26911855

  9. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as...

  10. Advances in intravesical therapy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Michael D; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Agarwal, Piyush K

    2014-09-01

    The knowledge of tumor biology and the biomechanical properties of the urothelium have led to significant advances in the development of intravesical therapy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Targeted therapy improves the efficacy and decreases the side effects of antineoplastic agents. Nanoparticles that target antitumor agents to the urothelial cells have allowed for improved delivery of these agents to tumor cells. Gene therapy is another strategy that has allowed for a targeted induction of an antitumor response. Finally, engineering of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine aimed to minimize the potential side effects associated with this treatment. These novel approaches hold promise for decreasing the rate of progression and recurrence of NMIBC. PMID:25054027

  11. Tissue responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in syngeneic orthotopic rat bladder cancer model: possible pathways of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Hjelde, Astrid; Krokan, Hans E.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Chen, Duan; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2011-02-01

    Orthotopic bladder cancer model in rats mimics human bladder cancer with respect to urothelial tumorigenesis and progression. Utilizing this model at pT1 (superficial stage), we analyze the tissue responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic therapy (HAL-PDT). In comparison to untreated rats, HAL-PDT causes little change in tumor-free rat bladder but induces inflammatory changes with increased lymphocytes and mononuclear cell infiltration in rat bladders with tumor. Immunohistochemistry reveals that HAL-PDT is without effect on proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression within the tumor and increases caspase-3 expression in both normal urothelium and the tumor. Transmission electron microscopy reveals severe mitochondrial damage, formations of apoptotic bodies, vacuoles, and lipofuscin bodies, but no microvillus-formed niches in HAL-PDT-treated bladder cancer rats. Bioinformatics analysis of the gene expression profile indicates an activation of T-cell receptor signaling pathway in bladder cancer rats without PDT. HAL-PDT increases the expression of CD3 and CD45RA in the tumor (determined by immunohistochemistry). We suggest that pathways of action of HAL-PDT may include, at least, activations of mitochondrial apoptosis and autophagy, breakdown of cancer stem cell niches, and importantly, enhancement of T-cell activation.

  12. Origins of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Bogdan; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David

    2016-05-23

    Bladder cancer, one of the most frequently occurring human cancers, develops via two tracks referred to as papillary and nonpapillary that correspond to clinically different forms of the disease. Most bladder cancers are chemically induced, with tobacco smoking being the leading risk factor. Recent advances in bladder cancer research have enhanced our understanding of the origin of this disease from urothelial progenitor cells via field effects along papillary/luminal and nonpapillary/basal pathways. Evident from the outset of the disease, the diversity of the luminal and basal pathways, together with cell lineage tracing studies, postulates the origin of molecularly distinct subtypes from different uroprogenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms initiating field effects involve a new class of genes referred to as forerunner (FR) genes that generally map around major tumor suppressors such as RB1. These genes are silenced, predominantly by hypermethylation and less frequently by mutations, and drive the expansion of intraurothelial preneoplastic cells. Different FR genes are involved in various molecular subtypes of bladder cancer and they sensitize the uroprogenitor cells to the development of luminal and basal bladder cancers in animal models. In human bladder cancer, luminal and basal forms have dissimilar clinical behavior and response to conventional and targeted chemotherapeutic manipulations. These new research developments hold the promise of expanding our armamentarium of diagnostic and treatment options for patients with bladder cancer and improving our ability to select patients most likely to respond to a specific therapy. PMID:26907529

  13. Surveillance Angels

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data. Human operators are supposed to give a semantic interpretation of the observed data. They are searching for suspicious or unwanted behaviour. The increase of surveillance sensors in the military ...

  14. A new problem in inflammatory bladder diseases: Use of mobile phones!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Koca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Technological developments provide a lot of conveniences to our lives. This issue is one of the risks that arise along with these conveniences. In our study we tried to understand the impact of electromagnetic waves from mobile phones on bladder tissue. Materials and Methods Twenty-one adult male albino rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 was exposed to electromagnetic wave for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their bladders were taken off immediately. Group 2 was firstly exposed to electromagnetic wave for 8 hours per day for 20 days then secondly another for 20 days without exposition to electromagnetic wave and then their bladders were taken off. Group 3 was the control group and they were not exposed to electromagnetic wave. Results Under microscopic examination of bladder tissue, in the first group severe inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in lamina propria and muscle layer in contrast to intact urothelium. In the second group mild inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in lamina propria and muscle layer. The mean scores for the three groups were 5.5 ± 2.5, 0.8 ± 1.3 and 1.2 ± 1.5 respectively. Mean score of group 1 was statistically higher than others (p = 0.001. Conclusion Intensive use of mobile phones has negative impact on bladder tissue as well as the other organs. Keeping a minimum level of mobile phone use makes it easy to be kept under control of diseases in which inflammation is an etiologic factor.

  15. Molecular networks discriminating mouse bladder responses to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG, LPS, and TNF-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozmorov Igor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a mainstay for treating superficial bladder carcinoma and a promising agent for interstitial cystitis, the precise mechanism of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG remains poorly understood. It is particularly unclear whether BCG is capable of altering gene expression in the bladder target organ beyond its well-recognized pro-inflammatory effects and how this relates to its therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine differentially expressed genes in the mouse bladder following chronic intravesical BCG therapy and to compare the results to non-specific pro inflammatory stimuli (LPS and TNF-α. For this purpose, C57BL/6 female mice received four weekly instillations of BCG, LPS, or TNF-α. Seven days after the last instillation, the urothelium along with the submucosa was removed from detrusor muscle and the RNA was extracted from both layers for cDNA array experiments. Microarray results were normalized by a robust regression analysis and only genes with an expression above a conditional threshold of 0.001 (3SD above background were selected for analysis. Next, genes presenting a 3-fold ratio in regard to the control group were entered in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA for a comparative analysis in order to determine genes specifically regulated by BCG, TNF-α, and LPS. In addition, the transcriptome was precipitated with an antibody against RNA polymerase II and real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (Q-PCR was used to confirm some of the BCG-specific transcripts. Results Molecular networks of treatment-specific genes generated several hypotheses regarding the mode of action of BCG. BCG-specific genes involved small GTPases and BCG-specific networks overlapped with the following canonical signaling pathways: axonal guidance, B cell receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, IL-6, PPAR, Wnt/β-catenin, and cAMP. In addition, a specific detrusor network expressed a high degree of overlap with the

  16. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  17. Human urinary exosomes in bladder cancer patients : properties, concentrations and possible clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Riches, Andrew Clive; Powis, Simon John; Mullen, Peter; Harrison, David James; Hacker, Christian; Lucocq, John Milton; Bowness, James Simeon; Chapman, Alex; Cameron, Ruth; McLornan, Liz; Chinn, David John; Leung, Steve

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High grade bladder cancer is extremely aggressive. Early detection is thus an important challenge. De- velopment of non-invasive diagnostic tools particularly using urine samples could be of importance in the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. Exosomes are small vesicles present in the urine and have the potential to be used as biomarkers of cancer. Thus studies of the properties and concentrations of these particles in bladder cancer patients are of importance.MATERIALS...

  18. Virtual 3D bladder reconstruction for augmented medical records from white light cystoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Angst, Roland; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate that necessitates lifelong surveillance to detect mucosal lesions. Examination with white light cystoscopy (WLC), the standard of care, is inherently subjective and data storage limited to clinical notes, diagrams, and still images. A visual history of the bladder wall can enhance clinical and surgical management. To address this clinical need, we developed a tool to transform in vivo WLC videos into virtual 3-dimensional (3D) bladder models using advanced computer vision techniques. WLC videos from rigid cystoscopies (1280 x 720 pixels) were recorded at 30 Hz followed by immediate camera calibration to control for image distortions. Video data were fed into an automated structure-from-motion algorithm that generated a 3D point cloud followed by a 3D mesh to approximate the bladder surface. The highest quality cystoscopic images were projected onto the approximated bladder surface to generate a virtual 3D bladder reconstruction. In intraoperative WLC videos from 36 patients undergoing transurethral resection of suspected bladder tumors, optimal reconstruction was achieved from frames depicting well-focused vasculature, when the bladder was maintained at constant volume with minimal debris, and when regions of the bladder wall were imaged multiple times. A significant innovation of this work is the ability to perform the reconstruction using video from a clinical procedure collected with standard equipment, thereby facilitating rapid clinical translation, application to other forms of endoscopy and new opportunities for longitudinal studies of cancer recurrence.

  19. Nerve Disease and Bladder Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... KB) Alternate Language URL Nerve Disease and Bladder Control Page Content On this page: What bladder control ...

  20. Gall bladder distention in newborns.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, R P; Egner, J R

    1988-01-01

    Three cases of gall bladder distention in asphyxiated newborns are described. Clinical and ultrasound examination showed this to be a benign, transient phenomenon. A causal relation between tissue hypoxia and gall bladder distention is proposed.

  1. Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S M

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodent...

  2. Synchronous Contra Lateral Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of the Kidney and Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaghi MR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous upper urinary tract tumor and s uperficial bladder tumor are uncommon. This is a report of a 62- year- old man pr esented with episode of painless gross hematuria and flank pain. We worked him up and found a left renal mass and bladder lesion. He underwent nephrectomy and TUR-BT, and the pathology report of both showed a high grade urothelial tr ansitional cell carcinoma. The patient was followed by surveillance protocol for ureter stump. Our report included an uncommon case of high gr ade synchronous upper urinary tract and bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

  3. Taurine modulates neutrophil function but potentiates uropathogenic E. coli infection in the murine bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condron, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of a urinary tract infection (UTI) appears to be related to a number of innate host defence mechanisms and their interactions with invading bacteria. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) pose a difficult problem in that these bacteria use both host and bacterial factors to evade elimination. Neutrophil bactericidal function is depressed, both systemically and in urine, in patients with a history of recurrent UTI. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is successful in preserving neutrophil bactericidal function in urine. Taurine may preserve neutrophil function at the urothelium and thus aid UTI resolution. Adult female (6 weeks old) C57Bl\\/6 mice were randomised into three groups: a saline gavage only control group, a saline gavage + E. coli group, and a taurine gavage + E. coli group [21 g\\/70 kg taurine in 0.9% normal saline (N\\/S) for 5 days]. Whilst taurine gavage pre-treatment resulted in increased serum neutrophils respiratory burst activity, at the urothelial-endothelial interface it caused higher colony forming units in the urine and a higher incidence of E. coli invasion in the bladder wall with no evidence of increased bladder wall neutrophils infiltration on MPO assay of histological assessment. Histologically there was also evidence of reduced bladder inflammation and urothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taurine effectively increases neutrophils activity but given its anti-inflammatory properties, at the expense of decreased urothelial-endothelial activation thus preventing clearance of active E. coli infection in the bladder. Despite the negative results, this study demonstrates the importance of modulating interactions at the urothelial interface.

  4. The effect of radiation and cytotoxic platinum compounds on the growth of normal and tumour bladder explant cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.B.; Cusack, A.; O' Brien, A.; Butler, M. (Saint Luke' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland) Meath Hospital, Dublin (Ireland). Urology Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Using an explant tissue culture model developed by this group for use with human surgical and biopsy specimens, data are presented showing the response of normal and tumor bladder urothelium to radiation in combination with cis- and carboplatin. Cellular response is measured after two weeks in culture as a reduction in the extent of outgrowth from the explant. The outgrowth has been shown to be growing and to be epithelial. Results showed that when either drug or radiation is used singly, the tumour is resistant to treatment while the normal cells are severely affected. However, appropriate combinations of either drug with radiation reverse the unfavourable therapeutic ratio and result in higher tumour cell kill. The model may be useful for investigating mechanisms of radiation/chemotherapy action at the cellular level and, if integrated into appropriate clinical trials, may serve as an easy-to-use in vitro test for optimising single agent or combination therapy regimens. (orig.).

  5. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær;

    2004-01-01

    The presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions in the urinary bladder is associated with a high risk of disease progression to a muscle invasive stage. In this study, we used microarray expression profiling to examine the gene expression patterns in superficial transitional cell carcinoma (sTCC......) with surrounding CIS (13 patients), without surrounding CIS lesions (15 patients), and in muscle invasive carcinomas (mTCC; 13 patients). Hierarchical cluster analysis separated the sTCC samples according to the presence or absence of CIS in the surrounding urothelium. We identified a few gene clusters...... that contained genes with similar expression levels in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with surrounding CIS and invasive TCC. However, no close relationship between TCC with adjacent CIS and invasive TCC was observed using hierarchical cluster analysis. Expression profiling of a series of biopsies...

  6. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  7. Influenza surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: collection of influenza virus isolates and analysis of their antigenic characteristics so that the most appropriate virus variants can be recommended as constituents of influenza vaccines for use during the next epidemiological season; collection and analysis of information on influenza morbidity and mortality; and earliest possible detection of influenza epidemics. Exact estimates of the specific morbidity and mortality due to influenza are ...

  8. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  9. Identification of gene expression patterns in superficial and invasive human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Thykjær; Workman, Christopher; Kruhøffer, Mogens;

    2001-01-01

    Multiple transcriptional events take place when normal urothelium is transformed into tumor tissue. These can now be monitored simultaneously by the use of oligonucleotide arrays, and expression patterns of superficial and invasive tumors can be established. Single-cell suspensions were prepared ...... patterns may be identified in bladder cancer by combining oligonucleotide arrays and cluster analysis. These patterns give new biological insight and may form a basis for the construction of molecular classifiers and for developing new therapy for bladder cancer....... genes. The obtained expression data were sorted according to a weighting scheme and were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis of tissues and genes. Northern blotting was used to verify the array data, and immunohistology was used to correlate between RNA and protein levels. Hierarchical clustering...... of samples correctly identified the stage using both 4076 genes and a subset of 400 genes covarying with the stages and grades of tumors. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression levels identified several stage-characteristic, functionally related clusters, encoding proteins that were related to...

  10. Loss of intercellular adhesion leads to differential accumulation of hypericin in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, S. Sasidharan; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Chin, William W. L.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Olivo, Malini C. D.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) exploits the photoactive nature of certain compounds, namely photosensitizers, in order to enhance the visual demarcation between normal and neoplastic tissue. Hypericin is one such potent photosensitizer that preferentially accumulate in neoplastic tissue, and fluoresce in the visible spectrum when illuminated with light of an appropriate wavelength. In our study, we investigated the role of E-cadherin in the selective permeation of hypericin in bladder cancer tissues. Clinical studies were done on a series of 43 histologically graded bladder cancer biopsy specimens, obtained from 28 patients who received intravesical instillations with 8μM hypericin solution for at least 2 hours. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of E-cadherin, in the cryosectioned tissues. Hypericin uptake was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining showed a clear expression of E-cadherin along the urothelial lining of the normal and pre-malignant tissues. Partial expression of these cell adhesion molecules were still observed in malignant tissues, however there was a loss of expression to variable extends along the urothelium. Thus, loss of intercellular adhesion can be associated with enhanced hypericin permeation through paracellular diffusion.

  11. Metabolic alterations in bladder cancer: applications for cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyard, Terry; Waltzer, Wayne C; Waltzer, Douglas; Romanov, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Treatment planning, outcome and prognosis are strongly related to the adequate tumor staging for bladder cancer (BC). Unfortunately, a large discrepancy exists between the preoperative clinical and final pathologic staging. Therefore, an advanced imaging-based technique is crucial for adequate staging. Although Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently the best in vivo imaging technique for BC staging because of its excellent soft-tissue contrast and absence of ionizing radiation it lacks cancer-specificity. Tumor-specific positron emission tomography (PET), which is based on the Warburg effect (preferential uptake of glucose by cancer cells), exploits the radioactively-labeled glucose analogs, i.e., FDG. Although FDG-PET is highly cancer specific, it lacks resolution and contrast quality comparable with MRI. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI enables the detection of low concentrations of metabolites containing protons. BC is an attractive target for glucose CEST MRI because, in addition to the typical systemic administration, glucose might also be directly applied into the bladder to reduce toxicity-related complications. As a first stage of the development of a contrast-specific BC imaging technique we have studied glucose uptake by bladder epithelial cells and have observed that glucose is, indeed, consumed by BC cells with higher intensity than by non-transformed urothelial cells. This effect might be partly explained by increased expression of glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3 in transformed cells as compared to normal urothelium. We also detected higher lactate production by BC cells which is another cancer-specific manifestation of the Warburg effect. In addition, we have observed other metabolic alterations in BC cells as compared to non-transformed cells: in particular, increased pyruvate synthesis. When glucose was substituted by glutamine in culture media, preferential uptake of glutamine by BC cells was observed. The preferential

  12. Effects of co-administration of dietary sodium arsenate and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (DMPS) on the rat bladder epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen, inducing tumors of the skin, urinary bladder and lung. It is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals. 2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (DMPS), a chelating agent, is capable of reducing pentavalent arsenicals to the trivalent state and binding to the trivalent species, and it has been used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning in humans. Therefore, we investigated the ability of DMPS to inhibit the cytotoxicity and regenerative urothelial cell proliferation induced by arsenate administration in vivo. Female rats were treated for 4 weeks with 100 ppm AsV. DMPS (2800 ppm) co-administered in the diet significantly reduced the AsV-induced cytotoxicity of superficial cells detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the incidence of simple hyperplasia observed by light microscopy and the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index. It also reduced the total concentration of arsenicals in the urine and the methylation of arsenic. There were no differences in oxidative stress as assessed by immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) of the bladder urothelium. No differences were detected in urine sediments between groups. These data suggest that DMPS has the ability to inhibit both arsenate-induced acute toxicity and regenerative proliferation of the rat bladder epithelium, most likely by decreasing exposure of the urothelium to trivalent arsenicals excreted in the urine. These data provide additional evidence that the effects of arsenate exposure in vivo do not appear to be related to oxidative effects on dG in DNA.

  13. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  14. Bladder neck contracture

    OpenAIRE

    Simhan, Jay; Ramirez, Daniel; Hudak, Steven J.; Morey, Allen F.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder neck contracture (BNC) is a well-described complication of the surgical treatment of benign and malignant prostate conditions. Nevertheless, etiologies of BNC development are highly dependent on the primary treatment modality undertaken with BNC also occurring after pelvic radiation. The treatment options for BNC can range from simple, office-based dilation procedures to more invasive, complex abdomino-perineal reconstructive surgery. Although numerous strategies have been described, ...

  15. Gall bladder ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ranendra Hajong

    2013-01-01

    Hepatobiliary ascariasis is commonly reported from highly endemic regions like India, Bangladesh, Latin America, parts of Middle East and Africa. In humans, the usual habitat of Ascaris lumbricoides is the small intestine. When the worm load is high, going as high as more than 1000 worms, then the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site. Patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis may present with biliary colic due to obstruction caused by the worms in the gall bladder, common bile duct or ...

  16. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  17. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  18. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB) and the dysfunctional voiding (DV), have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could ...

  19. Information surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; McQuerry, Dennis; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  20. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L;

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed cons...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  2. Diet in bladder cancer ethiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show influence of different foods on bladder cancer appearance, as well as possible consequent ways of prevention. Consumption of food rich in animal fat and cholesterol, fried foods, especially several times used cookin oil for frying, processed meat with additives (nitrates, nitrites, azo-colourrs can influence bladder cancer occurrence. Regularly, continuous consumption of fermented milk products, which contains come types of milky - acids bacterias, is considered as protective factor in developing bladder cancer. Reports that fruit and vegetable are protective food items are pretty consistent. Data about mineral intake and bladder cancer are obscure.

  3. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for murine bladder tumors: initiation of the response by fibronectin-mediated attachment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Palmer, J O; McGarr, J A; Brown, E J

    1987-04-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial bladder cancer. Although the mechanisms by which BCG inhibits tumor growth are not known, previous studies have shown that systemic immunization to BCG and the local expression of the immune response in the bladder are associated with a favorable response to BCG therapy. We have investigated the conditions required for the initiation of an immunological response after the intravesical instillation of BCG. Initial histological studies showed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas where the urothelium was damaged by electrocautery and suggested that attachment was associated with the fibrin clot. Quantitative studies verified the histological observations. Minimal BCG attachment (mean less than 10(2) colony forming units) was observed in normal bladders in contrast with a mean of 1.42 X 10(4) colony forming units/bladder in bladders damaged by electrocautery (10 separate experiments). BCG attachment to the bladder wall was durable since organisms were observed in bladders 48 h after instillation. To investigate the proteins to which BCG attached, we tested the binding of BCG to extracellular matrix and inflammatory proteins which comprise a significant portion of the fibrin clot. BCG bound in vitro to coverslips coated in vivo with extracellular matrix proteins but did not bind to control albumin-coated coverslips. BCG also bound to coverslips coated with purified plasma fibronectin but not to coverslips coated with other purified extracellular matrix proteins including laminin, fibrinogen, and type IV collagen. BCG attachment to coverslips coated with either extracellular matrix proteins or purified fibronectin was inhibited by antibodies specific for fibronectin. Moreover, BCG attachment to cauterized bladders in vivo was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. These results demonstrate that fibronectin mediates the attachment of BCG

  4. Compensatory Paracrine Mechanisms That Define The Urothelial Response to Injury in Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassuk, James; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Sweet, Robert; Han, Chang-Hee; Soygur, Tarkan; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Plaire, J. Chadwick; Charleston, Jay S.; Charleston, Lynne B.; Bagai, Shelly; Cochrane, Kimberly; Rubio, Eric; Bassuk, James A.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2007-06-21

    Diseases and conditions affecting the lower urinary tract are a leading cause of dysfunctional sexual health, incontinence, infection, and kidney failure. The growth, differentiation, and repair of the bladder's epithelial lining are regulated, in part, by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 and -10 via a paracrine cascade originating in the mesenchyme (lamina propria) and targeting the receptor for FGF-7 and -10 within the transitional epithelium (urothelium). The FGF-7 gene is located at the 15q15-q21.1 locus on chromosome 15 and four exons generate a 3.852-kb mRNA. Five duplicated FGF-7 gene sequences that localized to chromosome 9 were predicted not to generate functional protein products, thus validating the use of FGF-7-null mice as an experimental model. Recombinant FGF-7 and -10 induced proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and transitional epithelium of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice in vivo.To determine the extent that induction of urothelial cell proliferation during the bladder response to injury is dependent on FGF-7, an animal model of partial bladder outlet obstruction was developed. Unbiased stereology was used to measure the percentage of proliferating urothelial cells between obstructed groups of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice. The stereological analysis indicated that a statistical significant difference did not exist between the two groups, suggesting that FGF-7 is not essential for urothelial cell proliferation in response to partial outlet obstruction. In contrast, a significant increase in FGF-10 expression was observed in the obstructed FGF-7-null group, indicating that the compensatory pathway that functions in this model results in urothelial repair.

  5. Pathogenic and Diagnostic Potential of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 Nuclear Proteins in Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Santoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder is one of the most common malignancies of genitourinary tract. Patients with bladder cancer need a life-long surveillance, directly due to the relatively high recurrence rate of this tumor. The use of cystoscopy represents the gold standard for the followup of previously treated patients. Nevertheless, several factors, including cost and invasiveness, render cystoscopy not ideal for routine controls. Advances in the identification of specific alterations in the nuclear structure of bladder cancer cells have opened novel diagnostic landscapes. The members of nuclear matrix protein family BLCA-1 and BLCA-4, are currently under evaluation as bladder cancer urinary markers. They are involved in tumour cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. In this paper, we illustrate the role of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 in bladder carcinogenesis and their potential exploitation as biomarkers in this cancer.

  6. Induction of genetic instability in ρ53 in primary cultures of normal human urothelium exposed low-dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that primary explant cultures of human urothelium exposed to low doses of gamma radiation subsequently exhibit a high level of stable P53 but it was not clear from those studies whether this protein stabilisation occurred through epigenetic events or as a result of mutation. In these experiments, primary urothelium cultures from five different patients were exposed to 0.5 and 5 Gy γ- radiation from a 60Cobalt source and allowed to grow for 7- 10 division cycles to allow development of any radiation-induced, non lethal changes in the urothelial cells. C-myc, Bcl-2, and stable P53 protein expression was found to be elevated in cultures following both radiation doses. Following 0.5 Gy exposure, the cultures also developed multiple distinct 'foci' of rapidly-dividing cells which strongly over-expressed P53. These grew on a background of morphologically normal cells. When such foci were selectively analysed for their p53 mutation status by PCR-SSCPE, there was evidence that they contained cells which had developed changes to thr p53 gene post-irradiation. These changes appeared to occur more frequently in focal cells than in cells of normal morphological appearance in the same culture. DNA sequence analysis of the p53 gene in 0.5 Gy-induced foci displayed frame shift mutations in some cases. These results may have mechanistic importance given the controversy regarding low-dose radiation effects and p53-related genomic instability. (authors)

  7. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, Oliver; Vasdev, Nikhil; Allchorne, Paula; Green, James Sa

    2015-01-01

    It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest benefit in metastatic disease, although the role in superficial bladder cancer remains unclear. PMID:26000263

  8. Neurogenic Bladder and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupin V.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been presented general information of neurogenic bladder and the data on pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. The characteristics of clinical presentations of neurogenic bladder in multiple sclerosis have been stated. There have been considered diagnosis and treatment problems of urinary disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  9. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  10. Management of invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle invasive disease accounts for a quarter of all cases of bladder cancer. A bewildering variety of treatment options are available for patients with this disease, with combinations of surgery and/or radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. This review discusses these treatment options and their relative merits for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. 22 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuge O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Fuge,1 Nikhil Vasdev,1 Paula Allchorne,2 James SA Green2 1Department of Urology, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK; 2Department of Urology, Bartshealth NHS Trust, Whipps Cross Rd, London, UK Abstract: It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest

  12. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Lamm, Donald L

    2002-02-01

    The data presented herein, although highly supportive for a protective role of various nutrients against bladder cancer, are far from definitive. Many authorities question the validity of current recommendations for nutritional chemoprevention against bladder cancer. The reason for the wide variations reported in epidemiologic studies lies in the nature of observational studies. Dietary studies are limited in their conclusions because the protection afforded by the consumption of a particular nutrient may be multifactorial, with different components of the food exerting potential chemopreventive effects. Furthermore, measuring levels of nutrients in the food intake of populations is confounded by factors that might affect these levels and also the incidence of cancer. For example, vitamin A can come from animal or vegetarian sources. Because animal fat has been identified as a potential carcinogen in man, depending on the source of the vitamin, varying levels of protection might be deduced. In addition, chemoprevention studies using dietary supplements are expected to have mild effects, and large studies would be required to confirm statistical significance. Even with agents such as intravesical chemotherapy, only half the studies achieve statistical significance [29]. Prospective randomized trials with a large sample size, longer follow-up, and an extended duration of treatment are needed to clarify the association between micronutrients and cancer protection. With these caveats in mind, several recommendations can be made. Simple measures, such as drinking more fluids (especially water), can have a profound impact on the incidence of bladder cancer. Vitamins are being extensively studied in chemopreventive trials for different cancers. There is strong evidence for a chemoprotective effect of vitamin A in bladder cancer. The authors recommend 32,000 IU/day of vitamin A initially, with lower doses (24,000 IU) for persons less than 50 kg. Because liver toxicity is a

  13. miR-145 induces caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in urothelial cancer cell lines with targeting of an expression signature present in Ta bladder tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Lamy, Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Downregulation of miR-145 in a variety of cancers suggests a possible tumor suppressor function for this microRNA. Here, we show that miR-145 expression is reduced in bladder cancer and urothelial carcinoma in situ, compared with normal urothelium, using transcription profiling and in situ...... hybridization. Ectopic expression of miR-145 induced extensive apoptosis in urothelial carcinoma cell lines (T24 and SW780) as characterized by caspase activation, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, cellular shrinkage, and detachment. However, cell death also proceeded upon caspase inhibition by the...... pharmacological inhibitor zVAD-fmk and ectopic expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, indicating the activation of an alternative caspase-independent death pathway. Microarray analysis of transcript levels in T24 cells, before the onset of cell death, showed destabilization of mRNAs enriched for miR-145 7mer target...

