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Sample records for bladder tumoral lesions

  1. Cystitis glandularis forming a tumorous lesion in the urinary bladder: A rare appearance of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Miyagi, Tohru; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare appearance of cystitis glandularis forming a tumorous lesion with blueberry spots in the urinary bladder. A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pollakisuria and recurrent gross hematuria. Urine examination showed no pyuria. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed an extravesical invasive mass and cystoscopy revealed a non-papillary tumor with blueberry spots in the bladder. Transurethral resection (TUR) was performed. Histopathological examination revealed cystit...

  2. Trace metals and over-expression of metallothioneins in bladder tumoral lesions: a case-control study

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    Cymbron Teresa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have provided some evidence of a possible association between cancer and metallothioneins. Whether this relates to an exposure to carcinogenic metals remains unclear. Methods In order to examine the association between the expression of metallothioneins and bladder tumors, and to compare the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in animals with bladder tumors and animals without bladder tumors, 37 cases of bovine bladder tumors and 17 controls were collected. The detection and quantification of metallothioneins in bladder tissue of both cases and controls was performed by immunohistochemistry. And the quantification of metals in tissue and hair was assessed by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry. Results Increased expression of metallothioneins was associated with bladder tumors when compared with non-tumoral bladder tissue (OR = 9.3, 95% CI: 1.0 – 480. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in hair of cases were significantly higher than those of controls. However, as for the concentration of metals in bladder tissue, the differences were not significant. Conclusion Though the sample size was small, the present study shows an association between bladder tumors and metallothioneins. Moreover, it shows that concentrations of metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in hair may be used as a biomarker of exposure.

  3. Spectrum of Lesions in Cystoscopic Bladder Biopsies -A Histopathological Study

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    Mahesh Kumar U

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diseases of the bladder, particularly inflammation (cystitis, constitute an important source of clinical signs and symptoms. Tumors of the bladder are an important source of both morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1 To study the histopathological features of various lesions in bladder biopsies. 2 To study the frequency of different pathological lesions, particularly Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC in urinary bladder biopsies. Results: Sixty cases of urinary bladder biopsies were received. Out of 60 patients, 43 were males and 17 were females. The spectrum of pathological lesions included inflammations, metaplastic lesions and tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common tumour seen in this study. A case of paraganglioma and malakoplakia were also seen. Conclusions: Our study has revealed that the bladder tumours are the commonest lesions in cystoscopic biopsies and TCC was the predominant tumour type

  4. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  5. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix.

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    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as "villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix." PMID:27169015

  6. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Yagnik Vipul; Chadha Amit; Chaudhari Sanjay; Patel Keyuri

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of bladder is an uncommon benign tumor of bladder, which is of unknown neoplastic potential, characterized by spindle cell proliferation with characteristic fibroinflammatory and pseudosarcomatous appearance. Essential criteria for the diagnosis of IMT are: spindle myoepithelial cell proliferation and lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice.

  7. Analysis on Pathogenesis of 50 Cases of Bladder Proliferative Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 蓝儒竹; 叶章群; 杨为民

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the pathogenesis, clinical and pathological characteristics of prolifera-tive lesions of the bladder, 50 cases of proliferative lesions of the bladder from 150 patients withcomplaints of frequency, urgency, hematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopic biopsy ofthe suspicious foci in the bladder. In combination with the symptoms, urine routine and urodynam-ics, the relationship of proliferative lesions of the bladder to the inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract was analyzed. Of the 50 cases of proliferative bladder lesions, 44 cases (88%)had lower urinary tract infection and 29 (58%) lower urinary tract obstruction. The patients withlower urinary tract obstruction were all complicated with infection. Three cases were associatedwith transitional cell carcinoma. Malignant cells were detected in 1 case by urinary cytologic exami-nation. Proliferative lesions of the bladder, especially those without other obvious mucosa changesunder cystoscopy, are common histological variants of urothelium in the patients with chronic in-flammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract. Chronic inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract might be the causes for proliferative lesions of the bladder. It is suggested thatdifferent treatments should be applied according to the scope and histological type of the prolifera-tive lesions.

  8. Transurethral en bloc resection of bladder tumors

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    A. G. Martov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The high incidence of recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (BC necessitates searches for new surgical methods. Objective: to comparatively evaluate the efficiency and safety of en block resection of bladder tumors versus transurethral resection (TUR. Subjects and methods. In January 2010 to June 2013, a total of 292 patients with primary and recurrent bladder tumor stages, cTa-T2, underwent transurethral endoscopic treatment (as TUR at the Unit of Minimally Invasive Urology, Moscow City Clinical Hospital Fifty-Seven. A major portion of these patients were included in the study of the efficiency and safety of en bloc TUR of bladder tumors. The criteria for study inclusion were primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor measuring 1 to 3 cm, stage pTa-T1, signed informed consent to participate in the study and patients» readiness to undergo control examinations in inpatient setting for one year. The exclusion criteria were a confirmed or detected muscleinvasive tumor, multiple bladder involvement (> 3 tumors, as well as detected tumors spreading to the ureter, bladder neck, and prostatic urethra. The primary study endpoint was considered to be a recurrence of a tumor after TUR of the bladder (TURB. The secondary endpoint was the frequency of concealed bladder perforation, blood transfusions, recystoscopies for bladder tamponade, early recystoscopies to specify a BC stage, and the frequency of immediate intravesical injection of a chemical. For final analysis, the investigators selected 106 patients in a group where tumors were removed en bloc (a study group and 133 patients in a group where tumors were retrieved using traditional TURB (a control group. In the study group, the tumor was removed en bloc by a monopolar J-shaped electrode (sand wedge electrode in 45 patients, by a hook-like electrode in 14, by a hybrid procedure (hydropreparation and monopolar electrosurgery by a water-jet hybrid knife in 10, and by

  9. Transurethral en bloc resection of bladder tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Martov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The high incidence of recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (BC necessitates searches for new surgical methods. Objective: to comparatively evaluate the efficiency and safety of en block resection of bladder tumors versus transurethral resection (TUR. Subjects and methods. In January 2010 to June 2013, a total of 292 patients with primary and recurrent bladder tumor stages, cTa-T2, underwent transurethral endoscopic treatment (as TUR at the Unit of Minimally Invasive Urology, Moscow City Clinical Hospital Fifty-Seven. A major portion of these patients were included in the study of the efficiency and safety of en bloc TUR of bladder tumors. The criteria for study inclusion were primary or recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor measuring 1 to 3 cm, stage pTa-T1, signed informed consent to participate in the study and patients» readiness to undergo control examinations in inpatient setting for one year. The exclusion criteria were a confirmed or detected muscleinvasive tumor, multiple bladder involvement (> 3 tumors, as well as detected tumors spreading to the ureter, bladder neck, and prostatic urethra. The primary study endpoint was considered to be a recurrence of a tumor after TUR of the bladder (TURB. The secondary endpoint was the frequency of concealed bladder perforation, blood transfusions, recystoscopies for bladder tamponade, early recystoscopies to specify a BC stage, and the frequency of immediate intravesical injection of a chemical. For final analysis, the investigators selected 106 patients in a group where tumors were removed en bloc (a study group and 133 patients in a group where tumors were retrieved using traditional TURB (a control group. In the study group, the tumor was removed en bloc by a monopolar J-shaped electrode (sand wedge electrode in 45 patients, by a hook-like electrode in 14, by a hybrid procedure (hydropreparation and monopolar electrosurgery by a water-jet hybrid knife in 10, and by

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in benign and malignant Bilharzia-associated bladder lesions analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilharzia-associated bladder cancer (BAC) is a major health problem in countries where urinary schistosomiasis is endemic. Characterization of the genetic alterations in this cancer might enhance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease but, in contrast to nonbilharzia bladder cancer, BAC has rarely been the object of such scrutiny. In the present study, we aimed to characterize chromosomal imbalances in benign and malignant post-bilharzial lesions, and to determine whether their unique etiology yields a distinct cytogenetic profile as compared to chemically induced bladder tumors. DNAs from 20 archival paraffin-embedded post-bilharzial bladder lesions (6 benign and 14 malignant) obtained from Sudanese patients (12 males and 8 females) with a history of urinary bilharziasis were investigated for chromosomal imbalances using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Subsequent FISH analysis with pericentromeric probes was performed on paraffin sections of the same cases to confirm the CGH results. Seven of the 20 lesions (6 carcinomas and one granuloma) showed chromosomal imbalances varying from 1 to 6 changes. The most common chromosomal imbalances detected were losses of 1p21-31, 8p21-pter, and 9p and gain of 19p material, seen in three cases each, including the benign lesion. Most of the detected imbalances have been repeatedly reported in non-bilharzial bladder carcinomas, suggesting that the cytogenetic profiles of chemical- and bilharzia-induced carcinomas are largely similar. However, loss of 9p seems to be more ubiquitous in BAC than in bladder cancer in industrialized countries

  11. Effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessøe, Line; Sønksen, Jens; Bagi, Per; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Ohl, Dana A; McGuire, Edward J; Kristensen, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions.......We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions....

  12. Studies of experimental bladder tumors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatologic, histochemical and histologic investigations were performed on the effects of SLA, a β-glucoronidase inhibitor, and Linaic irradiation in an experimental BBN bladder tumor of rats. Bladder tumors were macroscopically thumb-head size in the cases with no treatment of with SLA application, but were shrunk by roentgen irradiation. The number of the rats with reduced tumor was respectively 3 in the group with roentgen irradiation. S-LDH activity of the cancer-carrying animals was markedly elevated as compared with that of the normal rat. SLA application caused no change in S-LDH activity of cancer-carrying animals, but roentgen irradiation resulted in a marked decrease in S-LDH activity of the similar animals with bladder tumors. The level of this decrease was dependent on the dosage of one time irradiation; no change was observed by 200, 300 and 500 rad, little decrease was seen by 750 rad, and marked decrease was observed after 1,000 and 1,500 rad radiation. Histological observation of the effects of irradiation could be summarized as follows. Histological changes were seen in the cases of macroscopic shrinkage by 3,000 rad irradiation. In this group, an individual variation was noticed not only macroscopically but microscopically. One time irradiation of 200, 300 and 500 rad resulted in no histological change, but that of 750, 1,000, and 1,500 rad caused a slight, but not marked, histological change. Tissue distribution of β-glucuronidase was examined by means of Naphthol-AS-BI-glucuronide method in the group without any treatment and the group with SLA administration. β-glucuronidase activity was noticed in the epithelial cells and interstitial stroma of the tumor tissue, but the effect of SLA on β-glucuronidase activity was not observed histochemically. (author)

  13. Computerized tomography and staging of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Tomography (CT) has been employed in 13 patients with bladder tumors; 8 of them subsequently underwent surgery. Concordance between CT and pathological staging ranged in 90% of accurate results. Our data are discussed and compared to those of other authors in the literature. Staging was carried out according to the International Union Against Cancer. CT proved to be very accurate in the assessment of local and regional spread of tumor, limphatic progression and early detection of ureteral obstruction, as well as diagnosis of distant metastasis in selected patients. In poor candidates for surgery CT provided invaluable data to be used for localizing fields of radiation therapy. CT is a very well tolerated procedure, it is therefore suitable in subsequent treatment control. (Author)

  14. Superficial urinary bladder tumors treatment results: A 10-year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Jablan; Dinić Ljubomir; Pavlović Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim. The most common urinary bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Due to their tension to relapse and progress towards deeper layers after surgical therapy, an adequate therapy significantly contributed to the improvement of the results of urinary bladder tumors treatment. Staging and gradus of the tumor, presence of the carcinoma in situ (CIS) or relapses significantly influenced the choice of the therapy. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the intravesi...

  15. RARE CASE OF DESMOID TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

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    Chalapathy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumor is a benign soft tissue tumor which belongs to a family of myofibroblastic fibromatoses. Occasionally, desmoid tumors have an unusual site of occurrence . We describe a case of incisional hernia in postmenopausal women with an intra operative incidental finding of a desmoid tumor from anterior wall of urinary bladder for which a wide excision was performed

  16. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to ∼0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall

  17. Superficial urinary bladder tumors treatment results: A 10-year experience

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    Stanković Jablan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common urinary bladder tumors are superficial tumors. Due to their tension to relapse and progress towards deeper layers after surgical therapy, an adequate therapy significantly contributed to the improvement of the results of urinary bladder tumors treatment. Staging and gradus of the tumor, presence of the carcinoma in situ (CIS or relapses significantly influenced the choice of the therapy. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of the intravesicelly applied BCG (Bacille Colmette - Guerin vaccine or chemiotherapy in the prevention of the relapses and further progression of superficial urinary bladder tumors. Methods. All of the diagnosed superficial tumors of bladder were removed by transurethral resection (TUR. After receiving the patohistological finding they were subjected to adjuvant therapy, immune BCG vaccine or chemiotherapy (epirubicin, doxorubicin, mitomycin-C. The third group did not accept adjuvant therapy, but had regularly scheduled cystoscopic controls. The appearance of relapses, progression of stage and grades of the tumor, as well as possible unwanted effects of adjuvant therapy were registered. Results. The applied immunotherapy (BCG influenced decreased tumor relapses (7% and statistically important difference between patients who had taken adjuvant chemotherapy (relapses 18.4% and those without this therapy was acknowledged. Grades of tumor did not show statistically significant difference on tumor relapse. A significantly longer period of time in the appearance of tumor relapse after BCG (29.33 months, had significant importance comparing to chemio (9.44 months or non-taken adjuvant therapy (9.84 months. Very small number of unwanted effects suggested an obligatory undertaking adjuvant therapy after TUR of superficial tumors. Conclusion. A significant decrease of relapses as well as avoidance of further progression of urinary bladder tumors, has introduced adjuvant therapy in

  18. Bladder Tumor in Women with Microscopic Hematuria: An Iranian Experience and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Shahin; Taheri, Saeed; Nourbala, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Aim. In this study we report our experience with microhematuria and its relation with bladder tumors in Iranian women. Materials and Methods. Overall 249 women were evaluated. Microscopic hematuria was defined as three or more red blood cells per high-power field on at least two different occasions. Patients with a history of gross hematuria or coagulation disorders, having organic diseases, urinary stones, urinary tract infections, nephrological diseases, and local lesions such as urethral caruncle were excluded from the study population. Final diagnosis of malignant tumors was done with cystoscopy and biopsy specimen pathological assessment in all cases. Results. Age for the study population was 49.7 ± 11.8 years. 95 (38%) of patients were identified during routine check up and presenting symptoms in other patients were frequency, dysuria, stress urge incontinence, urge incontinence, feeling of incomplete urine emptying, and flunk pain, respectively. Finally, 7 (2.8%) of study subjects were confirmed as having bladder tumors. One of tumor cases was diagnosed 24 months after initial assessments. Patients with bladder tumor were significantly older; more frequently had diverticulum in their bladder wall (P < .05). Conclusion. Female microscopic hematuria is relevant and deserves evaluations, especially in elderly patients. Patients whose reason for microhematuria would not be diagnosed at the initial evaluations should be followed. PMID:19639044

  19. Photodynamic therapy: development of a treatment and dosimetry system adapted to superficial tumors of the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignon, Dominique; Jaboin, Y.; Wolf, D.; Meunier-Reynes, Anne; Guillemin, Francois H.

    1993-06-01

    Superficial tumors of the bladder or in situ carcinoma could be interesting indications of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), since a total mutilating cystectomy could be avoided. The plurifocality of the lesions requires a treatment of the whole mucose; the quantity of light energy must be homogenous and sufficient to induce a therapeutic effect, still non toxic for normal tissues. We therefore developed a system of treatment and intravesical dosimetry control so that the operator can have precise information on the light repartition in the bladder in real time to enable him to optimize the positioning of the irradiation source. This intravesical device consists of twelve light sensors with optical fiber distributed symmetrically against the walls of the bladder; the emitting source is constituted of a scattering isotropic sphere. The signals emitted by the sensors are converted into tension. The acquisition part of the system values consists of two parts : an analogic part, the values are multiplexed on a same oscilloscope track to see in real time their evolution according to the position of the emitting source. The other part is constituted by the numeric acquisition of values for further analysis. We developed, from a mathematical modelisation of the bladder, a centering program of the diffusor that indicates its position in the bladder, as well as a cartography program where the bladder is re-built by interpolation with the different lighting levels.

  20. Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer by irradiated tumor vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.L.; Riggs, D.R.; DeHaven, J.I.; Bryner, R.W. (West Virginia Univ. School of Medicine, Morgantown (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This investigation explored the efficacy of irradiated autologous mouse bladder tumor (Ir-MBT2) as an active specific immunotherapeutic agent and as adjuvant therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against a subcutaneously transplanted murine bladder tumor. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in groups receiving BCG (27%, p less than 0.005) or Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.025), compared to control (93%). Survival was significantly improved in groups treated with BCG (100%, p less than 0.005), 10(5) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.01), or 10(7) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (47%, p less than 0.025) compared with control (13%). Surprisingly, Ir-MBT2 consistently reduced the efficacy of BCG alone. Ir-MBT2 alone (10(7)) appeared to enhance tumor growth. Autologous irradiated bladder tumor vaccine, alone or in combination with BCG, displayed no immunotherapeutic advantage. The use of irradiated tumor cell vaccine for bladder cancer therapy may reduce the results achievable with BCG alone.

  1. Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer by irradiated tumor vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation explored the efficacy of irradiated autologous mouse bladder tumor (Ir-MBT2) as an active specific immunotherapeutic agent and as adjuvant therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against a subcutaneously transplanted murine bladder tumor. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in groups receiving BCG (27%, p less than 0.005) or Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.025), compared to control (93%). Survival was significantly improved in groups treated with BCG (100%, p less than 0.005), 10(5) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.01), or 10(7) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (47%, p less than 0.025) compared with control (13%). Surprisingly, Ir-MBT2 consistently reduced the efficacy of BCG alone. Ir-MBT2 alone (10(7)) appeared to enhance tumor growth. Autologous irradiated bladder tumor vaccine, alone or in combination with BCG, displayed no immunotherapeutic advantage. The use of irradiated tumor cell vaccine for bladder cancer therapy may reduce the results achievable with BCG alone

  2. Evaluation of Urinary Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 as Tumor Marker Versus Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen in Bilharzial and Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) were determined as potential marker for early detection of bladder tumors in patients with high risk (Bilharzial-patients), monitoring and follow up bladder cancer patients. The objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of markers for bilharzial and cancer lesions. The levels of two parameters were determined pre and post operation. A total of 110 individuals, 20 healthy, 20 bilharzial patients and 70 bladder cancer patients with confirmed diagnosis were investigated. Urine samples were assayed for NMP-22 and TPS test kits. Some bladder cancer patients were selected to follow up. NMP-22 showed highly significant increase (P,0.001) more than TPS (P<0.01) in bladder cancer patients when compared with bilharzial and control group. Overall sensitivity is 7.8% for TPS and 98.5% for NMP-22

  3. Diagnosing and Treating Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Bladder

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    Ridwan Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is an uncommon condition that is rarely encountered in the urinary tract. In this report, we present a case of IMT of the bladder in a woman with multiple previous pelvic surgeries. We further review the relevant literature to highlight this rare but important clinical presentation.

  4. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  5. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

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    Knuutila Sakari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Methods Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. Results We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Conclusion Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors.

  6. Detrusor function with lesions of the cauda equina, with special emphasis on the bladder neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, J K; Beric, A; Petronic, I

    1993-03-01

    A total of 13 patients with proved lesions of the cauda equina underwent neurological evaluation. All patients had video urodynamic testing, while 9 underwent a varying combination of pelvic floor electromyography, lumbosacral evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation and the sympathetic skin response from the perineum. All patients had detrusor areflexia with varying degrees of bladder neck incompetence. Reports of clinical and experimental studies are discussed in relation to the pathophysiology of bladder neck function following lesions of the pudendal and preganglionic pelvic nerve to explain why there have been conflicting reports in the literature regarding bladder neck function with lesions of the cauda equina. The adaptive changes observed in the experimental animal, consisting of random regeneration of the cholinergic neuroeffective junctions, adrenergic hyperinnervation and an increased sensitivity of the prejunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors on the adrenergic nerve, may explain the degree of variability of bladder neck incompetence observed clinically. PMID:8437259

  7. Detection of bovine papillomavirus type 14 DNA sequences in urinary bladder tumors in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Sante; Munday, John S; Corrado, Federica; Goria, Maria; Roperto, Franco

    2016-07-15

    Bovine papillomavirus type 14 (BPV-14) is a novel Deltapapillomavirus (δPV) which is most closely related to BPV-1, -2, and -13, well-known members of the δPV genus. So far BPV-14 has been detected in cutaneous neoplastic lesions in cattle and in feline sarcoids. As BPV-14 may share biological and pathological properties with BPV-1, -2 and -13, it has been hypothesized that, like other δPVs, BPV-14 could be associated with bovine bladder neoplasia. In this study, 50 tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle were diagnosed. DNA was extracted from all tumor samples as well as from 25 normal bladder samples and submitted to BPV-14 L1 PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing analysis. BPV-14 L1 DNA sequences of specific 195bp amplicons were obtained from 17 of 50 (34%) tumor DNA isolates; no BPV-14 DNA was detected from 25 normal samples. Amplicons revealed a 99% homology with the corresponding BPV-14 L1 DNA region (GenBank accession number KP276343.1). Co-infections by two or three δPV types were also seen. This study reveals the presence of BPV-14 DNA alone or in combination with other δPV DNA in bovine bladder tumors alone and suggests that BPV-14 could also be involved in bladder neoplasia as its E5 oncoprotein has the potential to induce cell proliferation. Furthermore, this is the first study to show the presence of BPV-14 in Europe, suggesting that BPV-14, like other δPVs, has a worldwide distribution. PMID:27283849

  8. Calcitonin-producing well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor) of the urinary bladder: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of calcitonin-secreting primary carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. The case of a 68-year-old male with carcinoid tumor arising in the urinary bladder is presented. Transurethral resection of a polypoid small tumor 0.4 cm in diameter was performed. Immunohistochemical study using neuroendocrine markers allowed a straightforward diagnosis of a low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor) of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated calcitonin immunoreactivity in the most of the tumor cells. This tumor shows specific clinical, macroscopical and histological features and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of bladder neoplasms

  9. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and a Series of Mesenchymal Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Martano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the histopathology of two hundred and fifty-three mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle grazing on lands rich in bracken fern. Approximately 80% were hemangiomas and angiosarcomas. Hemangioma (capillary, cavernous, and large vessels was the most frequent mesenchymal tumor and was more common than angiosarcoma. Although the appearance of endothelial cells can vary remarkably, epithelioid angiosarcomas, often containing multinucleated cells, were the most frequent malignant vascular tumors. Hemangiopericytoma and tumors of muscle and soft connective tissue origin, alone and/or in association with tumor-like lesions, were less frequently seen. Furthermore, forty-five cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH, a lesion not previously reported in the urinary bladder of cattle, were also described. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 DNA was amplified in tumor samples. Forty vascular tumors were investigated by dual-labeling immunofluorescence, and, for the first time, a coexpression of E5 and platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR was shown to occur. The results show that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the activated form of the PDGFβ receptor thus playing an important role in mesenchymal as well as epithelial carcinogenesis of the urinary bladder. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that BPV-2 infects both epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

  10. Holmium laser versus conventional transurethral resection of the bladder tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing-fei; WANG Kai; YIN Le; QU Fa-jun; ZHANG Dong-xu; CUI Xin-gang; XU Dan-feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) remains the gold standard for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).Laser techniques have been widely used in urology.This analysis aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of holmium resection of the bladder tumor (HoLRBT) vs.TURBT.Methods A systemic search of MEDLINE,Embase,Web of Science,and The Cochrane Library as well as manual bibliography searches were performed to identify the relevant studies.The pooled estimates of operation time,obturator nerve reflex rate,bladder perforation rate,bladder irrigation rate,catheterization time,hospital stay,and one-and two-year recurrence free survivals were calculated.Results Five studies were enrolled into our meta-analysis.No significant difference was observed in the operation time between groups (weighted mean difference (WMD) 1.01,95% confidential interval (95% CI)-3.52-5.54,P=0.66).The significant difference in the obturator nerve reflex (OR 0.05,95% CI 0.01-0.04,P=0.004),bladder perforation (OR 0.14,95% CI 0.03-0.61,P=0.009),bladder irrigation (OR 0.13,95% CI 0.04-0.45,P=0.001),catheterization time (WMD -0.96,95% CI-1.11 to-0.82,P <0.00001),and hospital stay (WMD-1.46,95% C1-1.65 to-1.27,P <0.00001) showed advantages of HoLRBT over TURBT.The 2-year recurrence free survival rate favors the HoLRBT group (OR 1.46,95%CI 1.02-2.11,P=0.04).Conclusions As a promising technique,HoLRBT is safe and efficient,and showed several advantages over TURBT.HoLRBT can be used as an alternative procedure for TURBT in terms of low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma or Iow-orade early TNM-staoe urothelial carcinoma.

  11. MR imaging of synovial tumors and tumor-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, J.A. [Dept. of CT and MR Imaging, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Narvaez, J. [Dept. of Rheumatology, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Dept. of Rheumatology, Clinica Delfos, Barcelona (Spain); Aguilera, C.; De Lama, E. [Dept. of CT and MR Imaging, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Portabella, F. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain)

    2001-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of synovial tumors and tumorlike lesions is difficult, and radiographic findings may establish a confident diagnosis only in some cases. MR imaging has become the modality of choice in evaluating these lesions, because with it a presumptive diagnosis can be made in most cases. Our goal is to review the MR features of pigmented villonodular synovitis, giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath, synovial chondromatosis, synovial hemangioma, lipoma arborescens, synovial cysts and synovial sarcoma, emphasizing those findings that suggest a specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. MR imaging of synovial tumors and tumor-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical diagnosis of synovial tumors and tumorlike lesions is difficult, and radiographic findings may establish a confident diagnosis only in some cases. MR imaging has become the modality of choice in evaluating these lesions, because with it a presumptive diagnosis can be made in most cases. Our goal is to review the MR features of pigmented villonodular synovitis, giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath, synovial chondromatosis, synovial hemangioma, lipoma arborescens, synovial cysts and synovial sarcoma, emphasizing those findings that suggest a specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Predictive factors for residual tumor and tumor upstaging on relook transurethral resection of bladder tumor in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Tejpal S.; Das, Ranjit K.; Supriya Basu; Dey, Ranjan K.; Subrata Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Context: Relook transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) improves the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of primary TURBT. However, it is still not established as to which category of patients would benefit most from this repeat invasive procedure. Aims: This prospective interventional study was designed to identify the category of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who may benefit from a routine relook procedure. Setting and Design: A total of 52 consecutive pa...

  14. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder in a child: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Filho, Jose de Arimateia Batista, E-mail: ariaraujocg@hotmail.com [Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Instituto do Coracao (InCor) - Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martines, Joao Augusto dos Santos; Martines, Brenda Margatho Ramos [Imaging Unit of Hospital Universitario - Universidade de Sao Paulo (HU-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cavalcanti, Marcella Santos [Pathology, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Department of Radiology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors rarely affect the urinary tract or children, and frequently mimic malignancy on imaging studies. According to the recent literature, only 35 cases of such bladder tumors in children have been reported. The authors present the case of a child with a bladder myofibroblastic tumor with favorable progression following complete surgical resection. (author)

  15. Induction of Bladder Lesion by Terephthalic Acid and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To provide more information for rational evaluation of potential risks of terephthalic acid (TPA), we studied the effects of TPA on rats' bladders in 90 days after TPA exposure. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were subdivided into five groups, ingesting 0 %, 0.04 %, 0.2 %, 1 %, and 5 % TPA respectively for a sub-chronic feeding study lasting for 90 days. Urine, serum and samples of brain, liver, lung, kidney, bladder, etc. Were collected and analyzed. Results TPA ingesting decreased the value of urinary pH, and increased the contents of Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ in urine. The volume of 24 h urine was significantly increased in male rats in the 1 % and 5 % TPA groups. Urinary white sediment was found in both sexes, and its formation in male rats seemed more susceptible than that in female rats. Alpha 2u-globulin (AUG) in serum and urine of male rats was markedly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Fifteen cases of hyperplasia (simple or atypical) were determined in the 5 % TPA ingesting group, 14/52 in male rats and1/23 in female rats. Among them 3 male rats had no stone or calculus. Those with either bladder stones or hyperplasia were accompanied with urinary white sediments. Conclusion White sediment accompanied with elevated urine AUG is the basis of TPA induced urolith formation, and is also associated with TPA induced bladder epithelialcell proliferation. It can act as an early biomarker for the potential toxic effect of TPA.

  16. Microsatellite instability as prognostic marker in bladder tumors: a clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal RD; Mandhani Anil; Vaish Minal; Mittal Balraj

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Carcinoma of urinary bladder is one of the leading causes of death in India. Successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on the early detection & specific diagnostic approaches. In the present study, microsatellite instability (MSI) has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in patients with superficial urinary bladder cancer in lower urinary tract for determining risk of recurrence. Methods A total of 44 patients with bladder tumors diagnosed with Transitional Cell Carc...

  17. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  18. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  19. Polycythemia vera revealed via a bladder tumor in a patient with erectile dysfunction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchikhi, Ahmed-Amine; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Mellas, Soufiane; Amiroune, Driss; Elammari, Jalal Eddine; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Polycythemia vera is a polyglobular myeloproliferative syndrome related to the mutation of multipotent hemopoietic stem cells. This case report describes a patient whose bladder tumor was associated with polycythemia vera and erectile dysfunction. The association of bladder neoplasia with polycythemia vera and erectile dysfunction has not previously been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 40-year-old Moroccan man was followed up for a bladder tumor which manifested w...

  20. Clinical significance of transurethral tru-cut biopsy in confirmation of bladder tumor invasive character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of resection (TURBT) replacement in patients with strong suspicion of invasive bladder tumor by transurethral tru-cut biopsy carried out during cystoscopy. Fifty-eight patients (52 men and six women; mean age 65 years, range 43-79) presenting with extensive bladder tumor suggested by ultrasound and computed tomography were included in the study. Each patient was submitted to transurethral, cystoscopically-guided tru-cut biopsy of bladder tumor before the planned TURBT. Comparison of histopathological assessment of tissue cores, resection and radical cystectomy specimens was carried out. Histopathological analysis of resection specimens and tissue cores were in complete accordance with previous tissue cores assessment in terms of type and grade of bladder cancer. Histological type of bladder tumor revealed by tru-cut biopsy and radical cystectomy was identical in 56 (96.6%) cases. Tumor grade was the same in biopsy cores and radical cystectomy specimens in 55 (95%) cases. Endoscopic tru-cut bladder tumor biopsy allows us to collect sufficient amounts of tissue material for histopathological confirmation of detrusor muscle infiltration in patients presenting with bladder tumors suspected to cause muscle invasiveness. The procedure is carried out under cystoscopic control and is fast, efficient, safe, easy to perform and less invasive than standard TURB in cases of an extensive bladder tumor. (author)

  1. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection and Microscopic Patterns of Urothelial Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Water Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maiolino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic patterns of thirty-four urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of water buffaloes from the Marmara and Black Sea Regions of Turkey are here described. All the animals grazed on lands rich in bracken fern. Histological diagnosis was assessed using morphological parameters recently suggested for the urinary bladder tumors of cattle. Papillary carcinoma was the most common neoplastic lesion (22/34 observed in this study, and low-grade carcinoma was more common (seventeen cases than high-grade carcinoma (five cases. Papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP, and invasive carcinomas were less frequently seen. Carcinoma in situ (CIS was often detected associated with some papillary and invasive carcinomas. De novo (primary CIS was rare representing 3% of tumors of this series. A peculiar feature of the most urothelial tumors was the presence in the tumor stroma of immune cells anatomically organized in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 (PV-2 E5 oncoprotein was detected by molecular and immunohistochemistry procedures. Early protein, E2, and late protein, L1, were also detected by immunohistochemical studies. Morphological and molecular findings show that BPV-2 infection contributes to the development of urothelial bladder carcinogenesis also in water buffaloes.

  2. Differential repair of platinum-DNA adducts in human bladder and testicular tumor continuous cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and removal of four platinum-DNA adducts were immunochemically quantitated in cultured cells derived from a human bladder carcinoma cell line (RT112) and from two lines derived from germ cell tumors of the testis (833K and SUSA), following exposure in vitro to 16.7 microM (5 micrograms/ml) cisplatin. RT112 cells were least sensitive to the drug and were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, whereas SUSA cells, which were 5-fold more sensitive, were deficient in the repair of DNA-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the sequences pApG and pGpG. Despite expressing a similar sensitivity to SUSA cells, 833K cells were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, although less so than the RT112 bladder tumor cells. In addition, SUSA cells were unable to repair DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links whereas 50-85% of these lesions were removed in RT112 and 833K cells 24 h following drug exposure. It is possible that the inability of SuSa cells to repair platinated DNA may account for their hypersensitivity to cisplatin

  3. Detection of hyaluronic acid and laminin in serum of patients with urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the serum Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and laminin (LN) level and its clinical significance in bladder tumors. Methods: Serum samples from 34 patients with bladder tumor and 30 cases as control group were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Results: The results showed that the HA and LN levels of serum in patients with bladder tumors were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01) before operation, and decreased significantly after operation. The serum levels of HA and LN in infiltrated tumors were higher than that in superficial tumors (P<0.05). The markers in patients with lymph node metastasis were higher than that without lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Conclusion: HA and LN take part in the malignant biology behavior of bladder tumors. They may be the important markers in assisting diagnosis and disease monitoring

  4. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  5. Factors related to recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors related to the recurrence of TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) in the urinary bladder after transurethal resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients in whom TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) after TUR-BT had been confirmed. Recurrence was evaluated by US, CT, cystoscopy and urine smear during the follow-up period of 6 months. The multiplicity, shape, size, and calcification of TCC, as revealed by radiologic studies, were evaluated retrospectively before TUR-BT. After TUR-BT, the histologic grade and pathologic stage of TCC were evaluated. Radiologically, multiple and/or sessile type TCC had a higher recurrence rate than the single and/or pedunculated type. Pathologically, when the grade and stage of bladder tumor were higher, recurrent rates were higher. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  6. A Large Bladder Tumor Covered With a Thick “Shell” of Necrotic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Zhe; Gong, Miao-zi; Pan, Dong-liang; Zhang, Xiang-hua; Li, Ning-chen; Na, Yan-qun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bladder tumor arising in a spina bifida patient is rare and may be clinically latent. We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient with spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. A B-ultrasound and non-contrast computed tomography scan did not reveal any bladder mass, but an unexplained “well-filled” bladder was observed, which was confusing as the catheter was present and open. However, a subsequent cystoscopic evaluation revealed a large bladder mass measuring 9.5 × 9.0 × 6.5 cm3, which almost filled the entire bladder. The mass had coarse and flocculent surface and seemed to be free from each observed wall of the urinary bladder. It was diagnosed as an infectious necrotic mass based on its appearance. During transurethral resection of the mass, a bladder tumor was suspected as small blood vessels and bleeding appeared within the inner layer of the mass. Pathological examination revealed necrotic material, inflammatory cells, and urothelial carcinoma cells. Then, a radical cystectomy was performed, and the pathological results indicated stage pT3bN0M0 transitional cell carcinoma. In the gross specimen, the base of the tumor measured 3 × 3 cm2 on the top of the back wall of the bladder. Bladder tumors may have atypical presentations in patients with spina bifida. Regular screening is helpful for earlier detection and improving outcomes of bladder tumors in such patients. PMID:27100442

  7. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: A case series among more than 2,000 urinary bladder tumor cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Elawdy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Inflammatory pseudotumor” (IPT has infrequently been reported in the medical journals. A retrospective analysis was conducted among more than 2,000 bladder tumor cases from January 1999 to December 2012 looking for patients with IPT in the final diagnosis. Six patients were found with median tumor size of 3.5 cm (range: 3–8 cm; computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose the tumor. All patients had complete resection of the tumors. On a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2–10 years, no recurrences for IPT have been observed in all patients. We concluded that IPT is a rare disease of the urinary bladder and should be regarded with a high degree of suspicion. Although an extensive workup may be needed for definite diagnosis, it is worth to avoid unnecessary chemoradiotherapy or radical surgeries.

  8. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Aubert, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.aubert@chru-lille.fr [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Wavreille, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wavreille@chru-lille.fr [Service d’Orthopédie B, Hôpital R Salengro, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  9. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible

  10. A Large Bladder Tumor Covered With a Thick “Shell” of Necrotic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Zhe; Gong, Miao-zi; Pan, Dong-liang; ZHANG, XIANG-HUA; Li, Ning-chen; Na, Yan-qun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bladder tumor arising in a spina bifida patient is rare and may be clinically latent. We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient with spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. A B-ultrasound and non-contrast computed tomography scan did not reveal any bladder mass, but an unexplained “well-filled” bladder was observed, which was confusing as the catheter was present and open. However, a subsequent cystoscopic evaluation revealed a ...

  11. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression. Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies. The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer

  12. Xanthoma Disseminatum with Tumor-Like Lesion on Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ansarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthoma disseminatum (XD is a rare benign mucocutaneous xanthomatosis that is classified as a benign non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We report a 62-year-old man who presented with widespread yellow-brown papulonodular and tumoral lesions on face, flexors, and trunk. Histopathological features of the cutaneous lesions were typical of XD.

  13. Lewis antigen mediated adhesion of freshly removed human bladder tumors to E-selectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorsteensgaard, Karna; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Langkilde, Niels; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Wolf, Hans; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Twenty fresh surgical specimens of human bladder tumors were tested for their ability to adhere to recombinant P and E-selectin. The adhesion was correlated to immunological detection of carbohydrate structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A static titertray assay with immobilized selectins and...... appropriate controls was used for bladder tumor cell adhesion. On the same tumors expression of carbohydrate structures was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. RESULTS: No tumor bound to P-selectin. Nine tumors showed a high number of cells binding to E-selectin, 5 showed intermediate...... binding, and 6 showed only rare binding. The specificity of the binding was verified by inhibition with EDTA, by blocking antibodies to E-selectin, and by an acrylamide based sLe(x) (Galbeta1-4 [Fucalpha1-3]GlcNAc-) polymer. The binding was significantly more frequent (p <0.045) in superficial tumors than...

  14. The Potential Value of EGFR and P53 Immunostaining in Tumors of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of EGFR and p53 has not been adequately studied as a prognostic tool in urinary bladder tumors. We analyzed 74 bladder cancer samples from Egypt for EGFR and p53 expression using immunohistochemistry. The tumors were of different histological types, grades and clinical stages, and with established lymph node status. Almost 61% of the tumors showed positive membranous EGFR expression and 74.3% had positive nuclear staining of p53. Analysis of correlation of the IHC staining with clinical variables showed a significant correlation only between EGFR expression and histological type (p=0.002, ANOVA, in that the expression was higher in squamous cell carcinomas than in other histological types. There were no significant correlations between p53 or EGFR with the other clinicopathological variables, including age, sex, staging, grading, and lymph node status. Further studies are needed to determine if EGFR and p53 might be used as prognostic tools in bladder cancer.

  15. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  16. A New Method of Establishing Orthotopic Bladder Transplantable Tumor in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to find a convenient, rapid, and stable method to establish bladder tumor in mice. Female Balb/C-nu-nu nude mice (or female T739 mice) were narcotized by sodium pentobarbital at a dosage of 60 mg/kg. The stylet of the 24# venous retention needles was bent in a 5° to 7° angle at a distance of 15 mm from the needlepoint to form a circle with 2.61 mm to 3.66 mm radius when the stylet is rotated. The pipe casing was lubricated with liquid paraffin, and inserted into the bladder cavity. The drift angle stylet was inserted into the pipe casing slowly, rotated for five times, and then pulled out. A cell suspension (0.1 mL) of approximately 1×106 T24 cells (or BTT cells) was then injected immediately. A total of 60 T739 mice and 60 Balb/C-nu-nu nude mice were inoculated with BTT cells and T24 cells, respectively. The bladder tumor incidence and the average survival time of the tumor-bearing mice were 100% and (26.69±9.24) d and 100% and (34.59±9.8) d for the T739 mice and Balb/C-nu-nu nude mice, respectively. Using the drift angle stylet to injure the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder can establish a stable bladder transplantable tumor model in mice

  17. Various Tumor-Mimicking Lesions in the Musculoskeletal System: Causes and Diagnostic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sue Yon; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-mimicking lesions in the musculoskeletal system can be defined as lesions mistaken as tumors due to the presence of palpation upon physical examination or a tumor-like appearance upon radiological examination. Moreover, tumor-mimicking lesions show diverse etiologies and anatomic locations. We illustrated the various tumor-mimicking lesions involving bone and soft tissue. In this review, the tumor-mimicking lesions were classified into those based on clinical examination and those based...

  18. Feasibility of laser-integrated high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for bladder tumors: in vitro study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Phuc; Park, Suhyun; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that photothemal therapy combined with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can provide a promising method to achieve rapid thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. The current study investigated the feasibility of the laser-integrated high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) application to treat bladder tumors by enhancing thermal effects and therapeutic depth in vitro. To generate thermal coagulation, a single element HIFU transducer with a central frequency of 2.0 MHz was used to transmit acoustic energy to 15 fresh porcine bladders injected with an artificial tumor (100 µl gelatin and hemoglobin solution) in vitro. Simultaneously, an 80-W 532-nm laser system was also implemented to induce thermal necrosis in the targeted tissue. The intensity of 570 W/cm2 at the focus of HIFU and laser energy of 0.9 W were applied to all the samples for 40 s. The temperature rise increased up to about 1.6 or 3 folds (i.e., ΔT=32±3.8 K for laser-integrated HIFU, ΔT=20±6.5 K for HIFU only, and ΔT=11±5.6 K for laser only). The estimated lesion depth also increased by 1.3 and 2 folds during the dual-thermal treatment, in comparison with the treatment by either HIFU or laser. The results indicated that the laser-integrated HIFU treatment can be an efficient hyperthermic method for tumor coagulation.

  19. Detection of Serum Hyaluronic Acid and Laminin in Patients with Bladder Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李令勋; 丁国富

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the changes of serum hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) levels and their clinical implication in the patients with bladder tumors, the serum HA and LN levels in 34 patients with bladder tumor and 30 cases of control group were detected by radioimmunoassay before and after operation. The results showed that the serum HA and LN levels in the patients with bladder tumors were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0. 01) before operation, and decreased significantly after operation (P<0. 05). The serum levels of HA and LN in infiltration tumors were higher than those in superficial tumors (P<0.05). The serum HA and LN levels in patients with lymph node metastasis were higher than those without lymph node metastasis (P<0.01 ). The investigation revealed that HA and LN might be involved in the malignant biology behavior of bladder tumors and could be used as important markers of assistant diagnosis and condition monitoring.

  20. Urodynamics post stroke in patients with urinary incontinence: Is there correlation between bladder type and site of lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of bladder by urodynamic study (UDS in patients with urinary incontinence following stroke, and correlation with site of lesion. Study Design and Setting: Retrospective cross-sectional study in the neurological rehabilitation unit of a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Forty patients (22 males with arterial or venous, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, with urinary incontinence in the acute phase following the event, underwent UDS. Seventeen patients had right hemiplegia, 18 had left hemiplegia, and five had posterior circulation stroke with brainstem/cerebellar features. Bladder type was correlated with age, side, and site of lesion. Results: The mean age was 46.80 ± 16.65 years (range: 18-80 years. Thirty-six patients had arterial stroke and four had cortical venous thrombosis. UDS was performed after a mean of 28.32 ± 10.27 days (range: 8-53 days after the stroke. All but one patient had neurogenic bladder dysfunction, with 36 patients (90% having overactive detrusor (OD and three having underactive/areflexic detrusor. Among the 36 patients with OD, 25 patients (62.5% had OD without detrusor-sphincter dyssynergy (DSD and 11 (27.5% had OD with DSD. Bladder management was advised based on the UDS findings. No significant correlation ( P > 0.05 was found between type of bladder and age or side and site of lesion. Conclusions: UDS is a useful tool to assess and manage the bladder following stroke with urinary incontinence. In this study, no significant correlation was found between UDS findings and site of lesion.

  1. MR imaging of lesions mimicking ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The character of a pelvic mass is not always clear on gynecologic and sonographic examination. Magnetic resonance imaging provides the chance to differentiate adnexal tumors from other masses. Twenty-six women, aged 20-83 years, with suspicion of ovarian tumor, were examined with a 0.5 T unit in 3 cases and a 1.5 T unit in 23. MRI allowed accurate diagnosis in 23 women (88.5%). Uterine myoma was shown in 8 cases, enlarged uterine cervix with large Nabothian cysts in 5, pyosalpinx in 2, nerve root cysts in 3, perirectal abscess in 1, colorectal tumor in 1, and ectopic pelvic kidney in 3. In 2 women, normal ovaries were not identified with the 0.5 T unit and in 2 with the 1.5 T unit. Magnetic resonance imaging, as a method with the highest resolution and tissue specificity, should be performed in every case of sonografically unclear pelvic mass. (author)

  2. Triphasic computed tomography (CT) scan in focal tumoral liver lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of triphasic spiral CT in differentiating benign from malignant focal tumoral liver lesions. Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Radiology of Aga Khan University Hospital and Sind Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi from Feb 2006 to Feb 2007. By convenient sampling, 45 patients found to have focal tumoral liver lesions were recruited for one year period and their triphasic CT scans findings were evaluated and later correlated with histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of triphasic CT scan were calculated. Results: Among 45 patients, 136 liver lesions (11 benign and 125 malignant) were detected with the help of different enhancement patterns. Out of these, 37(82.2%) patients had malignant while 8 (17.8%) had benign lesions. On later histopathological examination, 35 (77.8%) of the total 45 cases had malignant lesions while 10 (22.2%) were diagnosed as benign lesions. Based on these results, it could be assessed that triphasic CT Scan has a sensitivity of 100 %, specificity of 80%, positive predictive value of 94.5%, negative predictive value of 100% and diagnostic accuracy of 95.5 % in differentiating benign from malignant liver lesions. Conclusion: Triphasic CT Scan is a good non-invasive tool in characterizing and differentiating benign from malignant liver lesions. (author)

  3. Dopaminergic mechanisms underlying bladder hyperactivity in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Kuno, Sadako; Chancellor, Michael B.; de Groat, William C.; Seki, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate dopaminergic mechanisms underlying bladder hyperactivity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by a unilateral 6-OHDA injection into the substantia nigra pars compacta.In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, voided volume per micturition (0.41±0.04 ml, mean±s.e.m.) measured during 24 h in a metabolic cage was significantly smaller than in sham-operated rats (0.67±0.07 ml).Cystrometrograms (CMG) in conscious animals revealed significantly smaller bladder ca...

  4. Implantation of Bladder Cancer into the Abdominal Wall; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafoori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of high grade and invasive bladder carcinoma into the abdominal wall is not common and can occur as side effects of uninary bladder interventions and surgical procedures, including perforation of bladder wall during transurethral resection of the tumor. Herein, we present a case of implantation of bladder transitional cell carcinoma into abdominal wall into an incisional hernia of a previous small bowel operation; three years after the bladder tumor had been diagnosed and treated. In evaluating any mass lesion in the abdominal wall, it is important to consider the possibility of bladder tumor implantation.

  5. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepbouwer, Chantal; Meyer, Sandra; Burggraaf, Maroeska J; Jose, Jithin; Molthoff, Carla F M

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new) agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics. PMID:27533303

  6. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sandra; Burggraaf, Maroeska J.; Jose, Jithin; Molthoff, Carla F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new) agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics. PMID:27533303

  7. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a

  8. The imaging features of surrounding changes caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the imaging features of bone marrow edema (BME) and soft tissue edema (STE) caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. Methods: Ninety nine patients with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions which were proved by surgical pathology were reviewed. The patients were divided into benign and malignant groups. Evaluation parameters included the size and signal intensity of BME and STE, the features of enhancement, the bone sclerosis and its relation with BME, and joint effusion, et al. The data of two groups were analyzed by χ2 test. Results: There were 40 patients in benign group and 59 patients belonged to malignant group. BME and STE demonstrated low signal on T1-weighted images and high signal on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. Some BMEs demonstrated low signal on T2- weighted images, which corresponded to sclerosis on X-ray film and (or) CT. Both BME and STE demonstrated uniform enhancement. There were statistically significant differences between benign and malignant groups including the frequency of BME, sclerosis, the median of the size of the BME and STE (P0.05). Conclusions: Both benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions and malignant bone tumors can be accompanied by BME and STE. The size of BME in the benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions is bigger than those in malignant ones, and the size of STE in malignant bone tumors is bigger than benign ones. (authors)

  9. A new non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor-homing peptide identified by phage display in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, XIAOFENG; ZHANG, FAN; LUO, JUNQIAN; PANG, JIANZHI; YAN, SANHUA; LUO, FANG; LIU, JIEHAO; WANG, WEI; CUI, YONGPING; SU, XIXI

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is common and widespread, and its incidence is increasing. Many new diagnostic methods combined with state-of-the-art technology have been introduced in cystoscopy to collect real-time images of the bladder mucosa for diagnosis, but often miss inconspicuous early-stage tumors. Fluorophore-labeled peptides with high sensitivity and specificity for cancer would be a desirable tool for the detection and treatment of tiny or residual bladder tumors. Phage display and the human non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 were used to identify a peptide. The isolated phage display peptide (CSSPIGRHC, named NYZL1) was tested in vitro for its binding specificity and affinity. Accumulation into xenograft tumors in a nude mouse model was analyzed with FITC-labeled NYZL1. NYZL1, with strong tumor-homing ability, was identified by in vivo phage library selection in the bladder cancer model. The NYZL1 phage and synthetic FITC-labeled NYZL1 peptides bound to tumor tissues and cells, but were hardly detected in normal control organs. Notably, accumulation of FITC-NYZL1 in bladder tumor cells was time-dependent. Biodistribution studies of xenografts of BIU-87 cells showed accumulation of injected FITC-NYZL1 in the tumors, and the bound peptide could not be removed by perfusion after 24 h. The mouse model of bladder tumor showed increased fluorescence intensity in the tumor-bearing bladder in comparison with normal bladder tissues after 4–6 h. In conclusion, NYZL1 may represent a lead peptide structure applicable in the development of optical molecular imaging. PMID:27221614

  10. Benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions: value of cross-sectional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woertler, Klaus [Department of Radiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675, Munich (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    This article reviews the role of CT and MR imaging in the diagnosis of benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone with with regard to differential diagnosis, the assessment of tumor-related complications, and the detection of postoperative recurrence. Indications for cross-sectional imaging of specific lesions, including osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, osteochondroma, intraosseous lipoma, hemangioma, giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, simple bone cyst, and eosinophilic granuloma, are discussed, and advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging modalities are illustrated on the basis of pathologically confirmed cases. (orig.)

  11. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang11School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, ChinaObjective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69% patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31% patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59% patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001 and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625. The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001. Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG tumors (P = 0.031 and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG tumors (P = 0.003, respectively

  12. A Large Bladder Tumor Covered With a Thick "Shell" of Necrotic Material: Misdiagnosis of a Patient With Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Zhe; Gong, Miao-Zi; Pan, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Li, Ning-Chen; Na, Yan-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Bladder tumor arising in a spina bifida patient is rare and may be clinically latent.We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient with spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. A B-ultrasound and non-contrast computed tomography scan did not reveal any bladder mass, but an unexplained "well-filled" bladder was observed, which was confusing as the catheter was present and open. However, a subsequent cystoscopic evaluation revealed a large bladder mass measuring 9.5 × 9.0 × 6.5 cm, which almost filled the entire bladder. The mass had coarse and flocculent surface and seemed to be free from each observed wall of the urinary bladder. It was diagnosed as an infectious necrotic mass based on its appearance.During transurethral resection of the mass, a bladder tumor was suspected as small blood vessels and bleeding appeared within the inner layer of the mass. Pathological examination revealed necrotic material, inflammatory cells, and urothelial carcinoma cells. Then, a radical cystectomy was performed, and the pathological results indicated stage pT3bN0M0 transitional cell carcinoma. In the gross specimen, the base of the tumor measured 3 × 3 cm on the top of the back wall of the bladder.Bladder tumors may have atypical presentations in patients with spina bifida. Regular screening is helpful for earlier detection and improving outcomes of bladder tumors in such patients. PMID:27100442

  13. Transurethral microwave needle ablation for bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@To investigate the role of transurethral microwave needle ablation (TUMWNA) in the management of bladder cancer,TUMWNA was carried out in 24 patients with bladder cancer since 1989. From January 1989 to December 1997, 24 patients with bladder cancer were treated with TUMWNA. The 15 men and 9 women were 42 to 67 years old (mean, 58). There were 18 cases with a single tumor and 6 with multiple tumors (4 with 2 tumors, 1 with 3 and 1 with 4). Tumor diameter ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 cm. The lesions grew in different bladder regions: 13 tumors arose from the fundus, 3 tumors from the dome, 9 from the lateral wall, 5 from the anterior wall, 1 from the triangle region and 2 tumors were situated in the obturator nerve reflex sensitive region.

  14. The Vascular-Targeting Fusion Toxin VEGF121/rGel Inhibits the Growth of Orthotopic Human Bladder Carcinoma Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mohamedali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor. (VEGF and its receptors. (FLT-1 and KDR are overexpressed by human bladder cancer cells and tumor endothelial cells, respectively. Strategies that target VEGF receptors hold promise as antlanglogenic therapeutic approaches to bladder cancer. A fusion protein of VEGF121 and the plant toxin gelonin (rGel was constructed, expressed in bacteria, purified to homogeneity. Cytotoxicity experiments of VEGF121/rGel on the highly metastatic 253J B-V human bladder cancer cell line demonstrated that the VEGF121/rGel does not specifically target these cells, whereas Western blot analysis showed no defectable expression of KDR. Treatment with VEGF121/rGel against orthotopically implanted 253J B-V xenografts in nude mice resulted in a significant suppression of bladder tumor growth (-60% inhibition; P < .05 compared to controls. lmmunohistochemistry studies of orthotopic 253J B-V tumors demonstrated that KDR is highly overexpressed in tumor vasculature. Immunofluorescence staining with antibodies to CD-31 (blood vessel endothelium and reel demonstrated a dramatic colocalization of the construct on tumor neovasculature. Treated tumors also displayed an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTPblotin end labeling staining compared to controls. Thus, VEGF121/rGel inhibits the growth of human bladder cancer by cytotoxic effects directed against the tumor vascular supply and has significant potential as a novel antlangiogenic therapeutic against human bladder cancer.

  15. Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients

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    Mohamed Azza M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO, fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-α than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  16. Inflammatory myofibroblastic bladder tumor in a patient with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Antonio; Indolfi, Paolo; Ficociello, Carmine; Russo, Daniela; Oreste, Matilde; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Gualdiero, Giovanna; Barone, Ciro; Vigliar, Elena; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia. PMID:24024066

  17. Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium carrying shRNA-expressing vectors elicit RNA interference in murine bladder tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan YANG; Sheng-hua LI; Yun-zhe L(U); Li-shan CHEN; Da-ming REN

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S typhimurium) could be used as an anti-cancer agent or a tumortargeting vehicle for delivering shRNA-expressing pDNA into cancer cells in a mouse tumor model.Methods: Mouse bladder transitional cancer cell line (BTT-T739) expressing GFP was used, in which the GFP expression level served as an indicator of RNA interference (RNAi). BTT-T739-GFP tumor-bearing mice (4-6 weeks) were treated with S typhimurium carrying plasmids encoding shRNA against gfp or scrambled shRNA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GFP were assessed 5 d after the bacteria administration, and the antitumor effects of S typhimurium were evaluated.Results: In BTT-T739-GFP tumor-bearing mice, S typhirnurium (1×109 cfu, po) preferentially accumulated within tumors for as long as 40 d, and formed a tumor-to-normal tissue ratio that exceeded 1000/1. S typhimurium carrying plasmids encoding shRNA against gfp inhibited the expression of GFP in tumor cells by 73.4%. Orally delivered S typhimurium significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that attenuated S typhimurium can be used for both delivering shRNA-expressing vectors into tumor cells and eliciting RNAi, thus exerting anti-tumor activity, which may represent a new strategy for the treatment of solid tumors.

  18. Ruguo key genes and tumor driving factors identification of bladder cancer based on the RNA-seq profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minglei Zhang,1 Hongyan Li,2 Di Zou,3 Ji Gao2 1Department of Orthopedics, Division of Tumor and Trauma Surgery, 2Department of Urology, China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, 3Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Aim: This study aimed to select several signature genes associated with bladder cancer, thus to investigate the possible mechanism in bladder cancer.Methods: The mRNA expression profile data of GSE31614, including ten bladder tissues and ten control samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs in bladder cancer samples compared with the control samples were screened using the Student’s t-test method. Functional analysis for the DEGs was analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery from the Gene Ontology database, followed by the transcription function annotation of DEGs from Tumor-Associated Gene database. Motifs of genes that had transcription functions in promoter region were analyzed using the Seqpos.Results: A total of 1,571 upregulated and 1,507 downregulated DEGs in the bladder cancer samples were screened. ELF3 and MYBL2 involved in cell cycle and DNA replication were tumor suppressors. MEG3, APEX1, and EZH2 were related with the cell epigenetic regulation in bladder cancer. Moreover, HOXB9 and EN1 that have their own motif were the transcription factors.Conclusion: Our study has identified several key genes involved in bladder cancer. ELF3 and MYBL2 are tumor suppressers, HOXB9 and EN1 are the main regulators, while MEG3, APEX1, and EZH2 are driving factors for bladder cancer progression. Keywords: bladder cancer, differentially expressed genes, tumor driving factor, function analysis

  19. Space occupying lesion (paraganglioma of the urinary bladder in a young male: A case report and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder paragangliomas are rare with a reported incidence of <1% of bladder tumors. In the absence of typical clinical features, histopathology helps in rendering definitive diagnosis. We describe a case of nonfunctional urinary bladder paraganglioma in a 28-year-old male who presented with the chief complaint of abdominal pain. The final diagnosis was made by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. It is important to distinguish paraganglioma from urothelial carcinoma as the treatment differs. This is an additional case of nonfunctional urinary bladder paraganglioma in a male patient with a brief review of the literature.

  20. Tumor-specific immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer with butanol-extracted antigens and ethylchlorformate polymerized tumor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, M G; Sarosdy, M F; Pickett, S H; Stogdill, B J; Lamm, D L

    1988-09-01

    Successful treatment of superficial bladder cancer using nonspecific immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been well documented. Investigation of two potential tumor-specific immunotherapeutic agents using a murine transitional-cell carcinoma model (MBT-2) is reported. The survival of mice immunized with tumor proteins obtained by treating tumor cells with either 1-butanol or ethylchlorformate was compared to the survival of animals immunized with BCG. Long-term immunity conferred by each of these agents was also assessed. Significant protection by both agents was noted in all treatment groups compared to controls. Long-term immunity was also found to result from treatment with both investigational agents as well as with BCG. Butanol-extracted antigens and ethylchlorformate polymerized tumor protein may be useful as immunotherapeutic alternatives to BCG. PMID:3411695

  1. Adult urinary bladder tumors with rabdomyosarcomatous differentiation: Clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical studies

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    Zhang Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adult rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS in the urinary bladder is rare, and is the subject of case reports and small series. It consists of sheets of small round blue cells with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, brisk mitosis and apoptosis. In this study, we reported one case of pure rhabdomyosarcoma and two cases of urothelial carcinomas with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. In addition, their immunohistochemical profile was compared to that of small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Our study showed that sufficient sampling was critical for the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. As adult RMS in the bladder and urothelial carcinoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation shared morphological features with small cell carcinoma of the bladder, appropriate immunohistochemical stains were necessary in the differential diagnosis. We showed both rhabdomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcomatous areas of the urothelial carcinoma were positive for myogenin, negative for cytokeratin and chromogranin stains. In contrast, small cell carcinoma was positive for cytokeratin, and 7 out of 9 cases were also positive for chromogranin. Both rhabdomyosarcoma and small cell carcinoma could be positive for synaptophysin, a potential pitfall to avoid. In addition, all of the tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation were negative for FKHR rearrangement.

  2. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the primary tumor in muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder were examined with contrast-enhanced CT of the primary tumor. A specially designed technique was developed to increase the diagnostic potential of CT. The most important points about the technique were controlled filling of the bladder, the use of thin slices, series of scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast medium, and long scanning times in the precontrast series. The absorbed dose to the patient resulting from the new technique was found to be within the range of the dose from urography or barium enema. This dose was considered to be acceptable given the diagnostic gain of the procedure. Features of irradiated bladder tumors were analysed to find which parameter correlated with persistent malignancy. High contrast enhancement of a tumor relative to the bladder wall was found to be the best indicator of a malignant tumour after irradiation. 127 refs

  3. Perioperative search for circulating tumor cells in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer

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    Karl A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Despite having an organ confined tumor stage at the time of radical cystectomy, a certain number of bladder cancer patients will develop local or distant metastases over time. Currently there are no reliable serum markers for monitoring and evaluating risk profiles of urothelial cancers. Several studies suggest that detection of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC may correlate with disease status and prognosis at baseline and early in the treatment of cancers. The presence of CTCs in whole blood before and during radical cystectomy could provide further information on disease status, and could be used as an indicator to determine the need for adjuvant or even perioperative chemotherapy. Methods From 03/2009 to 05/2009, five patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder participated in this study. All patients were admitted to the hospital for radical cystectomy (rCx. A standard or extended lymph node dissection was performed in all cases. Preoperative CT or MRI scans revealed no distant or local metastases. Median age was 66.8 years (55-81 yrs. After obtaining informed consent from each patient, approximately 30 mL of peripheral blood was taken immediately before rCx and again during surgical removal of the urinary bladder from the patients' body. As additional parameters, operation time (OR for surgical removal of the bladder and the amount of blood volume that was used for the detection of CTCs were recorded. Obtained blood samples were processed using the Cell-Search System (Veridex© within 48 hours of collection. CTCs were identified and quantitated using the Cell-Search System, followed by re-evaluation of the provided results by specially trained and experienced personal. (CS, SH Results CTCs were detected before and during surgical removal of the urinary bladder in one of five patients (20%. In the one patient positive for CTC, two CTCs were detected in the blood sample that was

  4. Curettage of benign bone tumors and tumor like lesions: A retrospective analysis

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    Zile Singh Kundu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curettage is one of the most common treatment options for benign lytic bone tumors and tumor like lesions. The resultant defect is usually filled. We report our outcome curettage of benign bone tumors and tumor like lesions without filling the cavity. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied 42 patients (28 males and 14 females with benign bone tumors who had undergone curettage without grafting or filling of the defect by any other bone graft substitute. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 66 years. The most common histological diagnosis was that of giant cell tumor followed by simple bone cyst, aneurysamal bone cyst, enchondroma, fibrous dysplasia, chondromyxoid fibroma, and chondroblastoma and giant cell reparative granuloma. Of the 15 giant cell tumors, 4 were radiographic grade 1 lesions, 8 were grade 2 and 3 grade 3. The mean maximum diameter of the cysts was 5.1 (range 1.1-9 cm cm and the mean volume of the lesions was 34.89 cm 3 (range 0.94-194.52 cm 3 . The plain radiographs of the part before and after curettage were reviewed to establish the size of the initial defect and the rate of reconstitution, filling and remodeling of the bone defect. Patients were reviewed every 3 monthly for a minimum period of 2 years. Results: Most of the bone defects completely reconstituted to a normal appearance while the rest filled partially. Two patients had preoperative and three had postoperative fractures. All the fractures healed uneventfully. Local recurrence occurred in three patients with giant cell tumor who were then reoperated. All other patients had unrestricted activities of daily living after surgery. The rate of bone reconstitution, risk of subsequent fracture or the incidence of complications was related to the size of the cyst/tumor at diagnosis. The benign cystic bone lesions with volume greater than approximately 70 cm 3 were found to have higher incidence of complications. Conclusion: This study

  5. Centrosome clustering and cyclin D1 gene amplification in double minutes are common events in chromosomal unstable bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneuploidy, centrosome abnormalities and gene amplification are hallmarks of chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer. Yet there are no studies of the in vivo behavior of these phenomena within the same bladder tumor. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded bladder tumors were analyzed by conventional comparative genome hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cyclin D1 gene (CCND1)/centromere 11 dual-color probe. Immunofluorescent staining of α, β and γ tubulin was also performed. Based on the CIN index, defined as the percentage of cells not displaying the modal number for chromosome 11, tumors were classified as CIN-negative and CIN-positive. Fourteen out of 21 tumors were considered CIN-positive. All T1G3 tumors were included in the CIN-positive group whereas the majority of Ta samples were classified as CIN-negative tumors. Centrosome clustering was observed in six out of 12 CIN-positive tumors analyzed. CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions was present in six out of 14 CIN-positive tumors; three of them also showed amplification of this gene in double minutes. Complex in vivo behavior of CCND1 amplicon in bladder tumor cells has been demonstrated by accurate FISH analysis on paraffin-embedded tumors. Positive correlation between high heterogeneity, centrosome abnormalities and CCND1 amplification was found in T1G3 bladder carcinomas. This is the first study to provide insights into the coexistence of CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions and double minutes in primary bladder tumors. It is noteworthy that those patients whose tumors showed double minutes had a significantly shorter overall survival rate (p < 0.001)

  6. Histopathological characterization of a syngeneic orthotopic murine bladder cancer model

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    Daher C. Chade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We developed and characterized by histopathology and immunohistochemistry a syngeneic murine bladder tumor model derived from the MB49 tumor cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bladder tumor implantation was achieved by intravesical instillation of 5 x 10(5 MB49 tumor cells in C57BL/6 mice. A chemical lesion of the bladder was performed in order to promote intravesical tumor implantation. The bladder wall lesion was accomplished by transurethral instillation of silver nitrate (AgNO3. After 15 days, the animals were sacrificed, examined macroscopically for intravesical tumor and bladder weight. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed using cytokeratin 7 (CK7, carcinoembrionic antigen (Dako-CEA, p53 and c-erbB2 oncoprotein (Her2/neu. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 30 animals (96.7% developed intravesical tumors in a 15-day period. Macroscopically, the mean bladder weight was 0.196g (0.069-0.538g, 10 to 15 times the normal bladder weight. The immunohistochemical analysis showed significant membrane expression of CEA and CK7: a similar finding for human urothelial cancer. We also characterized absence of expression of p53 and anti-Her2/neu in the murine model. CONCLUSIONS: High tumor take rates were achieved by using the chemical induction of the bladder tumor. Although electric cauterization is widely described in the literature for syngeneic orthotopic animal models, the technique described in this study represents an alternative for intravesical bladder tumor implantation. Moreover, the histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis of the murine bladder tumor model derived from the MB49 cell line showed a resemblance to human infiltrating urothelial carcinoma, allowing clinical inference from experimental immunotherapy testing.

  7. BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer: inhibition of tumor recurrence and associated immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Winters, W D; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M

    1981-07-01

    Fifty-one patients with confirmed bladder cancer have enrolled in a prospective evaluation of BCG immunotherapy. Following resection of existing tumors, patients were stratified according to tumor grade and number of previous recurrences and randomly assigned to control or BCG treatment groups. Immunotherapy consisted of six weekly administrations of Pasteur strain BCG using 120 mg intravesically and 5 mg percutaneously. Immunotherapy side effects were minimal and no patient required postponement of BCG treatments. Eleven control (46%) compared with five (22%) BCG-treated patients had tumor recurrence (P = 0.078, chi 2). Prolongation of the disease-free interval with BCG treatment was significantly at the P = 0.016 level by Wilcoxon analysis. Four control and two BCG-treated patients had multiple recurrences. Comparing total episodes of recurrence, nineteen of 79 (24%) control and eight of 85 (7%) BCG group cystoscopic examinations revealed tumor (P = 0.006, chi 2). Immunologic correlates of response to immunotherapy were not statistically significant since only five BCG-treated patients had tumor recurrence. However, four of these five patients evidenced impaired LIF response to PPD at the time of tumor recurrence, and impairment of skin test reactivity and BCG humoral antibody response were more commonly seen in this subgroup of patients. PMID:7016300

  8. Labelling of anti-human bladder tumor chimeric antibody with 99Tcm and radioimmunoimaging of bladder carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the in vitro immunoreactivity and in vivo tissue distribution, tumor targeting property of anti-human bladder tumor human-murine chimeric antibody (ch-BDI) labeled with 99Tcm and to investigate its possibility for being used in guiding diagnosis and guiding therapy of bladder cancer. Methods: The ch-BDI was labeled with 99Tcm by improved Schwarz method and the labeled antibody was purified by Sephadex G-50. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were measured by paper chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction and association constant (Ka) were measured by Lindmo method and Scatchard analysis, respectively. 11.1 MBq (30 μg) 99Tcm-ch-BDI was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human bladder cancer xenografts in the right thigh and radioimmunoimaging (RII) was performed 2, 6, 20 and 24 h postinjection. The images were processed by region of interest (ROI) method to acquire the counts of whole body and the tumor and the counts ratios of tumor to contralateral normal tissue or to tissues of other non-tumor bearing organs. The mice were killed after 24 h postinjection imaging and tissue distribution was measured. %ID/g and target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were calculated. Results: The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-ch-BDI were (66.5±7.3)% and >90%, respectively. The immunoreactive fraction was 76% and Ka was 3.56 x 109 L/mol. RII showed that the tumor was clearly visualized 6 h postinjection and becoming clearer along with time prolonging. The radioactivity of whole body decreased rapidly with time, whereas the radioactivity of the tumor decreased slowly. The T/NT ratios was increased with time. Biodistribution results showed that tumor uptake was 17.4%ID/g 24 h postinjection. T/NT ratios were very high except for the kidney. T/NT ratios for brain, muscle, intestinal wall, bone and heart wall were 136.0, 55.1, 39.3, 29.7 and 27.9, respectively. Conclusion: 99Tcm-ch-BDI exhibits excellent immunoreactivity and tumor

  9. Alternativas Terapéuticas en las neoplasias vesicales caninas Therapeutic options in canine bladder tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Rovere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias vesicales en caninos representan menos del 1% de los tumores presentes en esta especie. El tratamiento quirúrgico se indica en tumores benignos y como complemento de la quimioterapia y radioterapia. Para la quimioterapia se emplean más frecuentemente la doxorrubicina, el 5-fluorouracilo, la ciclofosfamida, la vincristina y cisplatino. La asociación de la doxorrubicina-ciclofosfamida por vía sistémica en asociación con el cisplatino intravesical, sería un tratamiento recomendable, en particular en los casos de carcinoma de células de transiciónThe canine urinary bladder tumors represent less than 1% of all tumors present in this species. Surgical treatment is indicated in benign tumors and combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Doxorubicin, 5 fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and cisplatin are the drugs mostly used for chemotherapy. Systemic Doxorubicin-ciclophosphamide therapy in association with intravesical cisplatin therapy are recommended, particularly in transitional cell carcinoma

  10. Evaluation of the performance of a p53 sequencing microarray chip using 140 previously sequenced bladder tumor samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Friedrik; Lu, Ming-Lan; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær;

    2000-01-01

    available chip and describes a method to increase the specificity of the chip. Methods: DNA from 140 human bladder tumors was extracted and subjected to a multiplex-PCR before loading onto the p53 GeneChip from Affymetrix. The same samples were previously sequenced by manual dideoxy sequencing. In addition...

  11. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

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    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  12. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the κ-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR imaging

  13. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katase, Shichiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the {kappa}-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR

  14. Total intravenous general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway for transurethral resection of bladder tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the advantage of total intravenous anesthesia for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Methods: Sixty ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients undergoing TURBT were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Spinal anesthesia with 0.75% pure bupivacaine (8-12 mg) was applied to patients in Group Ⅰ (n= 30). Patients in Group Ⅱ (n=30) received total intravenous anesthesia with continuous infusion of Propofol and Remifentanil; and a laryngeal mask was used to ensure the airway and ventilation. BP, HR, SPO2 and pertinent side effects were monitored and recorded. Results: The patients in group Ⅱ experienced more stable hemodynamics than those in group Ⅰ. Obturator nerve reflex was observed in 15 (50.0%) patients in Group Ⅰ, but none (0%) in Group Ⅱ (P<0.01). Conclusion: Total intravenous anesthesia with laryngeal mask is a safe, reliable, controllable and simple manual for patient undergoing TURBT.

  15. Tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo da bexiga urinária: uma rara neoplasia Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder: a rare neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cury Ogata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 52 anos, com queixas de hematúria macroscópica e dor pélvica. Foi realizado exame ultrassonográfico, que mostrou massa expansiva em assoalho vesical. A cistoscopia confirmou a presença dessa lesão, sendo realizada biópsia. O exame histológico revelou neoplasia de pequenas células. A análise imuno-histoquímica foi necessária para elucidação diagnóstica. O referido exame demonstrou positividade para os marcadores EWS-FLI1, CD99 e S-100. O diagnóstico foi de tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo. A paciente foi tratada com quimioterapia adjuvante. Depois de sete meses de seguimento, a paciente encontra-se livre de doença.The authors report the case of a 52 year-old woman that presented macroscopic hematuria and pelvic pain. Ultrasound examination was performed, which showed an expansive mass in the bladder floor. A cystoscopy confirmed the presence of this lesion and a biopsy was carried out. Histological analysis showed a small cell neoplasm. The immunohistochemical analysis was required to establish diagnosis. This analysis revealed positivity for EWS-FLI1, CD99 and S-100. The conclusive diagnosis was primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The patient was treated with chemotherapy. After a seven month follow-up period, the patient is disease-free.

  16. The Significance of Laboratory Indices to Determine the Number of Lesions in Patients with Non-muscle Invasive Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derzhavets L.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to estimate laboratory indices to determine the number of lesions in patients with non-muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer. Materials and Methods. There were studied 552 patients with non-muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer, who had been treated in Republic Scientific Practical Centre of Oncology and Medical Radiology named after N.N. Alexandrov in 2002–2010 (Republic of Belarus. Modern laboratory techniques (immunoenzyme, immunoturbidity method, spectrofluorometry, ozonation, electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry were used to study tumour markers, growth factors, angiogenesis, cell-cell adhesion, endothelial damage, the products of inflammation and oxidative modifications of proteins and lipids in biological fluids (blood serum and plasma, urine. The investigation had been carried out before special treatment was started. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the number of lesions (266 patients with a single mass lesion, and 286 — with multiple mass lesions. Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained enabled to reveal four indices from 27 studied parameters (Urinary Bladder Cancer — UBC, Tissue Polypeptide Antigen Specific — TPS, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule — sICAM, Transmembrane HER2-neu receptor — p185 correlating maximally with the number of lesions and minimally — among themselves, and form two regression equations on their basis. The equations make it possible to determine the presence of multiple mass lesions in patients with non-muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer preoperatively, the sensitivity of equations being 81–84%. Thus, clinicians can carry out an additional thorough examination of a patient (photodynamic diagnosis in due time in order to reveal multifocal tumour growth.

  17. Activation of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Bα by Methylene-Substituted Diindolylmethanes in Bladder Cancer Cells Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Tumor GrowthS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Dae Cho, Sung; Lee, Syng-Ook; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Abdelrahim, Maen; Khan, Shaheen; Yoon, Kyungsil; Kamat, Ashish M.; Safe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor-induced B (NGFI-B) genes are orphan nuclear receptors, and NGFI-Bα (Nur77, TR3) is overexpressed in bladder tumors and bladder cancer cells compared with nontumorous bladder tissue. 1,1-Bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-methoxyphenyl)-methane (DIM-C-pPhOCH3) and 1,1-bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-phenyl)methane have previously been identified as activators of Nur77, and both compound...