  14. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.)

  15. Familial aggregation of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Except for smoking and certain occupational exposures, the etiology of bladder cancer is largely unknown. Several case reports have described familial aggregation of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Although the majority of patients with bladder cancer do not have family history of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract, the study of familial transitional cell carcinoma may lead to the knowledge on the pathogenesis of this disease. The purpose of this study was to describe three cases of urinary bladder cancer in a single three-member family, i.e. in two generations (mother and son and a family member related by marriage (the patient’s wife. Case report. Three cases of urinary bladder cancer occurred in a three-member family within the interval of 5 years. The following common characteristics were detected in our patients: old age (over 60, working as farmers for more than 50 years, negative personal medical history on relevant health disorders, place of birth - village, place of residence - village, the same water supply, similar nutrition, positive family history on urinary bladder cancer or other malignant tumors, the first sign of illness was macroscopic hematuria in all the patients and the same pathohistological type of cancer - carcinoma papillare transitiocellulare. Conclusion. The stated common characteristics in our cases indicate, above all, the impact of exposure to external surrounding factors on the occurrence of urinary bladder cancer.

  16. Underactive Bladder in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Plata, Mauricio; Lamb, Laura E; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Overactive bladder is one of the most common bladder problems, but an estimated 20 million Americans have underactive bladder (UAB), which makes going to the bathroom difficult, increases the risk of urinary tract infections, and even leads to institutionalization. This article provides an overview of UAB in older adults, and discusses the prevalence, predisposing factors, cause, clinical investigations, and treatments. At present, there is no effective therapy for UAB. A great deal of work still needs to be done on understanding the pathogenesis and the development of effective therapies. PMID:26476113

  17. Experimental rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma models

    OpenAIRE

    Arentsen, Harm C.; Hendricksen, Kees; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Witjes, J Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major public health problem. Currently available therapeutic options seem to be unable to prevent bladder cancer recurrence and progression. To enable preclinical testing of new intravesical therapeutic agents, a suitable bladder tumor model that resembles human disease is highly desirable. The aim of this topic paper was to discuss the problems associated with current in vivo animal bladder tumor models, focusing on the orthotopic syngeneic rat bladder tumor model. In the...

  18. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  19. Gall bladder ascariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranendra Hajong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary ascariasis is commonly reported from highly endemic regions like India, Bangladesh, Latin America, parts of Middle East and Africa. In humans, the usual habitat of Ascaris lumbricoides is the small intestine. When the worm load is high, going as high as more than 1000 worms, then the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site. Patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis may present with biliary colic due to obstruction caused by the worms in the gall bladder, common bile duct or as a result of obstructive symptoms caused by calcified worms or lithiasis, which is commonly found in patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis. Acute pancreatitis may also be caused by ascariasis. Management usually is conservative if it is still alive or can be extracted by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography or surgery.

  20. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  1. Molecular detection of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumor tissues and exfoliated cells by aberrant promoter methylation of laminin-5 encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Ubaradka G; Maruyama, Riichiroh; Padar, Asha; Suzuki, Makoto; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Minna, John D; Frenkel, Eugene P; Grossman, H Barton; Czerniak, Bogdan; Gazdar, Adi F

    2004-02-15

    Laminin-5 (LN5) anchors epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane, and it is encoded by three distinct genes: LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2. To metastasize and grow, cancer cells must invade and destroy the basement membrane. Our previous work has shown that epigenetic inactivation is a major mechanism of silencing LN5 genes in lung cancers. We extended our methylation studies to resected bladder tumors (n = 128) and exfoliated cell samples (bladder washes and voided urine; n = 71) and correlated the data with clinicopathologic findings. Nonmalignant urothelium had uniform expression of LN5 genes and lacked methylation. The methylation frequencies for LN5 genes in tumors were 21-45%, and there was excellent concordance between methylation in tumors and corresponding exfoliated cells. Methylation of LAMA3 and LAMB3 and the methylation index were correlated significantly with several parameters of poor prognosis (tumor grade, growth pattern, muscle invasion, tumor stage, and ploidy pattern), whereas methylation of LAMC2 and methylation index were associated with shortened patient survival. Of particular interest, methylation frequencies of LAMA3 helped to distinguish invasive (72%) from noninvasive (12%) tumors. These results suggest that methylation of LN5 genes has potential clinical applications in bladder cancers. PMID:14973053

  2. Ct2 Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    The patient is an 80-year-old man who presented with gross hematuria. His past medical history indicates he was a cigarette smoker with 50 pack/years. He was successfully treated for carcinoma of the lung 7 years ago. He received chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. He has mild COPD but has a good performance status. His laboratory studies do not indicate any abnormalities in terms of renal function. He does not have any significant cardiac disease. He has a medium build. He had prostate cancer and underwent a successful radical prostatectomy 10 years ago. His PSA is undetectable. He has some urinary incontinence and wears two pads/day. He underwent the appropriate investigations for gross hematuria. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was normal with the exception of a 4-cm posterior mass in the bladder. There was no hydronephrosis and no enlarged lymph nodes. He underwent a transurethral resection of a solitary bladder tumor performed by another urologist. The tumor was described as large and sessile. It was located on the posterior wall and was approximately 4 cm. The bimanual examination did not reveal a mass. The pathology report stated that the tumor was a high-grade urothelial carcinoma with invasion into the muscularis propria. There was no lymphovascular invasion. I performed a reTURBT, and at that procedure, I did not identify any obvious tumor but the prior resection site was evident. I resected the prior tumor site quite extensively both in depth and width. The pathology revealed only focal carcinoma in situ. There was ample muscle in the specimen and there was some fat as well. As stated, they were free of any cancer. The patient is receptive to any treatment approach. PMID:27457483

  3. Cdx2反转录病毒载体的构建及转染膀胱上皮细胞的研究%Construction of human caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 retrovoral vector and transfection of urothelium cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明恩; 邓毕华; 吕夷松; 荣禄; 姚友生

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 plays an important role in the development of epithelium in digestive tract, especial y the smal intestine and colon. OBJECTIVE:To construct the retroviral expression vector of pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2, and to observe the effect of in vitro transfection of pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 in intestinal metaplasia. METHODS:Gene recombinant technology was employed to clone human caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 gene to the retroviral expression vector of pLNCX2, then identified with enzyme digestion and sequencing and packed to the PA317 cells. The plasmids were transfect in urothelium cells, real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect the expressions of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2, vil in and liverintestin-cadherin at the protein and mRNA levels. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The retroviral vector pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 was successful y constructed. The levels of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 protein and mRNA expressions in bladder urothelium celltransfected with pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 were higher than that in control. And the over-expression of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 could up-regulate the levels of vil in and liverintestin-cadherin expressions. Interestingly, specific changes of intestine-like cells were seen in the bladder urothelium cells transfected by pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2. Over-expression of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 can activate the caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 of urothelium cells and induce intestinal epithelial differentiation, thus inducing the development of cystitis glanduaris.%背景:尾侧型同源转录因子2在消化道尤其是小肠与结肠上皮的发育中起到关键作用。  目的:构建尾侧型同源转录因子2反转录病毒表达载体pLNCX2-Cdx2

  4. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Soloway, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Upper urinary tract (UUT) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of...

  5. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  6. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  7. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Chin-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients have a higher risk of bladder cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Theoretically, BPH patients may have an increased risk of bladder cancer because residual urine in the bladder surely increases the contact time between urinary excreted carcinogens and the urothelium. However, whether BPH increases bladder cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been studied. Methods The reimbursement databases of all Taiwanese diabetic patients under oral anti-diabetic agents or insulin from 1996 to 2009 were retrieved from the National Health Insurance. An entry date was set at 1 January 2006 and a total of 547584 men with type 2 diabetes were followed up for bladder cancer incidence until the end of 2009. Incidences of bladder cancer for BPH by status and by duration were calculated and adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals were estimated by Cox regression. The effects of diabetes duration and medications used for diabetic control in relation with bladder cancer risk were also evaluated by Cox regression in BPH men. Results The incidences were 258.77 and 69.34 per 100,000 person-years for patients with and without BPH, respectively, adjusted hazard ratio 1.794 (1.572, 2.047. For BPH patients, those who underwent surgical procedures for BPH had a higher incidence than those who did not (355.45 vs. 250.09 per 100,000 person-years, respective adjusted hazard ratios: 2.459 (1.946, 3.109 and 1.709 (1.492, 1.958. The significantly higher risk could be demonstrated for BPH of any duration: respective adjusted hazard ratios 1.750 (1.430, 1.605, 1.844 (1.543, 2.203, 2.011 (1.680, 2.406 and 1.605 (1.341, 1.921 for BPH Conclusions BPH is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in men with type 2 diabetes. Metformin may protect against bladder cancer in BPH men.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ND, Rubenstein JN, Eggener SE, Kozlowski JM. The p53 tumor suppressor gene and nuclear protein: basic science review and relevance in the management of bladder cancer. J Urol. 2003 Apr;169(4):1219-28. ...

  9. Bladder neck obstruction in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary bladder nech obstruction in women is quite rare and its symptoms - dysuria, frequency and urgency - are equivocal. Routine radiological investigations alone do not allow a diagnosis to be made, due to the lack of simultaneous measurements of detrusorial pressure and uroflow. A precise diagnosis is thus to be obtained by synchronous video-urodynamic studies which allow the depiction of nonfunneling or tight bladder neck during the entire phase of detrusor contraction, of bladder trabeculations and diverticula, vesico-ureteral reflux, long micturition time and incomplete voiding. When these radiological signs are associated with a rise in detrusorial voiding pressure over 60 cm of water and with peak urine flow lower than 15 ml/s, the diagnosis of bladder neck obstruction is unquestionable and the appropriate farmacologic/endoscopic treatment can be administered

  10. Nerve Disease and Bladder Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coordinating Committees NIDDK Advisory Council, Board of Scientific Advisors, and committees that coordinate research activities Research Areas ... bladder diary-a record of your fluid intake, trips to the bathroom, and episodes of urine leakage. ...

  11. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  12. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi; Saleh Mansoor Aulaqi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30t...

  13. Diet in bladder cancer ethiopathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić M.; Janković Slavenka M.; Ilić M.; Radosavljević V.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show influence of different foods on bladder cancer appearance, as well as possible consequent ways of prevention. Consumption of food rich in animal fat and cholesterol, fried foods, especially several times used cookin oil for frying, processed meat with additives (nitrates, nitrites, azo-colourrs) can influence bladder cancer occurrence. Regularly, continuous consumption of fermented milk products, which contains come types of milky - acids bacterias, is conside...

  14. Bladder Schwannoma - A Case Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mosier, Andrew D.; Leitman, David A.; Keylock, Joren; Nguyen, David; Grant, David

    2012-01-01

    Bladder schwannomas are exceedingly rare, benign or malignant, nerve sheath tumors that are most often discovered in patients with a known diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). A few sporadic case reports of bladder schwannoma have been published in urologic, obstetric/gynecologic, and pathologic journals. However, this is the first case report in the radiologic literature where computed tomography imaging and radiology-specific descriptions are discussed. Furthermore, the patient pres...

  15. Adaptor protein CRK induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis of bladder cancer cells through HGF/c-Met feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryuji; Tsuda, Masumi; Wang, Lei; Maishi, Nako; Abe, Takashige; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hida, Kyoko; Ohba, Yusuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that an adaptor protein CRK, including CRK-I and CRK-II, plays essential roles in the malignant potential of various aggressive human cancers, suggesting the validity of targeting CRK in molecular targeted therapy of a wide range of cancers. Nevertheless, the role of CRK in human bladder cancer with marked invasion, characterized by distant metastasis and poor prognosis, remains obscure. In the present study, immunohistochemistry indicated a striking enhancement of CRK-I/-II, but not CRK-like, in human bladder cancer tissues compared to normal urothelium. We established CRK-knockdown bladder cancer cells using 5637 and UM-UC-3, which showed a significant decline in cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. It is noteworthy that an elimination of CRK conferred suppressed phosphorylation of c-Met and the downstream scaffold protein Gab1 in a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent and -independent manner. In epithelial–mesenchymal transition-related molecules, E-cadherin was upregulated by CRK elimination, whereas N-cadherin, vimentin, and Zeb1 were downregulated. A similar effect was observed following treatment with c-Met inhibitor SU11274. Depletion of CRK significantly decreased cell proliferation of 5637 and UM-UC-3, consistent with reduced activity of ERK. An orthotopic xenograft model with bioluminescent imaging revealed that CRK knockdown significantly attenuated not only tumor volume but also the number of circulating tumor cells, resulted in a complete abrogation of metastasis. Taken together, this evidence uncovered essential roles of CRK in invasive bladder cancer through the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met/CRK feedback loop for epithelial–mesenchymal transition induction. Thus, CRK might be a potent molecular target in bladder cancer, particularly for preventing metastasis, leading to the resolution of clinically longstanding critical issues. PMID:25816892

  16. Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Schejbal, Vladimír; Bezoušek, Pavel; Pidanič, Jan; Chyba, Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) array antenna, which is intended for a system combining the secondary surveillance radar antenna and the primary surveillance radar antenna. It describes the patch array elements and the synthesis for the secondary surveillance radar array, considering both elevation and azimuth patterns for sum, difference, and sidelobe-suppression beams, and suspended stripline couplers. The utilization of multilayer techniques allows the connection...

  17. Dietary phenolics as anti-mutagens and inhibitors of tobacco-related DNA adduction in the urothelium of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1996-10-01

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. Urinary anti-mutagenicity in vitro appears thus to be a good indicator of the anti-genotoxicity exerted by substances excreted in urine, that protect the bladder mucosal cells (and possibly other cells) against DNA damage. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n = 18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (quercetin, isorhamnetin and naringenin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited noncompetitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Several structural features of the flavonoids were identified as necessary for the inhibition of PhIP and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxiline mutagenicity. Fractionation by reverse-phase HPLC and subsequent analysis of two urinary extracts, showed the presence of several anti

  18. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  19. Androgenic dependence of exophytic tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer: a role for thrombospondin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jorge L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid hormones influence mitogenic signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints, and it has long been known that incidence of bladder cancer (BC in men is several times greater than in women, a difference that cannot be attributed to environmental or lifestyle factors alone. Castration reduces incidence of chemically-induced BC in rodents. It is unclear if this effect is due to hormonal influences on activation/deactivation of carcinogens or a direct effect on urothelial cell proliferation or other malignant processes. We examined the effect of castration on BC growth in UPII-SV40T transgenic mice, which express SV40 T antigen specifically in urothelium and reliably develop BC. Furthermore, because BC growth in UPII-SV40T mice is exophytic, we speculated BC growth was dependent on angiogenesis and angiogenesis was, in turn, androgen responsive. Methods Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPDCT was used to longitudinally measure exophytic BC growth in UPII-SV40T male mice sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and supplemented with dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Human normal bladder and BC biopsies and mouse bladder were examined quantitatively for thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 protein expression. Results Mice castrated at 24 weeks of age had decreased BC volumes at 32 weeks compared to intact mice (p = 0.0071 and castrated mice administered DHT (p = 0.0233; one-way ANOVA, JMP 6.0.3, SAS Institute, Inc.. Bladder cancer cell lines responded to DHT treatment with increased proliferation, regardless of androgen receptor expression levels. TSP1, an anti-angiogenic factor whose expression is inhibited by androgens, had decreased expression in bladders of UPII-SV40T mice compared to wild-type. Castration increased TSP1 levels in UPII-SV40T mice compared to intact mice. TSP1 protein expression was higher in 8 of 10 human bladder biopsies of normal versus malignant tissue from the same patients. Conclusion

  20. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women are more involved as in men which prostate has a role is more common. The usual cases were: "n1. A young girl, aged 20, who had to wake up five times during the night to micturate. "n2. Also a lady said when I roll in bed I wet myself. "n3. A young lady who always had to use a pad. "n4. A man said I can’t use underground. "n5. I cannot go out since I have to micturate every hour. "n6. One said I have to wake up every hour at night. "n7. Young people say we have to micturate 3-4 times at night. "n8. A young man said as soon as I feel to micturate I empty my bladder before I’ve reached the WC and I wet myself to the ankle, how could I have a job? "n9. Some women wet themselves when they cough. "nIn order to know and diagnosis, the physiology of bladder function must be known. "nThe bladder is divided into two parts: "nThe Dom, which is innervated by Beta-Adrenergic. It relaxes the bladder in order to comply the urine. "nFrom the orifice of the urether and posterior ridge of the trigon to the bladder neck or internal sphincter. The prostatic urethra plays a major role in conti- nence. It has two parts,   "n1: From the bladder neck to V.M. this is enclaved by extension of detrusor muscles like a sleeve. These muscles contract during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation. "nDistal urethra from V.M. to the external sphincter which is covered by voluntary muscles. "nThe internal pressure of the urethra is higher than the bladder. If the pressure of the bladder rises

  1. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  2. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance of...... activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor...... visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  3. Bladder cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M

    1982-11-01

    A randomized controlled prospective evaluation of intravesical and percutaneous bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy was done in 57 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, 9 patients at high risk for tumor recurrence were treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin produced a self-limited cystitis and 1 complication (hydronephrosis) of immunotherapy was observed. Of the 57 randomized patients 54 were followed for 3 to 30 months. Tumor recurrence was documented in 13 of 26 controls (50 per cent) and only 6 of 28 patients (21 per cent) treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (p equals 0.027, chi-square). The interval free of disease was prolonged significantly with bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment (p equals 0.014, generalized Wilcoxon test). Importantly, a simple purified protein derivative skin test distinguished those patients who responded to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy from those who did not. Only 1 of 17 treated patients (6 per cent) whose purified protein derivative test converted from negative to positive had tumor recurrence compared to 5 recurrences (38 per cent) among the 13 patients whose test remained negative or had been positive before treatment (p equals 0.022, chi-square). Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was given to 10 patients with stage B transitional cell carcinoma who were not candidates for cystectomy and 7 are free of disease. Of 5 patients with carcinoma in situ 3 remain free of tumor after bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment and 5 of 6 who had multiple recurrences after intravesical chemotherapy responded favorably to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy. PMID:6757467

  4. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Coşkunoğlu, Esra Zeynep; Duran, Berkan; Çiftci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder a...

  5. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Esra Zeynep Coskunoglu; Berkan Duran; Egemen Ciftci

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder ...

  6. Bladder dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Kristian; Nielsen, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often have lower urinary tract symptoms. Seventy-four percent of patients with early-to-moderate disease report more than one bladder disturbance symptom. Severe bladder symptoms are reported in 27-39% of PD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sev...... the severity of bladder dysfunction in patients with advanced PD....

  7. Platinum Concentration and Pathologic Response to Cisplatin-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Guancial

    Full Text Available Platinum (Pt-based chemotherapy is the standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC. However, resistance is a major limitation. Reduced intratumoral drug accumulation is an important mechanism of platinum resistance. Our group previously demonstrated a significant correlation between tissue Pt concentration and tumor response to Pt-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC in lung cancer. We hypothesized that increased Pt concentration in radical cystectomy (RC specimens would correlate with improved pathologic response to Pt-based NAC in MIBC.A cohort of 19 clinically annotated, archived, fresh frozen RC specimens from patients with MIBC treated with Pt-based NAC was identified [ypT0 (pathologic complete response, pCR, N = 4; ≤ypT1N0M0 (pathologic partial response, pPR, N = 6; ≥ypT2 (minimal pathologic response/progression, N = 9]. RC specimens from 2 patients with MIBC who did not receive NAC and 1 treated with a non-Pt containing NAC regimen were used as negative controls. Total Pt concentration in normal adjacent urothelial tissue and bladder tumors from RC specimens was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Total Pt concentration in normal urothelium differed by tumor pathologic response (P = 0.011. Specimens with pCR had the highest Pt concentrations compared to those with pPR (P = 0.0095 or no response/progression (P = 0.020. There was no significant difference in Pt levels in normal urothelium and tumor between pPR and no response/progression groups (P = 0.37; P = 0.25, respectively.Our finding of increased intracellular Pt in RC specimens with pCR following NAC for MIBC compared to those with residual disease suggests that enhanced Pt accumulation may be an important determinant of Pt sensitivity. Factors that modulate intracellular Pt concentration, such as expression of Pt transporters, warrant further investigation as predictive biomarkers of response to Pt-based NAC in MIBC.

  8. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  9. Overall survival and local control following combined modality therapy and selective bladder preservation for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Bladder preservation, in the interest of quality of life, is secondary to the primary treatment goal of curing the patient. To evaluate the long term efficacy of a selective bladder preserving approach we updated our prospective series which now includes 40 patients surviving and under surveillance for 5 or more years. Materials and Methods: From 1986 through 1993, 106 patients (median age 68 years) with muscle-invading tumor (stages T2-T4a, Nx, M0) initiated a protocol of maximal transurethral resection followed by 2 cycles of methotrexate, cisplatin and vinblastine plus cisplatin x2 with 40Gy pelvic irradiation. Complete responders and all non-cystectomy candidates received consolidation by cisplatin and 24.8Gy. Incomplete responders underwent immediate radical cystectomy as did those who developed recurrent invasive tumor. Median follow-up is 53 months. Results: Of all 106 patients who initiated induction Combined Modality Treatment (CMT): 1) 83 patients or 78% completed CMT; 33% developed moderate or severe leukopenia, 2) 74 patients (70%) had a Complete Response (CR), 3) the 5 year actuarial overall survival is 52%; for clinical stage T2 and T3-T4a this is 63% and 45%, respectively, 4) 36 patients (34%) have had cystectomy, all for tumor (6 because CMT wasn't tolerated, 13 for < CR, 17 for recurrence); no patient required cystectomy for complications; the 5 year survival with an intact functioning bladder is 43%, 5) 31 patients (20%) have had relapse of a superficial TCC with 4 requiring cystectomy after failing conservative management with a subsequent median follow-up of 58 months. Conclusion: These data demonstrate 1) that induction CMT with transurethral surgery and chemo-radiotherapy and selection for organ-conservation by response have a 52% overall survival which is comparable to immediate cystectomy-based prospective studies of patients with similar age and clinical stages and 2) that the majority of long term survivors retain fully

  10. A comparative study of the sub-chronic toxic effects of three organic arsenical compounds on the urothelium in F344 rats; gender-based differences in response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies indicated that human arsenic exposure can induce urinary bladder cancer. Methylation of inorganic arsenic can generate more reactive and toxic organic arsenical species. In this regard, it was recently reported that the methylated arsenical metabolite, dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], induced urinary bladder tumors in rats. However, other methylated metabolites, like monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were not carcinogenic to the urinary bladder. In order to compare the early effects of DMA(V), MMA(V), and TMAO on the urinary bladder transitional cell epithelium at the scanning electron microscope (SEM) level, we investigated the sub-chronic (13 weeks) toxicological effects of MMA(V) (187 ppm), DMA(V) (184 ppm), TMAO (182 ppm) given in the drinking water to male and female F344 rats with a focus on the urinary bladder in this study. Obvious pathological changes, including ropy microridges, pitting, increased separation of epithelial cells, exfoliation, and necrosis, were found in the urinary bladders of both sexes, but particularly in females receiving carcinogenic doses of DMA(V). Urine arsenical metabolic differences were found between males and females, with levels of MMA(III), a potential genotoxic form, higher in females treated with DMA(V) than in males. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that DMA(V) is more toxic to the female urinary bladder, in accord with sensitivity to carcinogenesis. Important gender-related metabolic differences including enhanced presentation of MMA(III) to the urothelial cells might possibly account for heightened sensitivity in females. However, the potential carcinogenic effects of MMA(III) need to be further elucidated

  11. Urinary bladder lesions after the chernobyl accident. Immunohistochemical assessment of p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and p21WAF1/Cip1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 11-year period subsequent to the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancer in Ukraine has increased from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 population. Cesium-137 (137Cs) accounts for 80-90% of the incorporated radioactivity in this population, which has been exposed to long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation, and 80% of the more labile pool of cesium is excreted via the urine. The present study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features and the immunohistochemical status of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1, cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in urinary bladder mucosa of 55 males (49-92 years old) with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent surgery in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1995 and 1996. Group I (28 patients) inhabiting radiocontaminated areas of the country, group II (17 patients) from Kiev city with less radiocontamination and a control group III (10 patients) living in so-called ''clean'' areas of Ukraine were compared. In groups I and II, an increase in multiple areas of moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was seen in 42 (93%) of 45 cases. In addition, two small transitional cell carcinomas were found in one patient in each of groups I and II. Nuclear accumulation of p53, PCNA, cyclin D1, and to a lesser extent p21WAF1/Cip1, was significantly increased in both groups I and II as compared with the control group III, indicating possible transformation events or enhancement of repair activities, that may precede the defect in the regulatory pathway itself, at least in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that early malignant transformation is taking place in the bladder urothelium of people in the radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine and that this could possibly lead sometime in the future to an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer. (author)

  12. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8 in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Karl X

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8 is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Methods Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. Results Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15 TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Conclusion Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy.

  13. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8) in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15) TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy

  14. Repeated BCG treatment of mouse bladder selectively stimulates small GTPases and HLA antigens and inhibits single-spanning uroplakins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell Michael A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a mainstay for treating superficial bladder carcinoma and a promising agent for interstitial cystitis, the precise mechanism of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG remains poorly understood. It is particularly unclear whether BCG is capable of altering gene expression beyond its well-recognized pro-inflammatory effects and how this relates to its therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine differentially expressed genes in the mouse bladder following repeated intravesical BCG therapy. Methods Mice were transurethrally instilled with BCG or pyrogen-free on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. Seven days after the last instillation, urothelia along with the submucosa was removed and amplified ds-DNA was prepared from control- and BCG-treated bladder mucosa and used to generate suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. Plasmids from control- and BCG-specific differentially expressed clones and confirmed by Virtual Northern were then purified and the inserts were sequenced and annotated. Finally, chromatin immune precipitation combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (ChIP/Q-PCR was used to validate SSH-selected transcripts. Results Repeated intravesical BCG treatment induced an up regulation of genes associated with antigen presentation (B2M, HLA-A, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB2, HLA-E, HLA-G, IGHG, and IGH and representatives of two IFNγ-induced small GTPase families: the GBPs (GBP1, GBP2, and GBP5 and the p47GTPases (IIGTP1, IIGTP2, and TGTP. Genes expressed in saline-treated bladders but down-regulated by BCG included: the single-spanning uroplakins (UPK3a and UPK2, SPRR2G, GSTM5, and RSP 19. Conclusion Here we introduced a hypothesis-generator approach to determine key genes involved in the urothelium/sumbmucosa responses to BCG therapy. Urinary bladder responds to repeated BCG treatment by up-regulating not only antigen presentation-related genes, but also GBP and p47 small GTPases, both potentially

  15. Repeated BCG treatment of mouse bladder selectively stimulates small GTPases and HLA antigens and inhibits single-spanning uroplakins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite being a mainstay for treating superficial bladder carcinoma and a promising agent for interstitial cystitis, the precise mechanism of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) remains poorly understood. It is particularly unclear whether BCG is capable of altering gene expression beyond its well-recognized pro-inflammatory effects and how this relates to its therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine differentially expressed genes in the mouse bladder following repeated intravesical BCG therapy. Mice were transurethrally instilled with BCG or pyrogen-free on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. Seven days after the last instillation, urothelia along with the submucosa was removed and amplified ds-DNA was prepared from control- and BCG-treated bladder mucosa and used to generate suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Plasmids from control- and BCG-specific differentially expressed clones and confirmed by Virtual Northern were then purified and the inserts were sequenced and annotated. Finally, chromatin immune precipitation combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (ChIP/Q-PCR) was used to validate SSH-selected transcripts. Repeated intravesical BCG treatment induced an up regulation of genes associated with antigen presentation (B2M, HLA-A, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB2, HLA-E, HLA-G, IGHG, and IGH) and representatives of two IFNγ-induced small GTPase families: the GBPs (GBP1, GBP2, and GBP5) and the p47GTPases (IIGTP1, IIGTP2, and TGTP). Genes expressed in saline-treated bladders but down-regulated by BCG included: the single-spanning uroplakins (UPK3a and UPK2), SPRR2G, GSTM5, and RSP 19. Here we introduced a hypothesis-generator approach to determine key genes involved in the urothelium/sumbmucosa responses to BCG therapy. Urinary bladder responds to repeated BCG treatment by up-regulating not only antigen presentation-related genes, but also GBP and p47 small GTPases, both potentially serving to mount a resistance to the replication of the

  16. Immunotherapeutic strategies for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Mathieu F; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Jichlinski, Patrice; Derré, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common urologic malignancy with rising incidence in the elderly population. In most cases, bladder cancer is non-muscle-invasive at diagnosis and shows dramatically high recurrence rates, although current treatments often reduce the risk of disease progression. Immunotherapy using intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the most effective therapy for patients with high risk tumors. However, BCG-therapy has important limitations including substantial adverse events and frequent treatment failure. Thus, it appears crucial to either improve or replace current therapy using new immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we discuss the clinical trials that assessed therapeutic vaccination of bladder cancer patients using tumor associated antigens and we also argue for novel approaches arising from murine models. Vaccination routes to induce appropriate T-cell homing in the tumor site as well as the use of local immunostimulation to enhance recruitment of vaccine-induced T cells are discussed to highlight what we believe is a promising therapeutic vaccination strategy for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PMID:24384699

  17. [Specific types of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, S; Hartmann, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Gaisa, N T

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer shows rare variants and special subtypes with diverse prognostic importance and therefore may necessitate different therapeutic approaches. For pathologists it is important to histologically diagnose and specify such variants. Nested variants of urothelial carcinoma with inconspicuous, well-formed tumor cell nests present with an aggressive course. The plasmacytoid variant, which morphologically resembles plasma cells is associated with a shorter survival time and a high frequency of peritoneal metastasis. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma with small papillary tumor cell islands within artificial tissue retraction spaces and frequent lymphovascular invasion also has a poor prognosis. Other important rare differential variants listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification are microcystic, lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid, giant cell and undifferentiated urothelial carcinomas. Additionally, there are three special types of bladder cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. These tumors are characterized by pure squamous cell or glandular differentiation and are sometimes less responsive to adjuvant (chemo)therapy. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder mimics the neuroendocrine features of its pulmonary counterpart, shows an aggressive course but is sensitive to (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy. The morphology and histology of the most important variants and special types are discussed in this review. PMID:26782034

  18. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K; Tsai, Y C; Spruck, C H; Miyao, N; Nichols, P W; Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X chr...

  19. Containment and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of containment and surveillance measures in complementing nuclear materials accountancy to achieve safeguards objectives is discussed. The variety of techniques used, particularly optical surveillance and sealing systems, is described. Containment and surveillance reduce the cost of IAEA inspections and reduce the intrusiveness of the IAEA into normal plant operations by reducing the frequency of physical inventory measurements. 10 refs., 12 figs., poster presentations included

  20. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  1. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  2. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  3. Phase II Study of Biweekly Plitidepsin as Second-Line Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Szyldergemajn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this exploratory, open-label, single-arm, phase II clinical trial was to evaluate plitidepsin (5 mg/m2 administered as a 3-hour continuous intravenous infusion every two weeks to patients with locally advanced/metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium who relapsed/progressed after first-line chemotherapy. Treatment cycles were repeated for up to 12 cycles or until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient refusal or treatment delay for >2 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate according to RECIST. Secondary endpoints were the rate of SD lasting ≥6 months and time-to-event variables. Toxicity was assessed using NCI-CTC v. 3.0. Twenty-one patients received 57 treatment cycles. No objective tumor responses occurred. SD lasting <6 months was observed in two of 18 evaluable patients. With a median follow-up of 4.6 months, the median PFR and the median OS were 1.4 months and 2.3 months, respectively. The most common AEs were mild to moderate nausea, fatigue, myalgia and anorexia. Anemia, lymphopenia, and increases in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were the most frequent laboratory abnormalities. No severe neutropenia occurred. Treatment was feasible and generally well tolerated in this patient population; however the lack of antitumor activity precludes further studies of plitidepsin in this setting.

  4. Effect of dietary treatment with dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) on the urinary bladder epithelium of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) knockout and C57BL/6 wild type female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► As3mt KO and WT mice were treated with DMAIII for 4 weeks in drinking water. ► No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. ► Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated KO and WT mice. ► BrdU labeling index of urothelium was significantly increased in treated KO mice. - Abstract: Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is carcinogenic to the human urinary bladder. It produces urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation in rats and mice. DMAV, a major methylated urinary metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder carcinogen, but without effects on the mouse urothelium. DMAIII was shown to be the likely urinary metabolite of DMAV inducing urothelial changes and is also postulated to be one of the active metabolites of iAs. To evaluate potential DMAIII-induced urothelial effects, it was administered to As3mt knockout mice which cannot methylate arsenicals. Female C57BL/6 wild type and As3mt knockout mice (10/group) were administered DMAIII, 77.3 ppm in water for four weeks. Urothelial effects were evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy (EM) and immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. EM findings were rated 1–5, with higher rating indicating greater extent of cytotoxicity visualized. DMAIII significantly increased the BrdU labeling index, a ratio of BrdU labeled cells to non-labeled cells, in the treated knockout group compared to control and wild type treated groups. DMAIII induced simple hyperplasia in more knockout mice (4/10) compared to wild type mice (2/10). All treated knockout mice had more and larger intracytoplasmic granules compared to the treated wild type mice. Changes in EM classification were not significant. In conclusion, DMAIII induces urothelial toxicity and regenerative hyperplasia in mice and most likely plays a role in inorganic arsenic-induced urothelial changes. However, DMAV does not induce hyperplasia in mice, suggesting that urinary

  5. Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Ok Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-monthold infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient’s bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

  6. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  7. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurst Robert E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstital cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst, hyaluronate (Cystistat or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron. The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labelled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of glycosaminoglycans administered intravesically to mouse bladder that had been damaged on the surface. Methods The surfaces of mouse bladders were damaged by 3 mechanisms – trypsin, 10 mM HCl, and protamine sulphate. Texas Red-labeled chondroitin sulphate was instilled into the bladders of animals with damaged bladders and controls instilled only with saline. Bladders were harvested, frozen, and sectioned for examination by fluorescence. Results The normal mouse bladder bound a very thin layer of the labelled chondroitin sulphate on the luminal surface. Trypsin- and HCl-damaged bladders bound the labelled chondroitin sulphate extensively on the surface with little penetration into the bladder muscle. Protamine produced less overt damage, and much less labelling was seen, presumably due to loss of the label as it complexed with the protamine intercalated into the bladder surface. Conclusion Glycosaminoglycan administered intravesically does bind to damaged bladder. Given that the changes seen following bladder damage resemble those seen naturally in interstitial cystitis, the mechanisms proposed for the action of these agents is consistent with a coating of damaged bladder.

  8. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  9. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidirectional 45Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (JnetCa) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed JnetCa to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that JnetCa was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, JnetCa decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, JnetCa was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca2+-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na+-K+-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  10. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because o...

  11. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Pant-Purohit, Mukta; López Beltrán, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Cheng, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder(SCCUB) is a rare and aggressive cancer of the bladder.SCCUB is part of neuroendocrine family of tumors thataffect several organ systems including respiratory,gastrointestinal and male and female genitourinary tract.SCCUB affect males predominantly with common riskfactors include smoking, bladder calculi, bladdermanipulation, and chronic cystitis. Prognosis of SCCUBremains poor due to high metastatic potential and lack ofsymptoms in earlier stages of...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  13. Identifying distinct classes of bladder carcinoma using microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Marcussen, Niels; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton; Wolf, Hans; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2003-01-01

    immunohistological or molecular markers have been identified to define clinically relevant subsets of bladder cancer. Here we report the identification of clinically relevant subclasses of bladder carcinoma using expression microarray analysis of 40 well characterized bladder tumors. Hierarchical cluster analysis...

  14. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Cicek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder arising in an unusual localization. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 604-608

  15. Model for kidney-bladder excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to calculate the effective dose, an explicit tissue weighting factor of 0.05 is given for the bladder. Consequently a model for kidney-bladder excretion is needed to calculate the additional equivalent dose to bladder wall from activity in urine. The mathematical expressions of the model were proposed in ICRP Pub. 53. However, the expressions can only be applied to the materials excreted directly through urine from body fluids. If the intakes were transferred among the tissues or organs of body successively and excreted in urine, the available expressions calculating disintegration of the intakes in urinary path and bladder contents were derived in this paper

  16. Effects of co-administration of dietary sodium arsenite and an NADPH oxidase inhibitor on the rat bladder epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenite (AsIII), an inorganic arsenical, is a known human carcinogen, inducing tumors of the skin, urinary bladder and lung. It is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be important factors for carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is known to produce intracellular ROS, therefore, we investigated the ability of apocynin (acetovanillone), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, to inhibit the cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation of arsenic in vitro and in vivo. Apocynin had similar effects in reducing the cytotoxicity of AsIII and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) in rat urothelial cells in vitro. When tested at the same concentrations as apocynin, other antioxidants, such as L-ascorbate and N-acetylcysteine, did not inhibit AsIII-induced cytotoxicity but they were more effective at inhibiting DMAIII-induced cytotoxicity compared with apocynin. In vivo, female rats were treated for 3 weeks with 100 ppm AsIII. Immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) showed that apocynin reduced oxidative stress partially induced by AsIII treatment on rat urothelium, and significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of superficial cells detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, based on the incidence of simple hyperplasia and the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index, apocynin did not inhibit AsIII-induced urothelial cell proliferation. These data suggest that the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, may have the ability to partially inhibit arsenic-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity of the rat bladder epithelium in vitro and in vivo. However, apocynin did not inhibit the regenerative cell proliferation induced by arsenite in a short-term study.

  17. One-stage tissue engineering of bladder wall patches for an easy-to-use approach at the surgical table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Zeiai, Said; Rojas, Ramiro; Fossum, Magdalena; Hilborn, Jöns

    2013-09-01

    We present a method for producing a cell-scaffold hybrid construct at the bedside. The construct is composed of plastic-compressed collagen together with a poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)-knitted mesh that yields an integrated, natural-synthetic scaffold. This construct was evaluated by seeding of minced bladder mucosa, followed by proliferation in vitro. High mechanical strength in combination with a biological environment suitable for tissue growth was achieved through the creation of a hybrid construct that showed an increased tensile strength (17.9 ± 2.6 MPa) when compared to plastic-compressed collagen (0.6 ± 0.12 MPa). Intimate contact between the collagen and the PCL fabric was required to ensure integrity without delamination of the construct. This contact was achieved by surface alkaline hydrolysis of the PCL, followed by adsorption of poly(vinyl) alcohol. The improvement in hydrophilicity of the PCL-knitted mesh was confirmed through water contact angle measurements, and penetration of the collagen into the mesh was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particles of minced bladder mucosa tissue were seeded onto this scaffold, and the proliferation was followed for 6 weeks in vitro. Results obtained from phase contrast microscopy, SEM, and histological staining indicated that cells migrated from the minced tissue particles and reorganized on the scaffold. Cells were viable and proliferative, with morphological features characteristic of urothelial cells. Proliferation reached the point at which a multilayer with a resemblance to stratified urothelium was achieved. This successful method could potentially be used for in vivo applications in reconstructive urology as an engineered autologous tissue transplant without the requirement for in vitro culture before transplantation. PMID:23327166

  18. Expression of OCT4A: The First Step to the Next Stage of Urothelial Bladder Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jóźwicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor is a transcription factor responsible for maintaining the pluripotent properties of embryonic stem cells. In this paper, we present the results of studies to investigate the role of the OCT4 splicing variant in urothelial bladder cancer and the relationship between the OCT4 phenotype and the morphological parameters of tumor malignancy. Ninety patients who received a cystectomy for bladder cancer were enrolled. The expression of OCT4 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The ratio of OCT4-positive cells was the lowest in pT1 (pathological assessment (p—tumor extent confined to mucosa (T1 tumors and the highest in pTis (non-papillary tumor extent confined to urothelium and pT2 (tumor extent including muscularis propria tumors. Information about the percentage of OCT4A-positive tumor cells could facilitate choosing the treatment mode in borderline pTis–pT1 (crossing the border of the basement membrane; the first stage of progression and pT1–pT2 (crossing the border of the muscularis propria; the second stage of progression cases: a higher percentage of OCT4A-positive cells should support more radical therapy. A significantly higher percentage of cases with moderate OCT4 intensity was found in metastasizing (the third stage of progression cases with >2 positive lymph nodes. The percentage of OCT4-positive cells was significantly higher for cancers with a high grade, higher non-classic differentiation number and greater aggressiveness of invasion. The differentiation, maturation and aggressiveness of tumor invasion appear to depend on the expression of the OCT4 phenotype in cancer cells, similar to the successive stages of malignancy progression in urothelial cancer.

  19. Treatment Trends and Outcomes of Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Treatment for small-cell carcinoma of the bladder is largely guided by case reports, retrospective reviews, and small prospective trials. This study aimed to study outcomes using a large population-based database. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database (1991–2005) was used to analyze how different treatment combinations of specific bladder surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiation affected patient outcomes. Trends in the use of these combinations over time were also analyzed. Results: A total of 533 patients were retrieved from the database. A bladder-sparing approach involving transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) combined with chemotherapy and radiation yielded no significant difference in overall survival compared with patients undergoing at least a cystectomy (of whom over 90% received radical cystectomy) with chemotherapy (p > 0.05). The analysis of treatment trends indicated that these two general strategies for cure combined to account for fewer than 20% of patients. A majority of patients (54%) received TURBT as their only surgical treatment, and a subset analysis of these patients indicated that chemotherapy played a role in all stages of disease (p < 0.05) whereas radiation improved overall survival in regional-stage disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively few patients with small-cell carcinoma of the bladder receive potentially curative therapies. Chemotherapy should be a major component of treatment. Cystectomy and bladder-sparing approaches represent two viable strategies and deserve further investigation to identify the patients who may benefit from organ preservation or not. In addition, the role of radiation in regional-stage disease should be investigated further, because it positively affects survival after TURBT.

  20. Treatment Trends and Outcomes of Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koay, Eugene J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Teh, Bin S., E-mail: bteh@tmh.org [Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C.; Butler, E. Brian [Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Treatment for small-cell carcinoma of the bladder is largely guided by case reports, retrospective reviews, and small prospective trials. This study aimed to study outcomes using a large population-based database. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database (1991-2005) was used to analyze how different treatment combinations of specific bladder surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiation affected patient outcomes. Trends in the use of these combinations over time were also analyzed. Results: A total of 533 patients were retrieved from the database. A bladder-sparing approach involving transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) combined with chemotherapy and radiation yielded no significant difference in overall survival compared with patients undergoing at least a cystectomy (of whom over 90% received radical cystectomy) with chemotherapy (p > 0.05). The analysis of treatment trends indicated that these two general strategies for cure combined to account for fewer than 20% of patients. A majority of patients (54%) received TURBT as their only surgical treatment, and a subset analysis of these patients indicated that chemotherapy played a role in all stages of disease (p < 0.05) whereas radiation improved overall survival in regional-stage disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively few patients with small-cell carcinoma of the bladder receive potentially curative therapies. Chemotherapy should be a major component of treatment. Cystectomy and bladder-sparing approaches represent two viable strategies and deserve further investigation to identify the patients who may benefit from organ preservation or not. In addition, the role of radiation in regional-stage disease should be investigated further, because it positively affects survival after TURBT.

  1. Further characterization of the muscle layers and lamina propria of the urinary bladder by systematic histologic mapping: implications for pathologic staging of invasive urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paner, Gladell P; Ro, Jae Y; Wojcik, Eva M; Venkataraman, Girish; Datta, Milton W; Amin, Mahul B

    2007-09-01

    bundles were noted in deep LP situated between the more typical slender MM layer and the MP. In conclusion, there are additional patterns of MM other than previously described. Awareness of the occasionally hyperplastic appearance of MM muscle is important to prevent overstaging of invasive urothelial carcinoma. In transurethral resection specimens, lack of orientation may preclude distinction of the hyperplastic MM from true MP in these rare situations. The number and orientation of muscle bundles, relationship to urothelium and vascular plexus, and comparison with more characteristic MP, if present, would be helpful; isolated bundles immediately adjacent to the urothelium with loose haphazard fiber orientation and irregular outlines favor MM over MP muscle. The hyperplastic MM mimicking MP may be more challenging; isolated muscle bundles immediately adjacent to the urothelium would favor hyperplastic pattern of MM over MP muscle. Topographical variations exist among the subsites, the more superficial location of the MP and the rarity of MM in the trigone, relative abundance of hyperplastic MM in dome, and presence of the more superficial ureteral MP at its insertion in the bladder complicate the traditional pT stage evaluation of invasion in these regions. The inconsistency of a distinct MM layer and variations in the LP vascular plexus indicate that substaging of pT1 would be problematic and thus provides further support to the World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology 1998 and World Health Organization 2004 recommendation against its implementation at the current time. PMID:17721199

  2. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  3. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  4. DIALYSIS SURVEILLANCE NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    A voluntary national surveillance system monitoring bloodstream and vascular infections. This is a yearly survey, done in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that collects data on infection control practices, and the frequency of certain dialys...

  5. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  6. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Zajko

    2015-01-01

    Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital "content" through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the inte...

  7. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Indraveer Singh; Harshawardhan Patil

    2010-01-01

    Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up grada...

  8. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  9. Reversible bladder denervation in acute polyradiculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Andersen, J T

    1982-01-01

    A case of reversible bladder denervation in acute polyradiculitis is presented, in which both motor and sensory bladder involvement could be demonstrated using cystometry and denervation-hypersensitivity testing. Attention is drawn to the differential diagnosis to cauda equina syndromes of other...

  10. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  11. The Molecular Pathogenesis of Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. van Tilborg (Angela)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bladder is a hollow organ in the small pelvis. It stores urine that is produced when the kidneys filter the blood. Four different layers, the epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis, and connective tissue, define the bladder wall. The epithelium consists of 7 to 10 cell layers and res

  12. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Yagnik Vipul; Chadha Amit; Chaudhari Sanjay; Patel Keyuri

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of bladder is an uncommon benign tumor of bladder, which is of unknown neoplastic potential, characterized by spindle cell proliferation with characteristic fibroinflammatory and pseudosarcomatous appearance. Essential criteria for the diagnosis of IMT are: spindle myoepithelial cell proliferation and lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice.

  13. Isolated Primary Schwannoma of Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Primary schwannoma of urinary bladder is a very rare tumour. It usually occurs in association with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. It arises from Schwann’s cells in the nerve sheath. We report here a very rare case of primary schwannoma of urinary bladder managed by complete transurethral resection. PMID:27437301

  14. Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

  15. Loss of MTUS1/ATIP expression is associated with adverse outcome in advanced bladder carcinomas: data from a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy percent of all bladder tumours tend to recur and need intensive surveillance, and a subset of tumours progress to muscle-invasive and metastatic disease. However, it is still difficult to find the adequate treatment for every individual patient as it is a very heterogeneous disease and reliable biomarkers are still missing. In our study we searched for new target genes in the critical chromosomal region 8p and investigated the potential tumour suppressor gene candidate MTUS1/ATIP in bladder cancer. MTUS1 was identified to be the most promising deleted target gene at 8p in aCGH analysis with 19 papillary bladder tumours. A correlation with bladder cancer was further validated using immunohistochemistry of 85 papillary and 236 advanced bladder tumours and in functional experiments. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox-regression addressed overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) as a function of MTUS1/ATIP expression. Bivariate correlations investigated associations between MTUS1/ATIP expression, patient characteristics and histopathology. MTUS1 expression was analysed in cell lines and overexpressed in RT112, where impact on viability, proliferation and migration was measured. MTUS1 protein expression was lost in almost 50% of all papillary and advanced bladder cancers. Survival, however, was only influenced in advanced carcinomas, where loss of MTUS1 was associated with adverse OS and DSS. In this cohort, there was also a significant correlation of MTUS1 expression and histological subtype: positive expression was detected in all micropapillary tumours and aberrant nuclear staining was detected in a subset of plasmocytoid urothelial carcinomas. MTUS1 was expressed in all investigated bladder cell lines and overexpression in RT112 led to significantly decreased viability. MTUS1 is a tumour suppressor gene in cultured bladder cancer cells and in advanced bladder tumours. It might represent one new target gene at chromosome 8p and can be

  16. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  17. Breast metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaz Ahmad Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of gall bladder has early lymphatic and haematogenous spread. Most common extra abdominal site of metastasis is the lung. Metastasis to breast from carcinoma of breast is very rare. Our case describes an interesting case of carcinoma of gall bladder metastising to breast. A 50-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with a small nodule on upper outer quadrant of left breast. Patient had a history of cholecystectomy done for symptomatic gall stones 2 years back. Histopathological examination of the gall bladder specimen showed adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder with invasion to lamina propria. No additional treatment was offered to the patient. The breast nodule was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological examination revealed metastising adenocarcinoma. Patient was subjected to palliative chemotherapy (Gamcitabine and carboplatin. However, patient died of hepatic encephalopathy after 5 months. Our case reports an unusual site of metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder which is very rare.

  18. Full-thickness endometriosis of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Jens Jørgen; Kristensen, Jens; Hartwell, Dorthe; Jensen, Marianne Aamann

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to the rare condition of endometriosis in the bladder. This is correlated with symptoms not normally connected to endometriosis and therefore often remains underdiagnosed for years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study in a university teaching hospital, one of two...... referral centres in Denmark for surgical treatment of stage III and IV endometriosis. POPULATION: Thirty-one women with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis. METHODS: All women presenting in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis between March 2002 and...... March 2011. We included only patients with symptomatic full-thickness bladder detrusor endometriosis and mucosal involvement. All patients had had bladder symptoms for two to seven years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms after surgery and recurrence rate. RESULTS: The main preoperative symptom was...