  18. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in periapical lesions

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    Popović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periapical lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of TNF-α in tissue homogenates of periapical lesions and analyze its levels in relation to the symptomatology and the size of lesions. Materials and Methods. 93 samples of chronic periapical lesions were obtained after extraction of teeth. Samples were classified according to the clinical presentation as symptomatic and asymptomatic, and according to the size as large and small. The concentration of TNF-α was analyzed using ELISA. Results. The results showed increased production of TNF-α in symptomatic lesions compared to asymptomatic. Higher concentration of TNF-α was demonstrated in large lesions compared to small. Large symptomatic lesions showed greater concentration of TNF-α compared to small symptomatic lesions, while bigger asymptomatic lesions demonstrated higher amount of the cytokines compared to small asymptomatic lesions. Conclusion. Higher concentration of TNF-α in large symptomatic lesions indicates that TNF-α is an important factor responsible for the progression of lesions.

  19. Independent Component Analysis Uncovers the Landscape of the Bladder Tumor Transcriptome and Reveals Insights into Luminal and Basal Subtypes

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    Anne Biton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracting relevant information from large-scale data offers unprecedented opportunities in cancerology. We applied independent component analysis (ICA to bladder cancer transcriptome data sets and interpreted the components using gene enrichment analysis and tumor-associated molecular, clinicopathological, and processing information. We identified components associated with biological processes of tumor cells or the tumor microenvironment, and other components revealed technical biases. Applying ICA to nine cancer types identified cancer-shared and bladder-cancer-specific components. We characterized the luminal and basal-like subtypes of muscle-invasive bladder cancers according to the components identified. The study of the urothelial differentiation component, specific to the luminal subtypes, showed that a molecular urothelial differentiation program was maintained even in those luminal tumors that had lost morphological differentiation. Study of the genomic alterations associated with this component coupled with functional studies revealed a protumorigenic role for PPARG in luminal tumors. Our results support the inclusion of ICA in the exploitation of multiscale data sets.

  20. Genetic Evidence in Melanoma and Bladder Cancers that p16 and p53 Function in Separate Pathways of Tumor Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Gruis, Nelleke A.; Weaver-Feldhaus, Jane; Liu, Qingyun; Frye, Cheryl; Eeles, Rosalind; Orlow, Irene; Lacombe, Louis; Ponce-Castaneda, Veronica; Lianes, Pilar; Latres, Esther; Skolnick, Mark; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Kamb, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    The 9p21 region of human chromosome 9 is a hot spot for chromosomal aberrations in both cultured cell lines and primary tumors. This region contains a gene, P16 (also called MTS1, CDKN2 and p16INK4), that encodes a presumptive negative cell cycle regulator called p16. P16 is deleted or mutated at high frequency in a variety of tumor cell lines including melanoma and bladder carcinoma lines. As such, it is likely to be a tumor suppressor gene. Here we show that P16 is mutated in primary bladde...

  1. The effect of steroid on FDG uptake in experimental tumors, granulomatous and inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: FDG accumulates not only in malignant tumors but also inflammatory lesions, especially in granulomatous lesions, which makes differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions difficult. To obtain a clue for differentiating malignant lesions from benign ones by FDG-PET, we determined the effect of steroid on FDG uptake in granulomatous and inflammatory lesions, and compared them with those in malignant tumors in rats. Methods: Rats were inoculated with a suspension of allogenic hepatoma cells (KDH-8), Bacille bili e de Calmette-Guerin-(BCG) or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), or with turpentine oil into the left calf muscle. Two weeks after KDH-8, 19 days after BCG, or one week after S. aureus or turpentine oil inoculations, the rats were fasted overnight and divided into two subgroups (n=5-6, in each group): Prednisolone (PRE)-pretreated (Methylprednisolone acetate, 8 mg/kg body weight, i.m. injection 20 hour before the FDG intravenous injection) and control (untreated) groups. Radioactivity in tissues was determined one hour after i.v. injection of FDG. FDG uptake in tissues were expressed as the percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue after normalization to animal's weight (%ID/g tissue/kg body weight). Results: FDG uptake in the tumor, granulomatous and inflammatory lesions were shown in Table. In the untreated animals, remarkably higher accumulations of FDG were observed in the tumor and granulomatous lesions, compared with those in the inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil. There was no significant difference in the level of FDG uptake between the tumor and granulomatous lesions, and between the two inflammatory lesions. PRE pre-treatment significantly decreased the level of FDG uptake in granulomatous lesions induced by BCG, inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil to 52%, 73% and 76% of the control value, respectively. The level of FDG uptake in the tumor was not significantly decreased by PRE

  2. Bladder tumors:dynamic contrast-enhanced axial imaging, multiplanar reformation, three-dimensional reconstruction and virtual cystoscopy using helical CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 张挽时; 熊明辉; 喻敏; 徐家兴

    2004-01-01

    Background There have been few studies to evaluate the effects of helical CT on bladder tumor. This study was to evaluate the clinical applications of helical CT dynamic contrast-enhanced axial imaging, multiplanar reformation (MPR), three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and virtual cystoscopy (CTVC) in bladder tumors. Methods The precontrast and four-phase postcontrast helical CT scans were performed in 42 patients with bladder tumors confirmed by conventional cystoscopy and pathology. MPR, 3D and CTVC images were generated from the volumetric data of the excretory phase. The results were then compared with the findings of conventional cystoscopy and surgery in a double-blinded mode. Results The sensitivity of the axial, 3D and CTVC images in detecting the bladder tumors were 90.8%, 76.9% and 95.4% respectively. The dynamic contrast-enhanced axial images could provide excellent intramural and extravesical information, and the accuracy in preoperative tumor staging was 87.7%. MPR could directly demonstrate the origin and extravesical invasions of the tumors and their relation to the ureter. 3D and CTVC images were useful for displaying the surface morphology of the tumor and the relationship between the tumor and the ureteric orifices, whereas CTVC could depict the tumors smaller than 5 mm that were not seen on the axial images.Conclusions The combination of axial, MPR, 3D and CTVC images with helical CT can provide comprehensive information on bladder tumor.

  3. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD99% (D99%, option n - D99%, treatment plan) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD99% of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD99% for PTVbladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on tumor for the boost separately gives on average the best target

  4. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%); specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%), 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30) and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81). CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV) disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26). CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests

  5. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Koutsilieris Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Methods Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+ and negative likelihood ratios (LR- of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Results Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%; specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%, 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30 and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81. CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26. Conclusions CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests.

  6. Impact of radioguided occult lesion localization on the correct excision of malignant breast lesions. Effect of histology and tumor size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in the correct location and excision of malignant breast lesions, and analyze if these results are affected by the histology and tumor size. A total of 105 patients with occult breast lesions were studied. The mean age was 55 years. An intralesional dose of 18.5 MBq of 99mTc-labeled macroaggregated human albumin (AMA) was administered using stereotaxic mammography or ultrasound. Surgical resection was carried out with the help of a gammadetector probe. In the histological study, disease-free margin was defined by a distance between the tumor lesion and the surgical margin of more than 1 mm. The possible influence of tumor histology and lesion diameter with respect to free/affected margins was analyzed. Correct radiotracer placement was achieved in 100/105 of the cases (95.2%). In the remaining 5 cases (4.8%), radiotracer placement was incorrect, with 2 of them being malignant lesions that were found by macroscopic inspection, and the other 3 having benign pathology. Among the malignant lesions (44 cases), correct placement of the radiotracer was achieved in 42 cases (95.5%). Of these 42 malignant lesions, in which the ROLL was correctly performed, free surgical margins were obtained in 24 cases (57.1%), while the other 18 (42.9%) had infiltrated surgical margins. The most common histological type among the malignant lesions was invasive ductal carcinoma (71.4%). The histological types with an increased frequency of infiltration of surgical margins were invasive and microinvasive cancer (94.4%). All the affected margins were in lesions greater than 10 mm, and the highest incidence was in those between 20 and 30 mm (55.5%). In our experience, the advantages of the ROLL technique are a precise localization of malignant breast lesions (95.5%) and an increased probability of a complete excision with free margins in more than one half of them. Nevertheless, special

  7. Bladder cancer: The combination of chemotherapy and irradiation in the treatment of patients with muscle-invading tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the USA the recommended treatment for patients with muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder is usually radical cystectomy. Conservative surgery irradiation, and cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy are, however, each effective for some patients. Although they provide the opportunity for bladder preservation, each modality, when used alone, is inferior to radical cystectomy in terms of local control and, perhaps, survival. Many recent publications have now documented the efficacy of combined modality treatment protocols employing all three of these modalities together. All employ a selective approach in which the patients only receive full-dose radiation if they have had a complete response to induction CMT. Overall survival data for T2-T3a patients are certainly as good as any reported cystectomy series of similarly clinically staged and similar aged patients. Radiation adds very significantly to the transurethral resection and systemic chemotherapy to maintain the bladder free of tumor. Substantially higher rates of pathologic confirmation of complete response are found following transurethral surgery and chemoradiation when compared with transurethral surgery and chemotherapy omitting the radiation. Overall survival is as good as cystectomy based approaches at 48-54% and over 80% of these long-term survivors keep their bladders. Following such therapies, 20-30% will subsequently develop superficial tumors. These patients may still be well treated by standard methods using transurethral resection and intravesical drugs. The concern of urologists that the conserved irradiated bladder functions poorly has also been answered by recent reports using modern radiation techniques. The instance of cystectomy for bladder shrinkage is repeatedly below 2%. Furthermore, sexual function is commonly preserved. The systemic morbidity of the chemotherapy is relatively high, but new approached using anti-emetics and GCSF now allow this to be reduced. In many

  8. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chou, David; Yan LIU; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A.; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutag...

  9. The role of succinylcholine in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to present our 8 year experience in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. This study was performed in Ataturk University Hospital between 1999 and 2007. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 89 patients with inferolateral bladder tumors, who underwent transurethral resection under epidural or general anesthesia and requested obturator nerve reflex inhibition. Epidural anesthesia was administered to 57 patients, while the remaining 32 patients underwent general anesthesia via mask; and succinylcholine was administered prior to resection. Of the 57 patients received epidural anesthesia, 18 were diagnosed as inferolateral bladder tumors during endoscopy and had to undergo general anesthesia. Obturator nerve block was attempted preoperatively in 39 patients. However, a nerve identification failure, hematoma and 4 obturator nerve reflex events, despite the block, were observed and these patients were subjected to general anesthesia with succinylcholine. Fifty-six patients (32 patients initially had general anesthesia and 24 converted from epidural to general anesthesia) were all given succinylcholine prior to resection. Due to its mechanisms of action, succinylcholine is completely effective and represents a simple alternative to obturator nerve block. No contraction was observed in any patient given succinylcholine. (author)

  10. Normalization of gene expression measurement of tissue samples obtained by transurethral resection of bladder tumors

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    Pop LA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Pop,1,* Valentina Pileczki,1,2,* Roxana M Cojocneanu-Petric,1 Bogdan Petrut,3,4 Cornelia Braicu,1 Ancuta M Jurj,1 Rares Buiga,5 Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu,6,7 Ioana Berindan-Neagoe1,8 1The Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 3Department of Surgery II – Urology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 4Department of Urology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 5Department of Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 6Department of Surgery, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 7Department of Surgical Oncology and Gynecological Oncology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sample processing is a crucial step for all types of genomic studies. A major challenge for researchers is to understand and predict how RNA quality affects the identification of transcriptional differences (by introducing either false-positive or false-negative errors. Nanotechnologies help improve the quality and quantity control for gene expression studies. Patients and methods: The study was performed on 14 tumor and matched normal pairs of tissue from patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas. We assessed the RNA quantity by using the NanoDrop spectrophotometer and the quality by nano-microfluidic capillary electrophoresis technology provided by Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. We evaluated the amplification status of three

  11. [Descriptive study of bladder tumors in the district of Levante-Alto Almanzora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita Rosino, E; Jiménez Verdejo, A; Mellado Mesa, P; López Hidalgo, J; Sánchez Fornieles, E; Grau Civit, J

    2001-06-01

    We present our series of operater bladder cancers in this District and the annual incidence in the period 1996 at 1998, as web as they are distributed by sex, age and smoking in the population; neoplasic stage and relapse were also studied. 61 patients were treated and un found global half incidence of 19.8 for 10(5) inhabitant-year (h-a), while for sexes it was of 4.22 for 10(5) h-y for women and of 15.58 for 10(5) h-y males. 78.69% was male with a masculinity rate of 3.69. The most frequent age group was starting from the seventh decade with 50.81% of our series. There was 36% of intervened patients that they were smoking, while 29.5% had relationship with other factors of risk like hydrocarbons and pesticidas. The superficial tumors were the most frequent with 86.88% of the cases, on the other hand the undifferentiated neoplastics was not very frequent with 13.21%, increasing these neoplastics with the age. In the follow up there were relapses in 36% of the people, being bigger in the T1 of our series. The occupational factors in this district can explain the high frequency in the female sex, although analytic studies are needed to check it. PMID:11512509

  12. Unusual benign polypoid and papular neoplasms and tumor-like lesions of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Keloth, Tasnim R; Raman, Lakshmiah G; Mahmood, Suaad; Almulla, Amal; AlMarzouqi, Mamoun; Al-Hasani, Salam

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of unusual benign neoplasms and tumor-like lesions presenting as vulvar polyps and papules, to study their clinical, pathologic, hormonal, and developmental features and whether they have important associations with other pathologic lesions or clinical diseases. We conducted a retrospective review study of 115 vulvar specimens over 7 years. Common lesions, for example, fibroepithelial polyps, skin tags, papillomas, abscesses, viral warts and common cysts, were excluded. We found 21 cases (18%) with uncommon benign vulvar lesions. They included 7 epithelial cysts, 3 vascular lesions, 3 glandular neoplasms, 3 endometrioses, 1 caruncle, 1 pilonidal sinus, 1 prolapsed urethra, 1 seborrheic keratosis, and 1 granular cell tumor. The age range was between 1 and 64 years with a mean age of 33 years. Most (86%) were 2.5 cm or less. Many were asymptomatic incidental pathologic findings that can be missed clinically. Nine cases have important clinical associations or coexisting incidental pathologic lesions. Some lesions demonstrated hormone receptors. Some were clinically confused with fibroepithelial polyps, abscesses, warts, melanocytic lesions, and tumors. In conclusion, although the vulva is a small compartment, its developmental and histologic complexity can result in a variety of unusual and rare benign polypoid and papular lesions, some unique to the vulva, which might present diagnostic challenges to the clinicians and pathologists. In addition, many bear controversy regarding their histogenesis and origin of development in the vulva. PMID:24342664

  13. Prospective evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on the bladder tumor-associated (BTA) urine test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the results of the bladder tumor-associated antigen (BTA) test. By examining this question, we sought to determine its potential use as a monitoring test for the detection of recurrent transitional carcinoma of the bladder in patients who have received prior radiotherapy for bladder preservation. Materials and Methods: Between February 1996 and April 1997, 18 patients with nonbladder pelvic malignancies and no history of bladder cancer, received irradiation to the bladder. These patients were prospectively evaluated using the BTA test at the end of the external-beam radiation (EBRT) and at 3-month follow-up intervals. Urine cytology was analyzed in 16 of the 18 patients at the end of EBRT. A median of 3 separate measurements were made (range 1-6) on each patient. The median dose of EBRT was 50.4 Gy (range 30-68Gy). Seven patients underwent brachytherapy as part of their treatment course. BTA results and time intervals were recorded and analyzed using univariate and Kaplan-Meyer methodologies. Results: A total of 10 (56%) of the 18 patients had a positive BTA test at some time following completion of EBRT. Of the 10 positive tests, 9 returned to negative in a median of 42 weeks from completion of EBRT. Treatment with chemotherapy, brachytherapy, calculated bladder dose, and total external beam dose did not significantly influence either the number of positive tests or the time to resolution of the positive test in this small group of patients. All screened urine samples were negative for malignant cells and 11 (69%) of 16 showed changes consistent with ionizing radiation. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that ionizing radiation can cause transient positive results in the BTA test, but that these normalize with time. Although it requires further testing, it seems that the BTA test may be useful in the detection of recurrence in patients with bladder cancer who have been treated with

  14. Loss of the urothelial differentiation marker FOXA1 is associated with high grade, late stage bladder cancer and increased tumor proliferation.

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    David J DeGraff

    Full Text Available Approximately 50% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC develop metastatic disease, which is almost invariably lethal. However, our understanding of pathways that drive aggressive behavior of MIBC is incomplete. Members of the FOXA subfamily of transcription factors are implicated in normal urogenital development and urologic malignancies. FOXA proteins are implicated in normal urothelial differentiation, but their role in bladder cancer is unknown. We examined FOXA expression in commonly used in vitro models of bladder cancer and in human bladder cancer specimens, and used a novel in vivo tissue recombination system to determine the functional significance of FOXA1 expression in bladder cancer. Logistic regression analysis showed decreased FOXA1 expression is associated with increasing tumor stage (p<0.001, and loss of FOXA1 is associated with high histologic grade (p<0.001. Also, we found that bladder urothelium that has undergone keratinizing squamous metaplasia, a precursor to the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC exhibited loss of FOXA1 expression. Furthermore, 81% of cases of SCC of the bladder were negative for FOXA1 staining compared to only 40% of urothelial cell carcinomas. In addition, we showed that a subpopulation of FOXA1 negative urothelial tumor cells are highly proliferative. Knockdown of FOXA1 in RT4 bladder cancer cells resulted in increased expression of UPK1B, UPK2, UPK3A, and UPK3B, decreased E-cadherin expression and significantly increased cell proliferation, while overexpression of FOXA1 in T24 cells increased E-cadherin expression and significantly decreased cell growth and invasion. In vivo recombination of bladder cancer cells engineered to exhibit reduced FOXA1 expression with embryonic rat bladder mesenchyme and subsequent renal capsule engraftment resulted in enhanced tumor proliferation. These findings provide the first evidence linking loss of FOXA1 expression with histological subtypes

  15. MRI findings of ovarian tumors : differentiation of benign from malignant lesions

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    Yun, Hee Ja; Lee, Min Hee; Lim, Soo Mi; Kim, Hyae Young; Baek, Seung Yon; Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Joo [Eulgi Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Sook [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of MRI findings in the differentiation of benign from malignant ovarian lesions. Using MR findings, 29 surgically proven ovarian masses in 22 patients (14 bilateral tumors) were evaluated Twenty-one benign tumors in 16 patients(5 simple cysts, 4 mucinous cystadenomas, 4 serous cystadenomas, 4 endometriomas, 3 cystic teratomas and 1 tuboovarian abscess), and eight malignant tumors in six patients(4 serous papillary cystadenocarcinomas and 4 mucinous cystadenocarcinomas) were included. MRI was performed with SE T1WI, FSE T2WI and Gd-T1WI. MRI findings of lesion size, thickness of wall and of internal septations, number of internal septations, nodularities, and ancillary findings such as adhesion in the pelvic cavity, dissemination, ascites and 1ymphadenopathy were retrospectively analyzed. Malignant ovarian lesions were larger(18cm : 11cm) and had more internal septations, more solid components and nodularities(63% : 5%) than benign lesions. On T1WI, cystic lesions, both benign and malignant, showed low signal intensity. Hemorrhage, fat components and mucin containing lesions showed high signals and solid components and nodularities were isointense with muscle on T1WI. Solid components and nodularities were well-enhanced after gadolinium enhancement. Adhesion(50% : 10%), dissemination(38% : 0%) and ascites(63% : 24%) were more frequent in malignant lesions. MRI, especially with gadolinium-enhanced T1WI is useful in the differentiation of benign from malignant ovarian lesions.

  16. MRI findings of ovarian tumors : differentiation of benign from malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of MRI findings in the differentiation of benign from malignant ovarian lesions. Using MR findings, 29 surgically proven ovarian masses in 22 patients (14 bilateral tumors) were evaluated Twenty-one benign tumors in 16 patients(5 simple cysts, 4 mucinous cystadenomas, 4 serous cystadenomas, 4 endometriomas, 3 cystic teratomas and 1 tuboovarian abscess), and eight malignant tumors in six patients(4 serous papillary cystadenocarcinomas and 4 mucinous cystadenocarcinomas) were included. MRI was performed with SE T1WI, FSE T2WI and Gd-T1WI. MRI findings of lesion size, thickness of wall and of internal septations, number of internal septations, nodularities, and ancillary findings such as adhesion in the pelvic cavity, dissemination, ascites and 1ymphadenopathy were retrospectively analyzed. Malignant ovarian lesions were larger(18cm : 11cm) and had more internal septations, more solid components and nodularities(63% : 5%) than benign lesions. On T1WI, cystic lesions, both benign and malignant, showed low signal intensity. Hemorrhage, fat components and mucin containing lesions showed high signals and solid components and nodularities were isointense with muscle on T1WI. Solid components and nodularities were well-enhanced after gadolinium enhancement. Adhesion(50% : 10%), dissemination(38% : 0%) and ascites(63% : 24%) were more frequent in malignant lesions. MRI, especially with gadolinium-enhanced T1WI is useful in the differentiation of benign from malignant ovarian lesions

  17. Spontaneous proliferative lesions and tumors of the uterus of captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, Igor; Reavill, Drury R; Practice, Avian

    2004-06-01

    Fifteen captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), 3- to 5-yr-old, were diagnosed with proliferative uterine lesions (n = 28). Lesions were associated with vaginal bleeding in all cases, hematuria in 11 of 13 cases, and weight loss in 7 of 12 cases. Lesions were multiple in eight cases and single in seven cases. The lesions identified were 13 adenosarcomas, 7 endometrial stromal sarcomas, 6 endometrial polyps, 1 adenoleiomyosarcoma, and 1 adenoleiomyoma. In one animal with adenosarcoma, peritoneal seeding was detected at the time of hysterectomy. Mean survival time was 303 days (n = 10). Ovariohysterectomy allows prolonged survival of hedgehogs with uterine tumors. PMID:15305518

  18. VALIDATION OF NEUROTENSIN TETRA-BRANCHED PEPTIDES AS TUMOR TARGETING AGENTS IN PANCREAS, COLON AND BLADDER CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ravenni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of new tumor targeting agents, which might allow either cancer cell tracing or ther- apy, is a crucial issue in cancer research. Membrane receptors for endogenous peptides such as neu- rotensin, somatostatin, bombesin and many others are over-expressed in different human cancers and could therefore be targeted as tumor-specific antigens. In the meantime the extremely short half-life of pep- tides impeded their development for effective pep- tide-based tumor targeting strategies. We synthesized tetra-branched neurotensin peptides (NT4, which ensure extremely long half-life main- taining peptide specificity and increasing avidity through multimeric binding. Moreover this bio-syn- thetical strategy allows a considerable modularity of peptides through the conjugation of different func- tional unit, such as fluorophore, radioactive moieties or chemotherapeutic drugs. Aim of our studies is to validate NT4 for cancer cell tracing in different human tumors. In this view we use fluorophore-conjugated NT4 to discriminate be- tween tumor and healthy tissue obtained by surgical samples from pancreas, colon and bladder carcinoma. Peptide binding on tumor and healthy biopsies was measured in each patient by quantitative analysis of confocal microscopy images. These results show a considerable difference in fluorescence emission be- tween healthy and tumor samples in colon, pancreas and bladder cancer, opening the way to the develop- ment of NT4 as selective diagnostic tools for these pathologies. Moreover our peptides can be conju- gated with different chemotherapeutic moieties in order to allow the selective killing of tumor cells.

  19. The influence of septal lesions on sodium and water retention induced by Walker 256 tumor

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    F. Guimarães

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of studies on the effects of septal area lesions on neuroimmunomodulation and Walker 256 tumor development, it was observed that tumor-induced sodium and water retention was less marked in lesioned than in non-lesioned rats. In the present study possible mechanisms involved in this phenomenon were investigated. The experiments were performed in septal-lesioned (LW; N = 15 and sham-operated (SW; N = 7 8-week-old male Wistar rats, which received multifocal simultaneous subcutaneous (sc inoculations of Walker 256 tumor cells about 30 days after the stereotaxic surgery. Control groups (no tumor, sham-operated food-restricted (SFR, N = 7 and lesioned food-restricted (LFR, N = 10 were subjected to a feeding pattern similar to that observed in tumor-bearing animals. Multifocal inoculation of Walker 256 tumor rapidly induces anorexia, which is paradoxically accompanied by an increase in body weight, as a result of renal Na+ and fluid retention. These effects of the tumor were also seen in LW rats, although the rise in fractional sodium balance during the early clinical period was significantly smaller than in SW rats (day 4: SW = 47.6 ± 6.4% and LW = 13.8 ± 5.2%; day 5: SW = 57.5 ± 3.5% and LW = 25.7 ± 4.8%; day 6: SW = 54.4 ± 3.8% and LW = 32.1 ± 4.4%; P<0.05, suggesting a temporary reduction in tumor-induced sodium retention. In contrast, urine output was significantly reduced in SW rats and increased in LW rats (LW up to -0.85 and SW up to 4.5 ml/100 g body weight, with no change in osmolar excretion. These temporary changes in the tumor's effects on LW rats may reflect a "reversal" of the secondary central antidiuretic response induced by the tumor (from antidiuretic to diuretic.

  20. Bladder Tumor Recurrence after Primary Surgery for Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Baldauf, Anka; Wiessner, Diana; Gellrich, Jörg; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Wirth, Manfred P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract represents 6–8% of all TCC cases. Nephroureterectomy with removal of a bladder cuff is the treatment of choice. The rates of TCC recurrence in the bladder after primary upper urinary tract surgery described in the literature range between 12.5 and 37.5%. In a retrospective analysis we examined the occurrence of TCC after nephroureterectomy for upper tract TCC in patients without a previous history of bladder TCC a...

  1. Androgenic dependence of exophytic tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer: a role for thrombospondin-1

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    Yao Jorge L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid hormones influence mitogenic signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints, and it has long been known that incidence of bladder cancer (BC in men is several times greater than in women, a difference that cannot be attributed to environmental or lifestyle factors alone. Castration reduces incidence of chemically-induced BC in rodents. It is unclear if this effect is due to hormonal influences on activation/deactivation of carcinogens or a direct effect on urothelial cell proliferation or other malignant processes. We examined the effect of castration on BC growth in UPII-SV40T transgenic mice, which express SV40 T antigen specifically in urothelium and reliably develop BC. Furthermore, because BC growth in UPII-SV40T mice is exophytic, we speculated BC growth was dependent on angiogenesis and angiogenesis was, in turn, androgen responsive. Methods Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPDCT was used to longitudinally measure exophytic BC growth in UPII-SV40T male mice sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and supplemented with dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Human normal bladder and BC biopsies and mouse bladder were examined quantitatively for thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 protein expression. Results Mice castrated at 24 weeks of age had decreased BC volumes at 32 weeks compared to intact mice (p = 0.0071 and castrated mice administered DHT (p = 0.0233; one-way ANOVA, JMP 6.0.3, SAS Institute, Inc.. Bladder cancer cell lines responded to DHT treatment with increased proliferation, regardless of androgen receptor expression levels. TSP1, an anti-angiogenic factor whose expression is inhibited by androgens, had decreased expression in bladders of UPII-SV40T mice compared to wild-type. Castration increased TSP1 levels in UPII-SV40T mice compared to intact mice. TSP1 protein expression was higher in 8 of 10 human bladder biopsies of normal versus malignant tissue from the same patients. Conclusion

  2. Tumors and tumor - like lesions of the oro - facial region at Mayo hospital, Lahore - a five year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oro-facial region including the oral cavity, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla. We report results from a retrospective study spanning five years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of orofacial tumors seen in the main referral hospital of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mayo Hospital with tumours affecting the oro-facial region from January 2005 to December 2009 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. Results: A total of 237 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry. The complete data set was obtained for 189 patients, comprising 108 (57.9%) males and 81 (42%) females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%), intra-oral swelling (55%), and ulceration (29%). The tumors were found in the mandible 67 (35%), buccal mucosa 33 (17%), floor of the mouth 22 (11%) and tongue 29 (15%). The remainder making up almost 20% was found in the palate, submandibular region, pre auricular region and lips. Ninety three (49.2%) of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 64 (69%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). seventy (37.0%) had benign odontogenic tumors and twenty six (13.7%) had non-odontogenic tumor - like lesions. Sixty - four (69%) of malignant tumors were squamous cell carcinoma; sixty four (86.4%) of the benign odontogenic tumors were classified as ameloblastoma. The mean age at presentation of all lesions was 40.4 years with over 50% of benign lesions in patients aged

  3. Design of peptide-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) in vivo imaging of bladder tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects for tumor treatment have been utilized as a representative strategy to accumulate untargeted nanoparticles in the blood vessels around tumors. However, the EPR effect itself was not sufficient for the nanoparticles to penetrate into cancer cells. For the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of cancer using nanoparticles, many more nanoparticles need to specifically enter cancer cells. Otherwise, can leave the tumor area and not contribute to treatment. In order to enhance the internalization process, specific ligands on nanoparticles can help their specific internalization in cancer cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. We previously developed glycol chitosan based nanoparticles that suggested a promising possibility for in vivo tumor imaging using the EPR effect. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles showed a long circulation time beyond 1 day and they were accumulated predominantly in tumor. In this study, we evaluated two peptides for specific targeting and better internalization into urinary bladder cancer cells. We conjugated the peptides on to the glycol chitosan nanoparticles; the peptide-conjugated nanoparticles were also labeling with near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, Cy5.5, to visualize them by optical imaging in vivo. Importantly real-time NIRF imaging can also be used for fluorescence (NIRF)-guided surgery of tumors beyond normal optical penetration depths. The peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, stability and zeta-potential and compared with previous nanoparticles without ligands in terms of their internalization into bladder cancer cells. This study demonstrated the possibility of our nanoparticles for tumor imaging and emphasized the importance of specific targeting peptides.

  4. Adult urinary bladder tumors with rabdomyosarcomatous differentiation: Clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Paul J; Bing Zhanyong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Adult rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in the urinary bladder is rare, and is the subject of case reports and small series. It consists of sheets of small round blue cells with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, brisk mitosis and apoptosis. In this study, we reported one case of pure rhabdomyosarcoma and two cases of urothelial carcinomas with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. In addition, their immunohistochemical profile was compared to that of small cell carcinoma of the bladder....

  5. Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S M

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodent...

  6. Differential diagnosis of tumorous lesions in the iliac bone in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioilogic appearance of inflammatory and tumorous lesions in the iliac bone is characterized by destructive alterations and consolidations simultaneously. This pattern is nonspecific. The value of plain films of this area is compromised by the anatomy of the iliac bone and by overlying structures. Therefore tomography, computertomography and bone scans are necessary. Difficulties in differentiation between benign and malignant lesions are discussed and case reports are given. The importance of histologic examination is stressed. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, serum and urine level changes in superficial bladder tumor immunotherapy by intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerigh Behzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bladder tumor is one of the most common genitourinary tumors. Management of non-muscle invasive (NMI bladder tumors is primarily by transurethral resection (TURBT followed by intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the most effective adjuvant therapy in NMI bladder tumor. Since angiogenesis is an essential factor in solid tumor progression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important factor in angiogenesis, the aim of this study is the assessment of angiogenic factor, VEGF, serum and urine level changes in superficial bladder tumor immunotherapy by intravesical BCG. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC in stage Ta/T1 or carcinoma insitu (CIS, low or high grade, which passed a 2-4 week period from TURBT participated in this study. Blood and urine samples were obtained at first and sixth sessions before instillation of BCG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method was used to obtain VEGF level in samples. Results: Urine and serum VEGF levels did not change significantly before and after BCG therapy. Changes in VEGF level were significantly different neither in low grade against high grade tumors nor in stage T1 against stage Ta tumors. A significant difference in VEGF level was seen between low grade and high grade tumors in serum after BCG therapy (P=0.007; but not in urine samples. Conclusion: Although intravesical BCG possesses anti-angiogenic activity, it seems that it exerts its effect through pathways other than VEGF, especially in low grade tumors.

  8. Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor of the lung presenting as a solitary lesion

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    gGiorgio Sgarbi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor of the lung is a rare neoplasm. In many cases it represents a metastasis from a benign or low-grade fibrohistiocytic tumor of the skin, but occasionally it may be primary. Radiologically it usually occurs as a cystic change of multiple pulmonary nodules, and pneumothorax is the most frequent presenting symptom. We present here a 16-year-old man with recurrent right pneumothorax. The patient had no his-tory of cutaneous fibrohistiocytic lesions. He underwent videothoracoscopic right apical segmentectomy, right lower lobe nodulectomy, and pleuroabrasion. Microscopy of the apical segmentectomy showed a cystic fibrohistio-cytic tumor, whereas the nodule of the lower lobe was an intraparenchymal lymph node. The patient is alive with no tumor recurrence. The differential diagnosis includes Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pleuropulmonary blastoma, and metastatic endometrial stromal sarcoma. This disease usually occurs with multiple pulmonary cysts and cavitation. This case is the first reported presenting as a single lesion.

  9. Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor of the lung presenting as a solitary lesion

    OpenAIRE

    gGiorgio Sgarbi; Cristian Rapicetta; Tommaso Ricchetti; Massimiliano Paci; Alberto Cavazza; Valerio Annessi

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor of the lung is a rare neoplasm. In many cases it represents a metastasis from a benign or low-grade fibrohistiocytic tumor of the skin, but occasionally it may be primary. Radiologically it usually occurs as a cystic change of multiple pulmonary nodules, and pneumothorax is the most frequent presenting symptom. We present here a 16-year-old man with recurrent right pneumothorax. The patient had no his-tory of cutaneous fibrohistiocytic lesions. He underwent video...

  10. Intramural leiomyomas of the bladder in asymptomatic men

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    Roberto I. Lopes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bladder leiomyomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumors, which account for less than 0.43% of all bladder tumors with approximately 200 cases described in the literature. These tumors may be classified into 3 different locations: endovesical, intramural and extravesical. Endovesical is the most common form, accounting for 63-86% of the cases, while intramural occurs in 3-7% and extravesical in 11-30%. The intramural form, especially small tumors, may not produce symptoms hardening detection. We report two cases of intramural bladder leiomyomas in asymptomatic men observed incidentally by transabdominal ultrasonography during the follow-up of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We discuss the diagnosis and management of these lesions.

  11. Tumores quísticos pancreáticos y lesiones pseudotumorales Cystic pancreatic tumours and pseudo-tumoural lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Jiménez Mendióroz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones quísticas de páncreas son infrecuentes, estimándose en sólo un 1% de todos los tumores pancreáticos y en un 10% de todos los quistes pancreáticos. El diagnóstico preoperatorio es importante para un adecuado tratamiento, existiendo en la actualidad valiosas técnicas radiológicas como son los ultrasonidos, la tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética. A pesar de todo tenemos que aceptar que nos encontramos ante un grupo de tumores de difícil diagnóstico, debido a la gran variedad de tipos celulares que existen en los mismos.Cystic lesions of the pancreas are infrequent, estimated at only some 1% of all pancreatic tumours and at some 10% of all pancreatic cysts. The pre-operational diagnosis is important for a suitable treatment, with valuable radiological techniques available today such as ultrasound, computerised tomography and magnetic resonance. In spite of this we have to accept that we are facing a group of tumours whose diagnosis is difficult, due to the great variety of cellular types existing within them.

  12. FLAIR lesion segmentation: Application in patients with brain tumors and acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lesion size in fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is an important clinical parameter for patient assessment and follow-up. Although manual delineation of lesion areas considered as ground truth, it is time-consuming, highly user-dependent and difficult to perform in areas of indistinct borders. In this study, an automatic methodology for FLAIR lesion segmentation is proposed, and its application in patients with brain tumors undergoing therapy; and in patients following stroke is demonstrated. Materials and methods: FLAIR lesion segmentation was performed in 57 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets obtained from 44 patients: 28 patients with primary brain tumors; 5 patients with recurrent-progressive glioblastoma (rGB) who were scanned longitudinally during anti-angiogenic therapy (18 MRI scans); and 11 patients following ischemic stroke. Results: FLAIR lesion segmentation was obtained in all patients. When compared to manual delineation, a high visual similarity was observed, with an absolute relative volume difference of 16.80% and 20.96% and a volumetric overlap error of 24.87% and 27.50% obtained for two raters: accepted values for automatic methods. Quantitative measurements of the segmented lesion volumes were in line with qualitative radiological assessment in four patients who received anti-anogiogenic drugs. In stroke patients the proposed methodology enabled identification of the ischemic lesion and differentiation from other FLAIR hyperintense areas, such as pre-existing disease. Conclusion: This study proposed a replicable methodology for FLAIR lesion detection and quantification and for discrimination between lesion of interest and pre-existing disease. Results from this study show the wide clinical applications of this methodology in research and clinical practice

  13. FLAIR lesion segmentation: Application in patients with brain tumors and acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran, E-mail: artzimy@gmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aizenstein, Orna, E-mail: ornaaize@gmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Jonas-Kimchi, Tali, E-mail: talijk@tlvmc.gov.il [Radiology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Myers, Vicki, E-mail: vicki_myers@hotmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hallevi, Hen, E-mail: hen.hallevi@gmail.com [Neurology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna, E-mail: dafnab@tlvmc.gov.il [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-09-15

    Background: Lesion size in fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is an important clinical parameter for patient assessment and follow-up. Although manual delineation of lesion areas considered as ground truth, it is time-consuming, highly user-dependent and difficult to perform in areas of indistinct borders. In this study, an automatic methodology for FLAIR lesion segmentation is proposed, and its application in patients with brain tumors undergoing therapy; and in patients following stroke is demonstrated. Materials and methods: FLAIR lesion segmentation was performed in 57 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets obtained from 44 patients: 28 patients with primary brain tumors; 5 patients with recurrent-progressive glioblastoma (rGB) who were scanned longitudinally during anti-angiogenic therapy (18 MRI scans); and 11 patients following ischemic stroke. Results: FLAIR lesion segmentation was obtained in all patients. When compared to manual delineation, a high visual similarity was observed, with an absolute relative volume difference of 16.80% and 20.96% and a volumetric overlap error of 24.87% and 27.50% obtained for two raters: accepted values for automatic methods. Quantitative measurements of the segmented lesion volumes were in line with qualitative radiological assessment in four patients who received anti-anogiogenic drugs. In stroke patients the proposed methodology enabled identification of the ischemic lesion and differentiation from other FLAIR hyperintense areas, such as pre-existing disease. Conclusion: This study proposed a replicable methodology for FLAIR lesion detection and quantification and for discrimination between lesion of interest and pre-existing disease. Results from this study show the wide clinical applications of this methodology in research and clinical practice.