  19. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  20. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  1. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  2. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraveer Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

  3. HSD3B and gene-gene interactions in a pathway-based analysis of genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S Andrew

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the 4(th most common cancer among men in the U.S. We analyzed variant genotypes hypothesized to modify major biological processes involved in bladder carcinogenesis, including hormone regulation, apoptosis, DNA repair, immune surveillance, metabolism, proliferation, and telomere maintenance. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between genetic variation affecting these processes and susceptibility in 563 genotyped urothelial cell carcinoma cases and 863 controls enrolled in a case-control study of incident bladder cancer conducted in New Hampshire, U.S. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and Statistical Epistasis Network analysis. The 3'UTR flanking variant form of the hormone regulation gene HSD3B2 was associated with increased bladder cancer risk in the New Hampshire population (adjusted OR 1.85 95%CI 1.31-2.62. This finding was successfully replicated in the Texas Bladder Cancer Study with 957 controls, 497 cases (adjusted OR 3.66 95%CI 1.06-12.63. The effect of this prevalent SNP was stronger among males (OR 2.13 95%CI 1.40-3.25 than females (OR 1.56 95%CI 0.83-2.95, (SNP-gender interaction P = 0.048. We also identified a SNP-SNP interaction between T-cell activation related genes GATA3 and CD81 (interaction P = 0.0003. The fact that bladder cancer incidence is 3-4 times higher in males suggests the involvement of hormone levels. This biologic process-based analysis suggests candidate susceptibility markers and supports the theory that disrupted hormone regulation plays a role in bladder carcinogenesis.

  4. Gall bladder function test with Ceruletid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, G.

    1981-04-15

    Compared with the stimulating food given orally in the gall bladder function test the administration of the decapeptide Ceruletid which is related with Cholecystokinin has the advantage of avoiding resorption disturbances in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To 100 patients with positive peroral cholecystography, Ceruletid was injected i.m. in a dose of 0.4 ..mu..g/kg body weight. The contrasting of the main bile duct was thus increased from 10% to 86%. The oral stimulating food brings an increase to appr. 20%. A special importance is assigned to the frequent diagnosis of adenomyomatoses which, with 6%, lies significantly above the 0.8% achieved by means of the oral stimulating food. More contractile segments of the gall bladder wall can cause pain symptoms which are typical for the biliary tract. Adenomyomatoses in the region of the infundibulum of the gall bladder cause colicky pains and are, as generally accepted, an absolute indication for a surgical intervention. The finding of small gall bladder concrements is often connected with a strong diminution of the gall bladder in order to prevent the small concrements from being overlapped by the non-contrasting bladder bile. Therefore, the application of Ceruletid should be considered also within the frame of the intravenous cholegraphy, thinking of the large number of normal gall bladder findings which were obtained with the oral stimulating food as the only diagnostical help.

  5. Experimental bladder defect in rabbit repaired with homologous bladder extracellular matrix graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-xing; SHEN Fu-jin; HU Yun-fei; JIN Hua-min; WANG Ling-long

    2005-01-01

    @@ Approximately 400 million people worldwide suffer from bladder disease such as congenital abnormalities, cancer, trauma, infection, iatrogenic injuries or other conditions which may lead to painful bladder damage or loss, so eventual bladder augmentation or substitution should be required. Gastrointestinal segments are commonly used as tissues for bladder replacement or repair, but have been associated with multiple complications such as infection, metabolic disturbances, increased mucus production, and malignancy.1 Because of the problems encountered with the use of gastrointestinal segments, several bladder substitutes have been attempted with both organic materials (skin, dura mater, peritoneum or fascia) and synthetics (such as poly vinyl, sponge, silicone). These attempts have usually failed due to mechanical, structural or biocompatibility problems. Permanent synthetic materials succumb to mechanical failure and urinary stone formation. Degradable materials lead to fibroblast deposition, scarring, and a reduced reservoir volume.2,3 It is evident that bladder tissue cannot be replaced easily due to its elastic properties and urothelial permeability function.

  6. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaoui, Hakim; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Validire, Pierre; Barret, Eric; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes. PMID:26839792

  7. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  8. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Ketsia [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Borer, Joseph [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  9. Volumetric mosaicing for optical coherence tomography for large area bladder wall visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary imaging modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC) because it can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, enabling it to stage early cancers and visualize tumors undetectable to WLC. However, the inherently small field of view (FOV) of OCT compared with the area of the bladder wall restricts its clinical utility. A large OCT FOV could improve surgical planning by enabling complete visualization of tumor margins or could aid in early cancer detection by tracking the appearance of the bladder wall over time. To overcome the limited FOV of OCT, we developed a method to create mosaics of OCT volume data using a modified version of the N-dimensional scale invariant feature transform (N-SIFT) algorithm: white-light-enhanced N-SIFT (WhiLE-NS). WhiLE-NS adds a pre-processing step to N-SIFT that uses white light images co-registered with OCT volumes to select small, highly overlapped volumes on which to run N-SIFT. This pre-processing step adds minimal computational time and enables a 200- fold decrease in the amount of time required to register two volumes compared with N-SIFT alone. Quantitatively, WhiLE-NS achieves nearly sub-pixel registration accuracy, and qualitatively, we demonstrate that the algorithm can generate large FOV mosaics of ex vivo bladder tissue. The realization of this algorithm is a critical step to enabling OCT to contribute meaningfully to bladder surveillance and surgical guidance.

  10. Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    UZUN, Hakkı; Ogullar, Sabri; Şahin, Serap Baydur; Zorba, Orhan Ünal; Akça, Görkem; Sümer, Fatih; Güney, Ülkü Mete; Balık, Gülşah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB) in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women wi...

  11. A case–control study on the association between bladder cancer and prior bladder calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Bladder calculus is associated with chronic irritation and inflammation. As there is substantial documentation that inflammation can play a direct role in carcinogenesis, to date the relationship between stone formation and bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between BC and prior bladder calculus using a population-based dataset. Methods This case–control study included 2,086 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BC betwee...

  12. ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kiyohide

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS production via NADPH oxidase (NOX contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in urothelial carcinoma (UC of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology. Methods NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining. Results NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C. Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C vs. 75% in ROS-C, and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously

  13. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  14. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 11 (ASR-11) is a short-range digital, integrated primary and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) radar system with a 60 nautical...

  15. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  16. Surveillance-Based Program Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sanusi, Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Objective to analyze the Integrated Behavioral & Biological Surveillance (IBBS) 2011 data for designing a condom utilization program. Introduction The IBBS is part of the Indonesian MoH HIV Surveillance System, which include Serological Surveillance, Behavioral Surveillance, Reproductive Tract Infection Survey, and monthly HIV/AIDS facility-based (hospitals, HCs, VCT Sites) monthly reports. The IBBS 2011 was conducted in 11 provinces (22 districts/municipalities) encompassing eight Most At Ri...

  17. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  18. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS wil

  19. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project

  1. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari...

  2. Transurethral microwave needle ablation for bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@To investigate the role of transurethral microwave needle ablation (TUMWNA) in the management of bladder cancer,TUMWNA was carried out in 24 patients with bladder cancer since 1989. From January 1989 to December 1997, 24 patients with bladder cancer were treated with TUMWNA. The 15 men and 9 women were 42 to 67 years old (mean, 58). There were 18 cases with a single tumor and 6 with multiple tumors (4 with 2 tumors, 1 with 3 and 1 with 4). Tumor diameter ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 cm. The lesions grew in different bladder regions: 13 tumors arose from the fundus, 3 tumors from the dome, 9 from the lateral wall, 5 from the anterior wall, 1 from the triangle region and 2 tumors were situated in the obturator nerve reflex sensitive region.

  3. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR MUSCLE INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rusakov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers treatment regimens for metastatic bladder cancer (MBC and gives the data of trials of the efficiency of using different chemotherapy schemes and regimens in patients with MBC.

  4. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Lynge, Elsebeth; Charbotel, Barbara; Loomis, Dana; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Guha, Neela

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were......-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because it is...

  5. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and urethra. Muscle changes and changes in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. Aging Changes and Their ... the bones, muscles, and joints In the male reproductive system In the female reproductive system In organs, tissues, ...

  6. SMP Bladder Tooling for Manufacturing Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's shape memory polymer (SMP) Bladder Tooling is a cutting-edge manufacturing technology that can meet the manufacturing needs of the Ares launch vehicles. This...

  7. Bladder Control: What Men Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about bladder control problems? Just changing some daily habits may help. For example, you could limit fluids at certain times of the day or plan regular trips to the bathroom to avoid an accident. Don’t be embarrassed ...

  8. MANAGEMENT OF CARCINOMA BLADDER: A REVIEW LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderjit Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the bladder is a disease of the elderly. Bladder cancer is three times more common in males than in females and more common in whites than in blacks. Patients with bladder cancer have a 1% to 4% incidence of synchronous or metachronous upper t ract urothelial tumors. There are many risk factors for urothelial cancer, classified into (1 Genetic (2 chemical exposure, and (3 chronic irritation. Genetic abnormalities associated with CIS include alterations in the retinoblastoma gene (Rb, p53, an d PTEN. Chemical exposure has the most epidemiologic evidence to support it as an inciting agent (Aromatic amines, aniline dyes, and nitrites and nitrates. Chronic irritants include catheters, recurrent urinary track infections, Schistosoma haematobium, a nd irradiation. There are many studies that suggest high water consumption, vitamin intake, and various diets that are beneficial in preventing bladder cancer. However, none of these have shown any clear benefit with respect to prevention.

  9. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bladder Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bladderdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  10. Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

    1998-07-01

    Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

  11. Narrow band imaging for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. Hsueh; Allen W. Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a newly developed technology aiming to provide additional endoscopic information for patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the diagnostic accuracy and treatment outcome using NBI cystoscopy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Current results showed improved sensitivity of NBI cystoscopy compared to conventional white light cystoscopy, although lower specificity and increased false-positive results were reported using NBI cystosc...

  12. Thulium laser treatment for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Haitao Liu; Shujie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Recent innovations in thulium laser techniques have allowed application in the treatment of bladder cancer. Laser en bloc resection of bladder cancer is a transurethral procedure that may offer an alternative to the conventional transurethral resection procedure. We conducted a review of basic thulium laser physics and laser en bloc resection procedures and summarized the current clinical literature with a focus on complications and outcomes. Literature evidence suggests that thulium laser te...

  13. Effects of mild bladder outlet obstruction on rabbit bladder structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, H C

    1995-09-01

    Mild bladder outlet obstruction was created in 42 New Zealand white rabbits by placing a 5-mm inner diameter polyethylene tube around the urethra. Periods of obstruction lasted for 1 day (7 rabbits), 3 days (7 rabbits), 1 week (7 rabbits), 2 weeks (6 rabbits), 4 weeks (7 rabbits), 6 weeks (4 rabbits) and 8 weeks (4 rabbits). Whole bladder functional study was performed in control (5 rabbits) and the obstructed bladders. The obstructed bladders increased in weight two-to threefold. There was no significant difference in bladder weight after different periods of obstruction. Electric stimulation showed a diminished response after 3 days of obstruction. Pharmacologic stimulation with 500 microM carbachol revealed a decreased response after obstruction, but intravesical pressure returned to the control level at 6 and 8 weeks of obstruction. However, the bladder weight and the expelling function of the obstructed bladders remained the same as on day 1 of obstruction. Histologic study of control and obstructed bladders revealed that: 1) dense submucosal fibrous tissue developed after 3 days of obstruction, 2) detrusor muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia were noted with intermuscular collagenous fiber deposition after 2 weeks of obstruction, 3) trabeculation of the bladder wall with hyperplasia of muscular bundles was noted after 2 weeks of obstruction, 4) acute edematous and inflammatory reaction were apparent after 3 days and 1 week of obstruction, but resolved later and 5) degenerative changes of muscular cells were noted at 8 weeks of obstruction. The results show that despite apparent morphologic changes after outlet obstruction, no significant difference was observed in bladder expelling between short-term and long-term infravesical mild outlet obstruction. The bladder contractile apparatus appears to have a compensatory ability after mild outlet obstruction. PMID:8696170

  14. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  15. Methylation of a CpG Island within the Uroplakin Ib Promoter: A Possible Mechanism for Loss of Uroplakin lb Expression in Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Varga

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Uroplakin Ib is a structural protein on the surface of urothelial cells. Expression of uroplakin Ib mRNA is reduced or absent in many transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs but molecular mechanisms underlying loss of expression remain to be determined. Analysis of the uroplakin Ib promoter identified a weak CpG island spanning the proximal promoter, exon 1, and the beginning of intron 1. This study examined the hypothesis that methylation of this CpG island regulates uroplakin Ib expression. Uroplakin Ib mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and CpG methylation was assessed by bisulfite modification of DNA, PCR, and sequencing. A correlation was demonstrated in 15 TCC lines between uroplakin Ib mRNA expression and lack of CpG methylation. In support of a regulatory role for methylation, incubating uroplakin Ib-negative lines with 5-aza-2′ -deoxycytidine reactivated uroplakin Ib mRNA expression. A trend between uroplakin Ib mRNA expression and CpG methylation was also observed in normal urothelium and bladder carcinomas. In particular, loss of uroplakin Ib expression correlated with methylation of a putative Spi/NFκB binding motif. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that methylation of specific sites within the uroplakin Ib promoter may be an important factor in the loss of uroplakin Ib expression in TCCs.

  16. Use of a self-designed bladder controller for restoring bladder function in paraplegic dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诗波; 侯春林; 刁颖敏; 陈爱民; 张世民; 雷波; 尹承慧; 张伟

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of a self-designed bladder controller for restoring micturition function in paraplegic dogs.Methods: The spinal cords of 4 dogs were transected above the cone. Electrodes were implanted in S2 bilaterally and connected to the subcutaneous receivers for external activation. Microsurgical technique was employed to perform dorsal rhizotomy of S1-3 intradurally. The dogs were stimulated daily to observe micturition. Urodynamic testing and vesicography were performed. Results: All the dogs acquired micturition under the control of electric stimulation, with urine volume 80-140 ml per time. The mode of micturition was post-stimulus voiding. Vesicography revealed that the bladder was filled well and the bladder neck was open in the micturition course of electric stimulation. Residual urine volume was 15-20 ml. Urodynamic testing found that the bladder pressure and intraurethral pressure increased simultaneously, but when the intraurethral pressure was greater than the bladder pressure, no micturition occurred. The pressure decreased to baseline rapidly and the bladder pressure decreased slowly between two bursts. Micturition occurred when the bladder pressure was greater than the intraurethral pressure.Conclusions: The self-designed bladder controller together with a sacral deafferentation procedure can restore micturition function of paraplegic dogs.

  17. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  18. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  19. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  20. Adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer using deformable image registration of empty and full bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Caine, H.; Hunt, P.;

    2015-01-01

    mm) for bladder planning target volume (PTV). The goal of this retrospective study is to define, evaluate and optimize new patient-specific anisotropic PTVs (a-PTVs) using deformable image registration (DIR) between empty and full bladder computed tomography (CT) scans. This will provide an ART that...... incorporates the extreme deformations of the bladder, and is applicable from the first day of treatment. Deformation vector fields (DVFs), measured from the deformable image registration between empty and full bladder CTs, were scaled and constrained to construct the a-PTVs. For each patient, four a-PTVs were...... conv-PTV. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that the use of a-PTVs could result in substantial decrease in the course averaged planning target volume. This reduction in the PTV is likely to decrease the radiation related toxicity and benefit bladder cancer patients. Currently...

  1. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah;

    2007-01-01

    : The correlation between the relative bladder volume (RBV, defined as repeat scan volume/planning scan volume) and the margins required to account for internal motion was first studied using a series of 20 bladder cancer patients with weekly repeat CT scanning during treatment. Both conformal RT (CRT) and IGRT...... these patients were given fluid intake restrictions on alternating weeks during treatment. RESULTS: IGRT gave the strongest correlation between the RBV and margin size (R(2)=0.75; p10mm were required in only 1% of the situations when the RBV1, whereas isotropic margins >10......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  2. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  3. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  4. Transurethral en bloc resection of bladder tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Martov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The high incidence of recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (BC necessitates searches for new surgical methods. Objective: to comparatively evaluate the efficiency and safety of en block resection of bladder tumors versus transurethral resection (TUR. Subjects and methods. In January 2010 to June 2013, a total of 292 patients with primary and recurrent bladder tumor stages, cTa-T2, underwent transurethral endoscopic treatment (as TUR at the Unit of Minimally Invasive Urology, Moscow City Clinical Hospital Fifty-Seven. A major portion of these patients were included in the study of the efficiency and safety of en bloc TUR of bladder tumors. The criteria for study inclusion were primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor measuring 1 to 3 cm, stage pTa-T1, signed informed consent to participate in the study and patients» readiness to undergo control examinations in inpatient setting for one year. The exclusion criteria were a confirmed or detected muscleinvasive tumor, multiple bladder involvement (> 3 tumors, as well as detected tumors spreading to the ureter, bladder neck, and prostatic urethra. The primary study endpoint was considered to be a recurrence of a tumor after TUR of the bladder (TURB. The secondary endpoint was the frequency of concealed bladder perforation, blood transfusions, recystoscopies for bladder tamponade, early recystoscopies to specify a BC stage, and the frequency of immediate intravesical injection of a chemical. For final analysis, the investigators selected 106 patients in a group where tumors were removed en bloc (a study group and 133 patients in a group where tumors were retrieved using traditional TURB (a control group. In the study group, the tumor was removed en bloc by a monopolar J-shaped electrode (sand wedge electrode in 45 patients, by a hook-like electrode in 14, by a hybrid procedure (hydropreparation and monopolar electrosurgery by a water-jet hybrid knife in 10, and by

  5. Transurethral en bloc resection of bladder tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Martov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The high incidence of recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (BC necessitates searches for new surgical methods. Objective: to comparatively evaluate the efficiency and safety of en block resection of bladder tumors versus transurethral resection (TUR. Subjects and methods. In January 2010 to June 2013, a total of 292 patients with primary and recurrent bladder tumor stages, cTa-T2, underwent transurethral endoscopic treatment (as TUR at the Unit of Minimally Invasive Urology, Moscow City Clinical Hospital Fifty-Seven. A major portion of these patients were included in the study of the efficiency and safety of en bloc TUR of bladder tumors. The criteria for study inclusion were primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor measuring 1 to 3 cm, stage pTa-T1, signed informed consent to participate in the study and patients» readiness to undergo control examinations in inpatient setting for one year. The exclusion criteria were a confirmed or detected muscleinvasive tumor, multiple bladder involvement (> 3 tumors, as well as detected tumors spreading to the ureter, bladder neck, and prostatic urethra. The primary study endpoint was considered to be a recurrence of a tumor after TUR of the bladder (TURB. The secondary endpoint was the frequency of concealed bladder perforation, blood transfusions, recystoscopies for bladder tamponade, early recystoscopies to specify a BC stage, and the frequency of immediate intravesical injection of a chemical. For final analysis, the investigators selected 106 patients in a group where tumors were removed en bloc (a study group and 133 patients in a group where tumors were retrieved using traditional TURB (a control group. In the study group, the tumor was removed en bloc by a monopolar J-shaped electrode (sand wedge electrode in 45 patients, by a hook-like electrode in 14, by a hybrid procedure (hydropreparation and monopolar electrosurgery by a water-jet hybrid knife in 10, and by

  6. Work Capacity of the Bladder During Voiding: A Novel Method to Evaluate Bladder Contractile Function and Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work in voiding (WIV of the bladder may be used to evaluate bladder status throughout urination rather than at a single time point. Few studies, however, have assessed WIV owing to the complexity of its calculations. We have developed a method of calculating work capacity of the bladder while voiding and analyzed the associations of bladder work parameters with bladder contractile function and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 160 men and 23 women, aged >40 years and with a detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate (P det Q max of ≥40 cmH 2 O in men, who underwent urodynamic testing. The bladder power integration method was used to calculate WIV; WIV per second (WIV/t and WIV per liter of urine voided (WIV/v were also calculated. In men, the relationships between these work capacity parameters and P det Q max and Abrams-Griffiths (AG number were determined using linear-by-linear association tests, and relationships between work capacity parameters and BOO grade were investigated using Spearman′s association test. Results: The mean WIV was 1.15 ± 0.78 J and 1.30 ± 0.88 J, mean WIV/t was 22.95 ± 14.45 mW and 23.78 ± 17.02 mW, and mean WIV/v was 5.59 ± 2.32 J/L and 2.83 ± 1.87 J/L in men and women, respectively. In men, WIV/v showed significant positive associations with P det Q max (r = 0.845, P = 0.000, AG number (r = 0.814, P = 0.000, and Schafer class (r = 0.726, P = 0.000. Conversely, WIV and WIV/t showed no associations with P det Q max or AG number. In patients with BOO (Schafer class > II, WIV/v correlated positively with increasing BOO grade. Conclusions: WIV can be calculated from simple urodynamic parameters using the bladder power integration method. WIV/v may be a marker of BOO grade, and the bladder contractile function can be evaluated by WIV and WIV/t.

  7. The use of genetic programming in the analysis of quantitative gene expression profiles for identification of nodal status in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies on bladder cancer have shown nodal involvement to be an independent indicator of prognosis and survival. This study aimed at developing an objective method for detection of nodal metastasis from molecular profiles of primary urothelial carcinoma tissues. The study included primary bladder tumor tissues from 60 patients across different stages and 5 control tissues of normal urothelium. The entire cohort was divided into training and validation sets comprised of node positive and node negative subjects. Quantitative expression profiling was performed for a panel of 70 genes using standardized competitive RT-PCR and the expression values of the training set samples were run through an iterative machine learning process called genetic programming that employed an N-fold cross validation technique to generate classifier rules of limited complexity. These were then used in a voting algorithm to classify the validation set samples into those associated with or without nodal metastasis. The generated classifier rules using 70 genes demonstrated 81% accuracy on the validation set when compared to the pathological nodal status. The rules showed a strong predilection for ICAM1, MAP2K6 and KDR resulting in gene expression motifs that cumulatively suggested a pattern ICAM1>MAP2K6>KDR for node positive cases. Additionally, the motifs showed CDK8 to be lower relative to ICAM1, and ANXA5 to be relatively high by itself in node positive tumors. Rules generated using only ICAM1, MAP2K6 and KDR were comparably robust, with a single representative rule producing an accuracy of 90% when used by itself on the validation set, suggesting a crucial role for these genes in nodal metastasis. Our study demonstrates the use of standardized quantitative gene expression values from primary bladder tumor tissues as inputs in a genetic programming system to generate classifier rules for determining the nodal status. Our method also suggests the involvement of ICAM1, MAP2K6, KDR

  8. Chemoimmunotherapy of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdill, B J; Lamm, D L; Livingston, R B

    1981-11-01

    The lethality of invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) has prompted a search for effective, minimally toxic, adjuvant therapy. Such agents were evaluated in a murine bladder cancer (MBT2) model which parallels the clinical disease. One hundred C3H/He mice were inoculated i.d. with 2.5 x 10(4) viable MBT2 tumor cells and randomized to receive either normal saline (control), cis-Platinum (CPT), cyclophosphamide (CY), methotrexate (MTX), BCG, (CY + MTX), or (CY + MTX + BCG). Chemotherapy was given intraperitoneally weekly starting on day 7 after inoculation. Immunotherapy was given intralesionally on days 1 and 10 only. All mice were treated for 5 weeks followed by 5 weeks of observation. At 5 weeks, tumors of mice receiving cyclophosphamide alone or either of the combinations of therapy were smaller (P less than 0.01) than tumors of controls or other single agents alone. Each regimen increased survival, but only the combination regimen increase survival significantly (P less than 0.01). In the doses and schedule used in this model. Combination chemotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy significantly delay tumor growth and increase duration of survival (P less than 0.01) when compared with controls or single agent groups. PMID:7298287

  9. Somatic modulation of spinal reflex bladder activity mediated by nociceptive bladder afferent nerve fibers in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiying; Rogers, Marc J; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-09-15

    The goal of the present study was to determine if supraspinal pathways are necessary for inhibition of bladder reflex activity induced by activation of somatic afferents in the pudendal or tibial nerve. Cats anesthetized with α-chloralose were studied after acute spinal cord transection at the thoracic T9/T10 level. Dilute (0.25%) acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder, activate nociceptive afferent C-fibers, and trigger spinal reflex bladder contractions (amplitude: 19.3 ± 2.9 cmH2O). Hexamethonium (a ganglionic blocker, intravenously) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the amplitude of the reflex bladder contractions to 8.5 ± 1.9 cmH2O. Injection of lidocaine (2%, 1-2 ml) into the sacral spinal cord or transection of the sacral spinal roots and spinal cord further reduced the contraction amplitude to 4.2 ± 1.3 cmH2O. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at frequencies of 0.5-5 Hz and 40 Hz but not at 10-20 Hz inhibited reflex bladder contractions, whereas tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) failed to inhibit bladder contractions at all tested frequencies (0.5-40 Hz). These results indicate that PNS inhibition of nociceptive afferent C-fiber-mediated spinal reflex bladder contractions can occur at the spinal level in the absence of supraspinal pathways, but TNS inhibition requires supraspinal pathways. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that after acute spinal cord transection reflex bladder contractions can be triggered by activating nociceptive bladder afferent C-fibers using acetic acid irritation. Understanding the sites of action for PNS or TNS inhibition is important for the clinical application of pudendal or tibial neuromodulation to treat bladder dysfunctions. PMID:25056352

  10. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  11. Short-term resveratrol exposure causes in vitro and in vivo growth inhibition and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Li Wu

    Full Text Available Conventional adjuvant chemotherapies for bladder transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs may cause strong systemic toxicity and local irritation. Non-toxic resveratrol inhibits TCC cell growth but its feasibility in clinical management of TCCs remains obscure. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and anti-TCC efficacy of resveratrol, using the experimental models closer to the clinical treatment condition. Human TCC EJ cells were exposed to 100 µM, 150 µM and 200 µM resveratrol respectively for 1 hour and 2 hours to mimic intravesical drug instillation and the cell responses were analyzed by multiple experimental approaches. An orthotopic TCC nude mouse model was established by injecting EJ cells into the sub-urothelial layer and used for short-term intravesical resveratrol instillation. The safety of resveratrol instillation was evaluated and compared with that of MCC. The results revealed that 2 h 150 µM or 200 µM resveratrol treatment leaded to remarkable S phase arrest and apoptosis at 72 h time-point, accompanied with attenuated phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcription of STAT3, down-regulation of STAT3 downstream genes (survivin, cyclinD1, c-Myc and VEGF and nuclear translocations of Sirt1 and p53. The importance of STAT3 signaling in cell growth was confirmed by treating EJ cells with JAK2 inhibitor tyrphostin AG490. The efficacy and safety of resveratrol instillation were proved by the findings from nude mouse orthotopic xenograft models, because this treatment caused growth suppression, distinctive apoptosis and STAT3 inactivation of the transplanted tumors without affecting normal urothelium. Our results thus suggest for the first time the practical values of resveratrol as a safe and effective agent in the post-operative treatment of TCCs.

  12. Overactive bladder - 18 years - Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Castano, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; Lopez, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is one of the lower urinary tract dysfunctions with the highest number of scientific publications over the past two decades. This shows the growing interest in better understanding this syndrome, which gathers symptoms of urinary urgency and increased daytime and nighttime voiding frequency, with or without urinary incontinence and results in a negative impact on the quality of life of approximately one out of six individuals - including both genders and almost all age groups. The possibility of establishing the diagnosis just from clinical data made patients' access to specialized care easier. Physiotherapy resources have been incorporated into the urological daily practice. A number of more selective antimuscarinic drugs with consequent lower adverse event rates were released. Recently, a new class of oral drugs, beta-adrenergic agonists has become part of the armamentarium for Overactive Bladder. Botulinum toxin injections in the bladder and sacral neuromodulation are routine modalities of treatment for refractory cases. During the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder, a comprehensive review of the literature related to the evolution of the concept, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management was conducted. This text corresponds to the first part of the review Overactive Bladder 18-years. PMID:27176184

  13. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  14. Effects of urinary bladder distention on location of the urinary bladder and urethra of healthy dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the anatomic location of the distended and empty urinary bladders and urethras of healthy adult male and female dogs and cats by retrograde urethrocystography revealed substantial variations. In 15 dogs in lateral recumbency with empty bladder lumens, the caudal portion of the urinary bladder was within the pelvic canal in 5 of 7 male and 5 of 8 female dogs. In female dogs examined in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 4 of 8 had the empty urinary bladders in part within the pelvic canal. After luminal distention, 3 of 7 male and 3 of 8 female dogs, while in lateral recumbency, had the urinary bladders in part intrapelvically. However, when female dogs were placed in ventrodorsal recumbency, only 1 of 7 urinary bladders was in part within the pelvis. The urinary bladders of 14 cats were consistently within the abdominal cavity, irrespective of whether the bladder lumen was distended or empty. Urethral flexures occurred in dogs with intrapelvic bladders that were distended or empty. Urethral flexures were not found in cats. The urethras of dogs and cats in lateral recumbency were generally closer to the floor of the pelvis after urinary bladder distention than when the bladder was empty. The urethra of the dogs and cats in ventrodorsal recumbency was to the left or right of or on the midsagittal plane, whether the urinary bladder was empty or distended. A greater degree of lateral displacement was encountered in ventrodorsal recumbency after urinary bladder distention

  15. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  16. Social stress induces changes in urinary bladder function, bladder NGF content, and generalized bladder inflammation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mingin, Gerald C.; Peterson, Abbey; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Nelson, Mark T.; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Social stress may play a role in urinary bladder dysfunction in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we explored changes in bladder function caused by social stress using mouse models of stress and increasing stress. In the stress paradigm, individual submissive FVB mice were exposed to C57BL/6 aggressor mice directly/indirectly for 1 h/day for 2 or 4 wk. Increased stress was induced by continuous, direct/indirect exposure of FVB mice to aggressor mice for ...

  17. A pure microcytic bladder carcinoma synchronous to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileios Sakalis; Anastasia Gkotsi; Efrosyni Mylonaki; Aphroditi Pantzaki; Vasileios Rombis

    2011-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) or microcytic carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity comprising approximately 0.5% of all bladder tumors. Due to its rarity, no prospective studies evaluating the most effective treatment have been published in the medical literature. Several cases of bladder SCC have been presented so far. We describe our case report and we revise the recent literature. Our patient was diagnosed with pure bladder SCC and prostatic adenocarcinoma. After the initial and co...

  18. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Neuroendocrine Bladder Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Prelaj, Arsela; Rebuzzi, Sara Elena; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Speranza, Iolanda; Corongiu, Emanuele; Borgoni, Giuseppe; Perugia, Giacomo; Liberti, Marcello; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 71 Final Diagnosis: Neuroendocrine cancer bladder Symptoms: Dysuria • haematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer that mainly presents at an advanced stage. As a result of its rarity, it has been described in many case reports and reviews but few retrospective and prospective trials, sho...

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms at Familial Bladder Cancer: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ceylan

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men in the world, it is the second most seen cancer after lung cancer and the first in urogenital tumours in Turkey. Many molecular epidemiologic studies have been reported to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. In this report, a family with transitional bladder cancer have also MTHFR A1298C heterozygosity which supports the association between MTHFR variants and bladder canc...

  20. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  1. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare tumor that exhibits aggressive behavior and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all primary bladder tumors. Small cell carcinoma generally occurs in the lung, accounting for 25% of all pulmonary malignancies. SCCUB exhibits a similar microscopic and immunohistochemical appearance to that of small cell carcinoma of the lung. There is no consensus about the standard therapy, owing to its rarity. Surgical resection seems to be the mainstay of treatment for patients with limited stage, together with neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has same small effect for palliative purposes, as well as being an alternative to radical cystectomy. Patients with advanced stage, although given platinum-based chemotherapy, have a poor prognosis. We herein review epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological features, and current management of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (author)

  2. Self-Surveillance Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jerry; Shilton, Katie; Estrin, D; Burke, Jeffrey A; Hansen, Mark,

    2011-01-01

    It has become cliché to observe that new information technologies endanger privacy. Typically, the threat is viewed as coming from Big Brother (the government) or Company Man (the firm). But for a nascent data practice we call “self-surveillance,” the threat may actually come from ourselves. Using various existing and emerging technologies, such as GPS-enabled smartphones, we are beginning to measure ourselves in granular detail – how long we sleep, where we drive, what we breathe, what w...

  3. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  4. Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Jeyamani

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dreaded complication of cirrhosis as it is the commonest cause of mortality in these patients. The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in the management of this tumor as nearly 50–70% of selected patients with early HCC survive for a median period of up to 5 years after liver transplantation, resection or local ablation. Surveillance has been found to be an effective tool to detect early tumors and expand the applicability of these curative trea...

  5. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the ris

  6. Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Gall Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sirohi, Bhawna; Singh, Ashish; Jagannath, P.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer is a common cancer in the Ganges belt of North-eastern India. In view of incidental diagnosis of gall bladder cancer by physicians and surgeons, the treatment is not optimised. Most patients present in advanced stages and surgery remains the only option to cure. This review highlights the current evidence in advances in systemic therapy of gall bladder cancer.

  7. Cases of a Borderline Pathology That Can Mimic Bladder Cancer: Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Selçuk İşoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disease characterised by accumulation of a fibrillar protein called amyloid in the extracellular space. The kidneys, ureters and the bladder can be affected in the urinary tract. However, primary amyloidosis of bladder is a rare entity. Macroscopic hematuria could be the first and only symptom of primary amyloidosis of the bladder; therefore, it has similar findings with urinary tract malignancies. Histopathological evaluation is mandatory for the diagnosis. Follow-up should always include cystoscopic evaluation as recurrence is expected in the natural course.

  8. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer: treatment guidelines for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Donat, S Machele; Bellmunt, Joaquim;

    2007-01-01

    To determine the optimal use of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic setting in patients with advanced urothelial cell carcinoma, a consensus conference was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) to critically review the...... published literature on chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. This article reports the development of international guidelines for the treatment of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Bladder preservation is also discussed, as...

  9. DNA adducts formed by ring-oxidation of the carcinogen 2-naphthylamine with prostaglandin H synthase in vitro and in the dog urothelium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of relatively high levels of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) in the dog urinary bladder and its ability to mediate the activation of carcinogenic arylamines to DNA-bound products in vitro suggests the involvement of this enzyme in arylamine-induced bladder carcinogenesis. Since the PHS-dependent metabolism of 2-naphthylamine (2-NA) had been shown to yield both ring- and N-oxidation products in vitro, the authors compared the reactivity of 3H-labeled N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine (N-OH-2-NA), 2-nitrosonaphthalene, and 2-amino-1-naphthol (2-AN) toward DNA and protein. In the PHS-incubation system, all three derivatives bound at high levels to protein, but only N-OH-2-NA and 2-AN bound appreciably to DNA. Though ring-oxidation has usually been considered a detoxification pathway, the covalent binding of [3H]2-AN to DNA was found to occur readily under aerobic conditions and was enhanced at acidic pH. At pH 5 in air, the reactivity of [3H]2-AN with nucleic acids and protein was in the order: serum albumin greater than tRNA greater than poly G greater than poly C greater than DNA greater than poly A greater than rRNA greater than poly U. Enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA reacted with [3H]2-AN and subsequent analysis by h.p.l.c. indicated the presence of several carcinogen-nucleoside adducts. The major product was characterized as N4-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinoneimine; and two minor products were tentatively identified as N4-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinoneimine and a deoxyguanosin-N2-yl adduct of a naphthoquinoneimine dimer. These adducts accounted for approximately 60% of the total DNA binding obtained by incubation of [3H]2-NA with PHS in vitro and for approximately 20% of the [3H]2-NA bound to dog urothelial DNA in vivo

  10. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to leather.

    OpenAIRE

    Marrett, L D; Hartge, P; Meigs, J W

    1986-01-01

    A large case-control study of bladder cancer (2982 cases; 5782 controls) included information about occupational exposure to leather. Occupational histories of exposed white study subjects were reviewed and 150 were determined to have had "true" on the job exposure to leather. The odds ratio estimate (OR) of bladder cancer associated with such exposure in white subjects (n = 8063) was 1.4 (95% confidence limits = 1.0, 1.9) after adjustment for sex, age, and cigarette smoking. The risk was hig...

  11. Synchronous Rectovaginal, Urinary Bladder, and Pulmonary Endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilaris, Georgios E.; Payne, Christopher K.; Osias, Joelle; Cannon, Walter; Nezhat, Camran R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Extragenital endometriosis is an uncommon condition that can affect almost any organ system and tissue in the human body. Disease involving multiple distant sites is extremely uncommon. Methods: We report a rare case of synchronous rectovaginal, urinary bladder, and pulmonary endometriosis. We performed a Medline literature search using keywords “endometriosis,” “rectovaginal,” “pulmonary,” “bladder,” “ureteral,” “bowel,” “extrapelvic,” and “extragenital” and were unable to find a...

  12. Bladder Pain Syndrome International Consultation on Incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Lin, A.; Nordling, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Aims of Study: The Bladder Pain Syndrome Committee of the International Consultation on Incontinence was assigned the task by the consultation of reviewing the syndrome, formerly known as interstitial cystitis, in a comprehensive fashion. This included the topics of definition, nomenclature...... to the bladder with at least one urinary symptom, such as frequency not obviously related to high fluid intake, or a persistent urge to void should be evaluated for possible BPS. The initial assessment consists of a frequency/volume chart, focused physical examination, urinalysis, and urine culture. Urine...

  13. Somatic mutation of PTEN in bladder carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aveyard, J S; Skilleter, A; Habuchi, T; Knowles, M A

    1999-01-01

    The tumour suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1, which is mutated or homozygously deleted in glioma, breast and prostate cancer, is mapped to a region of 10q which shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in bladder cancer. We screened 123 bladder tumours for LOH in the region of PTEN. In 53 informative muscle invasive tumours (≥ pT2), allele loss was detected in 13 (24.5%) and allelic imbalance in four tumours (overall frequency 32%). LOH was found in four of 60 (6.6%) informative, non-invasive tumours (pTa...

  14. Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Dru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease.

  15. Magnetic resonace appearance of Gall Bladder Ascariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Prafull

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is a common disease in many developing countries and is a common cause of biliary and pancreatic diseases in endemic areas. Numerous studies have been published on biliary tract ascariasis. All these have documented ultrasonography as the primary imaging modality for biliary tract ascariasis. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP has been the latest entrant for the study of bilary tract. MRCP findings of biliary tract ascariasis have been scarcely documented. MRCP is a unique non-invasive investigation for demonstrating ascariasis in Gall bladder and bilary tract clearly. We present MR appearances of Gall bladder and biliary tract in a proven case of biliary ascariasis.

  16. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  17. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-14

    Multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the UKFirst cases of dourine in Botswana and equine infectious anaemia in GreeceSummary of UK surveillance testing, October to December 2015These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27179087

  18. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  19. HpD Photobiology And Photodynamic Therapy Of Bladder Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wei

    1988-02-01

    Bladder carcinoma is considered one of the most favorable targets for the application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) due to the accessibility of the bladder for light delivery. Examination of the bladder and surgical procedures are routinely performed by the insertion of an optical instrument called cystoscope through the urethra. Thus, the treatment of bladder cancer by PDT can be conducted through the cystoscope with minimal invasion. However, to achieve optimal results from this treatment, one must consider both the structure of the bladder and the nature of the carcinoma.

  20. Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device

    OpenAIRE

    Selcen Kanyilmaz; Funda Atamaz Calis; Yasemin Cinar; Yesim Akkoc

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT) and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW) values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men) aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a ...

  1. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  2. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  3. Imaging of adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunell, H; Buckley, O; Geoghegan, T; O'Brien, J; Ward, E; Torreggiani, W

    2008-04-01

    Adenomyomatosis is a relatively common abnormality of the gall bladder, with a reported incidence of between 2.8 and 5%. Although mainly confined to the adult study group, a number of cases have been reported in the paediatric study group. It is characterized pathologically by excessive proliferation of the surface epithelium and hypertrophy of the muscularis propria of the gall bladder wall, with invagination of the mucosa into the thickened muscularis forming the so-called 'Rokitansky-Aschoff' sinuses. The condition is usually asymptomatic and is often diagnosed as an incidental finding on abdominal imaging. The radiological diagnosis is largely dependent on the visualization of the characteristic Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. As the condition is usually asymptomatic, the importance of making a correct diagnosis is to prevent misinterpretation of other gall bladder conditions such as gall bladder cancer, leading to incorrect treatment. In the past, oral cholecystography was the main imaging method used to make this diagnosis. In most institutions, oral cholecystography is no longer carried out, and the diagnosis is now more commonly seen on cross-sectional imaging. In this review article, we describe the manifestations of adenomyomatosis on the various imaging methods, with an emphasis on more modern techniques such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. A brief section on oral cholecystography to aid readers familiar with this technique in understanding the comparable imaging features on more modern imaging techniques is included. PMID:18373800

  4. Darifenacin for the treatment of overactive bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.F.M. Blok (Bertil); T. Corcos

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDarifenacin hydrobromide is a muscarinic receptor antagonist for once-daily treatment of overactive bladder (urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, which may be associated with increased frequency of voiding and nocturia). Consistent with its high affinity for muscarinic M3 r

  5. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso;

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  6. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been cut, a urological specialist can put a catheter in place. If this cannot be done, a tube will be inserted through the abdominal wall directly into the bladder. This is called a suprapubic tube. It will be left in place until ...

  7. Late complication of Boari bladder flap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzeg, Semin; Beyersdorff, Dirk; Kopka, Lars [Department of Radiology, Charite Campus Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgart, Egbert; Lenk, Severin [Department of Urology, Charite Campus Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A very rare late complication of Boari bladder flap repair with development of pseudodiverticulum and recurrent genitourinary tract infection secondary to vesicoureteral reflux is presented. Radiologic evaluation of the patient comprised intravenous pyelography (IVP), micturating cystourethrogram, cystoscopy, and multislice computed tomography (MSCT). (orig.)

  8. Late complication of Boari bladder flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very rare late complication of Boari bladder flap repair with development of pseudodiverticulum and recurrent genitourinary tract infection secondary to vesicoureteral reflux is presented. Radiologic evaluation of the patient comprised intravenous pyelography (IVP), micturating cystourethrogram, cystoscopy, and multislice computed tomography (MSCT). (orig.)

  9. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Using tobacco , especially smoking cigarettes. Having a family history of bladder cancer. Having certain changes in the genes . Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, ...

  10. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  11. Management options for sphincteric deficiency in adults with neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erik N.; Lenherr, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder is a very broad disease definition that encompasses varied disease and injury states affecting the bladder. The majority of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction do not have concomitant intrinsic sphincteric deficiency (ISD), but when this occurs the challenges of management of urinary incontinence from neurogenic bladder are compounded. There are no guidelines for surgical correction of ISD in adults and most of the literature on treatment of the problem comes from treatment of children with congenital diseases, such as myelomeningocele. Our goal, in this review, is to present some of the common surgical options for ISD [including artificial urinary sphincters, bladder slings, bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) and urethral bulking agents] and the evidence underlying these treatments in adults with neurogenic bladder. PMID:26904420

  12. Bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Roger Wroclawski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through clinical and laboratorial evaluation, ultrasonography, radiological and endoscopic examination. Methods: Thirty-nine patients, either outpatients or inpatients at the Department of Rheumatology of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina from Universidade de São Paulo were evaluated as to clinical and laboratorial data. All patients were submitted to ultrasonographic evaluation of the upper urinary tract, radiological and endoscopic examinations of the middle and lower urinary tracts. Rresults: Mean age of patients varied between 13 and 62 years (median = 29 years. Thirty-six were females and three were males. The disease varied from 6 months to 22 years (median three years and one month. Clinical and laboratory activity of the disease was present in 30 patients. Twenty-two patients had the diagnosis of lupus established for three years or more. Twenty-five patients were asymptomatic and all had received corticosteroids for treatment at least once. Twenty-three received antimalarial drugs; ten received cytostatics, and seven patients received non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Upper urinary tract ultrasonography was normal in all cases but one with staghorn calculus associated with neurogenic bladder secondary to neurological involvement by the disease. Vesicoureteral reflux was observed in two cases. Other two patients had significant post-voiding residual urine, both with neurogenic bladder secondary to nervous system involvement by lupus. The average bladder maximum capacity in an awaken patient was 342 mL, and was decreased in 18.9% of cases. This subgroup of patients presented a greater frequency of urinary symptoms and greater use of cytostatic drugs (Z > Z5%. A pathognomonic cystoscopic pattern of bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus could not be established. Cystoscopic aspects similar to those seen in the initial or minor

  13. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... technologies can be found across many domains, including culture, food, learning, work and general living. Individuals use tools and techniques to track themselves, thereby translating their own habits, bodies, moods, and thoughts into objects to scrutinize and transform. In addition, self-tracking is often...... coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...

  14. Bladder hyperactivity and increased excitability of bladder afferent neurons associated with reduced expression of Kv1.4 α-subunit in rats with cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yukio; Takimoto, Koichi; Chancellor, Michael B.; Erickson, Kristin A.; Erickson, Vickie L.; Kirimoto, Tsukasa; Nakano, Koushi; de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    Hyperexcitability of C-fiber bladder afferent pathways has been proposed to contribute to urinary frequency and bladder pain in chronic bladder inflammation including interstitial cystitis. However, the detailed mechanisms inducing afferent hyperexcitability after bladder inflammation are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated changes in the properties of bladder afferent neurons in rats with bladder inflammation induced by intravesical application of hydrochloric acid. Eight days after ...

  15. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  16. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette

  17. Bladder perforation in a peritoneal dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ounissi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dysfunction of the catheter in peritoneal dialysis (PD is a frequent compli-cation. However, perforation of organs are rare, particularly that of the urinary bladder. This re-quires an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients. We report here the case of a 38-year-old woman having end-stage renal disease due to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease treated by PD since November 2000. Three years later, she was treated for Staphylococcal peritonitis. Four months later, she presented with a severe urge to urinate at the time of the fluid exchanges. The biochemical analysis of the fluid from the bladder showed that it was dialysis fluid. Injection of contrast through the catheter demonstrated the presence of a fistula between the bladder and the peritoneal cavity. She underwent cystoscopic closure of the fistulous tract and the PD catheter was removed. Subsequently, the patient was treated by hemodialysis. One month later, a second catheter was implanted surgically after confirming the closure of the fistula. Ten days later, she presented with pain at the catheter site and along the tunnel, which was found to be swollen along its track. The injection of contrast produced swelling of the subcutaneous tunnel but without extravasation of the dye. PD was withdrawn and the patient was put back on hemodialysis. Bladder fistula is a rare complication in PD and diagnosis should be suspected when patient complains of an urge to pass urine during the exchanges, which can be confirmed by contrast study showing presence of dye in the bladder. PD may be possible after the closure of the fistula, but recurrence may occur.

  18. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Okumura, Toshiyuki [and others

    2000-02-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2-3N0M0, were included in the study. lntra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2-3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. (author)

  19. Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen Kanyilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a portative ultrasound device; Bladder Scan BVM 6500 (Verathon Inc., WA, USA at a frequency of 3.7 MHz at functional bladder capacity. These values were compared by gender, and their relation was assessed with age, body mass index (BMI and parity. Results: Mean BWT was 2.0 ± 0.4 mm and UEBW was 44.6 ± 8.3 g at a mean volume of 338.0 ± 82.1 ml. Although higher results were obtained in men at higher bladder volumes, the results did not differ significantly by gender. Correlation analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between UEBW and age (r = 0.32. BWT was negatively correlated with volume (r = -0.50 and bladder surface area (r = -0.57. Also, statistically significant correlations were observed between UEBW and volume (r = 0.36, bladder surface area (r = 0.48 and BWT (r = 0.25. Conclusion: Determined values of BWT and UEBW in healthy population are estimated with portative ultrasound devices, which are future promising, for their convenient, easy, non-invasive, time-efficient hand-held use for screening.

  20. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    . The advantage was maintained in terms of the detection of invasive tumors between the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC (90.48% versus 23.81%, P = 0.001 as well as between FISH and UC (85.71% versus 23.81%, P = 0.003. The specificities for the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, UC, and FISH were 100%.Conclusion: Results show that the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand is a promising noninvasive tool for diagnosis and surveillance in patients suspected of having a new bladder tumor.Keywords: bladder tumor, tumor-targeting, FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, fluorescent probe

  1. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  2. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  3. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  4. Total process surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the current operating behaviour of a process or power plant is the key to maximizing the efficiency and safety of operation and the quality of the product. Early detection of plant component or sensor degradation and failure improves operating safety, product quality and plant availability. This paper describes the design and development of a Total Process Surveillance system which assimilates all the sensor information available on a plant to provide the operators with a succinct report on the status of the plant behaviour. The heart of the system is a robust model-based observer which can estimate internal plant states, and provides a residual signal with powerful fault detection and isolation features. Several results are presented which illustrate the performance of the system in detecting and isolating multiple fault scenarios in a fast reactor plant. A structure for the practical implementation of the system is described, and comments are given on its contribution to the final experimental work planned for AEA Technology's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). (Author)

  5. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay Victoria C; Smith Rachel A; Findeis Jill L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimi...

  6. The Effectiveness of IMF Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Biagio Bossone

    2008-01-01

    IMF surveillance of the international monetary and financial system is a global public good. Its effectiveness depends critically on the dynamics that underpin the mechanisms governing the IMF and global finance. These dynamics, in turn, reflect the interests and power of influence of countries (especially the largest), their cooperative attitude and international relations. Assessing the effectiveness of IMF surveillance, therefore, demands a clear understanding of the IMF and global financi...

  7. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  8. E-learning for neurological bladder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognoni, Carla; Fizzotti, Gabriella; Pistarini, Caterina; Mazzoleni, M Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the impact of visceral dysfunction on quality of life, bowel and bladder management is a very important problem. The management of the patient with neurological bladder is often a source of uncertainty for both patients and healthcare personnel. Since the need of specialized training is growing, two CME e-learning courses have been developed to provide physicians and nurses competencies for the enhancement of the daily life of the patients. The present study aims at evaluating courses attendance and outcomes. Attendance data confirm the interest for both courses. The results document a pretty good objective and subjective effectiveness of the e-learning courses but low attitude to exploit he support of an asynchronous tutor. The analysis of test results gives some hints for eventual quality improvement of the courses themselves. PMID:22874390

  9. Paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with occult bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nivean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to report the first case of cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR presenting before bladder cancer diagnosis. A 71-year-old woman with a history of bilateral vision loss underwent subsequent complete ophthalmic examination include a fluorescein angiography, full-field electroretinogram (ERG, serology including serum antibodies for CAR, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT scan. The patient was diagnosed with bladder carcinoma revealed by PET-CT. Timely recognition of this entity may be crucial for an increased patient survival thus adult onset progressive photoreceptor dysfunction, confirmed by ERG, should alert to a possible remote effect of known or occult malignancy. In the latter, PET-CT may be exploited as a powerful diagnostic tool.

  10. Paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with occult bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nivean, M; Muttuvelu, Danson V; Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia;

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report the first case of cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) presenting before bladder cancer diagnosis. A 71-year-old woman with a history of bilateral vision loss underwent subsequent complete ophthalmic examination include a fluorescein angiography, full-field electroretinogram...... (ERG), serology including serum antibodies for CAR, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan. The patient was diagnosed with bladder carcinoma revealed by PET-CT. Timely recognition of this entity may be crucial for an increased patient survival thus adult onset progressive...... photoreceptor dysfunction, confirmed by ERG, should alert to a possible remote effect of known or occult malignancy. In the latter, PET-CT may be exploited as a powerful diagnostic tool....

  11. Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma gall bladder is a very aggressive disease with poor outcomes. Despite achievements in the field of advanced imaging techniques, there is a very high mortality rate of the disease Cancer is the second most common disease in India responsible for maximum mortality with about 0.3 million deaths per year. The magnitude of cancer problem in the Indian Sub-continent (sheer numbers is increasing due to poor to moderate living standards and inadequate medical facilities. Women are more commonly affected than men. The peak incidence occurs in people in their 60s, but the disease age range is from 29 to 90 years of age and there is great geographic and ethnic variation. Carcinoma gall bladder, a disease of old age, is now found in the younger age group and presents with greater ferocity.