  14. Neurogenic tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral and maxillofacial region: A clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohoud Alotaibi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This analysis showed that neural lesions affecting the oral and maxillofacial region were rare and mostly benign in nature. Such lesions should be carefully diagnosed because of their association with life-threatening syndromes and the possibility of malignant transformation.

  15. Does Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Has a Value in Predicting BCG Recurrence in Bladder Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Camtosun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG treatment in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. Material and Method: The data of 70 patients, operated for urothelial carcinoma and treated with BCG after the diagnose of NMIBC at Türkiye Yüksek Ižhtisas Hastanesi between 2007-2013, were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ preoperative complete blood counter results and first cystoscopic examination findings were recorded.Results: Median follow-up was 26 months. Tumor recurrence was identified at 26 patients (Group 2 among the 70 patients. In 44 patients there was no tumor recurrence (Group 1.  Neutrophil/lyphocyte ratio, multiplicity of tumor and cis frequency were increased statistically in Group 2 (P=0.001, P=0.005, P=0.007, respectively. Discussion: This study showed that, preoperative high neutrophil/lyphocyte ratio, multiplicity of tumor and cis precence can be used as independent criterias for predicting tumor recurrence after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG treatment in NMIBC.

  16. Synchronous Contra Lateral Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of the Kidney and Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzaghi MR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous upper urinary tract tumor and s uperficial bladder tumor are uncommon. This is a report of a 62- year- old man pr esented with episode of painless gross hematuria and flank pain. We worked him up and found a left renal mass and bladder lesion. He underwent nephrectomy and TUR-BT, and the pathology report of both showed a high grade urothelial tr ansitional cell carcinoma. The patient was followed by surveillance protocol for ureter stump. Our report included an uncommon case of high gr ade synchronous upper urinary tract and bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

  17. Tumor-Like Lesions of the Brain in MRI and CT-scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Bakhshandehpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a variety of non-neoplastic pathologies that may present with a mass effect and/or abnormal enhancement, thus simulating neoplasia. "nMaterials and Methods: We collected 77 cases of various tumor mimics from teaching files of three institutions. All patients presented with intra- and/or extra–axial lesions and imaging findings that could, potentially, mimic brain neoplasia. "nResults: Assessment of central nervous system pathology may be very challenging. The usual description of mass effect and abnormal enhancement, typical of brain neoplasia, can also be shared by a variety of non-neoplastic etiologies. Radiologists should be familiar with these tumor mimics, and shold be included as differential diagnoses. We categorized and these non-neoplastic lesions, which could potentially mimic extra-and/or intra- axial brain tumors, into the following groups: "n1 Normal variant (giant (tumefactive perivascular spaces "n2 Infection (tuberculosis, cysticercosis, and fungal lesions "n3 Syndromes (NF1, Rosai-Dorfman Syndrome, Lhermitte-Duclos, Krabbe Disease (adult type. "n4 Vascular lesions (vascular malformations, aneurysms and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis "n5 Autoimmune and inflammatory processes (MS, ADEM, encephalitis, sarcoidosis and PML "n6 Idiopathic (idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis "n7 Congenital brain lesions (cortical dysgenesis and heterotopias "n8 Miscellaneous (postictal brain lesions "nConclusion: In this paper, we present a large collection of non-neoplastic tumor mimics. Awareness, understanding, and recognition of these mimics may permit the radiologist to play a significant role in the prevention of unwanted surgical interventions or extensive diagnostic evaluation procedures.  

  18. Experimental rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma models

    OpenAIRE

    Arentsen, Harm C.; Hendricksen, Kees; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Witjes, J Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major public health problem. Currently available therapeutic options seem to be unable to prevent bladder cancer recurrence and progression. To enable preclinical testing of new intravesical therapeutic agents, a suitable bladder tumor model that resembles human disease is highly desirable. The aim of this topic paper was to discuss the problems associated with current in vivo animal bladder tumor models, focusing on the orthotopic syngeneic rat bladder tumor model. In the...

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  20. CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar lesions, 2. Tumors other than pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    A study is done of the usefulness and limitation of the CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar tumors other than pituitary adenomas based on 96 verified cases experienced at Nagoya University Hospital from October, 1976, to December, 1981. The tumors in this study included craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, gliomas, paranasal and nasopharyngeal tumors, germinomas, chordomas, chondromas, osteomas, teratomas and teratoid tumors, and metastatic tumors. It is found that rather characteristic CT findings are demonstrated in some tumors: a suprasellar lesion with a mixed density demonstrated by craniopharyngiomas, the radiosensitivity of germinoma, the irregularity of the low-density area and the peritumoral entrapment of metrizamide demonstrated by epidermoid tumors, bony sclerosis demonstrated by meningiomas, growth along optic pathway in optic gliomas, the mode of enhancement in hypothalamic glioma, and a high-density mass upon plain CT demonstrated by colloid cysts. However, these characteristic findings are not definitely specific to each pathological aspect of a tumor. It will be possible, however, to diagnose these tumors more specifically by a combination of clinical signs, CT, and other neuroradiological findings.

  1. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1)), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions.

  2. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  3. Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive

  4. Tumoral calcinosis: seasonal biochemical studies and chemical studies of eyelid lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, D E; Boskey, A L; Lieb, W; Conway, B P; Savory, J; Wills, M R

    1989-01-01

    We recently described (Arch Ophthalmol 1988; 106:725-6) the presence of unique calcific lesions in the eyelids of a young woman with a history of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. Here we document that no immediate family members showed similar lesions and that none was hyperphosphatemic. Dental roentgenography revealed characteristic abnormalities in the patient that confirmed the clinical diagnosis of tumoral calcinosis. Seasonal biochemical studies demonstrated persistently increased concentrations of phosphorus and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in her serum. A calcific eyelid excrescence removed from the patient, studied by x-ray diffraction, was found to consist of crystals of hydroxyapatite. Microprobe analysis indicated the major elements in the deposit to be Ca, P, S, and Cl, just as in the periarticular deposits found in tumoral calcinosis. The Ca concentration in the patient's tear fluid, measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, was within the range found in tears of healthy volunteers. Phosphorus was undetectable (less than 30 mumol/L) in tears of the patient and the volunteers. These findings suggest that the eyelid lesions represent a new manifestation of the pathological process that produces the characteristic periarticular calcific masses of tumoral calcinosis. PMID:2535974

  5. Calpain3 is expressed in a proteolitically active form in papillomavirus-associated urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpain 3 (Capn3, also named p94, is a skeletal muscle tissue-specific protein known to be responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A. Recent experimental studies have hypothesized a pro-apoptotic role of Capn3 in some melanoma cell lines. So far the link between calpain3 and tumors comes from in vitro studies. The objective of this study was to describe Capn3 activation in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we describe, for the first time in veterinary and comparative oncology, the activation of Capn3 in twelve urothelial tumor cells of the urinary bladder of cattle. Capn3 protein was initially identified with nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS in a co-immunoprecipitation experiment on E2F3, known to be a transcription factor playing a crucial role in bladder carcinogenesis in humans. Capn3 expression was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the Ca(2+-dependent proteolytic activity of Capn3 was assayed following ion exchange chromatography. Morphologically, Capn3 expression was documented by immunohistochemical methods. In fact numerous tumor cells showed an intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity, which was more rarely evident also at nuclear level. In urothelial tumors, bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 DNA was amplified by PCR and the expression of E5 protein, the major oncogenic protein of BVP-2, was detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. E2F3 overexpression and pRb protein downregulation were shown by western blotting. CONCLUSION: The role of capn3 protein in urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder remains to be elucidated: further studies would be required to determine the precise function of this protease in tumor development and progression. However, we suggest that activated Capn3 may be involved in molecular

  6. Molecular detection of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumor tissues and exfoliated cells by aberrant promoter methylation of laminin-5 encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Ubaradka G; Maruyama, Riichiroh; Padar, Asha; Suzuki, Makoto; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Minna, John D; Frenkel, Eugene P; Grossman, H Barton; Czerniak, Bogdan; Gazdar, Adi F

    2004-02-15

    Laminin-5 (LN5) anchors epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane, and it is encoded by three distinct genes: LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2. To metastasize and grow, cancer cells must invade and destroy the basement membrane. Our previous work has shown that epigenetic inactivation is a major mechanism of silencing LN5 genes in lung cancers. We extended our methylation studies to resected bladder tumors (n = 128) and exfoliated cell samples (bladder washes and voided urine; n = 71) and correlated the data with clinicopathologic findings. Nonmalignant urothelium had uniform expression of LN5 genes and lacked methylation. The methylation frequencies for LN5 genes in tumors were 21-45%, and there was excellent concordance between methylation in tumors and corresponding exfoliated cells. Methylation of LAMA3 and LAMB3 and the methylation index were correlated significantly with several parameters of poor prognosis (tumor grade, growth pattern, muscle invasion, tumor stage, and ploidy pattern), whereas methylation of LAMC2 and methylation index were associated with shortened patient survival. Of particular interest, methylation frequencies of LAMA3 helped to distinguish invasive (72%) from noninvasive (12%) tumors. These results suggest that methylation of LN5 genes has potential clinical applications in bladder cancers. PMID:14973053

  7. MSCT manifestations with pathologic correlation of abdominal gastrointestinal tract and mesenteric tumor and tumor-like lesions in children: A single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yue, E-mail: liuyue20036@yahoo.com.c [Department of Radiology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 56 Nanlishi Road, West District, Beijing 100045 (China); Peng Yun, E-mail: ppengyun@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 56 Nanlishi Road, West District, Beijing 100045 (China); Li Jianying; Zeng Jinjin; Sun Guoqiang [Department of Radiology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 56 Nanlishi Road, West District, Beijing 100045 (China); Gao Peiyi, E-mail: cjr.gaopeiyi@vip.163.co [Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 6 Tiantanxili Road, Chongwen District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2010-09-15

    To study the multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) manifestations of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and mesenteric tumor and tumor-like lesions in children and correlation with pathologic findings. 22 patients (17 male, 5 female; age ranged from 3 days to 11 years; with mean of 4.2 years) were screened out by ultrasonography (US) at first, then were performed with abdominal non-enhanced CT (NECT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scans. All CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists and a consensus was reached regarding the morphologic features for lesions such as size, solid/cyst, unilocular/multilocular and thin/thick wall characteristics. The 26 lesions were categorized into two groups based on CT characteristics of lesions' nature, group 1 with the prominent cystic lesions, group 2 with prominent solid lesions. Group 1 was further divided into two subgroups: group 1A for the cystic lesions with thin walls, and group 1B for the cystic lesions with thick walls. In group 1A, 7 lesions were unilocular cysts (6 lymphangioma, 1 ileum mesenteric cyst) and 5 were multilocular cysts with internal septation (4 lymphangioma, 1 greater omental cyst). In group 1B, 10 lesions in 7 patients were unilocular without internal septation, which had two kinds of shape-cystic and tubular, their histopathological types were all enteric duplication cyst (10 segments, with two patients with 2 or 3 segments each); In group 2, all lesions had solid mass (2 gastrointestinal stromal tumors and 2 enteric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). The majority of gastrointestinal tumors and tumor-like lesions are cystic and benign. MSCT manifestations of cystic/solid and thin/thick wall may be great helpful for differentiating different types of GIT and mesenteric lesions. MSCT manifestations have close correlations with their topographic sites and histopathologic findings.

  8. Imaging of bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a comprehensive textbook that provides a detailed description of the imaging techniques and findings in patients with benign and malignant bone tumors. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures employed for imaging bone tumors are discussed in detail. Individual chapters are devoted to MRI, CT, nuclear medicine, and interventional procedures. The second part of the book gives an authoritative review of the role of these imaging techniques in diagnosis, surgical staging, biopsy, and assessment of response to therapy. The third part of the book covers the imaging features of each major tumor subtype, with separate chapters on osteogenic tumors, cartilaginous tumors, etc. The final part of the book reviews the imaging features of bone tumors at particular anatomical sites such as the spine, ribs, pelvis, and scapula. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book will be of great value to musculoskeletal and general radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, and oncologists. (orig.)

  9. Muscle invasive bladder cancer in Upper Egypt: the shift in risk factors and tumor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, where bilharziasis is endemic, bladder cancer is the commonest cancer in males and the 2nd in females; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest type found, with a peculiar mode of presentation. The aim of this study is to identify and rank the risk factors of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in Upper Egypt and describe its specific criteria of presentation and histopathology. This is an analytical, hospital based, case controlled study conducted in south Egypt cancer institute through comparing MIBC cases (n = 130) with age, sex and residence matched controls (n = 260) for the presence of risk factors of MIBC. Data was collected by personal interview using a well designed questionnaire. Patients' records were reviewed for histopathology and Radiologic findings. The risk factors of MIBC were positive family history [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.7], exposure to pesticides [AOR = 6.2], bladder stones [AOR = 5], consanguinity [AOR = 3.9], recurrent cystitis [AOR = 3.1], bilharziasis [odds ratio (OR) = 5.8] and smoking [OR = 5.3]. SCC represented 67.6% of cases with burning micturition being the presenting symptom in 73.8%. MIBC in Upper Egypt is usually of the SCC type (although its percentage is decreasing), occurs at a younger age and presents with burning micturition rather than hematuria. Unlike the common belief, positive family history, parents' consanguinity, exposure to pesticides and chronic cystitis seem to play now more important roles than bilharziasis and smoking in the development of this disease in this area

  10. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for murine bladder tumors: initiation of the response by fibronectin-mediated attachment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Palmer, J O; McGarr, J A; Brown, E J

    1987-04-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial bladder cancer. Although the mechanisms by which BCG inhibits tumor growth are not known, previous studies have shown that systemic immunization to BCG and the local expression of the immune response in the bladder are associated with a favorable response to BCG therapy. We have investigated the conditions required for the initiation of an immunological response after the intravesical instillation of BCG. Initial histological studies showed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas where the urothelium was damaged by electrocautery and suggested that attachment was associated with the fibrin clot. Quantitative studies verified the histological observations. Minimal BCG attachment (mean less than 10(2) colony forming units) was observed in normal bladders in contrast with a mean of 1.42 X 10(4) colony forming units/bladder in bladders damaged by electrocautery (10 separate experiments). BCG attachment to the bladder wall was durable since organisms were observed in bladders 48 h after instillation. To investigate the proteins to which BCG attached, we tested the binding of BCG to extracellular matrix and inflammatory proteins which comprise a significant portion of the fibrin clot. BCG bound in vitro to coverslips coated in vivo with extracellular matrix proteins but did not bind to control albumin-coated coverslips. BCG also bound to coverslips coated with purified plasma fibronectin but not to coverslips coated with other purified extracellular matrix proteins including laminin, fibrinogen, and type IV collagen. BCG attachment to coverslips coated with either extracellular matrix proteins or purified fibronectin was inhibited by antibodies specific for fibronectin. Moreover, BCG attachment to cauterized bladders in vivo was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. These results demonstrate that fibronectin mediates the attachment of BCG

  11. Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinogenesis Is Associated with Down-Regulation of NF1 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Vivo and in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Vesa; Boström, Peter J.; Söderström, Karl-Ove; Hirvonen, Outi; Tuukkanen, Juha; Nurmi, Martti; Laato, Matti; Peltonen, Juha

    1999-01-01

    The NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) is known to act as a tumor suppressor protein by inactivating ras. The best documented factors involved in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are ras proto-oncogene activation and p53 suppressor gene mutations. This is the first study reporting alterations in NF1 gene expression in TCC. We examined NF1 gene expression in a total of 29 surgical urinary bladder TCC specimens representing grades 1 to 3 and in three cell lines, RT4, 5637, and T2...

  12. Local tumor hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy. I. Malignant cutaneous lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing evidence that the use of hyperthermia alone or in conjunction with other modalities may improve the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment of cancer. The present clinical studies were carried out to evaluate the response of normal and tumor tissues in patients with various cutaneous malignant lesions to repeated courses of hyperthermia alone or in conjunction with radiation therapy. Thirty-six patients with malignant cutaneous lesions (mycosis fungoides, Kaposi sarcoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma cutis, and other metastatic skin lesions) have been studied. The heating methods used were: temperature regulated water bath immersion; and radiofrequency inductive heating. The normal tissue effects of the combined treatments of radiation and hyperthermia do not appear to be greater than those treated with radiation alone. The initial tumor regression rates were faster in patients treated with radiation plus hyperthermia than in radiation alone, particularly in patients with Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma cutis. Among ten locally recurrent patients, seven showed significant prolonged benefits achieved by the combined treatments as compared with the radiation therapy alone. Fractionated hyperthermia alone caused significant tumor regression in four out of five patients. Possible mechanisms leading to the improved results from the combined treatments are discussed

  13. Disseminated lesions of the central nervous system in course of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are, apart from leukemia, the most frequent malignant disorders in the childhood. Among the brain tumors, those of poorly differentiated cells - give metastatic lesions to the CNS. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the features of CT and MR images detecting dissemination of the primary brain tumors. From 1993 to 2005 in the Department of Radiology of the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital - Research Institute, the disseminations to CNS were observed in 35 children who were previously operated for primary brain tumors. CT and MR examinations of the brain were performed in all patients (22 males and 13 females; age: 5 mo - 18 y) and MR imaging of the spinal cord was done in 18 children. Multiple metastases to the cerebral structures were detected more often (in 23 patients - 66%) as compared to single lesions. The most frequent disseminations were observed in patients with diagnosis of medulloblastoma - 13 children, PNET - 4 and pineoblastoma - 3 patients. Twelve children had single metastatic tumors (out of the primary neoplasm location): in the course of medulloblastoma - 6, and PNET - 2 patients. Eighteen MR examinations of the spinal canal showed disseminations of the brain tumors in 9 children; concomitant metastatic nodules in the brain were detected in 4 patients. CT and MR imaging of the CNS enables evaluating the dissemination of primary brain tumors in children. Any asymptomatic progression of the primary neoplastic disease may be detected by means of control diagnostic imaging, which reveals the tumor spread. Especially in patients with medulloblastoma and pineoblastoma, the spine MR imaging with gadolinium is mandatory. (author)

  14. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented. PMID:9807870

  15. Unusual presentation of cutaneous metastasis from bladder urothelial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Pao Chang; I-Yen Lee; Hung-Jen Shih

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder are a rare disease.In previous reports,the most common metastatic cutaneous lesions were non-tender nodules on the abdominal skin.We report a patient with bladder urothelial carcinoma with cutaneous metastases initially presenting as right leg and suprapubic lymphedema.Bladder tumor was the incidental finding by magnetic resonance venography.Urothelial carcinoma (clinical stage Ⅳ) was diagnosed,and chemotherapy was performed.Extensive painful erythematous plaques with an erysipelas-like appearance located on the suprapubic area,chest and abdomen were noted,and cutaneous metastases were confirmed by histopathology.Subsequently,extensive scrotal and prepuce ulcerative changes developed.This paper reports a rare case of extensive cutaneous metastasis of bladder urothelial carcinoma who presented an interesting clinical course.

  16. Treatment of the benign bone tumors including femoral neck lesion using compression hip screw and synthetic bone graft

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Tomoki; Matsumine Akihiko; Asanuma Kunihiro; Matsubara Takao; Sudo Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The proximal femur is one of the most common locations for benign bone tumors and tumor like conditions. We describe the clinical outcomes of the surgical treatment of benign lesions of the proximal femur including femoral neck using compression hip screw and synthetic bone graft. Methods: Thirteen patients with benign bone tumors or tumor like conditions of the proximal femur including femoral neck were surgically treated. Their average age at the time of presentatio...

  17. Electrical impedance scanning in breast tumor imaging: correlation with the growth pattern of lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kan; WANG Ting; FU Feng; JI Zhen-yu; LIU Rui-gang; LIAO Qi-mei; DONG Xiu-zhen

    2009-01-01

    Background This study researched the electric impedance properties of breast tissue and demonstrated the differentcharacteristic of electrical impedance scanning (EIS) images.Methods The impedance character of 40 malignant tumors, 34 benign tumors and some normal breast tissue from 69patients undergoing breast surgery was examined by EIS in vivo measurement and mammography screening, with aseries of frequencies set between 100 Hz-100 kHz in the ex vivo spectroscopy measurement.Results Of the 39 patients with 40 malignant tumors, 24 showed bright spots, 11 showed dark areas in EIS and 5showed no specific image. Of the 30 patients with 34 benign tumors there were almost no specific abnormality shown inthe EIS results. Primary ex vivo spectroscopy experiments showed that the resistivity of various breast tissue take thefollowing pattern: adipose tissue>cancerous tissue>mammary gland and benign tumor tissue.Conclusions There are significant differences in the electrical impedance properties between cancerous tissue andhealthy tissue. The impedivity of benign tumor is lower, and is at the same level with that of the mammary glandulartissue. The distinct growth pattern of breast lesions determined the different electrical impedance characteristics in theEIS results.

  18. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A biopsy service’s experience with 104 solitary, multiple and recurrent lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a clinically significant cystic lesion of odontogenic origin. This study aimed to retrospectively review and describe the clinicopathologic features of KCOT and to objectively compare the clinical and histological features of solitary, multiple and recurrent KCOT in a Saudi Arabian population. Material and Methods Biopsy request forms, pathology records and archival materials (all histological slides) of 104 cases of KCOT from 75 patients were retrieved. Demographic and clinical details as well as histological evaluation were analyzed and compared between the 3 groups using chi-squared or Mann-Whitney tests of association as appropriate. Results Significant differences were noted in the age of presentation, location and association with impaction between multiple and solitary cases. Histologically, there was a difference in the mitotic count, presence of satellite cysts and proliferating odontogenic epithelium between solitary and multiple lesions. There was no difference between the KCOT that later recurred and solitary lesion which did not recur even when matched clinically for age, sex and location. There were differences when solitary KCOT that later recurred or recurrent KCOT were compared with multiple lesions. Multiple lesions still had more significant proliferative activity parameters than solitary recurrence-related KCOT. Conclusions KCOTs in Saudi Arabians are not different from those reported from other parts of the world. Clinical and histological analyses showed multiple KCOT is different from its solitary recurrent or non-recurrent counterparts and has a higher proliferative activity than both. Clinicohistologic features alone cannot wholly explain the behavior of KCOT. Key words:Descriptive study, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontogenic keratocyst, solitary, multiple, recurrent. PMID:27475695

  19. URACHAL CARCINOMA IN BLADDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽燕; 吕宁; 何祖根; 林冬梅; 刘秀云

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in the bladder.Methods: Seven cases of urachal carcinoma in the bladder were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the tumors were found locating in the dome of bladder. Of them, 4 were mucinous adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated papillary enteric adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated squamous carcinoma, and one was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Cystomorphous urachal remnants were found in 4 cases. The main complaint was hematuria and all patients underwent partial excision of bladder and urachus. Conclusion: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the main histo-pathological type, and cystomorphous urachal remnants are often accompanied with urachal carcinoma in the bladder. The key diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in bladder are site and histopathology. And to examine the specimens carefully to find the urachal remnants is important.

  20. Silencing B7-H1 enhances the anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer antigen-loaded dendritic cell vaccine in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shuo Wang,1 Yonghua Wang,1 Jing Liu,2 Shixiu Shao,1 Xianjun Li,1 Jiannan Gao,1 Haitao Niu,1 Xinsheng Wang1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether short hairpin RNA (shRNA expressing lentiviral particles targeting B7-H1 infection could result in B7-H1 knockdown on dendritic cells (DCs and to investigate whether B7-H1 silencing could augment the immune function of DCs and further elicit a more potent anti-tumor immune effect against bladder cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs, which were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were infected by a recombinant lentivirus containing shRNA sequence aimed at B7-H1. After that, the infected DCs were pulsed by tumor antigens and used to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes-based anti-tumor effect in vitro. Results: The lentivirus-mediated shRNA delivery method efficiently and effectively silenced B7-H1 in DCs. Furthermore, the B7-H1 silencing enhanced the stimulatory capacity and the secretion of interleukin-12, but down-regulated interleukin-10 secretion. And more importantly, the anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer antigen-loaded DC vaccine in vitro was also potentially augmented. Conclusion: This study suggests that a combination of B7-H1 knockdown and target antigen delivery could augment anti-tumor effects in vitro, which potentially provides a novel strategy in the immunotherapy of bladder cancer. Keywords: B7-H1, bladder cancer, dendritic cell, vaccine, immunotherapy

  1. Viable tumor volume: Volume of interest within segmented metastatic lesions, a pilot study of proposed computed tomography response criteria for urothelial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folio, Les Roger, E-mail: Les.folio@nih.gov [Lead Radiologist for CT, NIH Radiology and Imaging Sciences, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Turkbey, Evrim B., E-mail: evrimbengi@yahoo.com [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Steinberg, Seth M., E-mail: steinbes@mail.nih.gov [Head, Biostatistics and Data Management Section, Office of the Clinical Director, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 2W334, MSC 9716, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Apolo, Andrea B. [Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • It is clear that 2D axial measurements are incomplete assessments in metastatic disease; especially in light of evolving antiangiogenic therapies that can result in tumor necrosis. • Our pilot study demonstrates that taking volumetric density into account can better predict overall survival when compared to RECIST, volumetric size, MASS and Choi. • Although volumetric segmentation and further density analysis may not yet be feasible within routine workflows, the authors believe that technology advances may soon make this possible. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the ability of new computed tomography (CT) response criteria for solid tumors such as urothelial cancer (VTV; viable tumor volume) to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated with cabozantinib. Materials and methods: We compared the relative capabilities of VTV, RECIST, MASS (morphology, attenuation, size, and structure), and Choi criteria, as well as volume measurements, to predict OS using serial follow-up contrast-enhanced CT exams in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Kaplan–Meier curves and 2-tailed log-rank tests compared OS based on early RECIST 1.1 response against each of the other criteria. A Cox proportional hazards model assessed response at follow-up exams as a time-varying covariate for OS. Results: We assessed 141 lesions in 55CT scans from 17 patients with urothelial metastasis, comparing VTV, RECIST, MASS, and Choi criteria, and volumetric measurements, for response assessment. Median follow-up was 4.5 months, range was 2–14 months. Only the VTV criteria demonstrated a statistical association with OS (p = 0.019; median OS 9.7 vs. 3.5 months). Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that VTV is a promising tool for assessing tumor response and predicting OS, using criteria that incorporate tumor volume and density in patients receiving antiangiogenic therapy for urothelial cancer. Larger studies are warranted to

  2. Viable tumor volume: Volume of interest within segmented metastatic lesions, a pilot study of proposed computed tomography response criteria for urothelial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • It is clear that 2D axial measurements are incomplete assessments in metastatic disease; especially in light of evolving antiangiogenic therapies that can result in tumor necrosis. • Our pilot study demonstrates that taking volumetric density into account can better predict overall survival when compared to RECIST, volumetric size, MASS and Choi. • Although volumetric segmentation and further density analysis may not yet be feasible within routine workflows, the authors believe that technology advances may soon make this possible. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the ability of new computed tomography (CT) response criteria for solid tumors such as urothelial cancer (VTV; viable tumor volume) to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated with cabozantinib. Materials and methods: We compared the relative capabilities of VTV, RECIST, MASS (morphology, attenuation, size, and structure), and Choi criteria, as well as volume measurements, to predict OS using serial follow-up contrast-enhanced CT exams in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Kaplan–Meier curves and 2-tailed log-rank tests compared OS based on early RECIST 1.1 response against each of the other criteria. A Cox proportional hazards model assessed response at follow-up exams as a time-varying covariate for OS. Results: We assessed 141 lesions in 55CT scans from 17 patients with urothelial metastasis, comparing VTV, RECIST, MASS, and Choi criteria, and volumetric measurements, for response assessment. Median follow-up was 4.5 months, range was 2–14 months. Only the VTV criteria demonstrated a statistical association with OS (p = 0.019; median OS 9.7 vs. 3.5 months). Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that VTV is a promising tool for assessing tumor response and predicting OS, using criteria that incorporate tumor volume and density in patients receiving antiangiogenic therapy for urothelial cancer. Larger studies are warranted to

  3. Stepwise Application of Urine Markers to Detect Tumor Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Surveillance for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Todenhöfer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal use of urine markers in the surveillance of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC remains unclear. Aim of the present study was to investigate the combined and stepwise use of the four most broadly available urine markers to detect tumor recurrence in patients undergoing surveillance of NMIBC. Patients and Methods. 483 patients with history of NMIBC were included. Cytology, UroVysion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, immunocytology (uCyt+, and NMP22 ELISA were performed before surveillance cystoscopy. Characteristics of single tests and combinations were assessed by contingency analysis. Results. 128 (26.5% patients had evidence of tumor recurrence. Sensitivities and negative predictive values (NPVs of the single tests ranged between 66.4–74.3 and 82.3–88.2%. Two-marker combinations showed sensitivities and NPVs of 80.5–89.8 and 89.5–91.2%. A stepwise application of the two-test combinations with highest accuracy (cytology and FISH; cytology and uCyt+; uCyt+ and FISH showed NPVs for high-risk recurrences (G3/Cis/pT1 of 98.8, 98.8, and 99.1%, respectively. Conclusions. Combinations of cytology, FISH, immunocytology, and NMP22 show remarkable detection rates for recurrent NMIBC. Stepwise two-test combinations of cytology, FISH, and immunocytology have a low probability of missing a high-risk tumor. The high sensitivities may justify the use of these combinations in prospective studies assessing the use of urine markers to individualize intervals between cystoscopies during follow-up.

  4. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    . The bladder empties too quickly and too often, with relatively low quantities, and storing urine in the bladder is difficult. Usually, people with this problem rush to the bathroom and even leak urine before reaching their destination. They may wake up frequently at night to void. Typical examples of a brain lesion are stroke, brain tumor, or Parkinson disease. Hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, and Shy-Drager syndrome also are brain lesions. Shy-Drager syndrome is a rare condition that also causes the bladder neck to remain open.Spinal cord lesion: "nDiseases or injuries of the spinal cord between the pons and the sacral spinal cord also result in spastic bladder or overactive bladder. People who are paraplegic or quadriplegic have lower extremity spasticity. Initially, after spinal cord trauma, the individual enters a spinal shock phase where the nervous system shuts down. After 6-12 weeks, the nervous system reactivates. When the nervous system becomes reactivated, it causes hyperstimulation of the affected organs. For example, the legs become spastic. "nThese people experience urge incontinence. The bladder empties too quickly and too frequently. The voiding disorder is similar to that of the brain lesion except that the external sphincter may have paradoxical contractions as well. If both the bladder and external sphincter become spastic at the same time, the affected individual will sense an overwhelming desire to urinate but only a small amount of urine may dribble out. The medical term for this is detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia because the bladder and the external sphincter are not in synergy. Even though the bladder is trying to force out urine, the external sphincter is tightening to prevent urine from leaving. "nThe causes of spinal cord injuries include motor vehicle and diving accidents. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a common cause of spinal cord disease in young women. Those with MS also may exhibit visual disturbances, known as optic neuritis. Children born

  5. Malignant Myofibroblastoma of the Bladder: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case Report In July 2006, a 32-year old female patient was found to have a 3×3 cm2 neoplasm in the left lateral wall of her bladder. There was superficial necrosis and bleeding. Previously she had received a cystoscopy in another hospital because of painless gross hematuria and anemia. A partial resection of the bladder was conducted because attempts of medical hemostasis were unsatisfactory. Pathological examination indicated that the lesion was a spindle cell tumor of the bladder (Fig. 1). Since the tumor cells had encroached into the smooth muscle, there was extensive cellular proliferation in the muscle layer and pathologic karyokinesis could be seen,suggestive of a malignant myofibroblastoma. The lateral and basilar cutting edges were positive.

  6. New concepts in understanding evolution of desmoid tumors: MR imaging of 30 lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the appearance and the natural evolution of desmoid tumors on MR imaging, given histologic correlation. The MR images of 30 desmoids (20 primary and 10 recurrent) in 26 patients were scored for a multiplicity of morphological parameters, signal intensity (SI) on different pulse sequences, and behavior after contrast administration. Natural evolution was evaluated in 2 primary and 3 recurrent lesions, and correlated with evolution on histologic specimens. Desmoid tumors are mostly found in muscles of shoulder and hip girdle and are often fusiform with partially ill-defined margins. Rare subcutaneous desmoids have a more stellar morphology. Variable amounts of low-SI areas are present on all sequences. On T1-weighted images (T1-WI), most lesions are near homogeneous and isointense to muscle, whereas on T2-WI they are more heterogeneous with an overall SI equal to or slightly lower than fat. Histologic correlation reveals that SI on T2-WI cannot be explained solely by cellularity. After initial growth, spontaneous evolution of desmoids is characterized by shrinking and an increase in low-SI areas on T2-WI. While distal lesions shrink, the more recent lesions in asynchronous multicentric desmoids have a tendency to develop proximally in the same limb, and should not be confused with recurrences. Fast growth, extracompartmental spread, and bone involvement are often seen in recurrences. Follow-up MR imaging of desmoids indicates natural regression of desmoids and more aggressive behavior of recurrences, which may justify a more conservative therapeutic approach. (orig.). With 9 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Liposome-administered tetramethylhematoporphyrin (TMHP) as a photodynamic agent for bladder tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Ella D.; Bachor, Ruediger; Miller, Kurt; Koenig, Karsten; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1993-06-01

    This study was made in order to determine whether liposomes can bind and deliver the photosensitizer to human bladder carcinoma cells and how effective the photodynamic activity of this photosensitizer is. TMHP (synthesized by Prof. Muller v.d. Haegen) was incorporated into small unilamellar vesicles of DPPC, following the procedure described by Jori et al TMHP was used in a dosage of 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 (mu) g/ml on two different cell lines. Cellular uptake of TMHP in liposomes was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Dark toxicity became evident, when doses of 10 and 20 (mu) g/ml TMHP encapsulated in liposomes were compared to control liposomes without photosensitizer. PDT was performed after sensitization of cells for one hour using an argon-pumped dye laser at 630 nm and a power density of 30 mW/cm2. Irradiation with 3,6 and 7,2 Joule/cm2 resulted in a decreasing survival rate. This study demonstrates PDT-efficiency being dependent on the dose of liposome-encapsulated TMHP as well as the fluence rate. There is also a difference in cell survival according to the cell line.

  8. Alternativas Terapéuticas en las neoplasias vesicales caninas Therapeutic options in canine bladder tumors

    OpenAIRE

    R.L. Rovere; A. ALCOBA

    2002-01-01

    Las neoplasias vesicales en caninos representan menos del 1% de los tumores presentes en esta especie. El tratamiento quirúrgico se indica en tumores benignos y como complemento de la quimioterapia y radioterapia. Para la quimioterapia se emplean más frecuentemente la doxorrubicina, el 5-fluorouracilo, la ciclofosfamida, la vincristina y cisplatino. La asociación de la doxorrubicina-ciclofosfamida por vía sistémica en asociación con el cisplatino intravesical, sería un tratamiento recomendabl...

  9. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland wi...

  10. Can We Predict Phyllodes Tumor among Fibroepithelial Lesions with Cellular Stroma Diagnosed at Breast Core Needle Biopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Rho, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Byeong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes of fibroepithelial lesion with cellular stroma (FELCS) diagnosed at sonography guided core needle biopsy of breast masses, and to determine whether the clinical and imaging features of this lesion could predict the presence of a phyllodes tumor. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic results of sonography guided core needle biopsy of solid breast masses. A total of 55 FELCS diagnosed with this procedure that underwent subsequent surgical excision were included in this study; their medical records and radiologic images were retrospectively reviewed. The results of the surgical excision revealed 22 (40%) phyllodes tumors and 33 (60%) non-phyllodes tumors: 30 (54.6%) fibroadenomas, 1 (1.8%) adenosis, 1 (1.8%) fibrocystic changes and 1 (1.8%) fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. Lesion size and patient age were significantly different between phyllodes tumors and nonphyllodes tumors groups (32.2 {+-} 14.07 mm/22.4 {+-} 13.64 mm, p=0.0078, 43.5 {+-} 11.60 years/36.5 {+-} 10.25 years, p=0.0207). Among the sonographic features, only cleft was significantly more visible in phyllodes tumors than in non-phyllodes tumors (n=14 (70%)/n=6 (30%), p=0.0016). The size of the lesions, the age of the patients, and the sonographic features of cleft were the significant helpful variables to predict phyllodes tumors among FELCS diagnosed at breast core biopsy.

  11. Gross tumor volume and clinical target volume in prostate cancer: How do satellites relate to the index lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: There is an increasing interest for dose differentiation in prostate radiotherapy. The purpose of our study was to analyze the spatial distribution of tumor satellites inside the prostate. Methods and materials: 61 prostatectomy specimens were stained with H&E. Tumor regions were delineated by the uro-pathologist. Volumes, distances and cell densities of all delineated tumor regions were measured and further analyzed. Results: Multifocal disease was seen in 84% of the patients. The median number of tumor foci was 3. The median distance between the index lesion and the satellites was 1.0 cm, with a maximum of 4.4 cm. The index lesions accounted for 88% of the total tumor volume. The contribution of tumor foci < 0.1 cm3 to the total tumor volume was 2%. The median cell density of the index lesion and all satellites, regardless of size, were significantly higher than that of the prostate. Conclusions: Satellites do not appear in a limited margin around the index lesion (GTV). Consequently, a fixed CTV margin would not effectively cover all satellites. Thus if the aim is to treat all tumor foci, the entire prostate gland should be considered CTV

  12. Tasquinimod modulates tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and improves the antitumor immune response to PD-L1 blockade in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhlé, Jessica; Pierron, Valérie; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Plas, Pascale; Thiongane, Amath; Meyer-Losic, Florence; Schmidlin, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The infiltration of myeloid cells helps tumors to overcome immune surveillance and imparts resistance to cancer immunotherapy. Thus, strategies to modulate the effects of these immune cells may offer a potential therapeutic benefit. We report here that tasquinimod, a novel immunotherapy which targets S100A9 signaling, reduces the immunosuppressive properties of myeloid cells in preclinical models of bladder cancer (BCa). As single anticancer agent, tasquinimod treatment was effective in preventing early stage tumor growth, but did not achieve a clear antitumor effect in advanced tumors. Investigations of this response revealed that tasquinimod induces an increase in the expression of a negative regulator of T cell activation, Programmed-death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). This markedly weakens its antitumor immunity, yet provokes an “inflamed” milieu rendering tumors more prone to T cell-mediated immune attack by PD-L1 blockade. Interestingly, the combination of tasquinimod with an Anti-PD-L1 antibody enhanced the antitumor immune response in bladder tumors. This combination synergistically modulated tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, thereby strongly affecting proliferation and activation of effector T cells. Together, our data provide insight into the rational combination of therapies that activate both innate and adaptive immune system, such as the association of S100A9-targeting agents with immune checkpoints inhibitors, to improve the response to cancer immunotherapeutic agents in BCa.