  12. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaderin, V.P.; Polyanichko, M.F. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Onkologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature and clinical data of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%).

  13. Ureteral reimplantation in children with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, G P; Musi, L; Campobasso, P; Cattaneo, A

    1979-04-01

    The treatment of urologic complications from myelomeningocele and especially of vesico-renal reflux is a controversial problem. A series of 26 reimplanted ureters in 17 children, with good results in more than 85%, is reported. Ureteroneocystostomy, carried out with a few technical innovation, may represent a useful method for the treatment of vesico-renal reflux and obstruction of the uretero-vesical junction in neurogenic bladder associated with myelomeningocele. This surgical approach leads to the disappearance of the reflux, decrease of dilatation of the upper urinary tract and preservation of renal function in most cases; moreover, infection can be more easily controlled. Ureteral reimplantation should be preceded by periodic urethral dilatation, external transurethral sphincterotomy, and pharmacologic regulation in order to attempt to decrease urethral resistance. After successful surgery, it is possible to try to reeducate the bladder. Reimplantation should be preferred to permanent urinary diversion even if there is gross reflux. PMID:458534

  14. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  15. Missed Iatrogenic Bladder Rupture Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Vidyasagar H; Wagaskar, Vinayak G; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2015-10-01

    Bladder rupture following caesarian section is well documented complications. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is very rare. Hereby, we present a case report of intraperitoneal bladder rupture presented late following normal vaginal delivery. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture following uneventful outlet forceps delivery in a 22-year-old primi gravid woman with gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal macrosomia who presented with large urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Emergent exploratory laparotomy with repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture helped to prevent its potential complications. Postpartum patients who undergo episiotomy or perineal repair may land up in unnoticed urinary retention which may rarely terminate in spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. Awareness of its manifestations amongst emergency physician would help to initiate appropriate timely management. PMID:26557563

  16. Gall bladder carcinoma presenting with spinal metastasis: A rare phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit K Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed.

  17. Spectrum of Lesions in Cystoscopic Bladder Biopsies -A Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar U

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diseases of the bladder, particularly inflammation (cystitis, constitute an important source of clinical signs and symptoms. Tumors of the bladder are an important source of both morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1 To study the histopathological features of various lesions in bladder biopsies. 2 To study the frequency of different pathological lesions, particularly Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC in urinary bladder biopsies. Results: Sixty cases of urinary bladder biopsies were received. Out of 60 patients, 43 were males and 17 were females. The spectrum of pathological lesions included inflammations, metaplastic lesions and tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common tumour seen in this study. A case of paraganglioma and malakoplakia were also seen. Conclusions: Our study has revealed that the bladder tumours are the commonest lesions in cystoscopic biopsies and TCC was the predominant tumour type

  18. Dynamics of liquid sloshing in upright and inverted bladdered tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, F. T.; Kana, D. D.

    A system identification methodology was used to examine the dynamics of liquid sloshing in the upright and inverted bladdered hydrazine tanks of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, (TDRS) and to evaluate the effects of bladder stiffness on the sloshing parameters. Mechanical models of the two systems were developed using the numerical values derived from static stability tests and from slosh frequency response tests of a full-size model tank fitted with a prototype bladder. For the upright tank (liquid below the bladder) a modified conventional pendulum was used. In the inverted tank (liquid above the bladder) where sloshing is unconventional due to the highly nonsymmetrical orientation of the liquid held by the bladder, a mechanical model using an inverted pendulum which is able to undergo small oscillations as well as large reorientations was necessary. Both thrusting and low-gravity conditions are considered.

  19. Surgical management of the neurogenic bladder and bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingin Gerald C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida and myelodysplasia are associated with neurogenic abnormalities of the bladder and bowel function. All children with myelodysplasia require an evaluation of their urinary tract with ultrasound and urodynamics to confirm normal bladder and kidney function. Patients with anatomical and functional abnormalities require treatment, the mainstay being intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic medication. The treatment goals for patients with a neurogenic bladder are the preservation of the upper urinary tract, bladder and bowel continence, independence, autonomy, and facilitation of self-esteem. A minority of children will not respond to conservative therapy and will ultimately require surgical intervention. This review will discuss the surgical options for bladder augmentation, bladder neck reconstruction and closure, as well as the methods for the creation of continent catheterizable stomas. The timing, indications, and description for each procedure will be addressed. Finally, the antegrade continence enema procedure will be described for the management of refractory fecal incontinence.

  20. ILEOCYSTOPLASTY IN INVASIVE URINARY BLADDER CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of surgical treatment of patients with the intestinal urinary bladder, to characterize its early and late postoperative complications, and to develop their correction tactics.  Subjects and methods. The results of treatment in 198 patients who had undergone ileocystoplasty were analyzed.  Results. The developed diagnostic approach and the determined examination periods could reduce the number of late postoperative complications of ileocystoplasty: acute and chronic pyelonephritis from 19.4 to 7.6%, urolithiasis from 17.2 to 1.9%, bladder dysfunction from 25.8 to 7.6%, and metabolic acidosis from 4.3 to 1.9%, and prevent the development of ureterovesical anastomosis stricture.  Conclusion. Radical cystectomy with the ileoplasty using an isolated segment of the ileum in patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma has been the operation of choice no longer; it has become an essential surgical adjunct. This method permits overall 5-year survival to be achieved in 69.7% of patients.  

  1. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  2. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cervigni, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiolo...

  3. Neuromodulation attenuates bladder hyperactivity in a rat cystitis model

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xin; Nickles, Angela; Nelson, Dwight E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the regulation of urinary bladder function by electrical stimulation of the L6 spinal nerve (SN) using cystometry in normal rats and in rats with cystitis induced by intravesical infusion of dilute acetic acid. Methods In anesthetized rats, a cannula was placed into the bladder dome for saline/acetic acid infusion and intravesical pressure monitoring. Threshold pressure (TP), basal pressure (BP) and inter-contraction interval (ICI) were measured from the bladder pre...

  4. Preventing Kidney Injury in Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Javadi Larijani; Mastaneh Moghtaderi; Nilofar Hajizadeh; Farahnak Assadi

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newbor...

  5. Complete transurethral bladder eversion 3 months after hemipelvectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Gregory; Mandalapu, Subbarao; Gilleran, Jason

    2010-02-01

    A 46-year-old white female underwent a left hemipelvectomy for chondrosarcoma. She presented with total incontinence and a bulging vaginal mass. Exam confirmed complete transurethral bladder eversion that was addressed with transvaginal multilayer bladder neck closure and suprapubic tube placement. Eventually she underwent abdominal hysterectomy, mesh sacral colpopexy, and catheterizable stoma creation. Patient is continent of urine 3 months postoperatively. We present the first reported case of bladder eversion after hemipelvectomy and propose possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:19629370

  6. The relationship between overactive bladder and sexual activity in women

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Ankur S.; O'Leary Margie L.; Stein Robert J.; Leng Wendy W.; Chancellor Michael B; Patel Subodh G.; Borello-France Diane

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the relationships between bladder symptoms, demographic, and medical history variables and sexual dysfunction in women with overactive bladder (OAB) disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight women diagnosed with OAB completed self-administered questionnaires related to overall heath status, bladder function, and sexual function. Data were compiled for questionnaire responses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of sexu...

  7. CORRECTION OF BLADDER EXSTROPHY IN ADOLESCENT: 2 CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    A. Burgio; G. Di Maggio; Ferrara, F.; G. Giannotti; Pavone, M.; A.L Bulotta; Messina, M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: bladder exstrophy is characterized by an incomplete development of anterior portion of bladder, urethra, abdominal wall and a median separation of pubic symphysis. We describe 2 clinical cases in adolescent treated with different surgical approach. Materials and Methods: two patients, one male and one female, respectively, 10 and 14 years old. Both cases had relapse: the bladder plate was performed in female when she was 2 years and in male when he was 6 years old. The male show...

  8. Effect of piliation on Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in rat bladders.

    OpenAIRE

    Fader, R C; C. P. Davis

    1980-01-01

    The possible role of pili in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae was investigated in a rat model of cystitis by utilizing piliated- and nonpiliated-phase organisms derived from a single parent strain. Bladder surfaces were examined for evidence of infection by scanning electron microscopy. In animals infected with piliated-phase organisms, foci of infection were evident in the majority of bladders examined. Rat bladders associated with nonpiliated-phase...

  9. Metastatic Bladder Cancer: A Review of Current Management

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Fletcher; Ananya Choudhury; Nooreen Alam

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer continues to result in substantial morbidity and mortality for affected individuals. Advances in the management of metastatic bladder cancer have been limited. Chemotherapy with platinum-based regimes remains the mainstay of first-line treatment. Studies investigating alternative regimes have offered no survival advantage. Targeted therapies may offer benefit either as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy. Symptoms due to metastatic bladder cancer impact patients' q...

  10. Spontaneous Rupture of Bladder in Puerperium without Uterine Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Panda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: we report a case of intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture I week following normal delivery ina primigravida, who presented with huge urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Abdominalparacentesis and exploratory laparotomy was done and a diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupturewas made. The rent was repaired in layers. This may be preventable if adequate precaution in the formof evacuating the bladder before the patient goes into second stage of labor is undertaken.

  11. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  12. Bladder cancer and reproductive factors among women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, An-Tsun; Kogevinas, Manolis; Silverman, Debra T.; Malats, Nủria; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; García-Closas, Reina; Carrato, Alfredo; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal factors, possibly related to reproductive characteristics, may play a role in the risk of bladder cancer among women. To study this, we investigated the effects of reproductive factors on female bladder cancer risk. Information on reproductive and other risk factors was gathered in personal interviews from 152 female cases and 166 matched controls from 18 hospitals in five regions of Spain during 1998–2001. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between bladder canc...

  13. Bladder dysfunction in distal autonomic neuropathy of acute onset.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, R S; Fowler, C J; Gosling, J A; Bannister, R

    1985-01-01

    A patient with cholinergic dysautonomia and a patient with pandysautonomia have each been investigated for disturbances of bladder and urethral function. Both patients suffered from an inability to develop or sustain a detrusor contraction, while retaining normal bladder sensation. Biopsy specimens of bladder muscle stained for acetylcholinesterase revealed a significant reduction in cholinergic nerves compared with controls; however, the prominent cholinergic subepithelial plexus was strikin...

  14. Bladder Bulge: Unifying Old and New Sonographic Bladder Wall Abnormalities in Ureterolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bomann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As long as CT remains the first line imaging modality in suspected ureterolithiasis, emergency physicians will continue to perform the majority of renal colic ultrasound studies in a search for hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis, however, is not always present and emergency physicians may not find it as useful as would be expected. Through this case series of seven patients, we present what we believe to be commonly present and easily acquired sonographic bladder wall findings in ureterolithiasis. These abnormalities are not routinely taught in emergency ultrasound and have not been reported in the emergency medicine literature. One variant, in fact, may be a novel finding unto itself. Due to their similar appearance, we propose to unify these findings under the name “bladder bulge.” This sign can be seen on axial views as an inward bulging or focal thickening of the bladder wall on the affected side, at the uretovesical junction.

  15. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  16. Well Water a Suspected Cause of Bladder Cancer in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Suspected Cause of Bladder Cancer in New England Researchers believe arsenic exposure might contribute to higher- ... bladder cancer risk among people in three New England states, a new study suggests. Bladder cancer rates ...

  17. A rare case of pure small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Singh; Divya Srivastava; Hemant Yadav; Rajeev Sen

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common urologic malignancy. Up to 95% of the urinary bladder tumors are of epithelial origin, from which 90% are transitional neoplasms. However, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare tumor accounting for

  18. A rat model with an isolated bladder in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Olsen, P S; Grevstad, J U;

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes our method for producing a rat model with an isolated bladder in situ in which the bladder makes no contact with urine. First, the right kidney was removed, then an external catheter was placed in the right ureter for bladder infusions, and next the left ureter was anatomosed...... to the proximal part of the descending colon. The animals were treated with antibiotics, and saline was infused daily into the bladder in order to prevent atrophy. This in situ model is considered to be useful in studies investigating the influence of specific compounds, such as carcinogens, on the...

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms at Familial Bladder Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ceylan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men in the world, it is the second most seen cancer after lung cancer and the first in urogenital tumours in Turkey. Many molecular epidemiologic studies have been reported to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. In this report, a family with transitional bladder cancer have also MTHFR A1298C heterozygosity which supports the association between MTHFR variants and bladder cancer. This %uFB01nding should be further validated by prospective and larger studies with more diverse ethnic groups.

  20. Bladder metastases of appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma: a case presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appendiceal adenocarcinoma is rare with a frequency of 0.08% of all surgically removed appendices. Few cases of appendiceal carcinoma infiltrating the bladder wall for spatial contiguity have been documented. A case is reported of a 45-years old woman with mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with bladder metastasis. Although ultrasonography and voided urinary cytology were negative, abdomen computed tomography (CT) scan and cystoscopy and subsequent pathological examination revealed a mass exclusively located in the anterior wall of the bladder. Histopathology of the transurethral bladder resection revealed a bladder adenocarcinoma [6 cm (at the maximum diameter) × 2,5 cm; approximate weight: 10 gr] with focal mucinous aspects penetrating the muscle and perivisceral fat. Laparotomy evidenced the presence of a solid mass of the appendix (2,5 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm) extending to the loco-regional lymph nodes. Appendectomy and right hemicolectomy, linfoadenectomy and partial cystectomy were performed. The subsequent pathological examination revealed a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with metastatic cells colonising the anterior bladder wall and several colic lymph nodes. The rarity of the appendiceal carcinoma invading the urinary bladder and its usual involvement of nearest organs and the posterior bladder wall, led us to describe this case which demonstrates the ability of the appendiceal cancer to metastasize different regions of urinary bladder

  1. A Very Long Foreign Body in the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Imai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the urinary tract, foreign body is most commonly found in the urinary bladder. But it is anatomically very difficult for a man to self-insert a long object into the urinary bladder. Here we report a case of a 49-year-old Japanese man who has inserted a 140-cm vinyl tube in the bladder for masturbation. He could not retrieve it, and the bladder foreign body remained in this position for about two years. He was referred to our hospital and open surgery was performed.

  2. Bladder cancer arising in a spina bifida patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, X; Villers, A; Malavaud, B; Sarramon, J

    1999-11-01

    We report the case of a 52-year-old patient with spina bifida, neurologic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in whom a bladder cancer was incidentally discovered. Cytology, cystoscopy, and cystography showed nonspecific, extensive inflammatory lesions. Cystography demonstrated a complex of diverticulae and cellules. Pathologic examination of a diverticulectomy specimen revealed a grade III pT3b transitional and squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the similar disease causation (recurrent UTIs, stones, and indwelling catheterization), we suggest extension of the guidelines proposed for patients with spinal cord injuries (ie, annual serial bladder biopsies) to patients with nontraumatic neurogenic bladder. PMID:10754152

  3. Gender differences in bladder control: from babies to elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ricarda M; Huebner, Wilhelm

    2013-10-01

    In both sexes, there are anatomical and behavioral differences in dealing with bladder control, as well as voiding and incontinence. Despite intensive research within the last decades, the differences in physiology and pathophysiology as well as gender differences of bladder control and continence are still poorly understood and further research is highly needed. In babies, gender difference seems to be most likely caused by a difference in maturity rate of the bladder. After gaining bladder control, behavior starts to be influenced by socialization. During preschool and school, children experience a negative perception of school toilets. Especially girls crouch over the toilet seat and train to empty the bladder without relaxation of the pelvic floor. This posture may lead to bladder dysfunction. Often adult women continue this bad habit and bladder dysfunction may consolidate. From the fourth decade in both sexes lower urinary tract symptoms start to develop. However, men and women handle the problem variedly showing gender differences in coping strategies with better coping mechanisms in women. In general, gender difference in help seeking and receiving treatment increases with younger age. In elderly, urinary incontinence is only associated with a higher mortality in men, and elderly men seek more often professional help. Aim of the review is to provide an insight into gender differences of bladder control and bladder dysfunction. PMID:23881351

  4. Xenon tissue/blood partition coefficient for pig urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L;

    1990-01-01

    In four landrace pigs the tissue/blood partition coefficient (lambda) for xenon (Xe) for the urinary bladder was calculated after chemical analysis for lipid, water and protein content and determination of the haematocrit. The coefficients varied from bladder to bladder owing to small differences...... in both the haematocrit and tissue composition. In Xe washout studies of the blood flow of the urinary bladder, we recommend calculating the lambda for Xe from the actual haematocrit and from the median value of tissue composition found in the present study....

  5. One case treated bladder cancer with Immunity-herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Suk Kim

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available In oriental medicine bladder cancer had been called '溺血(Hematuria', 血淋(Blood Stranguria', 濕熱河注(Downward Flow of Damp-heat' and so on. The symptoms are Hematuria, Oliguria, Lower abdomen pain, febrile sensation and Anemia etc. These are similar to the symptoms of bladder cancer by modem medicine. I have experienced a bladder cancer patient who was diagnosed as stage Ⅲ. She has been treated bladder cancer with Immunity herbal acupuncture and Her clinical and objective symptoms have been better. Therefore I report this results.

  6. Hair Dye Use and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T.; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Lindsay M. Morton; Colt, Joanne S.; Hein, David W.; Moore, Lee E.; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Cherala, Sai; Schned, Alan; Doll, Mark A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; KARAGAS, MARGARET R.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amine components in hair dyes, and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism, may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1,193 incident cases and 1,418 controls from Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person ...

  7. Sensory Dysfunction of Bladder Mucosa and Bladder Oversensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Chia Lee; Po-Hui Chiang; You-Lin Tain; Chia-Ching Wu; Yao-Chi Chuang

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60%) or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs) were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO). Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) solution (5mM, pH 3.3) was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters we...

  8. Characterization of bladder sensory neurons in the context of myelination, receptors for pain modulators, and acute responses to bladder inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley L Forrest; Osborne, Peregrine B.; Keast, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder sensation is mediated by lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion neurons and is essential for normal voiding and nociception. Numerous electrophysiological, structural and molecular changes occur in these neurons following inflammation. Defining which neurons undergo these changes is critical for understanding the mechanism underlying bladder pain and dysfunction. Our first aim was to define the chemical classes of bladder sensory neurons that express receptors for the endogenous modulators ...

  9. Hypersensitive bladder: a solution to confused terminology and ignorance concerning interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio

    2014-04-01

    Taxonomy or nomenclature concerning interstitial cystitis and its related symptom syndromes is in a state of confusion. After analyzing the reasons for confusion in regard to three components (disease name, symptoms, Hunner's lesion), I would like to propose a new term, "hypersensitive bladder", taking after overactive bladder, as a solution. Hypersensitive bladder symptoms are defined as "increased bladder sensation, usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without bladder pain." The proposal of hypersensitive bladder is based on: (i) it does not appear a symptom syndrome, but a disease by ending with an organ name, "bladder"; (ii) it does not contain confusable symptom terms (pain and urgency), but indicates irritative symptoms including pain and urgency; and (iii) it suggests pathophysiological hyperactivity of sensory nerves. Interstitial cystitis is defined by three requirements: (i) hypersensitive bladder symptoms; (ii) bladder pathology; and (iii) no other diseases, where bladder pathology should be clearly stated either as Hunner's lesion or glomerulations after hydrodistention. Hypersensitive bladder can be used for the condition with hypersensitive bladder symptoms, but no obvious disease explaining hypersensitive bladder symptoms identified. Interstitial cystitis is a representative disease causing hypersensitive bladder symptoms, most typically with pain, but might be painless and indistinguishable from overactive bladder. Introducing hypersensitive bladder as a counter concept of overactive bladder into bladder dysfunction taxonomy will facilitate clinical practice and research progress, and attract considerable attention from the medical world. PMID:24807494

  10. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  11. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the [guidance] to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  13. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Al Taweel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Results: Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. Conclusion: This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.

  14. Identification of Apo-A1 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shixin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC is the fourth most frequent neoplasia in men, clinically characterized by high recurrent rates and poor prognosis. Availability of urinary tumor biomarkers represents a convenient alternative for early detection and disease surveillance because of its direct contact with the tumor and sample accessibility. Results We tested urine samples from healthy volunteers and patients with low malignant or aggressive BTCC to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BTCC by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS and bioinformatics analysis. We observed increased expression of five proteins, including fibrinogen (Fb, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1, clusterin (CLU and haptoglobin (Hp, which were increased in urine samples of patients with low malignant or aggressive bladder cancer. Further analysis of urine samples of aggressive BTCC showed significant increase in Apo-A1 expression compared to low malignant BTCC. Apo-A1 level was measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was suggested to provide diagnostic utility to distinguish patients with bladder cancer from controls at 18.22 ng/ml, and distinguish patients with low malignant BTCC from patients with aggressive BTCC in two-tie grading system at 29.86 ng/ml respectively. Further validation assay showed that Apo-A1 could be used as a biomarker to diagnosis BTCC with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.6% and 85.7% respectively, and classify BTCC in two-tie grading system with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.7% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest Apo-A1 could be a potential biomarker related with early diagnosis and classification in two-tie grading system for bladder cancer.

  15. Studies of experimental bladder tumors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatologic, histochemical and histologic investigations were performed on the effects of SLA, a β-glucoronidase inhibitor, and Linaic irradiation in an experimental BBN bladder tumor of rats. Bladder tumors were macroscopically thumb-head size in the cases with no treatment of with SLA application, but were shrunk by roentgen irradiation. The number of the rats with reduced tumor was respectively 3 in the group with roentgen irradiation. S-LDH activity of the cancer-carrying animals was markedly elevated as compared with that of the normal rat. SLA application caused no change in S-LDH activity of cancer-carrying animals, but roentgen irradiation resulted in a marked decrease in S-LDH activity of the similar animals with bladder tumors. The level of this decrease was dependent on the dosage of one time irradiation; no change was observed by 200, 300 and 500 rad, little decrease was seen by 750 rad, and marked decrease was observed after 1,000 and 1,500 rad radiation. Histological observation of the effects of irradiation could be summarized as follows. Histological changes were seen in the cases of macroscopic shrinkage by 3,000 rad irradiation. In this group, an individual variation was noticed not only macroscopically but microscopically. One time irradiation of 200, 300 and 500 rad resulted in no histological change, but that of 750, 1,000, and 1,500 rad caused a slight, but not marked, histological change. Tissue distribution of β-glucuronidase was examined by means of Naphthol-AS-BI-glucuronide method in the group without any treatment and the group with SLA administration. β-glucuronidase activity was noticed in the epithelial cells and interstitial stroma of the tumor tissue, but the effect of SLA on β-glucuronidase activity was not observed histochemically. (author)

  16. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  17. Reactor vessel material surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B and W conducts surveillance programs for its 850-MW(e) class of reactors to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the full Charpy V-notch curves of the reactor vessel materials. Charpy and tensile specimens, which are machined from as-fabricated metal, heat-affected-zone metal (HAZ), and weld metal, are placed in six surveillance capsules containing dosimeters and temperature monitors. The capsules are then placed in three holder tubes, which are positioned so that the capsules are near the peak axial neutron flux. (U.S.)

  18. A Case of Multiple Myeloma Following Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Hamid; Vakili Sadeghi, Mohsen; Ghorbani, Hosein; Sharbatdaran, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Second primary malignancy following multiple myeloma (MM) was reported several years ago. There are also rare reports of cases with synchronous MM and other malignancies. To our knowledge, only one case of MM following bladder cancer has been reported in the literature. Here, we report the second case occurred three months after diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  19. CT diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupture with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT examination in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupture (IPBR) caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: All CT and clinical data of 9 patients with IPBR were reviewed retrospectively. Results: IPBR was detected on CT scans in all 9 patients. CT findings of IPBR included low -attenuation free intraperitoneal fluid collections in the lateral paravesical fossae, the pericolic space, the culde-sac of the pelvis, Morison's pouch, the peri-hepatic space, the perisplenic space and interspace of bowel loops in 9 cases with a lower CT density compared with pure blood. The disruption of the bladder wall was located by CT scan in 5 cases: high-attenuation bladder wall with focal defect in 3 cases and a tear drop-like deformity of the bladder in 2 cases. Other CT findings supporting the diagnosis of IPBR included an underfilled bladder in 8 cases, bladder contusion in 4 cases, and blood clots within the bladder in 6 cases. Conclusion: The presence of intraperitoneal fluid with a CT density less than that of pure blood strongly suggests extravasated urine in the trauma. Intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal rupture can be distinguished based on location of extravasated urine seen on CT scans. The precise localization of the ruptured bladder wall may be demonstrated by CT scan, which is valuable for surgical treatment

  20. A Methylation Panel for Bladder Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Participate in a prevalidation study for methylation based detection of bladder cancer. In addition, a panel of three markers identified will be evaluated for their ability to a) identify bladder cancer patients from those with benign urologic disease; b) identify patients with superficial (papillary) cancers from those with high grade invasive cancers

  1. Committee opinion: onabotulinumtoxinA and the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of onabotulinumtoxinA (also known as Botox A) for the treatment of overactive bladder, thus providing another treatment option for women. Symptoms of overactive bladder have been shown to significantly improve after onabotulinumtoxinA injections compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmacological treatments, and bladder instillation technique. Before considering medical or surgical treatment, all patients in whom overactive bladder is diagnosed should receive instruction in behavioral techniques (eg, bladder retraining drills and timed voids), fluid management, or pelvic muscle exercises with or without physical therapy. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA may be a second-line treatment option for overactive bladder in appropriate patients, and consideration of its use requires shared decision making between the patient and health care provider. Patients who are candidates for onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder should be counseled about its risks and possible postprocedure adverse events, including the risk of postprocedure urinary retention, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pain, and transient body weakness. Health care providers who perform onabotulinumtoxinA injections must have appropriate training and experience in treating women with pelvic floor disorders, operative cystoscopy privileges, and the ability to diagnose and manage any adverse outcomes after onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder. PMID:25181372

  2. Committee Opinion No. 604: OnabotulinumtoxinA and the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In January 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of onabotulinumtoxinA (also known as Botox A) for the treatment of overactive bladder, thus providing another treatment option for women. Symptoms of overactive bladder have been shown to significantly improve after onabotulinumtoxinA injections compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmacological treatments, and bladder instillation technique. Before considering medical or surgical treatment, all patients in whom overactive bladder is diagnosed should receive instruction in behavioral techniques (eg, bladder retraining drills and timed voids), fluid management, or pelvic muscle exercises with or without physical therapy. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA may be a second-line treatment option for overactive bladder in appropriate patients, and consideration of its use requires shared decision making between the patient and health care provider. Patients who are candidates for onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder should be counseled about its risks and possible postprocedure adverse events, including the risk of postprocedure urinary retention, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pain, and transient body weakness. Health care providers who perform onabotulinumtoxinA injections must have appropriate training and experience in treating women with pelvic floor disorders, operative cystoscopy privileges, and the ability to diagnose and manage any adverse outcomes after onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder. PMID:24848923

  3. Bladder endothelin-1 receptor binding of bosentan and ambrisentan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osano, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Yoshinari; Hayashi, Hideki; Itoh, Kunihiko; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize bladder endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor binding of clinically used ET-1 receptor antagonists by using [(125)I]ET-1. The inhibition of specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding was measured in the presence of ET-1 and its receptor antagonists. Specific binding of [(125)I]ET-1 in rat bladder was saturable and of high affinity, which characterized selective labeling of bladder ET-1 receptors. ET-1, bosentan, ambrisentan, and CI-1020 inhibited specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding in a concentration-dependent manner at nanomolar ranges of IC50. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis revealed the presence of high- and low-affinity ET-1 receptor sites for ambrisentan and CI-1020. Bosentan and ambrisentan significantly increased the dissociation constant for bladder [(125)I]ET-1 binding without affecting maximal number of binding sites (Bmax). Thus, bosentan and ambrisentan seem to bind to bladder ET-1 receptor in a competitive and reversible manner. Oral administration of bosentan caused a dose-dependent decrease in Bmax for bladder [(125)I]ET-1 binding, suggesting significant binding of bladder ET-1 receptors in vivo. A significant amount of pharmacologically relevant ET-1 receptors may exist in the bladder. These receptors may be implicated in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract symptoms and may also be promising targets for the development of therapeutic agents. PMID:24389822

  4. Transitional Cell Carcinoma within a Portion of Inguinally Herniated Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Uhlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder herniation within the inguinal canal is a relatively uncommon finding. We report an even less-common occurrence of transitional cell carcinoma located within a portion of inguinally herniated bladder. Fewer than 20 reports exist in the literature describing this scenario.