  13. Identifying distinct classes of bladder carcinoma using microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Marcussen, Niels; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton; Wolf, Hans; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2003-01-01

    immunohistological or molecular markers have been identified to define clinically relevant subsets of bladder cancer. Here we report the identification of clinically relevant subclasses of bladder carcinoma using expression microarray analysis of 40 well characterized bladder tumors. Hierarchical cluster analysis...

  14. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  15. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs. PMID:10996723

  16. Virtual 3D bladder reconstruction for augmented medical records from white light cystoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Angst, Roland; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate that necessitates lifelong surveillance to detect mucosal lesions. Examination with white light cystoscopy (WLC), the standard of care, is inherently subjective and data storage limited to clinical notes, diagrams, and still images. A visual history of the bladder wall can enhance clinical and surgical management. To address this clinical need, we developed a tool to transform in vivo WLC videos into virtual 3-dimensional (3D) bladder models using advanced computer vision techniques. WLC videos from rigid cystoscopies (1280 x 720 pixels) were recorded at 30 Hz followed by immediate camera calibration to control for image distortions. Video data were fed into an automated structure-from-motion algorithm that generated a 3D point cloud followed by a 3D mesh to approximate the bladder surface. The highest quality cystoscopic images were projected onto the approximated bladder surface to generate a virtual 3D bladder reconstruction. In intraoperative WLC videos from 36 patients undergoing transurethral resection of suspected bladder tumors, optimal reconstruction was achieved from frames depicting well-focused vasculature, when the bladder was maintained at constant volume with minimal debris, and when regions of the bladder wall were imaged multiple times. A significant innovation of this work is the ability to perform the reconstruction using video from a clinical procedure collected with standard equipment, thereby facilitating rapid clinical translation, application to other forms of endoscopy and new opportunities for longitudinal studies of cancer recurrence.

  17. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement. PMID:27149501

  18. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the urothelial cells of naturally occurring urinary bladder tumors in cattle and water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E and late (L protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. CONCLUSION: This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo.

  19. Role of Multisclice And Virtual Cystoscopy Versus Ultrasound and Color Doppler Study in Evaluation of Urinary Bladder Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abdel Kader Abdel Hamed a , Rania Aly Maarouf a, Togan Taha Abdel Azez a, Sameeh Shoukry Sobhey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the virtual cystoscopy and the color Doppler examinations are good modalities in assessment of the urinary bladder neoplasms. This study is done to assess the accuracy of CTVC and color Doppler ultrasound in detection of the urinary bladder neoplasms.Patients and methods: The examination was done between June 2010 and December 2012 on 60 patients known or suspected to have urinary bladder neoplasm. They were examined using CTVC and color Doppler ultrasound. Bladder scanned using multislice CT at a slice thickness of 1 mm. The data were transferred to a workstation for interactive navigation. Findings obtained from CTVC and ultrasound were compared with results from conventional cystoscopy and with pathological findings.Results: By the conventional cystoscopy; the 43 patients in the group A showed 53 lesions. There were (35/43 patients with single lesion while there were (8/43 patients more than one lesion. While the other 17 patients in group B showed 11 patient with no focal lesions and 6 patients with 6 focal lesions. By virtual cystoscopy; 56 lesions were detected in both groups; 51 plus 5 lesions in group A and B respectively. There were 3 false negative lesions with a failure rate of 3/56.By ultrasound; 56 lesions were detected in both groups; 53 plus 3 lesions respectively.So in virtual cystoscopy and ultrasound the results were as follows: positive predictive values: 100%; negative predictive value: 78.6 %; sensitivity: 94.9%; specificity: 100%Conclusion: Although the definitive diagnosis of some suspected urinary bladder tumors is only possible with conventional cystoscopy and biopsy, CTVC and color Doppler ultrasound are a minimally or non-invasive techniques which provide beneficial information about urinary bladder lesions

  20. A rare case of pure small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Singh; Divya Srivastava; Hemant Yadav; Rajeev Sen

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common urologic malignancy. Up to 95% of the urinary bladder tumors are of epithelial origin, from which 90% are transitional neoplasms. However, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare tumor accounting for

  1. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the placenta of pregnant cows affected with urinary bladder tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses (PVs are believed to be highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within stratified epithelia. In vitro, various PVs appear to complete their entire life-cycle in different trophoblastic cell lines. In this study, infection by and protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the uterine and chorionic epithelium of the placenta has been described in four cows suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. E5 oncoprotein was detected both by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemically. It appears to be complexed and perfectly co-localized with the activated platelet-derived growth factor ß receptor (PDGFßR by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The activated PDGFßR might be involved in organogenesis and neo-angiogenesis rather than in cell transformation during pregnancy. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection has been detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the uterine and chorionic epithelium. Trophoblastic cells appear to be the major target for L1 protein expression. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be expressed during a productive infection, has been detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected viral particles in nuclei of uterine and chorionic epithelium. This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the placenta of pregnant cows can occur in vivo.

  2. Primary cystic pancreatic neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. MR cholangiopancreatographic evaluation of lesions and Wirsung's duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the contribution of single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in the diagnosis of cystic lesions in the pancreas, and their relation to Wirsung's duct. Material and methods: In 66 patients (33 women and 33 men; mean age: 66 years) cystic pancreatic lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The SSFSE technique was used, including an evaluation of Wirsung's duct. Conventional pancreatic sequences were added. The following lesion features were assessed: location, number, size, relation to Wirsung's duct, nature of the cystic image and signal intensity of the neoplasm or tumor-like condition. Surgical and anatomopathological correlation was obtained in 31/66 cases (47%). Results: The cystic lesions were divided in 2 groups: A) cystic lesions related to Wirsung's duct, 30 patients: all lesions measured less than 30 mm in size. Seven patients underwent surgical treatment; in 22 cases surgery was not indicated. One patient refused surgery. A mucinous papilliferous intraductal tumor was diagnosed in 3 cases, ampullar carcinoma in 1 case, pancreatic carcinoma, 1 case, autoimmune pancreatitis, 1 case, and cystic duct dilatation due to benign fibrous stenosis, 1 case. B) Cystic lesions not related to Wirsung's duct (36 patients): 7 serous cystadenomas, 7 adenocarcinomas with a cystic component, 1 mucinous cystadenoma, 1 duodenal diverticulum, 7 pseudocysts and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. In 12 patients surgery was not carried out due to clinical contraindication or patient's refusal. Conclusion: SSFSE allowed a clear differentiation between cystic lesions related (Group A) and non-related (Group B) to Wirsung's duct. The diagnosis could not be achieved by usual MRI sequences. However, benign and malignant lesions were observed in both groups. In all cases SSFSE afforded useful data either for surgical treatment or clinical follow-up. (author)

  3. Immunogenic Human Papillomavirus Pseudovirus-Mediated Suicide-Gene Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Hojeij

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the second most common urological malignancy in the world. In 70% of cases it is initially diagnosed as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC and it is amenable to local treatments, with intravesical (IVES Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG immunotherapy being routinely used after transurethral resection of the lesion. However, this treatment is associated with significant side-effects and treatment failures, highlighting the necessity of novel strategies. One potent approach is the suicide-gene mediated therapy/prodrug combination, provided tumor-specificity can be ensured and anti-tumor immune responses induced. Using the mouse syngeneic orthotopic MB49-bladder tumor model, here we show that IVES human papillomavirus non-replicative pseudovirions (PsV can pseudoinfect tumors with a ten-fold higher efficacy than normal bladders. In addition, PsV carrying the suicide-gene herpes-simplex virus thymidine kinase (PsV-TK combined to Ganciclovir (GCV led to immunogenic cell-death of tumor cells in vitro and to MB49-specific CD8 T-cells in vivo. This was associated with reduction in bladder-tumor growth and increased mice survival. Altogether, our data show that IVES PsV-TK/GCV may be a promising alternative or combinatory treatment for NMIBC.

  4. Immunogenic Human Papillomavirus Pseudovirus-Mediated Suicide-Gene Therapy for Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojeij, Rim; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Nkosi, Marianne; Gharbi, Dalila; Derré, Laurent; Schiller, John T; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common urological malignancy in the world. In 70% of cases it is initially diagnosed as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and it is amenable to local treatments, with intravesical (IVES) Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy being routinely used after transurethral resection of the lesion. However, this treatment is associated with significant side-effects and treatment failures, highlighting the necessity of novel strategies. One potent approach is the suicide-gene mediated therapy/prodrug combination, provided tumor-specificity can be ensured and anti-tumor immune responses induced. Using the mouse syngeneic orthotopic MB49-bladder tumor model, here we show that IVES human papillomavirus non-replicative pseudovirions (PsV) can pseudoinfect tumors with a ten-fold higher efficacy than normal bladders. In addition, PsV carrying the suicide-gene herpes-simplex virus thymidine kinase (PsV-TK) combined to Ganciclovir (GCV) led to immunogenic cell-death of tumor cells in vitro and to MB49-specific CD8 T-cells in vivo. This was associated with reduction in bladder-tumor growth and increased mice survival. Altogether, our data show that IVES PsV-TK/GCV may be a promising alternative or combinatory treatment for NMIBC. PMID:27428950

  5. Using of Telomerase Enzyme in Urine as a Non invasive Marker for Cancer Bladder Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A Hassan*, Fawzia A . El- Sheshtawey** , Seliem A. Seliem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary bladder cancer is one of the major health problem all over the world. Cystoscopy remains the gold standard for identifying bladder cancer but it is invasive and expensive, therefore, a simple, non invasive test for detecting bladder cancer would be helpful. Several biomarkers for bladder cancer have been used, but no single marker has been accurate and conclusive. Aim: The current study aimed to measure telomerase enzyme in urine as a useful non invasive marker for detection of bladder cancer. Methods : Forty eight patients ( 39 males and 9 females were included, They are complaining of urinary symptoms and undergo cystoscopy with biopsy of bladder lesions and histopathological examination. They were divided into groups: Group I: 16 patients ( 11 males and 5 females have benign urologic conditions. Group II: 32 patients (28 males and 4 females have proven bladder cancer patients underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor or cystoscopy with biopsy of bladder lesions. Also, 15 apparently healthy volunteers with matched age and sex with patients were served as a control group. All subjects were submitted to laboratory estimation of the following in urine: urinary creatinine, urine cytology, telomerase enzyme in urine by telomerase PCR and complete urine examination. Results : The results of this study revealed that a highly significant increase in the frequency of cytolological positive cases for tumor cells in malignant group than each of benign group and healthy subjects, while no significant difference was detected between benign group and healthy subjects. The frequency of telomerase in urine was significantly higher in malignant group than each of benign group and healthy subjects, while no significant difference was detected between benign group and healthy subjects. The telomerase activity has sensitivity of 90.6% for diagnosis of cancer bladder with 93.7% for specificity and PPV was 96.6%, NPV was 83.3% and

  6. Histology and DNA contents of a secondary malignancy arising in a mature residual lesion six years after chemotherapy for a disseminated nonseminomatous testicular tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W M; Oosterhuis, J W; Meiring, A; Sleijfer, Dirk; Schraffordt Koops, H; Cornelisse, C J

    1986-01-01

    The current report describes a secondary malignancy developing in a retroperitoneal mature residual lesion 6 years after chemotherapeutic treatment of a disseminated nonseminomatous testicular tumor. The histologically malignant component was not present in the primary tumor and consisted of polygon

  7. A study on tumor suppressor genes mutations associated with different pathological colorectal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. In Egypt; there is an increasing incidence of the disease, especially among patients ≤40 years age. While CRC have been reported in low incidence rate in developing countries, it is the third most common tumor in male and the fifth common tumor in females in Egypt. Early diagnosis and surgical interference guarantee long survival of most CRC patients. Early diagnosis is impeded by the disease onset at young age and imprecise symptoms at the initial stages of the disease. As in most solid tumors, the malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells is to arise through a multistep process during which they acquire genetic changes involving the activation of proto-oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes. Recently, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, KLF6, which is mapped to chromosome 10p, was found to be frequently mutated in a number of cancers. There are some evidences suggesting that the disruption of the functional activity of KLF6 gene products may be one of the early events in tumor genesis of the colon. The main objective of the present study was to detect mutational changes of KLF6 tumor suppressor gene and to study the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) markers at chromosome 10p15 (KLF6 locus) in colorectal lesions and colorectal cancer in Egyptian patients. The patients included in this study were 83 presented with different indications for colonoscopic examination. Selecting patients with colorectal pre-cancerous lesions or colorectal cancer was done according to the results of tissue biopsy from lesion and adjacent normal. The patients were classified into three main groups; (G I) Cancerous group, (G II) polyps group including patients with adenomatous polyps (AP), familial adenomatous polyps (FAP) and hyperplastic polyps (HP) and (G III) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD

  8. Clinical Practice Pattern of Immediate Intravesical Chemotherapy following Transurethral Resection of a Bladder Tumor in Korea: National Health Insurance Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Jae Heon; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the frequency and practice pattern of immediate postoperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) after transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) in suspected non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Information from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013 was used. Patients with bladder cancer who received TURBT were considered as the cases (37,941 patients and 59,568 cases). The time of PIC after TURBT, types of PIC regimens, and the potential effect of PIC on the delay for additional treatment were analyzed. The study cohort included 23,726 subjects and 30,473 cases with a mean age of 66.8 ± 12.0 years, including 19,362 (81.6%) male patients. The rate of immediate PIC was 11.0% of cases (3,359 cases). There was significant difference in the frequency rate of additional treatment among patients with immediate PIC and patients without immediate PIC within 1 year from the first TURBT (15.2% vs 16.6%, p = 0.035). However, no difference was revealed for whole observational period (33.7% vs 34.5%, p = 0.373). The frequency rate of immediate PIC after TURBT for suspected NMIBC was low in real clinical practice. More efforts are needed to improve the usage rate of PIC after TURBT for suspected NMIBC. PMID:26976048

  9. Correlations between skin lesions induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α and selected cytokines in Crohn's disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Wójcik, Bartosz; Loga, Karolina; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between the appearance of skin lesions and concentration of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients during anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) therapy

  10. Prognostic Value of Fluoro-D-glucose Uptake of Primary Tumor and Metastatic Lesions in Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Nguyen, Khoi; Tran, Minh Thong; Maurea, Simone; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the primary tumor (maxSUVpt), maxSUV of whole-body tumors (maxSUVwb) and sum of maximum standardized uptake value (sumaxSUV) measured by the sum of maxSUVs of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes, and metastatic lesions per each organ on fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighty-three patients (49 male, 34 female) with advanced NSC...

  11. The role of scintigraphy using 99mTc MDP, radiography an MRI in the evaluation of bone tumors and tumor like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the modern tomographic methods even nuclear magnetic resonance allows only in certain cases a precise final diagnosis of the space occupying lesion. Based on the high contrasts of the various tissues and the multiplanar imaging MRI permits the definite judgement on the extention of the tumor within the bone as well as infiltration of the surrounding soft tissue. 3 phase bone scintigraphy, which is always performed, allows for the judgement of tumor activity before, during and after the various therapies as well the confirmation of the presence or absence of secondary foci or metastases. The scintigraphic determination of the type of osseous tumors however is only limited. The definite judgement of the osseous space occupying lesion being benign is only possible, if no or only a slide increase of bone metabolism can be observed. In cases with markedly increased tracer accumulation a sufficient assessment of dignity is not possible. (orig.)

  12. Origins of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Bogdan; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David

    2016-05-23

    Bladder cancer, one of the most frequently occurring human cancers, develops via two tracks referred to as papillary and nonpapillary that correspond to clinically different forms of the disease. Most bladder cancers are chemically induced, with tobacco smoking being the leading risk factor. Recent advances in bladder cancer research have enhanced our understanding of the origin of this disease from urothelial progenitor cells via field effects along papillary/luminal and nonpapillary/basal pathways. Evident from the outset of the disease, the diversity of the luminal and basal pathways, together with cell lineage tracing studies, postulates the origin of molecularly distinct subtypes from different uroprogenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms initiating field effects involve a new class of genes referred to as forerunner (FR) genes that generally map around major tumor suppressors such as RB1. These genes are silenced, predominantly by hypermethylation and less frequently by mutations, and drive the expansion of intraurothelial preneoplastic cells. Different FR genes are involved in various molecular subtypes of bladder cancer and they sensitize the uroprogenitor cells to the development of luminal and basal bladder cancers in animal models. In human bladder cancer, luminal and basal forms have dissimilar clinical behavior and response to conventional and targeted chemotherapeutic manipulations. These new research developments hold the promise of expanding our armamentarium of diagnostic and treatment options for patients with bladder cancer and improving our ability to select patients most likely to respond to a specific therapy. PMID:26907529

  13. Bladder Retraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a better voiding pattern around the clock. Do Kegel Exercises Help People with IC? Some bladder retraining programs recommend practicing Kegel exercises as part of bladder retraining. Kegel exercises ...

  14. Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symphysis pubis, and below the parietal peritoneum . The size and shape of the urinary bladder ... outer layer of the bladder wall is parietal peritoneum. In all other regions, the outer layer is ...

  15. Bladder Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life (the person’s level of health, comfort, and happiness). In fact, people with bladder problems may have a lower quality of life than people with diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Bladder problems ...

  16. Ex vivo MRI evaluation of breast tumors: a novel tool for verifying resection of nonpalpable only MRI detected lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresti, Roberto; Trecate, Giovanna; Ferraris, Cristina; Valeri, Barbara; Maugeri, Ilaria; Pellitteri, Cristina; Martelli, Gabriele; Migliavacca, Silvana; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Bohm, Silvia; Maffioli, Lorenzo; Vergnaghi, Daniele; Panizza, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in surgery of only magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected breast lesions is to ensure their removal when they are not palpable by clinical examination and surgical exploration. This is especially relevant in the case of small tumors, carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 21 patients with breast lesions detected by both conventional imaging and breast MRI (bMRI) and 18 patients with bMRI findings only. Preoperative bMRI allowed staging the disease and localizing the lesion. In the operating theater, contrast medium was injected 1 minute before skin incision. After removal, surgical specimens were submitted to ex vivo MRI, performed using a dedicated surface coil and Spair inversion recovery sequences for suppression of fat signal intensity. All MRI enhancing lesions were completely included within the surgical specimen and visualized by ex vivo MRI. In the first 21 patients, bMRI was able to visualize branching margins or satellite nodules around the core lesion, and allowed for better staging of the surrounding in situ carcinoma; in the last 18 patients, eight of whom were breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA) mutation carriers, bMRI identified 12 malignant tumors, otherwise undetectable, that were all visualized by ex vivo MRI. This is the first description of a procedure that re-enhances breast lesions within a surgical specimen, demonstrating the surgical removal of nonpalpable breast lesions diagnosed only with bMRI. This new strategy reproduces the morphology and the entire extension of the primary lesion on the specimen, with potentially better local surgical control, reducing additional unplanned surgery. PMID:24102850

  17. 闭孔神经与膀胱肿瘤基底部联合阻滞在经尿道膀胱肿瘤电切术中的应用%The Application of Combined Blockade of Obturator Nerve and Basilar Part of Bladder Tumor in Transurethral Electroresection of Bladder Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖波; 余开峰; 冉然

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined blockade of the feasibility of obturator nerve and basilar part of bladder tumor in preventing obturator nervous reflex during transurethral electroresection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Methods Seventy - two patients with bladder tumor close to the ureter,suffered from TURBT under combined spinal epidural anesthesia, were randomly divided into two group: N group ( n = 36) and P group (n = 36). Before TURBT, obturator nerve blockade under guidance of nerve stimulator were performed in N group. Obturator nerve and basilar part of bladder tumor combined blockade were performed in P group. Results In N group,seven patients (7/36, 19% ) showed obturator nervous reflex during TURBT, five patients showed slight obturator nervous reflex, two patients showed apparent nervous reflex. In P group,only three patients (3/36,8% ) showed slight obturator nervous reflex during TURBT without vesical perforation. Compared with N group, there had a significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion In TURBT,the combined blockade of obturator nerve and basilar part of bladder tumor could inhibit the obturator nerve reflex and decrease the incidence of operative complications.%目的:探讨闭孔神经与膀胱肿瘤基底部联合阻滞在经尿道膀胱肿瘤电切术(TURBT)中预防闭孔神经反射的可行性.方法:72例膀胱肿瘤位于输尿管附近拟行经尿道膀胱肿瘤电切术患者,均在腰-硬联合麻醉下行TURBT,单阻滞组在神经刺激器指导下行闭孔神经阻滞,联合阻滞组行闭孔神经与膀胱肿瘤基底部联合阻滞,再行膀胱肿瘤电切.结果:单阻滞组有7例(19%)出现闭孔神经反射,5例轻微,2例严重;联合阻滞组仅有3例(8%)出现轻微的闭孔神经反射,无膀胱穿孔(P<0.05).结论:经尿道膀胱肿瘤电切术闭孔神经与膀胱肿瘤基底部联合阻滞能有效抑制闭孔神经反射,减少手术并发症.

  18. Experimental and clinical treatment of bladder cancer with 125I-iododeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide can cause auger effect through disintegration low-energy electron (125I-iododeoxyuridine (125I-UdR) is an efficient carrier inducting 125I to cell nucleolus, it is incorporated into DNA specificity only in S-phase cells. A series of studies show that 125I can absorb more likely to tumor cells, instead of the normal cell division, thus effectively splitting radiotherapy of malignant lesions. As bladder is a natural lumen, it has a unique easy perfusion and observational. 125I-UdR can kill effiently and selectively the cells of bladder turnout, reducing markedly the ratio of its recurrence of surgical treatment of patients with bladder cancer, so as to improve the survival rate. It can be used as a surgical adjuvant treatment method, is expected to be a safe, efficient and less adverse reaction the new therapies for bladder cancer treatment. (authors)

  19. Modeling tumor/polyp/lesion structure in 3D for computer-aided diagnosis in colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-I.; Sargent, Dusty; Wang, Yuan-Fang

    2010-02-01

    We describe a software system for building three-dimensional (3D) models from colonoscopic videos. The system is end-to-end in the sense that it takes as input raw image frames-shot during a colon exam-and produces the 3D structure of objects of interest (OOI), such as tumors, polyps, and lesions. We use the structure-from-motion (SfM) approach in computer vision which analyzes an image sequence in which camera's position and aim vary relative to the OOI. The varying pose of the camera relative to the OOI induces the motion-parallax effect which allows 3D depth of the OOI to be inferred. Unlike the traditional SfM system pipeline, our software system contains many check-and-balance mechanisms to ensure robustness, and the analysis from earlier stages of the pipeline is used to guide the later processing stages to better handle challenging medical data. The constructed 3D models allow the pathology (growth and change in both structure and appearance) to be monitored over time.

  20. Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG laser for resection of bladder tumor in a pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Cakmakci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder tumours are rare in children, with only 0.4% of cases occurring in the first 2 decades of life. Herein, a pediatric patient who underwent TUR-B with a holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG laser is presented. Its histopathology was reported as urothelial papilloma.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ND, Rubenstein JN, Eggener SE, Kozlowski JM. The p53 tumor suppressor gene and nuclear protein: basic science review and relevance in the management of bladder cancer. J Urol. 2003 Apr;169(4):1219-28. ...

  2. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Coşkunoğlu, Esra Zeynep; Duran, Berkan; Çiftci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder a...

  3. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Esra Zeynep Coskunoglu; Berkan Duran; Egemen Ciftci

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder ...

  4. VEGF is an important mediator of tumor angiogenesis in malignant lesions in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VEGF is one of the key drivers of physiological or pathological angiogenesis hence several VEGF inhibitors are in different stages of clinical development. To further dissect the role of VEGF in different stages of tumor progression in lung tumors, we utilized KrasG12D-LSL GEMMs (genetically engineered mouse models). Intranasal delivery of adenoviruses expressing cre recombinase in KrasG12D-LSL mice results in the expression of mutant Kras that leads to development of tumor lesions ranging from adenomatous hyperplasia to large adenoma and adenocarcinoma over time in lung. In the current study, we treated KrasG12D-LSL mice at 14 weeks post inhalation with three different angiogenic inhibitors including axitinib and PF-00337210 both of which are selective inhibitors of VEGFR and sunitinib which targets VEGFR, C-SF1-R, PDGFR and KIT. Pathology findings showed no significant difference in percentage of adenomatous hyperplastic lesions between the vehicle vs. any of the treatments suggesting that angiogenesis may not play a major role at early stages of tumorigenesis. However, each inhibitor suppressed percentage of benign adenoma lesions and almost fully inhibited growth of adenocarcinoma lesions in the recipients which was consistent with a reduction in tumor vasculature. Treatment with sunitinib which is a multi-targeted RTKI did not provide any advantage compared to selective VEGFR inhibitor further emphasizing role of VEGF in tumor angiogenesis in this model. Overall, our studies indicate significance of VEGF and angiogenesis in a spontaneous model of lung tumorigenesis and provide a proof of mechanism for anti-cancer activity of VEGF inhibitors in this model

  5. The evaluation of 67Ga-scintigraphy in malignant tumor of the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    67Ga-scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with tumor of the urinary tract (18 with renal cell carcinoma, 4 with renal pelvic cancer, 18 with bladder cancer). In patients with renal cell carcinoma, 67Ga-scintigraphy was positive in 46% of those with primary lesions, and in 80% of those with metastatic lesions. In those with renal pelvic cancer, two with only a primary lesion had a negative 67Ga-scintigraphy, and one with both primary and metastic lesions and one with only a metastatic lesion after nephrectomy showed distinctly positive 67Ga-scintigraphy. Among patients with bladder cancer only 31% with primary lesions only had positive 67Ga-scintigraphy. In conclusion, 67Ga-scintigraphy is of little use as a diagnostic aid in primary tumors of the urinary tract, but may be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic lesions. (author)

  6. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder successfully managed with cisplatin and gemcitabine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ammari Jalal Eddine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare variant of mucus-producing adenocarcinoma constituting approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all primary carcinomas of the bladder. This tumor initially presents as a high-grade, high-stage lesion and diffusely invades the bladder wall without forming intraluminal growth. The patients have no specific symptoms, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old Moroccan Berber man consulting for gross hematuria. Ultrasonography and a computed tomography scan found a bladder tumor diffusely invading the bladder wall. A histopathological examination of the tumor chips from a transurethral resection of the bladder revealed signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma. The gastrointestinal tract exploration did not reveal any other tumor localization. A radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy were therefore performed resulting in 18 months of survival without metastasis and a good quality of life within that time. Conclusion The rarity and the successful management with carboplatin and gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy of this entity, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report.

  7. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder with coexisting high-grade urothelial carcinoma: a case report and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalbuss Walid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary bladder are rare. Here, we report a case of an 82-year-old man who presented with hematuria and was found to have an ulcerated lesion in the bladder. A diagnosis of small neuroendocrine cell carcinoma with coexisting minor high-grade urothelial components was rendered. In this report, the clinical, cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical features of this case are described, and a review of the literature about this neoplasm is presented. The differential diagnoses of small cell tumor in urinary bladder washing specimens are discussed.

  8. Changing role of nuclear medicine for the evaluation of focal hepatic tumors: from lesion detection to tissue characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Ki; Yun, Mi Jin [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The role of scintigraphic imaging has moved from the detection of lesions to the tissue-specific characterization of lesions over the past 2 decades. Major advances in nuclear medicine imaging include: 1) positron imaging, 2) improved instrumentation, such as the use of multidetector (dual or triple head) gamma cameras for single photon emission computed tomography, and 3) development of numerous new radiopharmaceuticals for positron or single photon imaging (labeled glucose analogue, amino acids, fatty acids, hormones, drugs, receptor ligands, monoclonal antibodies, etc). These advances have resulted in a significantly improved efficacy of radionuclide techniques for the evaluation of various tumors, including those within the liver. The current role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of focal hepatic tumors is reviewed in this article with an emphasis on the clinical applications of various tracer studies and imaging findings.

  9. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy masquerading as choroidal tumors: one year follow-up of a peripheral lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Carlos Preti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This case report describes peripheral idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV with a collection of small aneurysmal dilations that masqueraded as choroidal tumors in an elderly patient. A 68-year-old African American woman was referred to us with a suspected diagnosis of asymptomatic vascular choroidal tumor and choroidal capillary hemangioma, affecting the temporal peripheral fundus. Upon examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT revealed two large hemorrhagic pigment epithelium detachments (PED, and indocyanine green angiography (ICG confirmed the diagnosis of IPCV. One year later, there was reduction in the hemorrhagic pigment epithelium detachments and the lesion took on a different appearance, resembling a choroidal osteoma. No treatment was necessary despite the presence of multiple polyps. IPCV is a rare condition that can resemble other choroidal diseases depending on the stage of presentation. OCT is the best tool to determine the characteristics of the lesions, and indocyanine green angiography should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Not all cases require treatment.

  10. Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Dezhong J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials. Results Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT and liver metastatic lesions (LM compared to normal pancreas (NP. In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1 and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1, and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples. Conclusion We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

  11. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  12. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed the...

  13. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  14. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis

  15. Combined effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ionizing radiation on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baierlein, S.A.; Distel, L.; Sieber, R.; Weiss, C.; Roedel, C.; Sauer, R.; Roedel, F. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Background and Purpose: Apoptosis can be induced by distinct but overlapping pathways. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis by an ''intrinsic'', mitochondria-dependent pathway. Ligation of tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, FAS (CD95) or TRAIL receptors are typical representatives of an extrinsic, death-receptor-mediated pathway. In this study the effect of irradiation, treatment with the cytokine TNF-{alpha}, or a combination of both on the induction of apoptosis and clonogenic survival of bladder carcinoma cells was investigated. Material and Methods: 5637 bladder carcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant TNF-{alpha} (0-10 ng/ml), irradiated with single doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 Gy, or a combination of both modalities. Apoptotic cells were quantified by the TUNEL assay up to 96 h following treatment, clonogenic cell survival by a clonogenic assay. Synergistic effects of both modalities were evaluated using isobolographic analysis. Results: Irradiation of 5637 carcinoma cells resulted in a discontinuous dose dependence of the apoptotic fraction with a pronounced increase in the range of 0-2 Gy and a slighter increase at 2-10 Gy. The percentage of apoptotic carcinoma cells also increased continuously after treatment with lower concentrations of TNF-{alpha} reaching a plateau at concentrations of 5.0-10.0 ng/ml. Isobolographic analysis revealed a supraadditive interrelationship between irradiation and TNF-{alpha} in the range between 0.005 and 0.5 ng/ml, and an additive effect for TNF-{alpha} concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml. The additive effects were confirmed in clonogenic survival assays with reduced survival fractions following combined TNF-{alpha} administration and irradiation. Conclusion: The combination of two apoptosis-inducing modalities resulted in a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells. Although a radiosensitizing effect still has to be proven in animal models

  16. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the ris

  17. miR-145 induces caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in urothelial cancer cell lines with targeting of an expression signature present in Ta bladder tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Lamy, Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Downregulation of miR-145 in a variety of cancers suggests a possible tumor suppressor function for this microRNA. Here, we show that miR-145 expression is reduced in bladder cancer and urothelial carcinoma in situ, compared with normal urothelium, using transcription profiling and in situ...... hybridization. Ectopic expression of miR-145 induced extensive apoptosis in urothelial carcinoma cell lines (T24 and SW780) as characterized by caspase activation, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, cellular shrinkage, and detachment. However, cell death also proceeded upon caspase inhibition by the...... pharmacological inhibitor zVAD-fmk and ectopic expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, indicating the activation of an alternative caspase-independent death pathway. Microarray analysis of transcript levels in T24 cells, before the onset of cell death, showed destabilization of mRNAs enriched for miR-145 7mer target...

  18. High milk consumption does not affect prostate tumor progression in two mouse models of benign and neoplastic lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bernichtein

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies that have investigated whether dairy (mainly milk diets are associated with prostate cancer risk have led to controversial conclusions. In addition, no existing study clearly evaluated the effects of dairy/milk diets on prostate tumor progression, which is clinically highly relevant in view of the millions of men presenting with prostate pathologies worldwide, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN. We report here a unique interventional animal study to address this issue. We used two mouse models of fully penetrant genetically-induced prostate tumorigenesis that were investigated at the stages of benign hyperplasia (probasin-Prl mice, Pb-Prl or pre-cancerous PIN lesions (KIMAP mice. Mice were fed high milk diets (skim or whole for 15 to 27 weeks of time depending on the kinetics of prostate tumor development in each model. Prostate tumor progression was assessed by tissue histopathology examination, epithelial proliferation, stromal inflammation and fibrosis, tumor invasiveness potency and expression of various tumor markers relevant for each model (c-Fes, Gprc6a, activated Stat5 and p63. Our results show that high milk consumption (either skim or whole did not promote progression of existing prostate tumors when assessed at early stages of tumorigenesis (hyperplasia and neoplasia. For some parameters, and depending on milk type, milk regimen could even exhibit slight protective effects towards prostate tumor progression by decreasing the expression of tumor-related markers like Ki-67 and Gprc6a. In conclusion, our study suggests that regular milk consumption should not be considered detrimental for patients presenting with early-stage prostate tumors.

  19. Microvesicles derived from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells attenuate bladder tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wu

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess antitumor properties; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, microvesicles (MVs are considered as a novel avenue intercellular communication, which may be a mediator in MSCs-related antitumor effect. In the present study, we evaluated whether MVs derived from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs may inhibit bladder tumor T24 cells growth using cell culture and the BALB/c nu/nu mice xenograft model. CCK-8 assay and Ki-67 immunostaining were performed to estimate cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to assess cell cycle and apoptosis. To study the conceivable mechanism by which hWJMSC-MVs attenuate bladder tumor T24 cells, we estimated the expression of Akt/p-Akt, p-p53, p21 and cleaved Caspase 3 by Western blot technique after exposing T24 cells to hWJMSC-MVs for 24, 48 and 72h. Our data indicated that hWJMSC-MVs can inhibit T24 cells proliferative viability via cell cycle arrest and induce apoptosis in T24 cells in vitro and in vivo. This study showed that hWJMSC-MVs down-regulated phosphorylation of Akt protein kinase and up-regulated cleaved Caspase 3 during the process of anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis in T24 cells. These results demonstrate that hWJMSC-MVs play a vital role in hWJMSC-induced antitumor effect and may be a novel tool for cancer therapy as a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication.

  20. Enhanced Control of Bladder-Associated Tumors Using Shrimp Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor (SALF Antimicrobial Peptide as a Cancer Vaccine Adjuvant in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ning Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SALF is an antimicrobial peptide with reported anticancer activities, such as suppression of tumor progression. In this study, we prepared a potential cancer vaccine comprised of SALF in conjunction with the cell lysate of inactivated murine bladder carcinoma cells (MBT-2, and evaluated its efficacy in a mouse tumor model. Our study shows that SALF added to cell culture media inhibits growth progression of MBT-2, and that SALF together with inactivated MBT-2 lysate elevates the level of inflammasome activity, and modulates the levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α in mouse macrophages. Immunization of 7, 14, and 21 day-old mice with the vaccine prevented growth of MBT-2 cell-mediated tumors. The vaccine was found to enhance expression of T-cell, cytotoxic T cells, and NK cells in the immunized mice groups. Recruitment of macrophages, T-helper cells, and NK cells was enhanced, but levels of VEGF were decreased in immunized mice. This report provides empirical evidence that our SALF as vaccine adjuvant enhances antitumor immunity in mice.

  1. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. → iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. → 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. → Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-κB in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-κB activation, leading to tumor development.

  2. Distinct malignant behaviors of mouse myogenic tumors induced by different oncogenetic lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHettmer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS are heterogeneous cancers with myogenic differentiation features. The cytogenetic and mutational aberrations in RMS are diverse. This study examined differences in the malignant behavior of two genetically distinct and disease-relevant mouse myogenic tumor models. Kras; p1619null myogenic tumors, initiated by expression of oncogenic Kras in p16p19null mouse satellite cells, were metastatic to the lungs of the majority of tumor-bearing animals and repopulated tumors in 7 of 9 secondary recipients. In contrast, SmoM2 tumors, initiated by ubiquitous expression of a mutant Smoothened allele, did not metastasize and repopulated tumors in 2 of 18 recipients only. In summary, genetically distinct myogenic tumors in mice exhibit marked differences in malignant behavior.

  3. Perfusion patterns of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor lesions under specific molecular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Marcus [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven P. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schinwald, Nicole [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Christoph R.; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Berger, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Berger@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Rationale and objective: The aim of this pilot study was the evaluation of CT perfusion patterns in metastatic GIST lesions under specific molecular therapy with sunitinib or imatinib both in responders and non-responders. Patients and methods: 24 patients with metastatic GIST under tyrosine kinase inhibition were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 46 perfusion and venous phase CT scans were acquired. Volume of distribution, blood flow, blood volume, permeability and hepatic perfusion index measurements of metastatic lesions were carried out. Lesions were classified as 'good response' or 'poor response' to therapy, and perfusion parameters were compared for these two types of lesions. Results: 24 patients were evaluated. In the extrahepatic abdominal lesions (N = 15), good responders showed significant lower perfusion values than poor responders (volume of distribution: 3.3 {+-} 2.0 vs. 13.0 {+-} 1.8 ml/100 ml, p = 0.001). The same tendency was observed in intrahepatic lesions (N = 31) (liver volume of distribution: 2.1 {+-} 0.3 vs. 7.1 {+-} 1.3 ml/100 ml, p = 0.003); (hepatic perfusion index: 24.3 {+-} 7.9 vs. 76.1 {+-} 1.5%, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that there are characteristic perfusion patterns of metastatic GIST lesions showing a good or poor response to molecular pharmacotherapy. Perfusion should be further evaluated in cross-sectional imaging studies as a possible biomarker for treatment response in targeted therapies of GIST.