  5. Total Process Surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    analytical redundancy is of significant importance in order to obtain the maximum amount of information as to the state of the plant. A further logical step in this theory is the accommodation of failed or damaged transducers by deriving their measurement information from the available remaining transducers. A system capable of providing a clear and improved picture of the plant's behaviour under a range of normal and off-normal operating conditions would thus be of significant economical and safety benefit. In summary: A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical redundancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. The TOPS system provides a structured and complete means for plant data management under both normal and off-normal operating conditions and thus will significantly assist the operator during severe accident management

  6. Radical cystectomy for the treatment of T1 bladder cancer: the Canadian Bladder Cancer Network experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Venu; Kassouf, Wassim; Chin, Joseph L.; Fradet, Yves; Aprikian, Armen G.; Fairey, Adrian S.; Estey, Eric; Lacombe, Louis; Rendon, Ricardo; Bell, David; Cagiannos, Ilias; Drachenberg, Darrell; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Izawa, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radical cystectomy may provide optimal survival outcomes in the management of clinical T1 bladder cancer. We present our data from a large, multi-institutional, contemporary Canadian series of patients who underwent radical cystectomy for clinical T1 bladder cancer in a single-payer health care system. Methods: We collected a pooled database of 2287 patients who underwent radical cystectomy between 1993 and 2008 in 8 different centres across Canada; 306 of these patients had clinical T1 bladder cancer. Survival data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results: The median age of patients was 67 years with a mean follow-up time of 35 months. The 5-year overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival was 71%, 77% and 59%, respectively. The 10-year overall and disease-specific survival were 60% and 67%, respectively. Pathologic stage distribution was p0: 32 (11%), pT1: 78 (26%), pT2: 55 (19%), pT3: 60 (20%), pT4: 27 (9%), pTa: 16 (5%), pTis: 28 (10%), pN0: 215 (74%) and pN1-3: 78 (26%). Only 12% of patients were given adjuvant chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, only margin status and pN stage were independently associated with overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival. Interpretation: These results indicate that clinical T1 bladder cancer may be significantly understaged. Identifying factors associated with understaged and/or disease destined to progress (despite any prior intravesical or repeat transurethral therapies prior to radical cystectomy) will be critical to improve survival outcomes without over-treating clinical T1 disease that can be successfully managed with bladder preservation strategies. PMID:21470529

  7. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF UROTHELIAL BLADDER CANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Bevizova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant cancers of urinary bladder are the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract and the fourth most common malignancy in general, especially in men. The aim of this study was a retrospective analysis of selected markers (p53, Ki-67 and E-cadherin of urinary bladder cancers from the Department of Urology in Bratislava, Slovak Republic between years 2007 and 2009. We analysed 244 patients (202 males, 42 females with diagnosed bladder cancer via cystoscopy and subsequent transurethral resection. Patients’ age varied from 36 to 98 years. Obtained samples were fixed by 10% buffered formalin for 24 to 48 h. Subsequently, they were dehydrated in ascending ethanol series and embedded in paraffin. The parafin sections of 5 µm were prepared by microtome and they were stained by haematoxylin and eosin. The antibodies against to p53, Ki-67 and E-cadherin were used in immunohistochemical analysis. Statistical evaluation was performed via SPSS using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and p values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. No significant differences in the expression of selected markers were found between genders. Expression of p53 and Ki-67, in G1 and G2 of low grade tumours was lower in comparison to their expression in G3 tumors. Expression of E-cadherin was the opposite in this case. The expression of p53 and Ki-67 positively correlated with tumor’s depth of invasion, while the expression of E-cadherin significantly decreased. In case of T4 tumors, the expression of all markers exhibited consistently high values. When analysing tumor multiplicity, the expression of p53 and Ki-67 significantly decreased, while the expression of E-cadherin significantly increased. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the analysis of p53, Ki-67 and E-cadherin expression is essential for diagnostics and prognostics of bladder cancer and should be routinely used in daily practise together with

  8. Numerical and Analytical Study of Bladder-Collapse Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tziannaros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and quantifying more of the workings of the human bladder motivates the present industry-supported study. The bladder performance in terms of the urinary velocities produced tends to be dominated by the internal fluid dynamics involved, in the sense that the bladder wall moves in a body-prescribed way. The enclosed urine flow responds to this wall movement, and there is relatively little feedback on the wall movement. Combined computational work and special-configuration analysis are applied over a range of configurations including computational and analytical results for the circle and sphere as basic cases; models of more realistic bladder shapes; the end stage of the micturition process where the bladder is relatively squashed down near the urethral sphincter and localised peak speeds arise. The combination of approaches above can be extended to allow for interaction between wall shape and flow properties such as internal pressure if necessary.

  9. The potentials of magnetic resonance imaging in bladder neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT scanning and sonography have improved the staging of malignancies of the urinary bladder. However, both methods are limited in their ability to determine infiltrative growth in or through the bladder wall, especially at the dome and the base of the bladder. Prompted by recent publications the authors evaluated the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the staging of malignant tumours of the urinary bladder. Twenty-four patients were examined. The results of MRI, CT scanning and lymphangiography were compared. MRI resulted in an improvement of tumour staging in 6 of the 24 patients(25%). This was mainly due to the possibility with MRI to obtain images in different planes and to a better differentation between hypertrophic bladder wall, tumour infiltration and submucosal oedema. Finally with MRI tumour infiltration in the perivesical fat could be assessed better than with CT scanning. (author). 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Rudkjær, Lise; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... staining on tissue arrays of bladder cancers. The presence and relative amount of ADAM12 in the urine of cancer patients were determined by Western blotting and densitometric measurements, respectively. RESULTS: ADAM12 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer, as determined by...... could be detected in the urine by Western blotting; ADAM12 was present in higher levels in the urine from patients with bladder cancer compared with urine from healthy individuals. Significantly, following removal of tumor by surgery, in most bladder cancer cases examined, the level of ADAM12 in the...

  11. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  12. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skelly Chris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data.

  13. Long-term survival after gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: focus on supplementary treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne Birgitte; Sengelov, Lisa; von der Maase, Hans

    2007-01-01

    radiotherapy as supplementary treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with locally advanced bladder cancer, NED following chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus supplementary cystectomy or radiotherapy is essential to achieve long-term survival. Patients with a partial response should be offered radical......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate response and survival, as well as efficacy of subsequent supplementary treatment and follow-up strategy in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder following combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC......: A total of 25 patients (29.8%) with complete response to chemotherapy were followed by close surveillance. This group achieved a median overall survival of 47.6 mo. Another 25 patients had partial response to chemotherapy. Of these patients, 16 had supplementary treatment, with 10 achieving "no evidence...

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  15. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  16. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  17. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  18. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  19. Histopathological characterization of a syngeneic orthotopic murine bladder cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher C. Chade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We developed and characterized by histopathology and immunohistochemistry a syngeneic murine bladder tumor model derived from the MB49 tumor cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bladder tumor implantation was achieved by intravesical instillation of 5 x 10(5 MB49 tumor cells in C57BL/6 mice. A chemical lesion of the bladder was performed in order to promote intravesical tumor implantation. The bladder wall lesion was accomplished by transurethral instillation of silver nitrate (AgNO3. After 15 days, the animals were sacrificed, examined macroscopically for intravesical tumor and bladder weight. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed using cytokeratin 7 (CK7, carcinoembrionic antigen (Dako-CEA, p53 and c-erbB2 oncoprotein (Her2/neu. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 30 animals (96.7% developed intravesical tumors in a 15-day period. Macroscopically, the mean bladder weight was 0.196g (0.069-0.538g, 10 to 15 times the normal bladder weight. The immunohistochemical analysis showed significant membrane expression of CEA and CK7: a similar finding for human urothelial cancer. We also characterized absence of expression of p53 and anti-Her2/neu in the murine model. CONCLUSIONS: High tumor take rates were achieved by using the chemical induction of the bladder tumor. Although electric cauterization is widely described in the literature for syngeneic orthotopic animal models, the technique described in this study represents an alternative for intravesical bladder tumor implantation. Moreover, the histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis of the murine bladder tumor model derived from the MB49 cell line showed a resemblance to human infiltrating urothelial carcinoma, allowing clinical inference from experimental immunotherapy testing.

  20. Ultrasound Estimated Bladder Weight and Measurement of Bladder Wall Thickness-Useful Noninvasive Methods for Assessing the Lower Urinary Tract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bright; M. Oelke; A. Tubaro; P. Abrams

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the last decade interest has arisen in the use of ultrasound derived measurements of bladder wall thickness, detrusor wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight as potential diagnostic tools for conditions known to induce detrusor hypertrophy. However, to date such measuremen

  1. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barclay Victoria C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.

  2. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  3. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  4. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  5. Bladder Endometriosis Mimicking TCC - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asish; Bhatnagar, Atul; Seth, B N; Dang, Arbinder; Gupta, Vineeta

    2016-02-01

    Endometriosis is the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Though on its own endometriosis is not a rare lesion, the involvement of the urinary tract is rare but with the bladder being the most commonly affected organ. Endometriosis is usually seen in females between the ages of 30-40 years and may occur due to fluctuating levels of oestrogen and progesterone. Clinically the patient maybe asymptomatic or show symptoms of dysmenorrhea, irregular or heavy periods, pain in the pelvic area, lower abdomen or in the back. It has been suggested that ultrasonography should be done either before or during menstruation as the lesion becomes more evident and a biopsy taken during this period is a strong aid in reaching a final diagnosis. We report here an unusual case of bladder endometriosis where the patient came with severe pelvic pain and an endoluminal mass seen on the ultrasonographic report. Based on these findings a differential of transitional cell carcinoma was given which was ruled out based on the cystoscopic findings. PMID:27042525

  6. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pokrywczynska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM. In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  8. Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node–Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2–T4, N−) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3–6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node–negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

  9. Implementation of adaptive radiation therapy for urinary bladder carcinoma - Imaging, planning and image guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) for urinary bladder cancer has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional RT with potential to minimize radiation-induced toxicity to healthy tissues. In this work we have studied bladder volume variations and their effect on healthy bladder dose sparing and intra fractional margins, in order to refine our ART strategy. Material and methods: An online ART treatment strategy was followed for five patients with urinary bladder cancer with the tumors demarcated using Lipiodol. A library of 3-4 predefined treatment plans for each patient was created based on four successive computed tomography (CT) scans. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images were acquired before each treatment fraction and after the treatment at least weekly. In partial bladder treatment the sparing of the healthy part of the bladder was investigated. The bladder wall displacements due to bladder filling were determined in three orthogonal directions (CC, AP, DEX-SIN) using the treatment planning CT scans. An ellipsoidal model was applied in order to find the theoretical maximum values for the bladder wall displacements. Moreover, the actual bladder filling rate during treatment was evaluated using the CBCT images. Results: In partial bladder treatment the volume of the bladder receiving high absorbed doses was generally smaller with a full than empty bladder. The estimation of the bladder volume and the upper limit for the intra fractional movement of the bladder wall could be represented with an ellipsoidal model with a reasonable accuracy. Observed maximum growth of bladder dimensions was less than 10 mm in all three orthogonal directions during 15 minute interval. Conclusion: The use of Lipiodol contrast agent enables partial bladder treatment with reduced irradiation of the healthy bladder volume. The ellipsoidal bladder model can be used for the estimation of the bladder volume changes and the upper limit of the bladder wall movement during the treatment

  10. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA mismatch repair (MMR system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.

  11. [Life style and occupational risk factors in bladder carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, M J; Barros, H

    1997-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a useful model for the study of the relationship between lifestyle, occupation and cancer. In the present hospital based case-control study, performed in the north of Portugal, we evaluated the role of occupational exposure and the effect of different lifestyles as risk factors for bladder cancer. We inquired 98 incident cases of bladder cancer (70 men, 28 women) and 202 hospital controls (100 men, 102 women), selected based on the absence of cancer, urinary or lung diseases, and admitted for orthopedic or acute abdominal surgery. Demographic, and socio-economical variables were recorded. A detailed job history was obtained, and exposure to smoking, alcohol and coffee were assessed. Never married subjects and those with higher school degrees presented lower risk of bladder cancer. Smoking was significantly associated with cancer both in men (OR=2.7) and women (OR=5.7). Alcohol, in contrast, had a protective effect, even after adjusting for different confounders. In women, coffee and alcohol had a significant multiplicative effect. No particular industrial sector was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. However, those exposed to any of the substances usually considered as risk factors for bladder cancer presented higher risks (OR=1.7, 95% confidence intervals: 0.9-3.0). This study showed that lifestyles have an important role in the causality of bladder cancer, and that occupational exposure probably has less impact in the occurrence of the disease in the general population. PMID:9245175

  12. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection.3H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  13. Cholesterol crystal embolization diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Denis; Cordonnier, Carole; Brevet, Marie; Petit, Jacques; Sevestre, Henri

    2005-08-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is a severe systemic disorder caused by vascular migration of cholesterol crystals originating from ulcerative atherosclerotic plaques located in large arteries. We report 2 cases of CCE diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection in 2 men aged 94 and 72 years. Both patients had atherosclerosis disease. One patient had been treated by heparin 1 month before for pulmonary embolism and the other had had a coronary angiography and bypass graft surgery 5 months before for silent myocardial infarction. One patient presented with hematuria and the other with acute renal failure. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors of the bladder wall. Bladder transurethral resections showed transitional cell carcinoma with cholesterol crystals occluding the lumen of small arterioles in the submucosa. Eight cases of CCE in the bladder wall have been reported in the literature in 3 women and 5 men aged 56 to 79 years. Cholesterol crystal embolization is often discovered in the bladder wall on necropsy specimens. Only 2 cases have been fortuitously discovered on bladder transurethral resection performed for transitional cell carcinoma. Cholesterol crystal embolization in the bladder wall is often a marker of severe disease although the evolution is quite favorable in our patients, still alive 1 and 2 years after diagnosis. PMID:16084459

  14. Bladder and rectal complications following radiotherapy for cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-hundred and thirty-two patients with cervix carcinoma who were treated with whole pelvis irradiation and two intracavitary applications had bladder and rectal dosimetry during brachytherapy with contrast agents placed into the bladder and rectum prior to orthogonal simulator radiographs. Doses were computer calculated at points A and B, F (bladder), R1 (rectum), and R2 (rectosigmoid). Late occurring bladder and rectal complications were graded on a severity scale of 1 to 3, and 14% had grade 2 or 3 injuries (9% developed fistulas). Statistical evaluation of the data showed that severe bladder and rectal injuries occur more commonly in stage IIIA and IIIB disease and in those receiving high external beam doses (5000 rad +). Analysis of variance tests revealed a significant correlation of brachytherapy dose to points R1 and R2 with severe rectal injuries but there was not a correlation of dose to F with bladder injuries. Nor was there correlation of injuries with dose to point A or the milligram-hour dose. We conclude that our technique for rectal dosimetry is adequate but that an improved technique of bladder dosimetry is needed. Also, when combining whole pelvis irradiation with two intracavitary applications (4000 rad to point A), the whole pelvis dose should probably not exceed 4000-4500 rad

  15. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, β-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  16. Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-02-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in rat with seven fiberoptic temperature probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec Canada) to characterize our ability to localize heat within the bladder target. Results The MRI study confirms the effectiveness of the catheterization procedure to homogenously distribute nanoparticles throughout the bladder. Thermal dosimetry data demonstrate our ability to controllably raise temperature of rat bladder >1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

  17. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst Robert E; Coffman Jean; Kyker Kimberly D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Interstital cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst), hyaluronate (Cystistat) or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron). The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labelled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of g...

  18. Histologic variants of urothelial bladder cancer and nonurothelial histology in bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chalasani, Venu; Chin, Joseph L.; Izawa, Jonathan I.

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer can be classified histologically as urothelial or non-urothelial. Urothelial cancer has a propensity for divergent differentiation, which has increasingly been recognized in recent years due to heightened awareness and improved immunohistochemistry techniques. Furthermore, the recent World Health Organization classification of urothelial cancers improved clarity on this issue, with its listing of 13 histologic variants of urothelial cancer. The divergent differentiation pattern...

  19. Self-catheterization of urinary bladder complicated with extraperitoneal abscess that mimics an infected bladder diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cing Juho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For patients who are suffering from neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, intermittent urinary catheterization is an efficient way to empty the bladder.1 However, the method may result in various complications. Herein we present a rare complication of extraperitoneal abscess owing to intermittent urinary catheterization in a 62-year-old male who had cervical spine injury and was treated with intermittent urethral catheterization for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Treatment and a literature review are also described.

  20. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video. There is a...... need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction of...... investigating the existing legal infrastructure for ensuring privacy in video surveillance and suggest guidelines in order to help those who want to deploy video surveillance while least compromising the privacy of people and complying with legal infrastructure....

  1. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  2. Postprandial gall-bladder emptying in patients with gall stones.

    OpenAIRE

    Maudgal, D P; Kupfer, R M; Zentler-Munro, P L; Northfield, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    Gall-bladder emptying in response to a standard meal was assessed in 34 patients with radiolucent gall stones and 34 matched controls. Percentage gall-bladder emptying, derived from volume measurements made on standardised oral cholecystography, was significantly higher at 15 minutes in the patients than the controls (mean +/- SE of mean 38.0 +/- 3.7% v 28.0 +/- 3.8%). This difference was maintained at 30 and 60 minutes. It is concluded that postprandial gall-bladder emptying is increased in ...

  3. [Emphysematous cystitis with total necrotization of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindom, A.B.; Gudnason, H.M.; Thind, Peter

    2008-01-01

    treatment to prostatocystectomy. We report the case of a 74-year old male diabetic presenting who was found to have emphysematous cystitis with total necrotization of the bladder. To our knowledge this is the only reported case with a totally necrotized bladder in emphysematous cystitis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/17......Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease of the bladder caused by gas-forming bacteria. Diabetics are the most commonly infected and the clinical picture ranges from dysuria to sepsis and peritonitis. The diagnosis is primarily radiological. Treatment ranges from catheterization and antibiotic...

  4. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  5. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture after normal vaginal delivery, case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peyvandi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the genitourinary organs are complications of vaginal delivery. We report a patient with no history of surgery presented 4 days postpartum with distended tender abdomen and peritoneal sign and renal failure. Abdominal X-Ray showed a large amount of ascites. In laparotomy 3.5 liter of urine was in cavity and laceration of 3 cm in the dome of bladder was seen. Repair was done. By reviewing the record, this is the fourth case of bladder rupture after normal vaginal delivery without previous history of cesarean section. In the postpartum patient presenting with ascites and azotemia, intraperitoneal bladder rupture should be suspected.

  6. Emerging Families of Ion Channels Involved in Urinary Bladder Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Okada

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The expression of multiple ion channels and receptors is essential for nociceptors to detect noxious stimuli of a thermal, mechanical or chemical nature. The peripheral sensory transduction systems of the urinary bladder include sensory nerve endings, urothelial cells and others whose location is suitable for transducing mechanical and chemical stimuli. There is an increasing body of evidence implicating the Deg/ENaC and TRP channel families in the control of bladder afferent excitability under physiological and pathological conditions. Pharmacological interventions targeting these ion channels may provide a new strategy for the treatment of pathological bladder sensation and pain.

  7. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Bladder Cancer Growth And Tumorigenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Wang, Zhiqiang; Flaveny, Colin; Long, Jun; Singh, Samer; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Tokhunts, Robert; Giambelli, Camilla; Briegel, Karoline J.; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Karagas, Margaret; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Jorda, Merce

    2012-01-01

    The role of HEDGEHOG (HH) signaling in bladder cancer remains controversial. The gene encoding the HH receptor and negative regulator PATCHED1 (PTCH1) resides on a region of chromosome 9q, one copy of which is frequently lost in bladder cancer. Inconsistent with PTCH1 functioning as a classic tumor suppressor gene, loss-of-function mutations in the remaining copy of PTCH1 are not commonly found. Here, we provide direct evidence for a critical role of HH signaling in bladder carcinogenesis. We...

  8. Enterovesical fistula caused by a bladder squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hsiang Ou Yang; Keng-Hao Liu; Tse-Ching Chen; Phei-Lang Chang; Ta-Sen Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Enterovesical fistulas are not uncommon in patients with inflammatory or malignant colonic disease, however,fistulas secondary to primary bladder carcinomas are extremely rare. We herein reported a patient presenting with intractable urinary tract infection due to enterovesical fistula formation caused by a squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. This patient underwent en bloc resection of the bladder dome and involved ileum, and recovered uneventfully without urinary complaint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature.

  9. Urethral duplication with unusual cause of bladder outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramani, Vivek; George, Arun Jacob Philip; Chandrasingh, J.; Panda, Arabind; Devasia, Antony

    2016-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented with poor flow and recurrent urinary tract infections following hypospadias repair at the age of 3 years. The evaluation revealed urethral duplication with a hypoplastic dorsal urethra and patent ventral urethra. He also had duplication of the bladder neck, and on voiding cystourethrogram the ventral bladder neck appeared hypoplastic and compressed by the dorsal bladder neck during voiding. The possibility of functional obstruction of the ventral urethra by the occluded dorsal urethra was suspected, and he underwent a successful urethro-urethrostomy.

  10. Placenta paraaortic with bladder invasion: A plea for multidisciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placenta previa percreta with the urinary bladder invasion is a rare but potentially lethal condition. It has an increasing clinical significance due to its association with previous cesarean sections and uterine curettage. Herein, we report on a patient with placenta percreta and bladder invasion, who presented with hematuria and in whom delivery was delayed to almost full term highlighting the potential catastrophic results and the need for a multidisciplinary approach with the need to involve surgeons who are familiar with vascular and urologic surgery. We also present an elegant MRI of placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder, which shows that MRI is potentially an excellent diagnostic diagnostic modality in this difficult condition. (author)

  11. Implantation of Bladder Cancer into the Abdominal Wall; a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    M Ghafoori; M. Narooinejad; D. Saedi; Asgari, M.

    2006-01-01

    Implantation of high grade and invasive bladder carcinoma into the abdominal wall is not common and can occur as side effects of uninary bladder interventions and surgical procedures, including perforation of bladder wall during transurethral resection of the tumor. Herein, we present a case of implantation of bladder transitional cell carcinoma into abdominal wall into an incisional hernia of a previous small bowel operation; three years after the bladder tumor had been diagnosed and treated...

  12. Evidence of hydrogen ion secretion from the human gall bladder in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Plevris, J N; Hayes, P C; Harrison, D J; Bouchier, I. A.

    1992-01-01

    Gall bladder bile is more acid that hepatic bile and this has been attributed to bicarbonate absorption by the gall bladder epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the acid base changes that occur across the human gall bladder mucosa. Fresh gall bladder tissue was obtained at cholecystectomy and placed in an Ussing Chamber and perfused with Ringer-Krebs glucose bicarbonate solution. The viability of the gall bladder was assessed by measuring the potential differences acr...