  4. Urinary bladder lesions after the chernobyl accident. Immunohistochemical assessment of p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and p21WAF1/Cip1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 11-year period subsequent to the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancer in Ukraine has increased from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 population. Cesium-137 (137Cs) accounts for 80-90% of the incorporated radioactivity in this population, which has been exposed to long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation, and 80% of the more labile pool of cesium is excreted via the urine. The present study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features and the immunohistochemical status of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1, cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in urinary bladder mucosa of 55 males (49-92 years old) with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent surgery in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1995 and 1996. Group I (28 patients) inhabiting radiocontaminated areas of the country, group II (17 patients) from Kiev city with less radiocontamination and a control group III (10 patients) living in so-called ''clean'' areas of Ukraine were compared. In groups I and II, an increase in multiple areas of moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was seen in 42 (93%) of 45 cases. In addition, two small transitional cell carcinomas were found in one patient in each of groups I and II. Nuclear accumulation of p53, PCNA, cyclin D1, and to a lesser extent p21WAF1/Cip1, was significantly increased in both groups I and II as compared with the control group III, indicating possible transformation events or enhancement of repair activities, that may precede the defect in the regulatory pathway itself, at least in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that early malignant transformation is taking place in the bladder urothelium of people in the radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine and that this could possibly lead sometime in the future to an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer. (author)

  5. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  6. Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of imaging of bladder cancer with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning. We studied 12 patients with histologically proven bladder cancer who had undergone surgical procedures and/or radiotherapy. Retrograde irrigation of the urinary bladder with 1000-3710 ml saline was performed during nine of the studies. Dynamic and static PET images were obtained, and standardized uptake value images were reconstructed. FDG-PET scanning was true-positive in eight patients (66.7%), but false-negative in four (33.3%). Of 20 organs with tumor mass lesions confirmed pathologically or clinically, 16 (80%) were detected by FDG-PET scanning. FDG-PET scanning detected all of 17 distant metastatic lesions and two of three proven regional lymph node metastases. FDG-PET was also capable of differentiating viable recurrent bladder cancer from radiation-induced alterations in two patients. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate the feasibility of FDG-PET imaging in patients with bladder cancer, although a major remaining pitfall is intense FDG accumulation in the urine. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Beneficial Effects of Combining Computed Tomography Enteroclysis/Enterography with Capsule Endoscopy for Screening Tumor Lesions in the Small Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Shibata; Shinichi Hashimoto; Kensaku Shimizu; Ryo Kawasato; Tomohiro Shirasawa; Takayuki Yokota; Hideko Onoda; Takeshi Okamoto; Jun Nishikawa; Naofumi Matsunaga; Isao Sakaida

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To compare the efficacy of using computed tomography enteroclysis/enterography (CTE), capsule endoscopy (CE), and CTE with CE for diagnosing tumor lesions in the small intestine. Materials and Methods. We included 98 patients who underwent CE during the observation period and were subjected to CTE at our hospital from April 2008 to May 2014. Results. CTE had a significantly higher sensitivity than CE (84.6% versus 46.2%, P = 0.039), but there were no significant differences in specificit...

  8. Bladder Schwannoma - A Case Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mosier, Andrew D.; Leitman, David A.; Keylock, Joren; Nguyen, David; Grant, David

    2012-01-01

    Bladder schwannomas are exceedingly rare, benign or malignant, nerve sheath tumors that are most often discovered in patients with a known diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). A few sporadic case reports of bladder schwannoma have been published in urologic, obstetric/gynecologic, and pathologic journals. However, this is the first case report in the radiologic literature where computed tomography imaging and radiology-specific descriptions are discussed. Furthermore, the patient pres...

  9. Interobserver variability in the differential diagnosis of benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions; Interobservervariabilitaet in der Differentialdiagnose gutartiger Knochentumoren und tumoraehnlicher Knochenlaesionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheitza, P.; Hauschild, O.; Zwingmann, J.; Suedkamp, N.P. [University Medical Centre Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology; Uhl, M. [St. Josefshospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology; Bannasch, H. [University Medical Centre Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Kayser, C. [University Medical Centre Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Herget, G.W. [University Medical Centre Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology/Comprehensive Cancer Centre Freiburg CCCF

    2016-05-15

    The interobserver-variability of radiological diagnosis of benign bone tumors (BBT) and tumor-like lesions (TLL) was examined in order to identify difficult-to-diagnose entities, to examine the frequency of advanced diagnostics and to describe the number of interdisciplinary tumor center diagnoses (IDT) in comparison with diagnoses upon referral (ED) and radiologists' diagnoses (RD). We retrospectively reviewed 413 patients with 272 BBT and 141 TLL, classified either histologically or through interdisciplinary consultation. Discrepancies between groups were analyzed and rates of additional imaging and biopsy to establish diagnosis were assessed. In BBT the number of identical radiological diagnoses was 56 (ED) and 81 % (RD) compared to the IDT, while in the latter additional imaging were obtained in 30 % cases. In 21 % (12 % to establish diagnosis) BBT were biopsied, the ED matching the histology 40 %, the RD 60 % and the IDT 76 % of the time. For TLL diagnosed through radiology, ED and RD matched IDT 31 % and 61 % of the time, with additional imaging being obtained in 21 % of cases (IDT). In 36 % (27 % to establish diagnosis) biopsy was performed, with histological diagnosis matching the IDT, RD and ED in 51, 27 and 20 %. Diagnostic challenges were apparent in enchondromas, non-ossifying fibromas (NOF), solitary (SBC) and aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC). Ganglia can be misinterpreted as a tumor. Establishing a definitive diagnosis for BBT and TLL can be challenging with the latter posing greater difficulties. An interdisciplinary approach involving radiologists, orthopedics and pathologists was found to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  10. 膀胱癌复发患者术后体验的质性研究%Qualitative research in postoperative experience for patients with relapsed bladder tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段秀英; 杨欣; 于晶; 冷爽

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand postoperative experience for patients with relapsed bladder tumor and analyze its influence factors in order to supply references of postoperative nursing for nurses. Methods Patients with relapsed bladder tumot(10 cases) were interviewed and the obtained results underwent analysis and finishing thematically. Results Factors influencing postoperative experience included education haekground,whether having faith and hobbies or not,the disease,medical charge and pressure of future life.The supporting system came from family,group and society. Conclusions Nurses should strengthen mental care and health education based on patients' specific circumstances in order to improve postoperative quality of life.%目的 了解复发膀胱癌患者的术后体验,分析其影响因素,为临床护理人员对患者进行术后护理提供借鉴.方法 通过访谈形式,访问了10例复发膀胱癌患者,将获得的资料进行分析整理,提供主题.结果 影响患者术后体验差异性的因素主要有:文化程度,有无信仰爱好,疾病本身,治疗费用,未来生活等方面的压力;支持系统主要来自家庭、集体、社会3个方面.结论 应根据患者的具体情况,加强心理护理,健康教育,指导患者提高术后生活质量.

  11. TOLERABILITY AND TUMOR RESPONSE OF A NOVEL LOW-DOSE PALLIATIVE RADIATION THERAPY PROTOCOL IN DOGS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER AND URETHRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Kevin; Fidel, Janean

    2016-05-01

    Previously reported radiation protocols for transitional cell carcinoma of the canine lower urinary tract have been ineffective or associated with increased side effects. Objectives of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to describe safety of and tumor responses for a novel palliative radiation protocol for transitional cell carcinoma in dogs. Included dogs had cytologically or histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or urethra, and were treated with 10 once-daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 2.7 Gy. Thirteen dogs were sampled, with six treated using radiation as first-line (induction) therapy and seven treated using radiation as rescue therapy after failing previous chemotherapy. Within 6 weeks of radiation, 7.6% (1/13) dogs had a complete response, 53.8% (7/13) partial response, 38.5% (5/13) stable disease, and none had progressive disease. Three patients presenting with urethral obstruction had spontaneous micturition restored during the treatment protocol. A single patient with unilateral ureteral obstruction was patent at recheck examination. Median survival time from time of initial diagnosis was 179 days. Median survival time from start of radiation was 150 days. Acute radiation side effects occurred in 31% (4/13) patients and were classified as grade 1 or 2. No significant late side radiation side effects were reported. No variables examined were identified as prognostic factors. Findings indicated that the reported radiation protocol was safe in this sample of dogs with bladder and urethral transitional cell carcinoma. Future prospective studies are needed to determine utility of this treatment as a rescue therapy in patients with complete urinary tract obstruction. PMID:26841125

  12. P53 and Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glycans Are Surrogate Markers of Cancerization of the Bladder Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luís; Tavares, Ana; Peixoto, Andreia; Parreira, Beatriz; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Brindley, Paul J.; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%), cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn) and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex), involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed

  13. Trimodality bladder-sparing approach without neoadjuvant chemotherapy for node-negative localized muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer resulted in comparable cystectomy-free survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively review the efficacy and organ preservation experience for muscle-invasive bladder cancer by trimodality therapy at our institution. Between July 2004 and February 2012, seventy patients (M/F = 55/15; median age = 69 years) of lymph node negative localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer were treated primarily with trimodality approach including transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) prior to combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CCRT). Radiotherapy consisted of initial large field size irradiation with 3D conformal technique (3D-CRT), followed by cone-down tumor bed boost with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. The median total doses delivered to bladder tumor bed and whole bladder were 59.4Gy and 40.0Gy, respectively. No patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Weekly cisplatin was administered during radiotherapy. Toxicity was scored according to the RTOG criteria. Tumor response was evaluated both cystoscopically and radiographically 3 months after treatment. The numbers of patients with T2, T3 and T4 lesions were 41, 16 and 13, respectively. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 2 and 5 year were 65.7%, 51.9% and 50.8%, 39.9%, respectively, after a median follow-up time of 24 months. Local-regional control and distant metastasis free survival at 2 year were 69.8% and 73.5%, respectively. Complete response (CR) rate assessed three month after CCRT was 78.1%. Ten patients (20%) had local recurrence after initial CR (n = 50), 3 of them were superficial recurrence. One patient underwent radical cystectomy after recurrence. The overall 5-year bladder intact survival was 49.0% (95% CI, 35.5% to 62.5%). Acute toxicities were limited to grade 1-2. One patient developed late grade 3 GU toxicity. Our result suggested that trimodality bladder-sparing approach without NAC or dose-intensification could be well-tolerated with a high CR rate and bladder preserving rate for muscle-invasive bladder

  14. Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor: prenatal imaging clues to differentiate from other fetal chest lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Bitters, Constance; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stanek, Jerzy [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We present a prenatal case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor referred as a congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) with hydrops and polyhydramnios at 30 weeks' gestational age. US and fetal MRI findings did not fit with the referral diagnosis, raising the possibility of intrinsic lung tumor. Fetal hydrops worsened and the baby was successfully delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to resection at 31 weeks' gestational age. To the best of our knowledge, this is a unique case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor that underwent comprehensive prenatal evaluation and EXIT procedure with good outcome. (orig.)

  15. Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor: prenatal imaging clues to differentiate from other fetal chest lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a prenatal case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor referred as a congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) with hydrops and polyhydramnios at 30 weeks' gestational age. US and fetal MRI findings did not fit with the referral diagnosis, raising the possibility of intrinsic lung tumor. Fetal hydrops worsened and the baby was successfully delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to resection at 31 weeks' gestational age. To the best of our knowledge, this is a unique case of congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor that underwent comprehensive prenatal evaluation and EXIT procedure with good outcome. (orig.)

  16. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rarely Seen Submucosal Lesion of the Stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Arslan; Şeyda Gündüz; Deniz Tural; Mükremin Uysal; Ali Murat Tatlı; Cumhur İbrahim Başsorgun; Gülsüm Özlem Elpek; Hasan Şenol Coşkun; Hakan Şat Bozcuk; Burhan Savaş

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare mesenchymal benign tumor which is generally seen in children and in young adults. It is especially located in the lungs. In histopathological examination, neoplastic fusiform cells originating from a subtype of accessory immune system cells which are called fibroblastic reticulum cells are seen (Kouichi and Youichirou, 2008). Although IMT is histopathologically benign, imaging methods show its tendency for local recurrence and invasion. In m...

  17. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 detection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Wosiacki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi

  18. Pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions mimic pancreatic islet cell tumor in multidetector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Hua-dan; LIU Wei; XIAO Yu; SUN Hao; WANG Xuan; LEI Jing; JIN Zheng-yu

    2011-01-01

    Objective This pictorial review aimed to summarize the most possible differential diagnosis of pancreatic islet cell tumor (PICT).Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from Medline and Pubmed in English. And all clinical images in this review were from Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.Study selection Cases of pancreatic cystadenoma, solid pseudo-papillary tumor of the pancreas, pancreatic metastasis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, para-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, Castleman disease, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, splenic artery aneurysm and accessory spleen were selected in this pictorial review for differential diagnosis of PICT.Results Careful analysis of imaging features and correlation with the clinical manifestations may allow a more specific diagnosis. It is also important that the radiologist is familiar with the anatomic variants and disease entities which mimic pancreatic islet cell tumor in order to avoid an improper treatment protocol.Conclusions Many congenital anatomic variants or other pancreatic and peri-pancreatic diseases may mimic MDCT appearance of pancreatic islet cell tumor. Radiological, clinical and pathological characteristics should be considered for the final diagnosis.

  19. 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings of Metastasis to Spongy Body of Penis From Urothelial Carcinoma of Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Li; Fang, Na; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zeng-Jie; Cui, Xin-Jian

    2016-05-01

    The spongy body of the penis metastasis from other primary sites is a rare clinical entity. It is frequently associated with widespread metastatic disease and poor prognosis clinically. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a previous history of cystectomy due to infiltrating urothelial carcinoma of the bladder 12 months ago and presented with penile shaft swelling pain and hematuria for 3 months. The restaging F-FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated a hypermetabolic mass at his penile shaft. This lesion was confirmed on phallectomy to be infiltrating urothelial carcinoma metastasis from the known primary bladder tumor. PMID:26359570

  20. Beneficial Effects of Combining Computed Tomography Enteroclysis/Enterography with Capsule Endoscopy for Screening Tumor Lesions in the Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Shibata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the efficacy of using computed tomography enteroclysis/enterography (CTE, capsule endoscopy (CE, and CTE with CE for diagnosing tumor lesions in the small intestine. Materials and Methods. We included 98 patients who underwent CE during the observation period and were subjected to CTE at our hospital from April 2008 to May 2014. Results. CTE had a significantly higher sensitivity than CE (84.6% versus 46.2%, P=0.039, but there were no significant differences in specificity, positive or negative predictive values, or diagnostic accuracy rates. The sensitivity of CTE/CE was 100%, again significantly higher than that of CE P=0.002. The difference in specificity between CTE/CE and CE was not significant, but there were significant differences in positive predictive values (100% for CTE/CE versus 66.7% for CE, P=0.012, negative predictive values (100% versus 92.1%, P=0.008, and diagnostic accuracy rate (100% versus 89.8%, P=0.001. The diagnostic accuracy rate was also significantly higher in CTE/CE versus CTE (100% versus 95.9%, P=0.043. Conclusion. Our findings suggested that a combination of CTE and CE was useful for screening tumor lesions in the small intestine. This trial is registered with number UMIN000016154.

  1. Constitutive activation of p38 MAPK in tumor cells contributes to osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; He, J; Wang, J; Cao, Y; Ling, J; Qian, J; Lu, Y; Li, H; Zheng, Y; Lan, Y; Hong, S; Matthews, J; Starbuck, M W; Navone, N M; Orlowski, R Z; Lin, P; Kwak, L W; Yi, Q

    2012-09-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma and affects more than 80% of patients. However, current therapy is unable to completely cure and/or prevent bone lesions. Although it is accepted that myeloma cells mediate bone destruction by inhibition of osteoblasts and activation of osteoclasts, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. This study demonstrates that constitutive activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in myeloma cells is responsible for myeloma-induced osteolysis. Our results show that p38 is constitutively activated in most myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells from patients. Myeloma cells with high/detectable p38 activity, but not those with low/undetectable p38 activity, injected into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) or SCID-hu mice caused bone destruction. Inhibition or knockdown of p38 in human myeloma reduced or prevented myeloma-induced osteolytic bone lesions without affecting tumor growth, survival, or homing to bone. Mechanistic studies showed that myeloma cell p38 activity inhibited osteoblastogenesis and bone formation and activated osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in myeloma-bearing SCID mice. This study elucidates a novel molecular mechanism-activation of p38 signaling in myeloma cells-by which myeloma cells induce osteolytic bone lesions, and indicates that targeting myeloma cell p38 may be a viable approach to treating or preventing myeloma bone disease. PMID:22425892

  2. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Pant-Purohit, Mukta; López Beltrán, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Cheng, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder(SCCUB) is a rare and aggressive cancer of the bladder.SCCUB is part of neuroendocrine family of tumors thataffect several organ systems including respiratory,gastrointestinal and male and female genitourinary tract.SCCUB affect males predominantly with common riskfactors include smoking, bladder calculi, bladdermanipulation, and chronic cystitis. Prognosis of SCCUBremains poor due to high metastatic potential and lack ofsymptoms in earlier stages of...

  3. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... in boys and is often linked to other birth defects. Surgery is necessary to: Allow the child to ...

  4. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  5. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  6. Imaging of subepithelial hematoma of renal pelvis (Antopol-Goldman lesion) simulating tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of subepithelial hematoma of the renal pelvis (Antopol-Goldman Lesion). A 55-year-old women visited our hospital because of gross hematuria. Ultrasonogram showed a 4 cm well-defined solid mass of the left renal pelvis. Intravenous pyelography revealed compression of the left upper pelvicocalyceal system by the mass with contrast filling within the mass. CT scan revealed lobulated well defined mass in the left renal pelvis extending into renal parenchyme. A transitional cell carcinoma or renal cell carcinoma was suspected radiologically, and the patient underwent left total nephrectomy. In pathology, the lesion turned out to be a subepithelial hematoma. In the differential diagnosis of renal malignancy, a subepithelial hematoma of the renal pelvis may be included

  7. Imaging of subepithelial hematoma of renal pelvis (Antopol-Goldman lesion) simulating tumor: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doo Kyoung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Se Joong; Park, Kwang Hwa; Ji, Hoon; Suh, Jung Ho [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    We report a rare case of subepithelial hematoma of the renal pelvis (Antopol-Goldman Lesion). A 55-year-old women visited our hospital because of gross hematuria. Ultrasonogram showed a 4 cm well-defined solid mass of the left renal pelvis. Intravenous pyelography revealed compression of the left upper pelvicocalyceal system by the mass with contrast filling within the mass. CT scan revealed lobulated well defined mass in the left renal pelvis extending into renal parenchyme. A transitional cell carcinoma or renal cell carcinoma was suspected radiologically, and the patient underwent left total nephrectomy. In pathology, the lesion turned out to be a subepithelial hematoma. In the differential diagnosis of renal malignancy, a subepithelial hematoma of the renal pelvis may be included.

  8. Cystoscopic resection of bladder recurrent tumor by Nd:YAG laser%膀胱镜下Nd:YAG激光治疗膀胱复发性肿瘤疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓晴; 李文光

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cystoscopic Nd:YAG laser treatment of recurrent bladder tumors.Methods:46 cases of recurrent bladder tumors were treated using Nd:YAG laser cutting and vaporization from june 1995 to february 2000.Results:Nd:YAG laser was effectively used to treat recurrent bladder tumor in 46 patient. There were no intraoperation complications such as bleedding, perforation and delayed complications.Conclusions:It has been demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser therapy is provided with advantages of simple procedure, lower cost, high effect and safety, it can be performed in patients of elder age or in a poor condition with bladder tumor.%目的:探讨膀胱镜下Nd:YAG激光手术治疗膀胱复发性肿瘤的安全性和有效性.方法:对我们1995年6月~2000年2月期间收治的46例膀胱复发性肿瘤患者行膀胱镜下Nd:YAG激光手术治疗.结果:手术全部成功,肿瘤切除彻底,术中和术后无出血、膀胱穿孔等并发症;术后随访6个月~4年以上,异位复发2例,复发率为4.3%.结论:Nd:YAG激光治疗膀胱复发性肿瘤操作简便,安全系数高,效果确切,并具有痛苦少、费用低、无并发症等优点,对年老和体质差的患者尤为适宜,值得推广应用.

  9. TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE TP53 MUTATIONS IN ATYPICAL VASCULAR LESIONS OF THE BREAST SKIN FOLLOWING RADIOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Santi, Raffaella; Cetica, Valentina; Franchi, Alessandro; Pepi, Monica; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Miracco, Clelia; Paglierani, Milena; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Delfino, Chiara; Difonzo, Elisa Margherita; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Bianchi, Simonetta; Sardi, Iacopo; Santucci, Marco; Massi, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Atypical vascular lesions (AVL) occurring at the site of radiotherapy represent an uncommon but well-documented complication in the setting of breast-conserving therapy for breast carcinoma. Although the biological behavior of AVL has been regarded to be benign, it has been suggested that AVL may represent a precursor of angiosarcoma. A better understanding of the biology of AVL is essential in order to assess appropriate patient management. The purpose of the present s...

  10. Chromosomal imbalance in the progression of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms with invasion of the lamina propria (stage T1) or high grade of dysplasia are at 'high risk' of progression to life-threatening cancer. However, the individual course is difficult to predict. Chromosomal instability (CI) is associated with high tumor stage and grade, and possibly with the risk of progression. To investigate the relationship between CI and subsequent disease progression, we performed a case-control-study of 125 patients with 'high-risk' non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms, 67 with later disease progression, and 58 with no progression. Selection criteria were conservative (non-radical) resections and full prospective clinical follow-up (> 5 years). We investigated primary lesions in 59, and recurrent lesions in 66 cases. We used Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 10 K and 50 K SNP microarrays to evaluate genome wide chromosomal imbalance (loss-of-heterozygosity and DNA copy number changes) in 48 representative tumors. DNA copy number changes of 15 key instability regions were further investigated using QPCR in 101 tumors (including 25 tumors also analysed on 50 K SNP microarrays). Chromosomal instability did not predict any higher risk of subsequent progression. Stage T1 and high-grade tumors had generally more unstable genomes than tumors of lower stage and grade (mostly non-primary tumors following a 'high-risk' tumor). However, about 25% of the 'high-risk' tumors had very few alterations. This was independent of subsequent progression. Recurrent lesions represent underlying field disease. A separate analysis of these lesions did neither reflect any difference in the risk of progression. Of specific chromosomal alterations, a possible association between loss of chromosome 8p11 and the risk of progression was found. However, the predictive value was limited by the heterogeneity of the changes. Chromosomal instability (CI) was associated with 'high risk' tumors

  11. Post-irradiation lesions of the caudal roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on 3 patients suffering from muscular atrophy after radiotherapy of the para-aortal lymph nodes for malignant testicular tumor without any sensory, bladder, or bowel disburbances. By neurophysiological examination, a lesion of the lumbal plexus and the peripheral nerves of the lower extremities were excluded. On EMG-examination there were no giant motor unit potentials, as they can be found in anterior horn cell lesions. Though there were no sensory deficits, a distinct prolongation of latencies and reduction of amplitudes could be found for lumbar dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and those after stimulation of some peripheral nerves of the lower extremities. (author)

  12. Downregulation of glutathione S-transferase M1 protein in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced mouse bladder carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Jing-Jing [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Dai, Yuan-Chang [Department of Pathology, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yung-Lun; Chen, Yang-Yi; Lin, Wei-Han [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chan, Hong-Lin [Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology and Department of Medical Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yi-Wen, E-mail: ywlss@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Bladder cancer is highly recurrent following specific transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy, which has prompted continuing efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents and early-stage diagnostic tools. Specific changes in protein expression can provide a diagnostic marker. In our present study, we investigated changes in protein expression during urothelial carcinogenesis. The carcinogen BBN was used to induce mouse bladder tumor formation. Mouse bladder mucosa proteins were collected and analyzed by 2D electrophoresis from 6 to 20 weeks after commencing continuous BBN treatment. By histological examination, the connective layer of the submucosa showed gradual thickening and the number of submucosal capillaries gradually increased after BBN treatment. At 12-weeks after the start of BBN treatment, the urothelia became moderately dysplastic and tumors arose after 20-weeks of treatment. These induced bladder lesions included carcinoma in situ and connective tissue invasive cancer. In protein 2D analysis, the sequentially downregulated proteins from 6 to 20 weeks included GSTM1, L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain, keratin 8, keratin 18 and major urinary proteins 2 and 11/8. In contrast, the sequentially upregulated proteins identified were GSTO1, keratin 15 and myosin light polypeptide 6. Western blotting confirmed that GSTM1 and NQO-1 were decreased, while GSTO1 and Sp1 were increased, after BBN treatment. In human bladder cancer cells, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased the GSTM1 mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that the downregulation of GSTM1 in the urothelia is a biomarker of bladder carcinogenesis and that this may be mediated by DNA CpG methylation. - Highlights: • GSTM1 and NQO-1 proteins decreased in the mouse bladder mucosa after BBN treatment. • BBN induced GSTO1 and Sp1 protein expression in the mouse bladder mucosa. • 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased GSTM1 mRNA and protein in human bladder cancer cell. • GSTM1

  13. Clinical pitfalls in diagnosis of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretta, Vincenzo; Scalici Gesolfo, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Current global economic crisis imposes healthcare system to reduce unnecessary investigations and increase early detection of tumors, to decrease the costs of an advanced disease. Several diagnostic pitfalls may occur dealing with bladder cancer (BC), particularly in nonmuscle-invasive (NMIBC) one. Hematuria, the commonest sign in NMIBC, is often underestimated. Urinary cytology is highly specific for high-grade tumors, but has a low sensitivity for low-grade BC, is operator dependent, and not always obtainable in clinical practice. Numerous urinary tests are available to ameliorate the accuracy of cytology, but none of them is routinly used in urological practice. Ultrasound could hardly detect a small bladder tumor, especially if located in the bladder neck or in the anterior wall. Computed tomography (CT) is widely adopted as an alternative to conventional urography, but its usefulness in patients with hematuria is still debated. MRI has a higher accuracy than CT for staging BC and evaluate the bladder-wall invasion. A negative cystoscopy cannot exclude Tis and should be accompanied by urinary cytology in patients with suspected Tis or high-risk NMIBC; however, new techniques such as narrow band imaging (NBI) and photodynamic (PDD) increase the detection rate of BC and flat lesions. Nearly half of all diagnostic resections present omission of muscle in the specimen or its mention in the pathology report, which is associated with an increased mortality. An adequate muscle sampling during endoscopic resection is mandatory, particularly in patients with high-grade disease. Recognition of pitfalls in diagnosis and management of BC represents the first step for a correct approach. PMID:26481718

  14. Familial aggregation of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Except for smoking and certain occupational exposures, the etiology of bladder cancer is largely unknown. Several case reports have described familial aggregation of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Although the majority of patients with bladder cancer do not have family history of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract, the study of familial transitional cell carcinoma may lead to the knowledge on the pathogenesis of this disease. The purpose of this study was to describe three cases of urinary bladder cancer in a single three-member family, i.e. in two generations (mother and son and a family member related by marriage (the patient’s wife. Case report. Three cases of urinary bladder cancer occurred in a three-member family within the interval of 5 years. The following common characteristics were detected in our patients: old age (over 60, working as farmers for more than 50 years, negative personal medical history on relevant health disorders, place of birth - village, place of residence - village, the same water supply, similar nutrition, positive family history on urinary bladder cancer or other malignant tumors, the first sign of illness was macroscopic hematuria in all the patients and the same pathohistological type of cancer - carcinoma papillare transitiocellulare. Conclusion. The stated common characteristics in our cases indicate, above all, the impact of exposure to external surrounding factors on the occurrence of urinary bladder cancer.

  15. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF CHEMOIRRADIATION IN LOCALLY ADVANCED URINARY BLADDER CANCER

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    Nehru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is the standard method used to treat patients with locally advanced carcinoma of urinary bladder. Furthermore, a significant proportion of patients are deemed unsuitable for surgery due to inoperability, advanced age, and/or comorbid conditions. B ecause of disappointing results with radical cystectomy in terms of survival, as well as the morbidity and decreased quality of life associated with the surgery, bladder - conserving therapies like trimodality (TURBT, concurrent chemoradiation therapy have been gained popularity as the survival rates are nearly equal with radical cystectomy along with functioning bladder. AIM OF STUDY : To study retrospectively the effectiveness of chemoradition therapy in bladder preservation approach in the management of p atients with locally advanced ( I nvasive bladder cancer in medically unfit and unwilling patients for radical cystectomy and those who cannot tolerate combination chemotherapy drugs. METHOD S AND MATERIAL : The data was collected from the patient’s records between 2004 - 2010 who were treated in our Regional cancer hospital. All were biopsy/CT scan proven muscle invasive urinary bladder tumors with T2 – 3, N0, M0 lesions. Post TURBT status. Medi cally unfit and Unwillingness for surgery and underwent concurrent Radiotherapy with weekly cisplatin therapy. And men and / women with age between 45 - 70 years were included in the study. RESULTS : Out of 28 patients 4 (14.29% patients who had good TURP procedure showed complete response , 20(71.43% patients had partial response and 4(14.29% patients showed stable disease. 71.43% patient showed symptomatic response to treatment . CONCLUSION : Being a single agent chemotherapy with radiation and it is feasible without major toxicity and offers a potentially usefulness in locoregional control and symptomatic relief in unfavorable population with invasive bladder cancer. Moreover it

  16. The role of partial cystectomy in treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle invasive bladder cancer is usually treated by radical cystectomy, but in some selected cases with solitary tumor with appropriate localization partial cystectomy can be the treatment of choice achieving long term results with bladder preservation. We reviewed records of 11 patients which were treated in 5 year period from June 2002 to June 2007. by partial cystectomy according to the size of the tumor, localization, histology, multifocality, pathological and clinical stage, sex, and age. Male: female ratio was 6:5, mean age of the patients being 64.9 years. All patients bur one had solitary lesions located in the bladder dome in 4, on lateral sides in 5,2 patients had a tumor in diverticulum. TCC gr II was diagnosed 6 pts, TCC gr III in 5. One patient died in a year from disease progression, one from other reason, while all other patients are alive and disease free, the longest disease free interval being 3 years. Bladder capacity is adequate in all patients resulting in good quality of life .Our results suggest that in selected patients cancer control can be achieved with partial cystectomy.

  17. Implantation of Bladder Cancer into the Abdominal Wall; a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    M Ghafoori; M. Narooinejad; D. Saedi; Asgari, M.

    2006-01-01

    Implantation of high grade and invasive bladder carcinoma into the abdominal wall is not common and can occur as side effects of uninary bladder interventions and surgical procedures, including perforation of bladder wall during transurethral resection of the tumor. Herein, we present a case of implantation of bladder transitional cell carcinoma into abdominal wall into an incisional hernia of a previous small bowel operation; three years after the bladder tumor had been diagnosed and treated...

  18. Hypersensitive bladder: a solution to confused terminology and ignorance concerning interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio

    2014-04-01

    Taxonomy or nomenclature concerning interstitial cystitis and its related symptom syndromes is in a state of confusion. After analyzing the reasons for confusion in regard to three components (disease name, symptoms, Hunner's lesion), I would like to propose a new term, "hypersensitive bladder", taking after overactive bladder, as a solution. Hypersensitive bladder symptoms are defined as "increased bladder sensation, usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without bladder pain." The proposal of hypersensitive bladder is based on: (i) it does not appear a symptom syndrome, but a disease by ending with an organ name, "bladder"; (ii) it does not contain confusable symptom terms (pain and urgency), but indicates irritative symptoms including pain and urgency; and (iii) it suggests pathophysiological hyperactivity of sensory nerves. Interstitial cystitis is defined by three requirements: (i) hypersensitive bladder symptoms; (ii) bladder pathology; and (iii) no other diseases, where bladder pathology should be clearly stated either as Hunner's lesion or glomerulations after hydrodistention. Hypersensitive bladder can be used for the condition with hypersensitive bladder symptoms, but no obvious disease explaining hypersensitive bladder symptoms identified. Interstitial cystitis is a representative disease causing hypersensitive bladder symptoms, most typically with pain, but might be painless and indistinguishable from overactive bladder. Introducing hypersensitive bladder as a counter concept of overactive bladder into bladder dysfunction taxonomy will facilitate clinical practice and research progress, and attract considerable attention from the medical world. PMID:24807494

  19. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rarely Seen Submucosal Lesion of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is a rare mesenchymal benign tumor which is generally seen in children and in young adults. It is especially located in the lungs. In histopathological examination, neoplastic fusiform cells originating from a subtype of accessory immune system cells which are called fibroblastic reticulum cells are seen (Kouichi and Youichirou, 2008. Although IMT is histopathologically benign, imaging methods show its tendency for local recurrence and invasion. In most of the cases, it may not be possible to make a distinction whether it is malign or benign. Complete surgical resection is the most important treatment method. In this study, we have discussed the findings of our case having a gastric submucosal located IMT in light of the current literatures.

  20. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rarely Seen Submucosal Lesion of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Deniz; Gündüz, Şeyda; Tural, Deniz; Uysal, Mükremin; Tatlı, Ali Murat; Başsorgun, Cumhur İbrahim; Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem; Coşkun, Hasan Şenol; Bozcuk, Hakan Şat; Savaş, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare mesenchymal benign tumor which is generally seen in children and in young adults. It is especially located in the lungs. In histopathological examination, neoplastic fusiform cells originating from a subtype of accessory immune system cells which are called fibroblastic reticulum cells are seen (Kouichi and Youichirou, 2008). Although IMT is histopathologically benign, imaging methods show its tendency for local recurrence and invasion. In most of the cases, it may not be possible to make a distinction whether it is malign or benign. Complete surgical resection is the most important treatment method. In this study, we have discussed the findings of our case having a gastric submucosal located IMT in light of the current literatures. PMID:23573435

  1. A case of Choriocarcinoma primarily located in the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Türkcü

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choriocarcinoma is a tumor with poor prognosis which usually develops in the uterus and ovaries in females and testes in males. Choriocarcinomas primarily located in the urinary bladder occur extremely rare. In the radiological examination of the 28 year old male patient presented with cough, difficulty in breathing, dysuria and hematuria; lung lesions compatible with metastasis and a mass which was extending inside of the lumen in the anterior wall of the urinary bladder were determined. During the cystoscopic investigation, an incomplete transurethral resection was applied to the tumor. In the histopathological evaluation of the tumor tissue, cells compatible with syncytiotrophoblasts were observed among the polyhedral large mononuclear cells. While positive staining with pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, high molecular weight cytokeratin, human plasental lactogen, and human corionic gonadotrophin was observed in the tumor tissue, there was not any staining with epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, CD30, p63, and cytokeratin 20. Present histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated as compatible with coriocarcinoma. Because of being seen rarely, having poor prognosis, causing death due to metastasis, the necessity of holding in mind in the differential diagnosis of high grade urothelial carcinomas, it is purposed to present the case accompanied by literature information.

  2. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing Sarcoma Presenting with Pulmonary Nodular Lesions

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    Selvi Asker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs and Ewing sarcoma (EWS belong to the same family of malignant, small, round cell neoplasms of soft tissue or bone origin. EWS-PNETs that arise in the lung parenchyma involvement are extremely rare in adults. A case of a 32-year-old male presenting with chest pain and diffuse pulmonary nodules on chest X-ray and diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma-PNETs will be presented here.

  3. Tumores y lesiones seudotumorales óseas en el niño: Estudio de diez años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez López

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en un número de 159 pacientes con 184 tumores y lesiones seudotumorales óseas primarias comprendidas en las edades pediátricas hasta 15 años de edad. Predominó el grupo de edades de 6 a 10 años de edad con un 32 % para el sexo masculino y un 14,4 % para el femenino. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado con un 63,5 %. Las zonas metafisarias alrededor de la rodilla constituyó la localización más frecuente con un 35,2 % (un 18,4 %, la metáfisis distal del fémur y un 16,8 % la metáfisis proximal de la tibia. El osteocondroma predominó como el tumor benigno más frecuente con un 79,3 %, la lesión seudotumoral más frecuente fue el fibroma no osificante con un 15,2 %, el tumor maligno más frecuente fue el osteosarcoma con un 3,2 %. Respecto al comportamiento biológico de los tumores óseos planteado por Enneking, predominó la forma activa en el 88,1 % de los casos y en los malignos, el osteosarcoma de alto grado. El órgano con mayor incidencia de metástasis fue el pulmón, la supervivencia hasta 5 años fue del 33,3 %.

  4. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

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    Tufan Cicek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder arising in an unusual localization. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 604-608

  5. Inhibition of telomerase with human telomerase reverse transcriptase antisense enhances tumor necrosis factor-a-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiao-dong; CHEN Yi-rong

    2007-01-01

    Background Telomerase activity is found in 85%-90% of all human cancers but not in their adjacent normal cells.Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is an essential component in the telomerase complex that plays an important role in telomerase activity. This study investigated the effect of the telomerase inhibition with an hTERT antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) in bladder cancer cells (T24) on tumor necrosis factor-o (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis.Methods Antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (AS PS-ODN) was synthesized and purified. Telomerase activity was measured by polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunoassay (PCR-ELISA). hTERT mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and a gel-image system.hTERT protein was detected by immunochemistry and flow cytometry. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell apoptosis was observed by a morphological method and determined by flow cytometry.Results AS PS-ODN significantly inhibited telomerase activity and decreased the levels of hTERT mRNA which preceded the decline in the telomerase activity. AS PS-ODN significantly reduced the percentage of positive cells expressing hTERT protein following the decline of hTERT mRNA levels. There was no difference seen in the telomerase activity, hTERT mRNA expression or the protein levels between the sense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (SPS-ODN) and the control group. AS PS-ODN treatment significantly decreased the cell viability and enhanced the apoptotic rate of T24 cells in response to TNF-α while there was no difference in cell viability and apoptotic rate between the S PS-ODN and the control group.Conclusions AS PS-ODN can significantly inhibit telomerase activity by downregulating the hTERT mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with AS PS-ODN may be a potential and most promising strategy for bladder cancer with telomerase

  6. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Eliyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%. The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, CD3, CD20, LCA, CDX2, uroplakin, thyroid transcription factor 1, PSA and p63. Metastatic workup was performed an no primary or metastatic lung lesions were noted. Due to the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as primary small cell carcinoma of bladder. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18 genes was performed, in paraffin micro dissection specimens, by the PCR-direct sequencing method. According to the sequencing analyses, two mutations were found at positions 558 (p.K558N and 562 (p.E562D in KIT gene exon 11 in our case. The another hand the same case presented two mutations in PDGFRA gene exon 14 at position 631 (p.P631A and 638 (p.638Q_639AinsC. The disease process was fulminant and the patient was lost due to several complications prior to any chemotherapy.

  7. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: KIT and PDGFRA Gene Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyakin, Nuket; Postaci, Hakan; Baskin, Yasemin; Kozacioğlu, Zafer

    2015-12-29

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromo-granin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%). The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, CD3, CD20, LCA, CDX2, uroplakin, thyroid transcription factor 1, PSA and p63. Metastatic workup was performed an no primary or metastatic lung lesions were noted. Due to the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as primary small cell carcinoma of bladder. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes was performed, in paraffin micro dissection specimens, by the PCR-direct sequencing method. According to the sequencing analyses, two mutations were found at positions 558 (p.K558N) and 562 (p.E562D) in KIT gene exon 11 in our case. The another hand the same case presented two mutations in PDGFRA gene exon 14 at position 631 (p.P631A) and 638 (p.638Q_639AinsC). The disease process was fulminant and the patient was lost due to several complications prior to any chemotherapy. PMID:26788274

  8. Tumores y lesiones seudotumorales óseas en el niño: Estudio de diez años

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Álvarez López; Carlos Casanova Morote; Yenina García Lorenzo; Eugenio Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2001-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en un número de 159 pacientes con 184 tumores y lesiones seudotumorales óseas primarias comprendidas en las edades pediátricas hasta 15 años de edad. Predominó el grupo de edades de 6 a 10 años de edad con un 32 % para el sexo masculino y un 14,4 % para el femenino. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado con un 63,5 %. Las zonas metafisarias alrededor de la rodilla constituyó la localización más frecuente con un 35,2 % (un 18,4 %, ...

  9. Investigation of low and moderate stage upper urinary tumor with and without concomitant bladder cuff resection%低分期上尿路上皮癌根治手术不加膀胱袖状切除的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士军; 张晓威; 袁佳奇; 叶海云; 王晓峰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the necessity of concomitant bladder cuff and the possibility of distal ureter sparing surgery during radical nephroureterectomy of low-level upper urinary tract tumors. Methods Clinical data of 73 patients with low-level (Tis-T3 M0 N0 ) tumors of the proximal upper urinary transitional epithelial cancer treated in radical nephroureterectomy in our hospital from 2000 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The medical charts and pathologic specimens of 35 patients with, and 38 patients without, concomitant bladder cuff were reviewed. Results In the 35 patients with concomitant bladder cuff resection, 8 cases (22.9%) recurrence was observed; in the 38 patients without concomitant bladder cuff resection, 8 cases (21.1%) recurrence was observed. There was no difference between both groups(P>0.05). In the 19 patients suffered renal pelvis tumors with concomitant bladder cuff resection, 4 cases (21.1%) recurrence was observed; In the 16 patients suffered ureter tumors with concomitant bladder cuff resection, 4 cases (25 %) recurrence was observed.There is no difference between patients of renal pelvis tumors and of ureter tumors with concomitant bladder cuff(P>0.05). In the 27 patients suffered renal pelvis tumors without concomitant bladder cuff resection, 3 cases (11.1 %) recurrence was observed; in the 11 patients suffered ureter tumors with concomitant bladder cuff, 5 cases (45.5%) recurrence was observed. There was significant different between patients of renal pelvis tumors and of ureter tumors without concomitant bladder cuff (P0.05).经典肾盂癌根治性手术组19例肾盂癌中,肿瘤复发4例(21.1%);16例中上段输尿管癌中,肿瘤复发4例(25.0%),2组肿瘤复发率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).根治性肾切除组27例肾盂癌中,肿瘤复发3例(11.1%);11例中上段输尿管癌中,肿瘤复发5例(45.5%),2组肿瘤复发率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 低分期上尿路上皮癌患者可不行膀胱袖状切

  10. A pure microcytic bladder carcinoma synchronous to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileios Sakalis; Anastasia Gkotsi; Efrosyni Mylonaki; Aphroditi Pantzaki; Vasileios Rombis

    2011-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) or microcytic carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity comprising approximately 0.5% of all bladder tumors. Due to its rarity, no prospective studies evaluating the most effective treatment have been published in the medical literature. Several cases of bladder SCC have been presented so far. We describe our case report and we revise the recent literature. Our patient was diagnosed with pure bladder SCC and prostatic adenocarcinoma. After the initial and co...

  11. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Neuroendocrine Bladder Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Prelaj, Arsela; Rebuzzi, Sara Elena; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Speranza, Iolanda; Corongiu, Emanuele; Borgoni, Giuseppe; Perugia, Giacomo; Liberti, Marcello; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 71 Final Diagnosis: Neuroendocrine cancer bladder Symptoms: Dysuria • haematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer that mainly presents at an advanced stage. As a result of its rarity, it has been described in many case reports and reviews but few retrospective and prospective trials, sho...

  12. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K; Tsai, Y C; Spruck, C H; Miyao, N; Nichols, P W; Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X chr...

  13. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Niki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC is the most common type of urinary bladder cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, a key enzyme in prostaglandins biosynthesis, has been introduced as a new candidate for targeted therapy in this cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression of COX-2 in urinary bladder TCCs and its relationship with clinicopathological parameters such as tumor grade and stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Pathology department of Sina Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2006-2011. Pathology reports of patients with definite diagnosis of urinary bladder TCCs who had undergone Transurethral Resection (TUR were reviewed and 40 cases were selected. Subsequently, COX-2 expression was assessed immunohistochemically by the examination of paraffin embedded tissue blocks. Staining in more than 5% of tumor cells was considered as positive expression. Results: COX-2 was expressed in 52.5% of the patients. High-grade tumors revealed a higher (87.5% COX-2 expression versus other grades of the lesions and there was a statistically significant difference in COX-2 expression between them (P<0.001. Patients age was also related to the expression of this marker (P=0.03. In contrast, this marker did not correlate with other characteristics including gender, lymphatic invasion or tumor stage. In addition, perineurial or vascular invasions were not detected in any of the patients. Conclusion: COX-2 expression was seen in more than half of our patients and it had a marked relation to tumor differentiation. Accordingly, this molecule may be a useful tumor marker in the assessment of urinary bladder cancers.

  14. [A CASE OF UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER WITH SQUAMOUS DIFFERENTIATION RESPONDING TO PACLITAXEL AND CARBOPLATIN NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Eri; Nishino, Aki; Nagai, Yasuharu; Yasuda, Muneo; Tahara, Hideo; Kino, Shigeo; Kanno, Norihumi

    2015-07-01

    A 42-year-old man was referred to our hospital for macrohematuria. Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed right hydronephrosis and a retroperitoneal mass, located next to right side of the bladder. Cystoscopy showed a protruded lesion covered with normal mucosa at the right lateral wall. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and biopsies of the bladder wall. Histological examination showed squamous cell carcinoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) was performed. A total cystectomy, right nephroureterectomy and construction of the ileal conduit were performed after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Histological examination showed urothelial carcinoma with squamous cell differentiation. Unexpectedly, a small amount of CIS was detected only in the vicinity of the TUR scar. The patient received 2 cycles of TC chemotherapy as adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, 11 months later, local recurrence and liver metastasis were detected. He died 17 months after the surgery. PMID:26419080

  15. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  16. Knockdown of Ki-67 by Dicer-Substrate Small Interfering RNA Sensitizes Bladder Cancer Cells to Curcumin-Induced Tumor Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Shishkov, Andrei; Zhang, Bi; McCue, Peter; Ponnappa, Biddanda C.

    2012-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR). However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a l...

  17. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha is correlated with monocyte infiltration in mouse lipid lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckless, Jill; Rubin, Edward M.; Verstuyft, Judy B.; Metcalfe, James C.; Grainger, David J.

    1999-01-11

    The infiltration of monocytes into the vascular wall and their transformation into lipid-laden foam cells characterize early atherogenesis. This focal accumulation of lipids, together with smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the intima of large arteries result in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. The extent to which the plaque is infiltrated with monocytes appears to be an important determinant of plaque stability. It has been proposed that macrophages secrete an excess of matrix-degrading enzymes over their inhibitors, resulting in conversion of a stable plaque into anunstable plaque that is likely to rupture, resulting in acutemyocardial infarction. Macrophages and T cells constitute {approx}40 percent of the total population of cells in the lipid core region of atherosclerotic plaques. Their recruitment to the lesion may depend on alterations in the adhesive properties of the endothelial surface. Increased endothelial cell permeability and endothelial cell activation are among the earliest changes associated with developing lesions of atherosclerosis. Many of the cell adhesion molecules involved in monocyte recruitment are expressed at low or undetectable levels on normal endothelium but are substantially elevated on the endothelium overlaying atherosclerotic lesions In addition to endothelial cell activation, numerous chemotactic cytokines have also been postulated to be involved in monocyte recruitment. For example, interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) are direct chemoattractants for human monocytes but additionally induce cytoskeletal changes in the endothelium that result in increased permeability. This increased permeability, together with stimulated expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, plays an important part in the local inflammation mediated by TNF-a and IL-1. In addition, a large number of other proinflammatory cytokines, including macrophage

  18. Tumores ósseos benignos e lesões ósseas Pseudotumorais: tratamento atual e novas tendências Benign bone tumors and tumor-like bone lesions: treatment update and new trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Nogueira Drumond

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento dos tumores ósseos benignos (TOB e lesões ósseas pseudotumorais (LOP tem visto surgir novos medicamentos, como os bisfosfonatos de uso intravenoso, que têm mostrado bons resultados no controle das lesões da displasia fibrosa. O cisto ósseo aneurismático tem sido tratado com agentes esclerosantes com sucesso. Tratamentos adjuvantes permitem a realização de cirurgias que preservam a articulação e a função, com baixas taxas de recidiva. Têm sido mais utilizados o cimento ósseo (PMMA, o fenol, a crioterapia com nitrogênio líquido, a água oxigenada, o álcool etílico e a radioterapia. Entre os novos métodos de tratamento surgidos destaca-se a ablação térmica por radiofrequência e por laser, utilizada principalmente para tratamento do osteoma osteoide. A artroscopia permite a ressecção de lesões benignas intra-articulares e assiste na ressecção de tumores subcondrais. Um grande avanço foi a utilização de substitutos sintéticos do osso, que associam substâncias osteoindutivas com material osteocondutivo e têm apresentado resultados comparáveis aos do enxerto ósseo autógeno. Há uma tendência atual para tratamentos fechados, fazendo-se a injeção percutânea de matriz óssea desmineralizada (DBM associada com sulfato de cálcio. O enxerto ósseo esponjoso autógeno permanece como o padrão ouro. O enxerto de fíbula vascularizado apresenta os melhores resultados para incorporação em lesões maiores e agressivas. Também o suporte cortical alogênico provê resistência estrutural aumentada nessas lesões mais agressivas. O aloenxerto liofilizado tem indicação para preencher defeitos contidos e para reforço do enxerto autógeno. As endopróteses articulares são utilizadas em grandes lesões destrutivas no fêmur distal, no quadril e no ombro.The treatment of benign bone tumors (BBT and tumor-like bone lesions (TBL has observed the introduction of new drugs, such as intravenous bisphosphonates

  19. Chromosomal imbalances in successive moments of human bladder urothelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento e Pontes, Merielen Garcia; da Silveira, Sara Martorelli; Trindade Filho, José Carlos de Souza;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand developmental characteristics of urinary bladder carcinomas (UBC) by evaluating genomic alterations and p53 protein expression in primary tumors, their recurrences, and in the morphologically normal urothelium of UBC patients. METHODS: Tumors and their respective recurren...

  20. 经尿道膀胱肿瘤电切术与绿激光治疗非肌层侵润性膀胱癌的临床效果及预后分析%The Clinical Effect and Prognostic Analysis of Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor and Green Laser in the Treatment of Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳坤

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究与分析经尿道膀胱肿瘤电切术和绿激光治疗非肌层浸润性膀胱癌的临床效果及预后。方法选自我院2014年8月~2015年5月收治的非浸润性膀胱癌患者86例,按随机数法分为电切组和激光组,分别给予经尿道电切术和绿激光治疗,观察两组患者手术中的情况以及手术后的情况,将结果进行对比分析。结果激光组患者在术中及术后的不良反应低于电切组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论经尿道膀胱肿瘤电切术和绿激光治疗法均能有效治疗非肌层浸润性膀胱癌,绿激光治疗更为安全高效。%Objective To explore and analyze the clinical efficacy and prognosis for patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with transurethral bladder tumor resection and green laser. Methods 86 cases of non invasive bladder cancer patients were selected from August 2014 to May 2015 that treated at our hospital. All the patients were divided into two groups, the resection group and the laser group, separately treated with transurethral resection and green laser. The intraoperative and postoperative condition of patients would be analyzed and compared between groups. Results In the laser group, the adverse events of intraoperative and postoperative patients was significantly lower than that of the resection group, P<0.05, compared with statistical significance. Conclusion Transurethral resection of bladder tumor and green laser therapy can effectively treat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. The green laser treatment is worthy of further research and extension in the clinic with the advantage of more safe and effective..

  1. Immunotherapeutic strategies for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Mathieu F; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Jichlinski, Patrice; Derré, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common urologic malignancy with rising incidence in the elderly population. In most cases, bladder cancer is non-muscle-invasive at diagnosis and shows dramatically high recurrence rates, although current treatments often reduce the risk of disease progression. Immunotherapy using intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the most effective therapy for patients with high risk tumors. However, BCG-therapy has important limitations including substantial adverse events and frequent treatment failure. Thus, it appears crucial to either improve or replace current therapy using new immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we discuss the clinical trials that assessed therapeutic vaccination of bladder cancer patients using tumor associated antigens and we also argue for novel approaches arising from murine models. Vaccination routes to induce appropriate T-cell homing in the tumor site as well as the use of local immunostimulation to enhance recruitment of vaccine-induced T cells are discussed to highlight what we believe is a promising therapeutic vaccination strategy for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PMID:24384699

  2. [Specific types of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, S; Hartmann, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Gaisa, N T

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer shows rare variants and special subtypes with diverse prognostic importance and therefore may necessitate different therapeutic approaches. For pathologists it is important to histologically diagnose and specify such variants. Nested variants of urothelial carcinoma with inconspicuous, well-formed tumor cell nests present with an aggressive course. The plasmacytoid variant, which morphologically resembles plasma cells is associated with a shorter survival time and a high frequency of peritoneal metastasis. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma with small papillary tumor cell islands within artificial tissue retraction spaces and frequent lymphovascular invasion also has a poor prognosis. Other important rare differential variants listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification are microcystic, lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid, giant cell and undifferentiated urothelial carcinomas. Additionally, there are three special types of bladder cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. These tumors are characterized by pure squamous cell or glandular differentiation and are sometimes less responsive to adjuvant (chemo)therapy. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder mimics the neuroendocrine features of its pulmonary counterpart, shows an aggressive course but is sensitive to (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy. The morphology and histology of the most important variants and special types are discussed in this review. PMID:26782034

  3. Ct2 Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    The patient is an 80-year-old man who presented with gross hematuria. His past medical history indicates he was a cigarette smoker with 50 pack/years. He was successfully treated for carcinoma of the lung 7 years ago. He received chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. He has mild COPD but has a good performance status. His laboratory studies do not indicate any abnormalities in terms of renal function. He does not have any significant cardiac disease. He has a medium build. He had prostate cancer and underwent a successful radical prostatectomy 10 years ago. His PSA is undetectable. He has some urinary incontinence and wears two pads/day. He underwent the appropriate investigations for gross hematuria. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was normal with the exception of a 4-cm posterior mass in the bladder. There was no hydronephrosis and no enlarged lymph nodes. He underwent a transurethral resection of a solitary bladder tumor performed by another urologist. The tumor was described as large and sessile. It was located on the posterior wall and was approximately 4 cm. The bimanual examination did not reveal a mass. The pathology report stated that the tumor was a high-grade urothelial carcinoma with invasion into the muscularis propria. There was no lymphovascular invasion. I performed a reTURBT, and at that procedure, I did not identify any obvious tumor but the prior resection site was evident. I resected the prior tumor site quite extensively both in depth and width. The pathology revealed only focal carcinoma in situ. There was ample muscle in the specimen and there was some fat as well. As stated, they were free of any cancer. The patient is receptive to any treatment approach. PMID:27457483

  4. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  5. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Okumura, Toshiyuki [and others

    2000-02-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2-3N0M0, were included in the study. lntra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2-3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. (author)

  6. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  7. Updating computed tomography of bladder carcinoma in assessing response to immunotherapy and attenuated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was utilized as part of the surgical-pathological-radiological evaluation of 21 patients who were treated for bladder carcinoma with attenuated irradiation and immunotherapy. Fifteen patients had moderately infiltrative (Stage Tsub(2a-b) or less) disease and it was found that a routine high resolution CT technique using a modern fast scanner delineated the tumor in most cases. More accurate assessment of tumor response to therapy and evaluation of tumor progression was facilitated using a gas insufflation technique combined with intravenous contrast infusion. This was followed in selected cases by quantitative measurements of CT attenuation values using a recently introduced CT software program. Using this program, individual pixel values were obtained in selected areas and evaluation of the resulting numerical data and pixel histograms aided in the differentiation of tumor tissue from adjacent bladder wall and mapped out areas of tumor necrosis. Our preliminary observations suggest that quantitative CT studies incorporating assessment of printouts of attenuation values of adjacent pixels within a region of interest will improve the delineation of smaller (Tsub(2a)/Tsub(2b)) lesions and will aid objective characterization of tumor tissue during and following therapy. (orig.)

  8. Knockdown of Ki-67 by dicer-substrate small interfering RNA sensitizes bladder cancer cells to curcumin-induced tumor inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakamasundari Pichu

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR. However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a large nucleolar phosphoprotein whose expression is tightly linked to cell proliferation, and curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess powerful anticancer properties. In this study, we evaluated the combined efficacy of curcumin and a siRNA against Ki-67 mRNA (Ki-67-7 in rat (AY-27 and human (T-24 bladder cancer cells. The anticancer effects were assessed by the determination of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Ki-67-7 (10 nM and curcumin (10 µM, when treated independently, were moderately effective. However, in their combined presence, proliferation of bladder cancer cells was profoundly (>85% inhibited; the rate of apoptosis in the combined presence of curcumin and Ki-67-7 (36% was greater than that due to Ki-67-7 (14% or curcumin (13% alone. A similar synergy between curcumin and Ki-67-7 in inducing cell cycle arrest was also observed. Western blot analysis suggested that pretreatment with Ki-67-7 sensitized bladder cancer cells to curcumin-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by p53- and p21-independent mechanisms. These data suggest that a combination of anti-Ki-67 siRNA and curcumin could be a viable treatment against the proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

  9. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Pengyuan; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Zhang, Jianmin; Luo, Wei; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Conroy, Jeffrey M; Sabatini, Linda; Vedell, Peter; Xiong, Donghai; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin; Shen, He; Li, Yinwei

    2014-01-01

    Genetic alterations are frequently observed in bladder cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that bladder tumors can be classified into two different types based on the spectrum of genetic diversity they confer. In one class of tumors, we observed tumor protein p53 mutations and a large number of single-nucleotide and structural variants. Another characteristic of this group was chromosome shattering, known as chromothripsis, and mutational heterogeneity. The other two bladder tumors did not ...

  10. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Gon; Bipasa Majumdar; Ranjan Kumar Dey; Subrata Kumar Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bla...

  11. Iatrogenic neonatal bladder perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Trigui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic causes. The present study describes the case of a 3-day-old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary probably to manual decompression of the bladder. The infant underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation.

  12. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  13. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaoui, Hakim; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Validire, Pierre; Barret, Eric; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes. PMID:26839792

  14. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  15. Molecular classification of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pTa low-grade, pT1 low-grade, and pT1 high-grade subgroups) using methylation of tumor-suppressor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristan, Raquel; Gonzalez, Carolina; Fernández-Gómez, Jesus M; Fresno, Florentino; Escaf, Safwan; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta

    2014-09-01

    The role of epigenetics in distinguishing pathological and clinical subgroups in bladder cancer is not fully characterized. We evaluated whether methylation of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) would classify non-muscle-invasive (NMI) bladder cancer subgroups and predict outcome. A retrospective design included the following paraffin-embedded primary NMI tumor types (n = 251): pTa low grade (LG) (n = 79), pT1LG (n = 81), and pT1 high grade (HG) (n = 91). Methylation of 25 TSGs was measured using methylation-specific, multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification. The TSGs most frequently methylated in the overall series were STK11 (96.8%), MGMT2 (64.5%), RARB (63.0%), and GATA5 (63.0%). TSG methylation correlated to clinicopathological variables in each subgroup and in the overall NMI series. Methylation of RARB, CD44, PAX5A, GSTP1, IGSF4 (CADM1), PYCARD, CDH13, TP53, and GATA5 classified pTa versus pT1 tumors whereas RARB, CD44, GSTP1, IGSF4, CHFR, PYCARD, TP53, STK11, and GATA5 distinguished LG versus HG tumors. Multivariate analyses indicated that PAX5A, WT1, and BRCA1 methylation independently predicted recurrence in pTaLG, PAX6, ATM, CHFR, and RB1 in pT1LG disease; PYCARD, in pT1HG disease; and PAX5A and RB1, in the overall series. Methylation of TSGs provided a molecular classification of NMI disease according to clinicopathological factors. Furthermore, TSG methylation predicted recurrence in NMI subgroups. PMID:24998186

  16. Low Dose BCG Regimen in T1 Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder: Long Term Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BCG has been used for more than 30 years and is currently the most effective agent for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer therapy after transurethral resection. The high-grade T1 lesion treated by transurethral resection alone is reported to progress to muscle invasion in 30% to 50% of the patients. Until now, optimal treatment schedule and optimal dose have not been defined as the toxicity related to BCG therapy is significant. In this study we tried to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of 60 mg intravesical BCG (Pasteur strain) therapy in patients with T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Patients and Methods: From January 2000 till December 2007, 74 patients with single T1 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (grade 3 in 24 patients and grade 2 in 50 patients) were treated by complete transurethral resection followed by a 6-weeks course of 60 mg BCG intravesically. Follow-up ranged from 26- 96 months with median of 61 months. Results: Nine patients (12.1%) exhibited recurrence with muscle invasion after 6-18 months (5 with grade 3 tumors and 4 with grade 2), all were subjected to radical cystectomy and urine diversion. Whereas 19 patients (29.2%) showed recurrent T1 tumor after 16-45 months (7 with grade 3 tumors and 12 with grade 2) and were treated by TUR-T followed by a second 6-weeks course of 60 mg BCG intravesically. Recurrence index was 0.82/100 patients/month and the median tumor free period was 20 months. Regarding toxicity; irritative symptoms occurred in 24% of patients, fever in 9%, microscopic hematuria in 14%; which appeared to be significantly low when compared with the rates reported for higher doses of BCG. Conclusion: Intravesical therapy of 60 mg BCG is effective in prophylaxis against recurrence and progression of T1 TCC of the bladder. Decreasing the dose resulted

  17. A Case of Giant Bladder Carcinosarcoma without Submucosal Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Mikami; Mariko Yamanoi; Masayoshi Zaitsu; Akiko Tonooka; Toshimasa Uekusa; Takumi Takeuchi

    2011-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a rare biphasic neoplasia containing both malignant mesenchymal and epithelial elements. Bladder carcinosarcoma commonly presented as high-grade, advanced stage, and aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. An 83-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria to our hospital. Cystoscopy revealed massive nonpapillary bladder tumor on the right wall. The 91 g tumor could be completely removed with transurethral resection. Histology of the tumor was diagnosed as carcin...

  18. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  19. Bladder cancer arising in a spina bifida patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, X; Villers, A; Malavaud, B; Sarramon, J

    1999-11-01

    We report the case of a 52-year-old patient with spina bifida, neurologic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in whom a bladder cancer was incidentally discovered. Cytology, cystoscopy, and cystography showed nonspecific, extensive inflammatory lesions. Cystography demonstrated a complex of diverticulae and cellules. Pathologic examination of a diverticulectomy specimen revealed a grade III pT3b transitional and squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the similar disease causation (recurrent UTIs, stones, and indwelling catheterization), we suggest extension of the guidelines proposed for patients with spinal cord injuries (ie, annual serial bladder biopsies) to patients with nontraumatic neurogenic bladder. PMID:10754152

  20. Prognostic significance of P27 (Kip 1) and MUC1 in papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elazeez, Taghreed A.; El-Balshy, Abd El-Latef M.; Khalil, Mostafa M.; El-Tabye, Magdy M.; Abdul-Halim, Hamdy

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To examine p27 (Kip 1) and MUC1 expression in specimens of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (PTCC) of the urinary bladder and to correlate their expression with the tumor grades,stages and outcome. Patients and Methods: Paraffin sections from previously diagnosed PTCC bladder were graded, staged and the patients were followed up for 5 years. Ten non-neoplastic urological lesions diagnosed as polypoid cystitis were taken as control. Three sections of 4 um thickness were obtained from every case. One was hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained for diagnosis, reviewing and confirmation. The other two sections were immunohistochemically stained for both p27and MUC1. The data of immunohistochemical results were correlated with the following conventional prognostic variables: tumor grade, stage, distant metastasis and 5 year survival. Results: The results showed a highly significant and an insignificant relationship between p27 expression and tumor grade and stage (P0.05), respectively. Correlating p27 expression with distant metastasis and overall survival showed a significant relationship with distant metastasis (P<0.05) and a highly significant one with overall survival (P<0.01). The results showed also a significant relationship between MUC1 expression and both tumor grade (P<0.01) and overall survival (P<0.05). Conclusion: p27 and MUC1 immunohistochemistry augment the classic histochemistry for the prognosis of PTCC of the bladder as well as improving the prediction of the patient outcome and survival. PMID:21346826

  1. Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in primary and metastatic lesions of advanced stage ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffers, Ninke; Gooden, Marloes J. M.; de Jong, Renske A.; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; ten Hoor, Klaske A.; Hollema, Harry; Boezen, H. Marieke; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Daemen, Toos; Nijman, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer patients with intra-tumoral CD3(+) T-lymphocytes in primary tumor tissue have a better prognosis. This study aims to analyze the presence and relative influence of three important T-lymphocyte subsets, tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), CD45R0(+) memory

  2. A case of secondary somatosensory epilepsy with a left deep parietal opercular lesion: successful tumor resection using a transsubcentral gyral approach during awake surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Fujii, Masazumi; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Iijima, Kentaro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined the clinical characteristics of patients with lesions in the deep parietal operculum facing the sylvian fissure, the region recognized as the secondary somatosensory area (SII). Moreover, surgical approaches in this region are challenging. In this paper the authors report on a patient presenting with SII epilepsy with a tumor in the left deep parietal operculum. The patient was a 24-year-old man who suffered daily partial seizures with extremely uncomfortable dysesthesia and/or occasional pain on his right side. MRI revealed a tumor in the medial aspect of the anterior transverse parietal gyrus, surrounding the posterior insular point. Long-term video electroencephalography monitoring with scalp electrodes failed to show relevant changes to seizures. Resection with cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions was performed. A negative response to stimulation was observed at the subcentral gyrus during language and somatosensory tasks; thus, the transcortical approach (specifically, a transsubcentral gyral approach) was used through this region. Subcortical stimulation at the medial aspect of the anterior parietal gyrus and the posterior insula around the posterior insular point elicited strong dysesthesia and pain in his right side, similar to manifestation of his seizure. The tumor was completely removed and pathologically diagnosed as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. His epilepsy disappeared without neurological deterioration postoperatively. In this case study, 3 points are clinically significant. First, the clinical manifestation of this case was quite rare, although still representative of SII epilepsy. Second, the location of the lesion made surgical removal challenging, and the transsubcentral gyral approach was useful when intraoperative mapping was performed during awake surgery. Third, intraoperative mapping demonstrated that the patient experienced pain with electrical stimulation around the posterior insular point

  3. Bladder pheochromocytoma: case presentation and the use of OctreoScan for localization of extra-adrenal tumor sites in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, José R; Baez-Trinidad, Luis; Acosta, Alex; Marrero, Miguel; Correa-Rivas, María; Rodríguez-Becerra, Javier; Nieves, Francisco

    2008-03-01

    An eleven year old boy presented with headaches and dizziness associated to micturition. On radiologic imaging, he was found with a bladder mass. The biochemical work up was suggestive of pheochromocytoma. An OctreoScan (111In-pentreotide) was used to rule out metastatic extension or other extra-adrenal locations of the pheochromocytoma. OctreoScan data correlated well with other radiologic studies, operative findings and with the final diagnosis, validating its use on pediatric patients. PMID:18450243

  4. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-01-01

    Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects of the phot......Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects...... light illumination (PDD mode) and white light illumination used for bladder tumour diagnosis and surgery suffers some inherent disadvantages, i.e., photo bleaching in white light that impairs the possibility for PDD as white light usually is used before the blue light for PDD. Based on spectroscopic...... observations of urine and the photoactive dye Protoporphyrin IX used in PDD a novel optical system for use with the cystoscope has been devised that solves the problem of green fluorescence from urine. This and the knowledge of photo-bleaching pitfalls in established systems make it possible to perform PDD...

  5. Urinary Bladder Paragangliomas: Analysis of Succinate Dehydrogenase and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sounak; Zhang, Jun; Rivera, Michael; Erickson, Lori A

    2016-09-01

    Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder can arise sporadically or as a part of hereditary syndromes including those with underlying mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes, which serve as tumor suppressors. SDH deficiency can be screened for by absence of immunohistochemical detection of SDHB. In this study of 11 cases, clinical follow-up was available for 9/11 cases. The cases were reviewed and graded based on the grading system for adrenal pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (GAPP) criteria. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Ki67 and SDHB. Proliferative index was calculated by quantification of Ki67-positive cells at hot spots. The medical record was accessed for documentation of germline SDH mutations. Urinary bladder paragangliomas had a female predilection (8/11 cases), and 5/11 cases exhibited metastatic behavior. Patients with metastatic disease tended to be younger (mean age 43 vs 49 years), have larger lesions (5.8 vs 1.5 cm), and presented with catecholamine excess (4/4 vs 2/6 patients with non-metastatic lesions). Patients with metastatic disease had a higher mean Ki67 proliferation rate (4.9 vs 1.3 %) and GAPP score (mean of 5.8 vs 3.8) (p = 0.01). IHC for SDHB expression revealed loss of expression in 2/6 cases of non-metastatic paragangliomas compared to 4/5 patients with metastatic paragangliomas. Interestingly, of these four patients, two had a documented mutation of SDHB, one patient had a SDHC mutation, and another patient had a history of familial disease without mutation analysis being performed. Our study, suggests that SDH loss was suggestive of metastatic behavior in addition to younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and higher Ki67 proliferation rate and catecholamine type. PMID:27262318

  6. Effect of salinomycin on metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cell line T24

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Qu; Bo; Ma; Hao-Feng; Yuan; Zhong-Yang; Wang; Sheng-Jie; Guo; Jing; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of salinomycin on the metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cell line T24 by regulating the related protein expression in the process of epithelialmesenchymal transition(EMT), and to provide experimental basis for the treatment of urological tumors. Methods: The bladder cancer cell line T24 was cultured in vitro. The rat bladder tumor model was established in vivo. The rats were randomized into two groups, among which the rats in the experiment group were given intraperitoneal injection of salinomycin, while the rats in the control group were given intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. The change of tumor cells in the two groups was observed. Transwell was used to detect the cell migration and invasion abilities, Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of m RNA, while Western-blot was utilized for the determination of the expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin proteins. Results: The metastasis and invasion abilities of serum bladder cancer cell line T24 after salinomycin treatment in the experiment group were significantly reduced when compared with those in the control group, and the tumor metastasis lesions were decreased from an average of 1.59 to 0.6(P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation in the experiment group was gradually decreasing. T24 cell proliferation at 48 h was significantly lower than that at 12 h and 24 h(P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation at 24 h was significantly lower than that at 12 h(P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation at each timing point in the experiment group was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0.05). The serum m RNA level and E-cadherin expression in the tumor tissues in the experiment group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while vimentin expression level was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusions: Salinomycin can suppress the metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cells, of which the mechanism is probably associated

  7. Renal Cell Carcinoma with Concurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Danko; Tomasović-Lončarić, Čedna; Galešić-Ljubanović, Danica; Heinzl, Renata; Savić, Ivan; Marušić, Petar

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 71-year-old male with multiple primary malignancies involving kidney and urinary bladder, combined with synchronous lymphoma. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of painless gross hematuria. Examination revealed tumor of the right kidney and papillary tumor in the urinary bladder and enlarged lymph nodes along aorta and inferior vena cava. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR), radical nephrectomy of the right kidney and retroperitoneal lymphadenect...

  8. Possible disease remission in patient with invasive bladder cancer with D-fraction regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamahanty, Srinivas; Louie, Brandon; O’Neill, Cormac; Choudhury, Muhammad; Konno, Sensuke

    2009-01-01

    Superficial bladder tumors are the most prevalent form of bladder cancers and transurethral resection is the primary surgical modality for those tumors. However, nearly 65% of patients will have tumor recurrence in five years while about 15% will have progression to muscle invasion. Thus, the primary therapeutic aim is to prevent multiple recurrences and progression to a more advanced, invasive disease. We here report an 87-year-old white male patient with invasive bladder cancer who received...

  9. Implementation of adaptive radiation therapy for urinary bladder carcinoma - Imaging, planning and image guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) for urinary bladder cancer has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional RT with potential to minimize radiation-induced toxicity to healthy tissues. In this work we have studied bladder volume variations and their effect on healthy bladder dose sparing and intra fractional margins, in order to refine our ART strategy. Material and methods: An online ART treatment strategy was followed for five patients with urinary bladder cancer with the tumors demarcated using Lipiodol. A library of 3-4 predefined treatment plans for each patient was created based on four successive computed tomography (CT) scans. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images were acquired before each treatment fraction and after the treatment at least weekly. In partial bladder treatment the sparing of the healthy part of the bladder was investigated. The bladder wall displacements due to bladder filling were determined in three orthogonal directions (CC, AP, DEX-SIN) using the treatment planning CT scans. An ellipsoidal model was applied in order to find the theoretical maximum values for the bladder wall displacements. Moreover, the actual bladder filling rate during treatment was evaluated using the CBCT images. Results: In partial bladder treatment the volume of the bladder receiving high absorbed doses was generally smaller with a full than empty bladder. The estimation of the bladder volume and the upper limit for the intra fractional movement of the bladder wall could be represented with an ellipsoidal model with a reasonable accuracy. Observed maximum growth of bladder dimensions was less than 10 mm in all three orthogonal directions during 15 minute interval. Conclusion: The use of Lipiodol contrast agent enables partial bladder treatment with reduced irradiation of the healthy bladder volume. The ellipsoidal bladder model can be used for the estimation of the bladder volume changes and the upper limit of the bladder wall movement during the treatment

  10. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... Don’t Miss the 2016 BCAN ... Click here for more details Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network 4915 St. Elmo Avenue, Suite 202 Bethesda, Maryland ...

  11. MANAGEMENT OF CARCINOMA BLADDER: A REVIEW LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderjit Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the bladder is a disease of the elderly. Bladder cancer is three times more common in males than in females and more common in whites than in blacks. Patients with bladder cancer have a 1% to 4% incidence of synchronous or metachronous upper t ract urothelial tumors. There are many risk factors for urothelial cancer, classified into (1 Genetic (2 chemical exposure, and (3 chronic irritation. Genetic abnormalities associated with CIS include alterations in the retinoblastoma gene (Rb, p53, an d PTEN. Chemical exposure has the most epidemiologic evidence to support it as an inciting agent (Aromatic amines, aniline dyes, and nitrites and nitrates. Chronic irritants include catheters, recurrent urinary track infections, Schistosoma haematobium, a nd irradiation. There are many studies that suggest high water consumption, vitamin intake, and various diets that are beneficial in preventing bladder cancer. However, none of these have shown any clear benefit with respect to prevention.

  12. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer using fluorescence cystoscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draga, R.O.P.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A relative high recurrence rate and the need for repeated treatments make bladder cancer one the most expensive cancers from diagnosis till death of the patient. The TURBT accoun

  13. The role of metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Mijin; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This study assessed the prognostic value of pre-operative 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) volumetric parameters, including metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. A total of 175 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent {sup 18} F-FDG PET/CT and subsequent cytoreductive surgery were retrospectively enrolled. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was measured for all patients. Because nine patients showed low tumor-to-background uptake ratios, MTV and TLG were measured in 166 patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of SUVmax, MTV, TLG, and clinicopathological factors for disease progression-free survival. Disease progressed in 78 (44.6 %) of the 175 patients, and the 2-year disease progression-free survival rate was 57.5 %. Univariate analysis showed that tumor stage, histopathological type, presence of regional lymph node metastasis, residual tumor after cytoreductive surgery, pre-operative serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) level, SUVmax, MTV, and TLG were significant prognostic factors (p < 0.05). Among these variables, tumor stage (p = 0.0006) and TLG (p = 0.008) independently correlated with disease progression-free survival on multivariate analysis. The disease progression rate was only 2.3 % in stage I-II patients with low TLG (≤100.0), compared to 80.0 % in stage III-IV patients with high TLG (>100.0). Along with tumor stage, TLG is an independent prognostic factor for disease progression after cytoreductive surgery in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. By combining tumor stage and TLG, one can further stratify the risk of disease progression for patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery. (orig.)