  13. A study of brain MRI findings and clinical response of bladder empting failure in brain bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoda, Keiichi (Yamashina Aiseikai Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)); Watanabe, Kousuke

    1993-02-01

    In 45 patients (38 males and 7 females; average age:78 years) with brain bladder, who did not have any peripheral neuropathies and spinal disturbance, cerebral findings of MRI (1.5 T) T[sub 2] enhanced image were analyzed in comparison with those of 7 control patients with normal urination after BPH operations. Patients with neurogenic bladder were divided into three groups as follows: 33 patients with a chief complaint of urinary disturbance (Group I), 9 patients with urinary incontinence (Group II) and 3 patients with balanced bladder (Group III). High frequency of lacune (24%) of the globus pallidus and low signalling of the corpus striatum (30%) was found in Group I patients, but low frequency in other Group patients and control patients. Furthermore, pathologic changes with various grades in the globus pallidus were observed in 91% of Group I patients. In the treatment of urinary disturbance, a high improvement rate of micturition disorder (77%) was obtained in patients treated with a combination of dantrolene and TURp (TUIbn for females). However, patients who had clear lacune of the globus pallidus showed the low improvement rate. It should be possible that the globus pallidus contributes to control the movement of the external sphincter and the pelvic base muscles as well as other striated muscles. Moreover, lacune was rarely found in the urination center of the brain-stem on MRI. (author).

  14. Contrast media in gall bladder diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, G.; Frommhold, W.

    1982-05-01

    The justification of conventional X-ray diagnostic of bile ducts is repeatedly questioned by newer examination techniques like sonography and ERC. The indication for oral cholecystography is derived from its high-specifity of its statements for gall bladder diagnostic, that is as high as with sonography and does not depend on the experience of the investigator. The importance of the void exposure is undoubted with correspondence of medicamentary litholysis for calcite identification. Furthermore, Choleocystic kineticals like Ceruletid let recognize better hyper plastic choleocysts like adenomyomatoses. The intravenous choleocyst-cholangiography posesses a clearly limited indication scheme even after introduction of sonography and ERC. The infusion method yields a better compatibility of the contrast medium with a simultaneous increased representation quality of the bile duct, that can be increased by a consequent application of the layer exposure technique.

  15. Factors influencing the prognosis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the categories T1, T2 and T3NxM0 bladder cancer, with a diameter not exceeding 5 cm, the treatment in the Rotterdam Radio-Therapy Institute consists of interstitial irradiation with needles containing radioactive material. The results of treatment and the role of additional external irradiation are discussed. Category T3NxM0 tumors with a diameter exceeding 5 cm are treated by external irradiation followed by cystectomy; the results are presented here. Factors influencing prognosis appeared to be the degree of differentiation, number of transurethral resections (TURs) prior to definitive treatment, intravenous pyelography (IVP), vascular invasion, T category after preoperative irradiation, and postsurgical histopathologically-assessed T category (pT)

  16. Urinary Bladder Xanthoma - Is Immunohistochemistry Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendran, M; Venugopal, A; Kaushik, Vinay N

    2016-09-01

    Urinary Bladder Xanthomas (UBX) are non-neoplastic reactive tumor like process. Isolated UBX is rare with only around 15 cases reported (Yu, Patel, & Bonert, 2015). UBX are reported in older patients who present with non specific symptoms like UTI or hematuria. Patients often have associated lipid anomalies. UBX have been vaguely described as yellowish white plaques or patches. Also, recent reports have stressed on the role of Immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis (Al-Daraji, Varghese, & Husain, 2007; Vimal, Masih, Manipadam, & Chacko, 2012). The objective of this report is to provide a cystoscopic view of the tumor which will enable easier identification and also to debate on the role of IHC in diagnosis. PMID:27462546

  17. Computerized tomography and staging of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Tomography (CT) has been employed in 13 patients with bladder tumors; 8 of them subsequently underwent surgery. Concordance between CT and pathological staging ranged in 90% of accurate results. Our data are discussed and compared to those of other authors in the literature. Staging was carried out according to the International Union Against Cancer. CT proved to be very accurate in the assessment of local and regional spread of tumor, limphatic progression and early detection of ureteral obstruction, as well as diagnosis of distant metastasis in selected patients. In poor candidates for surgery CT provided invaluable data to be used for localizing fields of radiation therapy. CT is a very well tolerated procedure, it is therefore suitable in subsequent treatment control. (Author)

  18. Contrast media in gall bladder diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The justification of conventional X-ray diagnostic of bile ducts is repeatedly questioned by newer examination techniques like sonography and ERC. The indication for oral cholesgraphy is derived from its high-specifity of its statements for gall bladder diagnostic, that is as high as with sonography and does not depend on the experience of the investigator. The importance of the the void exposure is undoubted with correspondence of medicamentary litholysis for calcite identification. Furthermore, Choleocystic kineticals like Ceruletid let recognize better hyper plastic choleocysts like adenomyomatoses. The intravenous choleocyst-cholangiography posesses a clearly limited indication scheme even after introduction of sonography and ERC. The infusion method yields a better compatibility of the contrast medium with a simultaneous increased representation quality of the bile duct, that can be increased by a consequent application of the layer exposure technique. (orig.)

  19. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  20. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  1. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  3. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  4. Local activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the urinary bladder reduces the inflammation-induced sensitization of bladder afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervero Fernando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of cannabinoid agonists is known to reduce pain induced by bladder inflammation and to modulate cystometric parameters in vivo. We have previously reported that intravesical administration of a cannabinoid agonist reduces the electrical activity of bladder afferents under normal conditions. However, the effects of local activation of bladder cannabinoid receptors on afferent activity during inflammation are unknown. This study was aimed to assess the effects of intravesical administration of a cannabinoid agonist on the discharges of afferent fibers in inflamed bladders ex vivo. We also characterized the expression of CB1 receptors in the bladder and their localization and co-expression with TRPV1, a marker of nociceptive afferents. Results Compared to untreated animals, afferent fiber activity in inflamed bladders was increased for intravesical pressures between 10 and 40 mmHg. Local treatment with a non selective cannabinoid agonist (AZ12646915 significantly reduced the afferent activity at intravesical pressures above 20 mmHg. This effect was blocked by AM251 but not by AM630 (selective for CB1 and CB2 respectively. Finally, CB1 was co-expressed with TRPV1 in control and inflamed bladders. Conclusion These results demonstrate that sensitization of bladder afferents induced by inflammation is partly suppressed by intravesical activation of cannabinoid receptors, an effect that appears to be mediated by CB1 receptors. Also, TRPV1 positive fibers were found to co-express CB1, supporting the hypothesis of a direct action of the cannabinoid agonist on nociceptive afferents. Taken together, these results indicate a peripheral modulation by the cannabinoid system of bladder hypersensitivity during inflammation.

  5. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@harthosp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaufman, Donald S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heney, Niall M. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  6. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author)

  7. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  8. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  9. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  10. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    William Waissmann

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs) in products of interest to health surveillance (HS). Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly ...

  11. Privacy, Surveillance and Public Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Neyland, D.

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance, privacy and public trust form a burgeoning presence within debates surrounding technological developments, particularly in the current 'war on terror' environment. Social, economic and political issues are invoked in collecting, categorizing, scrutinizing and mobilizing information on the everyday activities of the population. These are implicated in new legislative developments, ways of conceptualizing society and a growth in the industry of protest. However, what do we know ab...

  12. Quality assurance in preschool surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Wearmouth, E M; Lambert, P; Morland, R

    1994-01-01

    A quality assurance programme was used to evaluate community and primary care based preschool surveillance using the National Child Health Computer System in 40 examination centres. Quarterly reports were generated from returns from clinical medical officers and general practitioners to list non-attenders, uptake, and timeliness for the four preschool checks. These provided rapid and comparative feedback on personal performance for participating health professionals and led to marked rises in...

  13. Tracking in radar surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stakkeland, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this thesis focuses on the detection part of a radar surveillance system, and specifically derive methods for estimating the clutter density in a CFAR system from scan to scan, by making some basic assumptions on the system configuration. It is shown how the gain in applying a Bayesian estimator depend on the system configuration, and the gain is analyzed for some well known CFAR configurations. As an intermediate result, the variance of the clutter density for some CFAR con...

  14. International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS) Report on Non-Invasive Urodynamics: The Need of Standardization of Ultrasound Bladder and Detrusor Wall Thickness Measurements to Quantify Bladder Wall Hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Oelke

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Ultrasonic measurements of urinary bladders are suitable to quantify bladder wall hypertrophy due to bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor overactivity, or neurogenic bladder dysfunction in adult men or women and in children. Quantification of bladder wall hypertrophy seems to be useful

  15. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  16. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  17. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  19. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the success of selective organ preservation or radical cystectomy in a large group of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with induction by combined transurethral resection (TURBT), systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 106 patients (median age 68 years) were treated with induction by maximal TURBT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy (methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine - MCV) followed by 39.6 Gy irradiation in 1.8 Gy fractions with concomitant cisplatin. Tumor response was then evaluated by cystoscopy, rebiopsy, and urine cytology. Complete responders were consolidated with radiation to 64.8 Gy and further cisplatin. Any subsequent isolated invasive local relapse was managed by cystectomy. Patients with any less than a complete response (CR) were recommended cystectomy. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess outcome. Results: 74 CR patients (70%) and 7 non-cystectomy candidates with less than a CR (7%) received consolidation chemotherapy and radiation. 13 incomplete responders (12%) underwent immediate cystectomy. 6 patients underwent cystectomy because they could not tolerate induction chemo-radiation. 1 complete response patient underwent radical cystectomy. 83 patients completed their planned therapy but 5 died of treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Five year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival were 52% and 60% respectively. For T2 patients, actuarial overall survival was 63%, and for T3-4, 45%. Five year survival with an intact functioning bladder was 43%. Five year freedom from distant metastases was 66%. Of those who had a CR after TURBT and MCV, the risk of a subsequent invasive bladder relapse was 18% at 5 years. Of those who had a CR after the completion of induction chemotherapy and 39.6 Gy, this risk was 21%. 18 patients (17%) have experienced a non-invasive bladder relapse requiring further TUR and

  20. Practical methods of dose reduction to the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose to the bladder wall following the administration of radionuclides to patients can be reduced by a factor between 25 percent and 75 percent when the effective half-life for the radioactivity entering the urine is two hours or less. A significant but smaller reduction in dose to the gonads may also be achieved in situations where the major fraction of the administered activity is rapidly excreted in the urine. This reduction in dose is achieved by ensuring that the patient has between 50 and 150 ml of urine in his bladder when the radioactivity is injected, and is encouraged to void between one and two hours after the activity has been administered. The interrelationship of voiding schedule, effective half-life, initial urine volume, and demand urination has been analyzed in these studies. In addition, the significance of the rate of urine production and volume of urine in the bladder on the radiation dose to the bladder is demonstrated

  1. Radionuclide targeting with particular emphasis on urinary bladder carcinoma

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöström, A

    2001-01-01

    primary bladder carcinoma tumours was investigated. Both receptors were expressed in the majority of metastases and primary tumours. Targeting the EGF receptor and/or HER-2 in urinary bladder carcinoma is an exciting new concept The incidence of urinary bladder carcinoma is increasing and many patients die every year of this disease despite assumed radical therapy. Thus, there is a need for improved methods of diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide targeting is based on achieving specific delivery of radioactive nuclides to tumour cells with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Two possible target structures are the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and the related receptor HER-2. Cellular binding and retention of sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I-EGF-dextran conjugates was investigated in two bladder carcinoma cell lines. The conjugate bound specifically to the EGF receptor with delayed maximum binding, limited intracellular degradation and prolonged cellular retention compared to sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I-EGF. EGF w...

  2. What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Maryland and Arizona Research Resources Protocols, repositories, mouse models, plasmids, and more Technology Advancement & Transfer Material ... Incontinence in Children Urinary Incontinence in Men Kegel Exercise Tips​ Daily Bladder Diary Urodynamic Testing​ ​ Contact Us ...

  3. What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... Español What I need to know about Bladder Control for Women Page Content On this page: Urine ...

  4. Contemporary management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Era, Marc A; Cheng, Liang; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    The current standard treatment for muscle-invasive nonmetastatic bladder cancer is neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy. However, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not widely accepted even with level 1 evidence. Adjuvant chemotherapy should be discussed if patients have not received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and have high-risk pathologic features. Although not considered standard of care, bladder-sparing therapy can be considered for highly selected patients and for those medically unfit for surgery. Even though there are no level 1 data, the treatment outcomes for highly select patients given bladder-sparing therapy appear promising, with many patients retaining a functional bladder. Personalized chemotherapy is currently being actively pursued to target the underlying molecular changes and tailor to individual needs. PMID:22845409

  5. Phaechromocytoma of the urinary bladder in the computer tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 10% of the cases, phaeochromocytomas are extra-adrenal. This is a report on an 18 year old patient in whom the tumour was identified via sonography and computed tomography in the urinary bladder wall. (orig.)

  6. Unusual presentation of cutaneous metastasis from bladder urothelial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Pao Chang; I-Yen Lee; Hung-Jen Shih

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder are a rare disease.In previous reports,the most common metastatic cutaneous lesions were non-tender nodules on the abdominal skin.We report a patient with bladder urothelial carcinoma with cutaneous metastases initially presenting as right leg and suprapubic lymphedema.Bladder tumor was the incidental finding by magnetic resonance venography.Urothelial carcinoma (clinical stage Ⅳ) was diagnosed,and chemotherapy was performed.Extensive painful erythematous plaques with an erysipelas-like appearance located on the suprapubic area,chest and abdomen were noted,and cutaneous metastases were confirmed by histopathology.Subsequently,extensive scrotal and prepuce ulcerative changes developed.This paper reports a rare case of extensive cutaneous metastasis of bladder urothelial carcinoma who presented an interesting clinical course.

  7. Quantitative interrelations of Lewis antigens in normal mucosa and transitional cell bladder carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Limas, C

    1991-01-01

    The factors regulating the expression of the Lewis blood group related antigens in tissues have yet to be clarified. In an attempt to resolve some of the existing controversies the quantitative interrelationship of the Le(a), Le(b), X and Y antigens in normal urothelium and transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) was studied using biopsy specimens derived from 22 patients whose ABO and Lewis red blood cell phenotype was known. A quantitative scale was devised to encompass both the extent and inten...

  8. EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements

  9. Overactive bladder: strategies to ensure treatment compliance and adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal P; Wagg A

    2016-01-01

    Prabhpreet Dhaliwal, Adrian Wagg Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Abstract: Overactive bladder is a common, debilitating condition for many patients who may benefit from pharmacological management of their condition. However, adherence to medication in this condition is markedly worse than other chronic medical conditions. This review explores what is known about persistence and the factors which influence medication adherence for overactive bladder, those fac...

  10. Evidence of Uncultivated Bacteria in the Adult Female Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Alan J.; Toh, Evelyn; Shibata, Noriko; Rong, Ruichen; Kenton, Kimberly; FitzGerald, MaryPat; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E; Brubaker, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Clinical urine specimens are usually considered to be sterile when they do not yield uropathogens using standard clinical cultivation procedures. Our aim was to test if the adult female bladder might contain bacteria that are not identified by these routine procedures. An additional aim was to identify and recommend the appropriate urine collection method for the study of bacterial communities in the female bladder. Consenting participants who were free of known urinary tract infection provid...

  11. DNA adducts in human urinary bladder and other tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, D. H.; Hewer, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of cancer in a number of organs, including bladder and lung. Tobacco smoke contains at least 50 known chemical carcinogens that exert their biological effects through their covalent binding to cellular DNA. Examining human DNA for the presence of altered nucleotides is a means of monitoring exposure to genotoxic chemicals. DNA isolated from 73 human bladder biopsies has been analyzed by 32P-postlabeling for the presence of aromatic/hydropho...

  12. Variable Patterned Pudendal Nerve Stimuli Improves Reflex Bladder Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Tim M.; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated variable patterns of pudendal nerve (PN) stimuli for reflex bladder excitation. Reflex activation of the bladder has been demonstrated previously with 20–33 Hz continuous stimulation of PN afferents. Neuronal circuits accessed by afferent mediated pathways may respond better to physiological patterned stimuli than continuous stimulation. Unilateral PN nerve cuffs were placed in neurologically intact male cats. PN stimulation (0.5–100 Hz) was performed under isovolumetric conditio...

  13. A Case of Giant Bladder Carcinosarcoma without Submucosal Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Mikami; Mariko Yamanoi; Masayoshi Zaitsu; Akiko Tonooka; Toshimasa Uekusa; Takumi Takeuchi

    2011-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a rare biphasic neoplasia containing both malignant mesenchymal and epithelial elements. Bladder carcinosarcoma commonly presented as high-grade, advanced stage, and aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. An 83-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria to our hospital. Cystoscopy revealed massive nonpapillary bladder tumor on the right wall. The 91 g tumor could be completely removed with transurethral resection. Histology of the tumor was diagnosed as carcin...

  14. Urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder Diverticulum stones: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke Linus I; Takure Augustine O; Adebayo Sikiru A; Oluyemi Olukayode Y; Oyelekan Abimbola AA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondary urethral stone although rare, commonly arises from the kidneys, bladder or are seen in patients with urethral stricture. These stones are either found in the posterior or anterior urethra and do result in acute urinary retention. We report urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder diverticulum stones. This to our knowledge is the first report from Nigeria and in English literature. Case presentation A 69 year old, male, Nigerian with clinical and radiological f...

  15. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Ariella A.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged...

  16. High-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: Definition and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Porten, SP; Cooperberg, MR

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer represents a large majority of patients diagnosed with this disease. Precise definition and risk stratification are paramount in this group as high-risk patients have higher rates of progression and mortality and may benefit from early identification and aggressive treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The mainstay definitions of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are based on grade and stage. Recently, efforts have been made to incorporate ...

  17. Human Insulin Does Not Increase Bladder Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether human insulin can induce bladder cancer is rarely studied. METHODS: The reimbursement databases of all Taiwanese diabetic patients from 1996 to 2009 were retrieved from the National Health Insurance. An entry date was set at 1 January 2004 and a total of 785,234 patients with type 2 diabetes were followed up for bladder cancer incidence until the end of 2009. Users of pioglitazone were excluded and the period since the initiation of insulin glargine (marketed after the ent...

  18. Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer:a primer on immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahir Maruf; Sam J. Brancato; Piyush K. Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has long been the gold standard treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Recently, there has been an emergence of novel immunotherapeutic agents, which have shown promise in the treatment of urothelial cell carcinoma. These agents aim to augment, modify, or enhance the immune response. Such strategies include recombinant BCG, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and adoptive T-cell therapy. Here, we review the emerging immunotherapeutics in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

  19. Perineal hernia with bladder retroflexion in a female cocker spaniel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perineal herniation in the bitch is rare and its complication by bladder retroflexion in the bitch has not been previously reported in the literature. This case report describes a multigravid, five-year-old female cocker spaniel with bilateral perineal hernias, complicated by marked rectal sacculation and ventral bladder retroflexion. The case was managed initially by cystopexy and colopexy, followed seven days later by bilateral perineal herniorrhaphy. There was no recurrence of the problem by 12 months postsurgery

  20. Proepithelin is an autocrine growth factor for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lovat, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandro; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Fassan, Matteo; Goldoni, Silvia; Metalli, David; Wubah, Vera; McCue, Peter; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor proepithelin functions as an important regulator of proliferation and motility. Proepithelin is overexpressed in a great variety of cancer cell lines and clinical specimens of breast, ovarian and renal cancer, as well as glioblastomas. Using recombinant proepithelin on 5637 transitional cell carcinoma-derived cells, we have shown previously that proepithelin plays a critical role in bladder cancer by promoting motility of bladder cancer cells. In this study, we used the ONCO...

  1. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder; Case Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül SARI; Ermete, Murat; Canan SADULLAHOĞLU; Bal, Kaan; Ahmet BOLÜKBAŞI

    2013-01-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder is very rare. It is a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma that is morphologically different from small cell carcinoma.This manuscript describes a 67-year-old man who presented with hematuria. Ultrasonogrophic and computer tomography revealed a 5 cm mass in right posterolateral wall of the bladder that invaded perivesical tissue and he subsequently underwent transurethral resection. Microscopic examination showed a tumor with a sheet-like and...

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear

  3. Amygdalin Influences Bladder Cancer Cell Adhesion and Invasion In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Makarević; Jochen Rutz; Eva Juengel; Silke Kaulfuss; Igor Tsaur; Karen Nelson; Jesco Pfitzenmaier; Axel Haferkamp; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as...

  4. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  5. The septum transversum mesenchyme induces gall bladder development

    OpenAIRE

    Yohei Saito; Takuya Kojima; Naoki Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Summary The liver, gall bladder, and ventral pancreas are formed from the posterior region of the ventral foregut. After hepatic induction, Sox17+/Pdx1+ pancreatobiliary common progenitor cells differentiate into Sox17+/Pdx1− gall bladder progenitors and Sox17−/Pdx1+ ventral pancreatic progenitors, but the cell-extrinsic signals that regulate this differentiation process are unknown. This study shows that the septum transversum mesenchyme (STM) grows in the posterior direction after E8.5, ...

  6. Superficial urinary bladder tumors treatment results: A 10-year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Jablan; Dinić Ljubomir; Pavlović Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim. The most common urinary bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Due to their tension to relapse and progress towards deeper layers after surgical therapy, an adequate therapy significantly contributed to the improvement of the results of urinary bladder tumors treatment. Staging and gradus of the tumor, presence of the carcinoma in situ (CIS) or relapses significantly influenced the choice of the therapy. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the intravesi...

  7. [The small schistosomiasic bladder (review of 11 cases) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, J Y

    1980-01-01

    A review of the pathogenic, immunologic, pathologic and radiologic features of the small schistosomiasic bladder, and a study of its surgical treatment, from 11 cases observed in Ivory Coast. Pathological aspects and surgical intervention are almost similar to "tuberculous small bladder". Uretero-ileo-cystoplasty, either uni or bilateral performed, according to Couvelaire's technique gives good results: urinary comfort, pain and infection improvement, and renal functions returning to normal. PMID:7402066

  8. Contemporary management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dall’Era, Marc A; Cheng, Liang; Pan, Chong-xian

    2012-01-01

    The current standard treatment for muscle-invasive nonmetastatic bladder cancer is neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy. However, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not widely accepted even with level 1 evidence. Adjuvant chemotherapy should be discussed if patients have not received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and have high-risk pathologic features. Although not considered standard of care, bladder-sparing therapy can be considered for highly selected p...

  9. Bladder Wall Thickness Mapping for Magnetic Resonance Cystography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Duan, Chaijie; Yan, Zengmin; Lu, Hongbing; Gu, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown the evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. The clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a pote...

  10. The First Giardia Infection in Cattle Gall Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    DEĞERLİ, Serpil; ÖZÇELİK, Semra

    2003-01-01

    Giardia is a ubiquitously distributed flagellate protozoon that inhabits the small intestine of its host. In this paper, Giardia infection is reported in the gall bladder of an adult cow. Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from several farms in Zara, Sivas, were studied by direct examination and the zinc sulphate flotation techniques. No Giardia cysts were found in 106 samples. In addition, the gall bladders of cattle provided from the slaughterhouse in Sivas were tested b...

  11. Ascariasis of gall bladder associated with xanthogranulomatous inflammation and cholelithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Sanjay D; Pathak, Gayatri S; Ashturkar, Amrut V; Avinash R Joshi; Shelke, Rahul R

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of ascariasis of gall bladder. The unusual features in this case were the presence of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in the lumen. Some of the eggs had evoked a foreign body reaction indicating chronicity. The bladder wall was unevenly thickened with yellowish white nodules and showed maximum thickness around the neck region. Microscopy showed predominantly xanthogranulomatous inflammation in the thickened parts of the wall.

  12. Diabetes Pharmacotherapies and Bladder Cancer: A Medicare Epidemiologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Todd A.; Zaha, Rebecca; Smith, Jeremy; Karagas, Margaret R.; Morden, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with type II diabetes have an increased risk of bladder cancer and are commonly treated with thiazolidinediones and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which have been linked to cancer risk. We explored the relationship between use of one or both of these medication types and incident bladder cancer among diabetic patients (diabetics) enrolled in Medicare. Research Design and Methods We constructed both a prevalent and incident retrospective cohort of pharmacologically tr...

  13. Reversible gall bladder dysfunction in severe pancreatic insufficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Masclee, A A; Jansen, J B; Corstens, F H; Lamers, C B

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the intestinal phase of cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion and gall bladder contraction in patients with severe pancreatic insufficiency. Plasma CCK concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay, and gall bladder contraction by cholescintigraphy were studied in response to intraduodenal fat with and without addition of pancreatic enzymes. Fasting plasma CCK concentrations were in the same range in six patients with pancreatic insufficiency with (2.6 (0....

  14. Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: a primer on immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruf, Mahir; Brancato, Sam J.; Agarwal, Piyush K.

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has long been the gold standard treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Recently, there has been an emergence of novel immunotherapeutic agents, which have shown promise in the treatment of urothelial cell carcinoma. These agents aim to augment, modify, or enhance the immune response. Such strategies include recombinant BCG, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and adoptive T-cell therapy. Here, we review the emerging immunotherapeutics in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

  15. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  16. Multiple views of DNA surveillance : the surveilled, the surveillants and the academics

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana; Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2012-01-01

    DNA profiling is frequently described as the gold standard for individual identification and thus an important tool for crime prevention, detection and deterrence. While the scholarly discourses tend to privilege a focus on the oppressive elements of DNA profiling and surveillance, the political and public discourses usually highlight the benefits of forensic DNA technologies to fight and prevent crime. Most arguments are based on abstract concepts with little empirical evidence to support th...

  17. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  18. A pure microcytic bladder carcinoma synchronous to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Rombis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma (SCC or microcytic carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity comprising approximately 0.5% of all bladder tumors. Due to its rarity, no prospective studies evaluating the most effective treatment have been published in the medical literature. Several cases of bladder SCC have been presented so far. We describe our case report and we revise the recent literature. Our patient was diagnosed with pure bladder SCC and prostatic adenocarcinoma. After the initial and complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TUR-BT, he underwent a thorax and mediastinum computer tomography (CT examination to exclude primary pulmonary small cell carcinoma and a bone scan scintigraphy for staging purposes. He received a three 14-day cycles of Cisplatin-containing chemo - therapeutic schema and a single dose of Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing hormone (LHRH analogue injection after 14 days of bicalutamide administration. The patient is followed for 24 months without any signs of bladder SCC recurrence or biochemical or local relapse from prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  19. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity ≥G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity ≥G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity

  20. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro [Nagoya Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)