  14. 3.0T MR Diffusion-weighted Imaging: Evaluating Diagnosis Potency 
of Pulmonary Solid Benign Lesions and Malignant Tumors and Optimizing b Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong LI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Diffusion is caused by random translational molecular motion, also known as Brownian water motion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is the only imaging method that can be used to evaluate the diffusion process in vivo. The aim of this study is to evaluate 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI DWI with phased-array coil and the array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET of diagnosis potency in the discrimination of pulmonary solid benign lesions and malignant tumors. This study also aims to optimize b value. Methods One hundred and sixteen patients with 120 lesions confirmed by pathology and clinical diagnosis underwent T2 weighted imaging (T2WI, T1 weighted imaging, T2WI fat suppression, and DWI (diffusion factors of 200 s/mm2, 500 s/mm2, 800 s/mm2, 1,000 s/mm2 examinations by ASSET with 3.0T MR. The signal intensity of DWI images and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values of the lesions were measured. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, and ADC were compared among different b values. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were analyzed and the b values were optimized. Results Both the SNR and CNR significantly differed among varied b values (P<0.001, P=0.002. The ADC values of pulmonary solid benign lesions and malignant tumors were gradually reduced with increasing b value, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.001, P<0.001. ROC analysis shows that the area under curve (AUC values were 0.831, 0.876, 0.813, 0.785 (b=200 s/mm2, 500 s/mm2, 800 s/mm2, 1,000 s/mm2, respectively. The AUC with a b value of 500 s/mm2 was the largest. The optimal threshold of ADC was 1.473×10-3 mm2/s, and the sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion 3.0T MR DWI with phased-array coil and ASSET has moderate diagnosis potency in differentiating pulmonary solid benign lesions and malignant tumors. The optimal b value is 500 s/mm2.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor and its p55 and p75 receptors are not required for axonal lesion-induced microgliosis in mouse fascia dentata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Christina; Drøjdahl, Nina; Nielsen, Martin Wirenfeldt;

    2006-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a potent pro-inflammatory and neuromodulatory cytokine. In the CNS it is produced primarily by microglia and considered to regulate microglial activation. On the basis of previous observations of increased microglial TNF mRNA synthesis in areas of anterograde axonal...... response in TNF and TNF-p55p75 receptor knock out mice and C57BL/6 mice was similar 5 days after the lesion. In addition, the microglial expression of the lysosomal-associated antigen CD68, and the clearance of MBP(+) myelin debris appeared similar in TNF and TNF-p55p75 receptor knock out mice compared to...

  16. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  17. Radical nephroureterectomy and cystectomy for ureteral tumor and bladder mixed tumor by laparoscopic combined open surgery%腹腔镜及开放根治性肾输尿管膀胱切除术治疗输尿管癌合并膀胱混合癌1例报告及文献回顾分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国成; 屈卫星; 程永毅; 季晶; 刘全海

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To evaluate the safety and availability of laparoscopic and open radical nephroureterocystec-tomy to the patients with tumors of ureteral tumor complicating with bladder cancer. Methods: Followed up 1 patient who had been performed radical nephroureterocytectomy due to the tumors of unilateral ureteral tumor complicating with invasive bladder cancer. Results; The patient was diagnosed as tumor of unilateral ureter complicating with inva-sive bladder cancer by cystoscope, ureteroscope, ultrasound, intraveneous pyelography and CT. The patient with left ureteral cancer complicating with bladder cancer was performed the operation of laparoscopy radical nephroureterocys-tectomy and open urethral resection and ureterostomy. The total operation time was 480min and bleeding volume was 560 ml without blood transfusion. The recovery time of alimentary tract and the time of free activity were 3 days and 4 days. No obvious complications were observed. Postoperative pathological results showed that the slide were urothe-lial tumors with tumor stage of ureteral cancer T2N0M0 and tumor stage of bladder cancer T2N0M0 complicated by squamous cell carcinoma. The time of follow - up was 10 months without recurrence. Conclusion; Nephroureterocys-tectomy is available to tumor of unilateral ureteral tumor complicating with bladder mixed cancer. The operation under laparoscopy is available and safe, with less trauma and bleeding and faster recovery. Early diagnosis of bladder mixed tumor is difficult. For early diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer and improve patient survival rates, multiple sites should be drawn when we perform cystoscopy.%目的:探讨腹腔镜和开放根治性肾输尿管膀胱切除术治疗输尿管癌合并膀胱混合癌患者的可行性和安全性.方法:回顾分析1例单侧输尿管癌并浸润性膀胱混合癌,腹腔镜下行根治性肾输尿管膀胱切除术及开放尿流改道手术患者的临床资料并进行随访分析.结果:术

  18. Bladder cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M

    1982-11-01

    A randomized controlled prospective evaluation of intravesical and percutaneous bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy was done in 57 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, 9 patients at high risk for tumor recurrence were treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin produced a self-limited cystitis and 1 complication (hydronephrosis) of immunotherapy was observed. Of the 57 randomized patients 54 were followed for 3 to 30 months. Tumor recurrence was documented in 13 of 26 controls (50 per cent) and only 6 of 28 patients (21 per cent) treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (p equals 0.027, chi-square). The interval free of disease was prolonged significantly with bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment (p equals 0.014, generalized Wilcoxon test). Importantly, a simple purified protein derivative skin test distinguished those patients who responded to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy from those who did not. Only 1 of 17 treated patients (6 per cent) whose purified protein derivative test converted from negative to positive had tumor recurrence compared to 5 recurrences (38 per cent) among the 13 patients whose test remained negative or had been positive before treatment (p equals 0.022, chi-square). Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was given to 10 patients with stage B transitional cell carcinoma who were not candidates for cystectomy and 7 are free of disease. Of 5 patients with carcinoma in situ 3 remain free of tumor after bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment and 5 of 6 who had multiple recurrences after intravesical chemotherapy responded favorably to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy. PMID:6757467

  19. Surgical Treatment of Adrenal Gland Metastasis Originating from Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Minekatsu Taga; Hideaki Ito; Naoya Kusukawa; Yoshiji Miwa; Hironobu Akino; Yoshiaki Imamura; Osamu Yokoyama

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of a solitary adrenal metastasis from small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that was successfully treated with surgical resection. A 71-year-old man was suffering from bladder tamponade for hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a bladder tumor at the left wall. The patients underwent radical cystectomy. Histopathological results were obtained in small cell carcinoma of the bladder with muscle invasion. Thus, he received two courses of adjuvant etoposide and ...

  20. Loss of GATA3 in bladder cancer promotes cell migration and invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Izumi, Koji; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is known as a breast tumor suppressor as well as a urothelial marker, and its loss is often seen in high-grade invasive bladder cancer. Nonetheless, GATA3 functions in bladder cancer cells remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of GATA3 silencing via RNA interference on cell migration, invasion, and proliferation of bladder cancer. GATA3 expression was downregulated in all four bladder cancer lines examined, compared with a non-neoplastic...

  1. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare tumor that exhibits aggressive behavior and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all primary bladder tumors. Small cell carcinoma generally occurs in the lung, accounting for 25% of all pulmonary malignancies. SCCUB exhibits a similar microscopic and immunohistochemical appearance to that of small cell carcinoma of the lung. There is no consensus about the standard therapy, owing to its rarity. Surgical resection seems to be the mainstay of treatment for patients with limited stage, together with neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has same small effect for palliative purposes, as well as being an alternative to radical cystectomy. Patients with advanced stage, although given platinum-based chemotherapy, have a poor prognosis. We herein review epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological features, and current management of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (author)

  2. Oncoprotein DEK as a tissue and urinary biomarker for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the United States of America with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential for removing the tumor with preservation of the bladder, avoiding metastasis and hence improving prognosis and long-term survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of DEK protein in voided urine of bladder cancer patients as a urine-based bladder cancer diagnostic test. We examined the expression of DEK protein by western blot in 38 paired transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine was analyzed by western blot in 42 urine samples collected from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals. The DEK protein is expressed in 33 of 38 bladder tumor tissues with no expression in adjacent normal tissue. Based on our sample size, DEK protein is expressed in 100% of tumors of low malignant potential, 92% of tumors of low grade and in 71% of tumors of high grade. Next, we analyzed 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals for DEK protein expression by western blot analysis. We are the first to show that the DEK protein is present in the urine of bladder cancer patients. Approximately 84% of TCC patient urine specimens were positive for urine DEK. Based on our pilot study of 38 bladder tumor tissue and 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals; DEK protein is expressed in bladder tumor tissue and voided urine of bladder cancer patients. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine is potentially a suitable biomarker for bladder cancer and that the screening for the presence of DEK protein in urine can be explored as a noninvasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer

  3. A Generative Probabilistic Model and Discriminative Extensions for Brain Lesion Segmentation - With Application to Tumor and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Van Leemput, Koen; Lashkari, Danial;

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a generative probabilistic model for segmentation of brain lesions in multi-dimensional images that generalizes the EM segmenter, a common approach for modelling brain images using Gaussian mixtures and a probabilistic tissue atlas that employs expectation-maximization (EM), to estim...

  4. Invalidity of SUV Measurements of Lesions in Close Proximity to Hot Sources due to “Shine-Through” Effect on FDG PET-CT Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that many technical and physiologic factors can affect the reliability of the standardized uptake value (SUV) on FDG PET-CT. Another potential problem of which we may be aware but has not been previously discussed is significant SUV overestimation of lesions in the direct neighborhood of large hot sources, namely, areas with high FDG uptake or activity such as a tumor, myocardium, urinary bladder, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract. The magnitude of SUV overestimation of the l...

  5. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Lamm, Donald L

    2002-02-01

    possibility with long-term administration, the dose should be decreased to 16,000 IU after 3 years. High doses of beta-carotene should be avoided based on a large clinical trial reporting a 25% increase in the number of cases of prostate cancer and a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Vitamin B6 has been studied in several clinical trials in bladder cancer. The US-based Veterans Administration cooperative study found benefit for vitamin B6 when given as a single agent. Data for vitamins C and E are insufficient to recommend either agent as stand-alone treatment. Nonetheless, each of these vitamins is known to have beneficial effects, including improved function of the immune system. It is possible that only a small percentage of patients with bladder cancer respond to vitamins B6, C, or E, yet each is safe, nontoxic, and inexpensive. In an effort to pool the efficacy of individual agents and to increase the power of study, the authors evaluated the combination of vitamins A, B6, C, and E in a double-blind trial. The observed 50% 5-year reduction in tumor recurrence was highly significant and greater than would be expected for any of the individual ingredients and suggests that combinations of nutritional agents may be most appropriate. A large-volume study along similar lines is being conducted. Among the numerous other compounds and dietary substances purported to have chemopreventive effect, soybeans, garlic, and green tea stand out as having the greatest promise and can freely be recommended to patients. For synthetically synthesized agents such as celecoxib, piroxicam, or DFMO, recommendations must be deferred until the results of clinical trials are conclusively in favor of their use. Many of the dietary factors found to be protective against bladder cancer are being investigated in other cancers and are beneficial to general health. Although naturally occurring nutrients are ideal, especially because the delicate balance of various

  6. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder; Case Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül SARI; Ermete, Murat; Canan SADULLAHOĞLU; Bal, Kaan; Ahmet BOLÜKBAŞI

    2013-01-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder is very rare. It is a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma that is morphologically different from small cell carcinoma.This manuscript describes a 67-year-old man who presented with hematuria. Ultrasonogrophic and computer tomography revealed a 5 cm mass in right posterolateral wall of the bladder that invaded perivesical tissue and he subsequently underwent transurethral resection. Microscopic examination showed a tumor with a sheet-like and...

  7. Amygdalin Influences Bladder Cancer Cell Adhesion and Invasion In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Makarević; Jochen Rutz; Eva Juengel; Silke Kaulfuss; Igor Tsaur; Karen Nelson; Jesco Pfitzenmaier; Axel Haferkamp; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as...

  8. Phyllodes Tumors and Fibroepithelial Lesions with Cellular Stroma of the Breast and Diagnosed by Sonographically Guided Core Needle Biopsy: A Comparison Between the Results of Excision Biopsy and the Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Rho, Ji Young [CHA University College of Medicine, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the histologic concordance of sonographically guided core needle biopsy for phyllodes tumors or fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma of the breast by comparing this with the outcomes of excision biopsy and to identify any sonographic features that are helpful to predict phyllodes tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 60 breast masses that were diagnosed as phyllodes tumors (n = 43) or fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma (n = 17) on a sonographically guided core needle biopsy. The tumors were all subsequently excised by surgery. The sonographic features were compared between the phyllodes tumors and the non-phyllodes tumors according to the results of excision biopsy. By the results on excision biopsy, there were 48 (80%) phyllodes tumors and 12 (20%) non-phyllodes tumors. Phyllodes tumors were diagnosed at a rate of 90.7% (39/43) for the nodules with phyllodes tumors on the sonographically guided core needle biopsy, and at a rate of 52.9% (9/17) for the nodules with fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma on the sonographically guided core needle biopsy. On sonography, heterogeneous internal echotexture (58% vs. 17%, respectively, p = 0.0239), clefts (56% vs. 17%, respectively, p = 0.0331) and horizontal linear striations (71% vs. 33%, respectively, p = 0.0221) were significantly more frequent in the phyllodes tumors than that in the non-phyllodes tumors. Identification of a heterogeneous-internal echotexture, clefts and horizontal linear striations on sonography might help differentiate phyllodes tumors from non-phyllodes tumors

  9. Oral chemoprevention with acetyl salicylic Acid, vitamin d and calcium reduces the risk of tobacco carcinogen-induced bladder tumors in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    , and diet with chemoprevention (acetyl salicylic acid, 1-alpha 25(0H)2-vitamin D3 and calcium). There were significantly fewer tumors (0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-2), p = .045) and fewer animals with tumors (0/20 vs. 5/20, p = .045) in the chemoprevention group compared with controls. Thus, chemoprevention diet...

  10. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso;

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  11. CD147 and MCT1-potential partners in bladder cancer aggressiveness and cisplatin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Julieta; Santos, Lúcio L; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Morais, António; Amaro, Teresina; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2015-11-01

    The relapsing and progressive nature of bladder tumors, and the heterogeneity in the response to cisplatin-containing regimens, are the major concerns in the care of urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) patients. The metabolic adaptations that alter the tumor microenvironment and thus contribute to chemoresistance have been poorly explored in UBC setting. We found significant associations between the immunoexpressions of the microenvironment-related molecules CD147, monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) 1 and 4, CD44 and CAIX in tumor tissue sections from 114 UBC patients. The presence of MCT1 and/or MCT4 expressions was significantly associated with unfavorable clinicopathological parameters. The incidence of CD147 positive staining significantly increased with advancing stage, grade and type of lesion, and occurrence of lymphovascular invasion. Similar associations were observed when considering the concurrent expression of CD147 and MCT1. This expression profile lowered significantly the 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates. Moreover, when selecting patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, the prognosis was significantly worse for those with MCT1 and CD147 positive tumors. CD147 specific silencing by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in UBC cells was accompanied by a decrease in MCT1 and MCT4 expressions and, importantly, an increase in chemosensitivity to cisplatin. Our results provide novel insights for the involvement of CD147 and MCTs in bladder cancer progression and resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. We consider that the possible cooperative role of CD147 and MCT1 in determining cisplatin resistance should be further explored as a potential theranostics biomarker. PMID:25263481

  12. Relevance of prostate cancer in patients with synchronous invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma: a monocentric retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Dell’Atti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with incidental prostate cancer (PCa who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP for invasive bladder cancer and we analyzed their features with regard to incidence, pathologic characteristics, clinical significance, and implications for management. Material and Methods: Clinical data and pathological features of 64 patients who underwent standard RCP for bladder cancer were included in this study. Besides the urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, the location and tumor volume of the PCa, prostate apex involvement, Gleason score, pathological staging and surgical margins were evaluated. Clinically significant PCa was defined as a tumor with a Gleason 4 or 5 pattern, stage ≥ pT3, lymph node involvement, positive surgical margin or multifocality of three or more lesions. Postoperative follow-up was scheduled every 3 months in the first year, every 6 months in the second and third year, annually thereafter. Results: 11 out of 64 patients (17.2% who underwent RCP had incidentally diagnosed PCa. 3 cases (27.3% were diagnosed as significant PCa, while 8 cases (72.7% were clinically insignificant. The positive surgical margin of PCa was detected in 1 patient with significant disease. The prostate apex involvement was present in 1 patient of the significant PCa group. Median follow-up period was 47.8 ± 29.2 (range 4-79. During the follow-up, biochemical recurrence occurred in 1 patient (9%. Concernig the cancer specific survival there was no statistical significance (P = 0.326 between the clinically significant and clinical insignificant cancer group. Conclusions: In line with published studies, incidental PCa does not impact on the prognosis of bladder cancer of patients undergoing RCP.

  13. Tumor suppressive microRNA-1 mediated novel apoptosis pathways through direct inhibition of splicing factor serine/arginine-rich 9 (SRSF9/SRp30c) in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Tumor suppressive miRNA-1 directly inhibits splicing factor serine/arginine-rich 9 (SRSF9). ► SRSF9 mRNA expression was up-regulated in bladder cancer specimens compared to normal tissues. ► Cell viability (proliferation, migration, and invasion) was reduced in SRSF9 knockdown cells. ► SRSF9 knockdown by miR-1 induced cell apoptosis through caspase-3/7 activation in BC cell lines. -- Abstract: We have previously found that restoration of tumor suppressive microRNA-1 (miR-1), induced cell apoptosis in bladder cancer (BC) cell lines. However, the apoptosis mechanism induced by miR-1 was not fully elucidated. Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors provides cancer cells with opportunities to translate many oncogenic protein variants, which promote cell proliferation and survival under unpreferable condition for cancer development. Serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein family, which involved in alternative pre-mRNA splicing, plays a critical role for regulating apoptosis by splicing apoptosis-related genes. However, transcriptional regulation of SR proteins, themselves, has not been elucidated. In this study, we focused on splicing factor serine/arginine-rich 9 (SRSF9/SRp30c) on the basis of our previous genome-wide gene expression analysis using miR-1-transfected BC cell lines because putative target sites of miR-1 are existed in 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of SRSF9 mRNA. The expression levels of mRNA of SRSF9 were extremely reduced in the miR-1 transfectants. A luciferase activity significantly decreased in the transfectants suggesting that actual binding occurred between miR-1 and 3′UTR of SRSF9 mRNA. Loss-of-function assays demonstrated that significant inhibitions of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were observed in the si-SRSF9 transfectants. Apoptosis assays demonstrated that cell apoptosis fraction increased and that caspase-3/7 was activated in the si-SRSF9 transfectants. Our data indicated that tumor suppressive miR-1 induces

  14. Tumor suppressive microRNA-1 mediated novel apoptosis pathways through direct inhibition of splicing factor serine/arginine-rich 9 (SRSF9/SRp30c) in bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Hirofumi [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan); Enokida, Hideki, E-mail: enokida@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan); Chiyomaru, Takeshi; Tatarano, Shuichi; Hidaka, Hideo; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Gotannda, Takenari; Tachiwada, Tokushi [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan); Nohata, Nijiro [Department of Functional Genomics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Yamane, Takashi [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan); Seki, Naohiko [Department of Functional Genomics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Nakagawa, Masayuki [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor suppressive miRNA-1 directly inhibits splicing factor serine/arginine-rich 9 (SRSF9). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRSF9 mRNA expression was up-regulated in bladder cancer specimens compared to normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell viability (proliferation, migration, and invasion) was reduced in SRSF9 knockdown cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRSF9 knockdown by miR-1 induced cell apoptosis through caspase-3/7 activation in BC cell lines. -- Abstract: We have previously found that restoration of tumor suppressive microRNA-1 (miR-1), induced cell apoptosis in bladder cancer (BC) cell lines. However, the apoptosis mechanism induced by miR-1 was not fully elucidated. Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors provides cancer cells with opportunities to translate many oncogenic protein variants, which promote cell proliferation and survival under unpreferable condition for cancer development. Serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein family, which involved in alternative pre-mRNA splicing, plays a critical role for regulating apoptosis by splicing apoptosis-related genes. However, transcriptional regulation of SR proteins, themselves, has not been elucidated. In this study, we focused on splicing factor serine/arginine-rich 9 (SRSF9/SRp30c) on the basis of our previous genome-wide gene expression analysis using miR-1-transfected BC cell lines because putative target sites of miR-1 are existed in 3 Prime -untranslated region (UTR) of SRSF9 mRNA. The expression levels of mRNA of SRSF9 were extremely reduced in the miR-1 transfectants. A luciferase activity significantly decreased in the transfectants suggesting that actual binding occurred between miR-1 and 3 Prime UTR of SRSF9 mRNA. Loss-of-function assays demonstrated that significant inhibitions of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were observed in the si-SRSF9 transfectants. Apoptosis assays demonstrated that cell apoptosis fraction increased and that

  15. Constitutive activation of p38 MAPK in tumor cells contributes to osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; He, Jin; Wang, Ji; Cao, Yabing; Ling, Jianhua; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Zheng, Yuhuan; Lan, Yongsheng; Hong, Sungyoul; Matthews, Jairo; Starbuck, Michael W.; Navone, Nora M.; Orlowski, Robert Z.

    2012-01-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma and affects more than 80% of patients. However, current therapy is unable to completely cure and/or prevent bone lesions. Although it is accepted that myeloma cells mediate bone destruction by inhibition of osteoblasts and activation of osteoclasts, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. This study demonstrates that constitutive activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in myeloma cells is responsible for myeloma-induce...

  16. Detecting primary bladder cancer using delayed 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging after forced diuresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of delayed pelvic 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography combined with the computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging, according to a standardized protocol including, pre-hydration and forced diuresis, for the detection of primary bladder cancer. We evaluated 38 consecutive patients with primary cT1-4 bladder cancer. They underwent standard FDG-PET/CT followed by delayed pelvic imaging after administration of 20 mg furosemide intravenously and extra oral water intake of 0.5 L. Two observers, blinded for patient data, scored both image sets for tumor visibility using a 3-point ordinal scale: (1) negative; (2) indeterminate; (3) positive. FDG-PET/CT findings were compared with histopathology and/or follow-up imaging. Our data suggest that delayed pelvic FDG-PET/CT imaging after forced detects more primary bladder tumors than standard EDG-PET/CT protocols. However, indeterminate bladder lesions on delayed PET/CT remain a problem and should be interpreted cautiously in order to avoid false positive results

  17. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Virginia M; Barrow, Willis; Lucia, M. Scott; Wilson, Shandra; La Rosa, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diag...

  18. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    OpenAIRE

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek; Servet Güreşçi; Ural Oğuz; Ali Ünsal

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  19. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  20. Invasive bladder cancer: treatment strategies using transurethral surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy with selection for bladder conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Combined modality therapy has become the standard oncologic approach to achieve organ preservation in many malignancies. Methods and Materials: Although radical cystectomy has been considered as standard treatment for invasive bladder carcinoma in the United States, good results have been recently reported from several centers using multimodality treatment, particularly in patients with clinical T2 and T3a disease who do not have a ureter obstructed by tumor. Results: The components of the combined treatment are usually transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Following an induction course of therapy a histologic response is evaluated by cystoscopy and rebiopsy. Clinical 'complete responders' (tumor site rebiopsy negative and urine cytology with no tumor cells present) continue with a consolidation course of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation. Those patients not achieving a clinical complete response are recommended to have an immediate cystectomy. Individually the local monotherapies of radiation, TURBT, or multidrug chemotherapy each achieve a local control rate of the primary tumor of from 20 to 40%. When these are combined, clinical complete response rates of from 65 to 80% can be achieved. Seventy-five to 85% of the clinical complete responders will remain with bladders free of recurrence of an invasive tumor. Conclusions: Bladder conservation trials using combined modality treatment approaches with selection for organ conservation by response of the tumor to initial treatment report overall 5-year survival rates of approximately 50%, and a 40-45% 5-year survival rate with the bladder intact. These modern multimodality bladder conservation approaches offer survival rates similar to radical cystectomy for patients of similar clinical stage and age. Bladder-conserving therapy should be offered to patients with invasive bladder carcinoma as a realistic alternative to radical

  1. Hypervascular liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

    2009-10-01

    Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  3. [Femoral osteolytic lesions with soft tissue tumors and hypercalcemia as presentation form of a B-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, J L; Olmos Martínez, J M; Figols Ladrón de Guevara, J; Riancho Moral, J A; González Macías, J

    2000-05-01

    Hypercalcemia associated with haematological neoplasms account for 15 to 20% of hipercalcemia in malignancy, and occurs usually in patients with multiple myeloma. However, its incidence in patients with linfoma is low, and it is observed usually in T-cell linfomas. Bone affectation is also uncommon in patients with non-Hodgkin linfoma. It usually is seen as a late manifestation of the disease, and its occurrence as the form of presentation is exceptional. We hereby report a patient with a B-cell non-Hodgkin linfoma presenting with hypercalcemia and femoral osteolytic lesions. PMID:10859829

  4. The clinical course of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer after transuretral resection of the tumor with or without subsequent intravesical application of bacillus Calmette-Guérin: The influence of patients gender and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. The therapy with intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG after transurethral resection (TUR of tumor is the gold standard of treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. The role and importance of BCG intravesical therapy in various shape of tumors, were confirmed by our previous investigation. The aim of this study was to examine whether incidence of recurrence and tumor regression differs depending on sex and age of patients. Methods. This study included a total of 899 patients suffering from NIMBC, treated at our institution from January 1, 2007 to March 1, 2013. Two groups of patients were formed: patients underwent TUR + BCG therapy (the group I and the group II with patients in whom TUR was performed as only therapy. These two groups of patients were divided into subgroups of respondents male and female, age 60 years or younger and older than 60 years. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results. This research suggests that if the frequency of recurrence is seen as the only parameter, considering all the subjects, the lowest recurrence rate was determined in the male subjects, aged 60 years and younger who had received BCG after TUR. A high statistical significance was found in the incidence of recurrence in patients younger than 60 years, depending on the response to the therapy, while in those older than 60 years, the difference was at the level of statistical significance. This can be attributed to a certain degree of infravesical obstruction in older men. Conclusions. Sex and age of patients may have a significant influence on the course and outcome of NMIBC. The disease has the most malignant and most aggressive behavior when present in males older than 60 years.

  5. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in childhood: radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in an 11-year-old boy. The rarity of these tumors during childhood is pointed out. The radiological and ultrasonographic findings are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed with respect to other bladder tumors occurring in childhood. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; Maase, Hans von der; Sørensen, Flemming B.; Wolf, Hans; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors. METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups of...

  7. Opportunities of radiological methods for examination in diagnostics of urinary bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhonatskaya M.L.; Popkov V.M.; Zuev V.V.; Glybochko P.V.; Ponukalin A.N.

    2011-01-01

    The research goal is the comparative analysis of Russian and foreign studies concerned the possibility of radiological methods of diagnostics of cancer of urinary bladder. The problem of early diagnostics of initial tumor and tumor recurrence, determination of stages of bladder cancer, its prognosis and outcome remains an actual one

  8. Combined-modality treatment and organ preservation in bladder cancer. Do molecular markers predict outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: in invasive bladder cancer, several groups have reported the value of organ preservation by a combined-treatment approach, including transurethral resection (TUR-BT) and radiochemotherapy (RCT). As more experience is acquired with this organ-sparing treatment, patient selection needs to be optimized. Clinical factors are limited in their potential to identify patients most likely to respond to RCT, thus, additional molecular markers for predicting treatment response of individual lesions are sorely needed. Patients and methods: the apoptotic index (AI) and Ki-67 index were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on pretreatment biopsies of 134 patients treated for bladder cancer by TUR-BT and RCT. Expression of each marker as well as clinicopathologic factors were then correlated with initial response, local control and cancer-specific survival with preserved bladder in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: the median AI for all patients was 1.5% (range 0.2-7.4%). The percentage of Ki-67-positive cells in the tumors ranged from 0.2% to 85% with a median of 14.2%. A significant correlation was found for AI and tumor differentiation (G1/2: AI = 1.3% vs. G3/4: AI = 1.6%; p = 0.01). A complete response at restaging TUR-BT was achieved in 76% of patients. Factors predictive of complete response included T-category (p < 0.0001), resection status (p = 0.02), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.01), and Ki-67 index (p = 0.02). For local control, AI (p = 0.04) and Ki-67 index (p = 0.05) as well as T-category (p = 0.005), R-status (p = 0.05), and lymphatic vessel invasion (p = 0.05) reached statistical significance. Out of the molecular markers only high Ki-67 levels were associated to cause-specific survival with preserved bladder. On multivariate analysis, T-category was the strongest independent factor for initial response, local control and cancer-specific survival with preserved bladder. Conclusion: The indices of pretreatment apoptosis and Ki-67 predict a

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  10. Diagnostic value of high tesla magnetic resonance imaging in bone tumors and tumor-like lesions%高场磁共振鉴别骨肿瘤及肿瘤样病变的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩霞; 任翠萍; 程敬亮; 李丹; 李莹

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To analyze bone tumors and tumor-like lesions in plain MRI,dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI( DCE-MRI )and diffusion weighted imaging( DWI ) and to explore the clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis of them. Methods :A total of 61 cases were selected. The first step was MRI plain scan,and then turned to different b-value DWI scan,the DCE MRI scan,and finally conventional contrast-enhanced MRI scan. Results:The shape of the edge and boundary definition between benign and malignant lesions were both of statistical significance(?2 = 32. 262,45. 131 ,P 0. 05 ). In the matter of strengthening extent,benign and malignant lesions were different Z = 3.488 ,P 0.05).良、恶性骨肿瘤强化程度(Z=3.488,P<0.001)、时间-信号强度曲线(TIC)分布类型(χ2=15.826,P=0.001)比较,差异有统计学意义.TIC取Ⅰ、Ⅱ型曲线为恶性诊断标准,诊断恶性肿瘤的特异性为69.57%,准确性为72.13%,敏感性为73.68%,阳性预测值为80.00%,阴性预测值为61.54%.良、恶性骨肿瘤之间的DWI信号比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.225,P=0.268).结论:磁共振平扫、DCE-MRI和DWI有助于鉴别骨肿瘤良、恶性病变.

  11. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  12. Unusual presentation of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the Urinary bladder with small-cell and large-cell features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Fiorin de Vasconcellos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder comprehends small-cell and large-cell variants. It is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, mostly diagnosed in advanced stages. It is more frequently encountered among Caucasian men in the sixth decade of life. Urinary symptoms are the most common clinical presentation. Diagnosis is generally not troublesome once the lesions are easily detectable by imaging exams and cystoscopy. This neoplasia is associated with tobacco smoking, and is frequently associated with other carcinomatous components such as urothelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and sarcomatoid carcinoma. The authors report a case of an apparently healthy female patient who presented cervical lymph node enlargement not accompanied by systemic symptoms. The supraclavicular lymph node biopsy revealed metastatic small cell carcinoma. The computed tomography scan showed a bladder wall nodular thickening, enlarged lymph nodes along the iliac, periaortic, mediastinal, cervical and supraclavicular chains, as well as an insufflating lytic bone lesion in the right iliac wing. The positron emission tomography-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG added to these findings, the presence of a paraesophageal lymph node, lymphadenomegaly in the gluteal region and a vertebral lytic lesion in T10. Resected specimen of the bladder tumor revealed a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with small-cell and large-cell features.

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation of the Main Lesion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Bile Duct Tumor Thrombus as a Radical Therapeutic Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Zhang, Qingshuai; Zhang, Jun; Kong, Jian; Wang, Shaohong; Ding, Xuemei; Ke, Shan; Sun, Wenbing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) formation is a rare entity found microscopically in 1% to 9.2% of resected specimens. The ideal treatment for HCC is surgical resection. However, because of poor hepatic functional reserve in patients with HCC, most tumors are unresectable. Here, we report 2 cases of HCC with BDTT type III accompanied by hepatic dysfunction that were successfully treated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation. We used RF ablation as both a radical therapeutic method and an efficient way to control bleeding from the origin of BDTT after BDTT removal. At the time of writing, the 2 patients have been disease-free for 16 and 12 months, respectively. Our results show that RF ablation may be used as a radical therapeutic alternative for HCC with BDTT in patients with liver cirrhosis and obstructive jaundice. PMID:26166111

  14. PEComa of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanish S Shringarpure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors are a family of related mesenchymal neo-plasms that include angiomyolipoma, lymphangiomyomatosis, clear cell sugar tumor of the lung and a group of rare morphologically and immunophenotypically similar lesions that show immunoreactivity for both melanocytic (HMB-45 and/or melan-A and smooth muscle (actin and/or desmin markers. This case is presented for its rare occurrence and characteristic mor-phologic and immunohistochemical features.

  15. High Milk Consumption Does Not Affect Prostate Tumor Progression in Two Mouse Models of Benign and Neoplastic Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernichtein, Sophie; Pigat, Natascha; Capiod, Thierry; Boutillon, Florence; Verkarre, Virginie; Camparo, Philippe; Viltard, Mélanie; Méjean, Arnaud; Oudard, Stéphane; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Friedlander, Gérard; Goffin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies that have investigated whether dairy (mainly milk) diets are associated with prostate cancer risk have led to controversial conclusions. In addition, no existing study clearly evaluated the effects of dairy/milk diets on prostate tumor progression, which is clinically highly relevant in view of the millions of men presenting with prostate pathologies worldwide, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). We rep...

  16. ROLE OF USG AND MDCT IN EVALUATION OF URINARY BLADDER MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%–6% of all tumors, with bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common malignancy (1 . Peak incidence is in the sixth and the seventh decades. Incidence is four times higher in men than in women. The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. (2 The bladder is readily identified by ultrasound, Computed Tomography, cystography, Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI and Cystoscopy, but Bladder ultrasound is noninvasive, readily accessible, and easy to use. It has been extensively investigated as a possible substitution for some of the more common invasive modalities used to evaluate the bladder

  17. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, β-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  18. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: KIT and PDGFRA Gene Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Nuket Eliyakin; Hakan Postaci; Yasemin Baskin; Zafer Kozacioğlu

    2015-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%). The tumo...

  19. Examining the Relationship between Pre-Malignant Breast Lesions, Carcinogenesis and Tumor Evolution in the Mammary Epithelium Using an Agent-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Joaquin; An, Gary; Kulkarni, Swati A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer, the product of numerous rare mutational events that occur over an extended time period, presents numerous challenges to investigators interested in studying the transformation from normal breast epithelium to malignancy using traditional laboratory methods, particularly with respect to characterizing transitional and pre-malignant states. Dynamic computational modeling can provide insight into these pathophysiological dynamics, and as such we use a previously validated agent-based computational model of the mammary epithelium (the DEABM) to investigate the probabilistic mechanisms by which normal populations of ductal cells could transform into states replicating features of both pre-malignant breast lesions and a diverse set of breast cancer subtypes. Methods The DEABM consists of simulated cellular populations governed by algorithms based on accepted and previously published cellular mechanisms. Cells respond to hormones, undergo mitosis, apoptosis and cellular differentiation. Heritable mutations to 12 genes prominently implicated in breast cancer are acquired via a probabilistic mechanism. 3000 simulations of the 40-year period of menstrual cycling were run in wild-type (WT) and BRCA1-mutated groups. Simulations were analyzed by development of hyperplastic states, incidence of malignancy, hormone receptor and HER-2 status, frequency of mutation to particular genes, and whether mutations were early events in carcinogenesis. Results Cancer incidence in WT (2.6%) and BRCA1-mutated (45.9%) populations closely matched published epidemiologic rates. Hormone receptor expression profiles in both WT and BRCA groups also closely matched epidemiologic data. Hyperplastic populations carried more mutations than normal populations and mutations were similar to early mutations found in ER+ tumors (telomerase, E-cadherin, TGFB, RUNX3, p DCIS), via mutations to genes known to be present in hyperplastic lesions and as early mutations in breast cancers

  20. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  1. A study of an effective sunitinib–chemotherapeutic combination regimen for bladder cancer treatment using a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dah-Shyong Yu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Combination of the tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor sunitinib with gemcitabine chemotherapy synergistically enhances tumor cytotoxicity and may provide a new treatment modality for advanced bladder cancer.

  2. TERT promoter mutations in bladder cancer affect patient survival and disease recurrence through modification by a common polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; de Verdier, Petra J; Fallah, Mahdi; Heidenreich, Barbara; Ryk, Charlotta; Wiklund, N Peter; Steineck, Gunnar; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-10-22

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, an important element of telomerase expression, has emerged as a target of cancer-specific mutations. Originally described in melanoma, the mutations in TERT promoter have been shown to be common in certain other tumor types that include glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and bladder cancer. To fully define the occurrence and effect of the TERT promoter mutations, we investigated tumors from a well-characterized series of 327 patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of bladder. The somatic mutations, mainly at positions -124 and -146 bp from ATG start site that create binding motifs for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), affected 65.4% of the tumors, with even distribution across different stages and grades. Our data showed that a common polymorphism rs2853669, within a preexisting Ets2 binding site in the TERT promoter, acts as a modifier of the effect of the mutations on survival and tumor recurrence. The patients with the mutations showed poor survival in the absence [hazard ratio (HR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-4.70] but not in the presence (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-1.01) of the variant allele of the polymorphism. The mutations in the absence of the variant allele were highly associated with the disease recurrence in patients with Tis, Ta, and T1 tumors (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.11-3.08). The TERT promoter mutations are the most common somatic lesions in bladder cancer with clinical implications. The association of the mutations with patient survival and disease recurrence, subject to modification by a common polymorphism, can be a unique putative marker with individualized prognostic potential. PMID:24101484

  3. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... red in color). Frequent urination. Pain during urination. Lower back pain. Tests that examine the urine and bladder are used to help detect (find) and diagnose bladder cancer. The following tests and ... left. Treatment given after surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, ...

  4. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  5. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...

  6. Differential diagnosis and staging of urological tumors by magnetic resonance imaging compared with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 49 urological tumors (11 renal cell carcinomas, 3 renal pelvic cancers, 2 renal angiomyolipomas, 1 renal leiomyosarcoma, 1 large renal cvst, 4 adrenal tumors, 11 bladder cancers, 2 bone metastasis from bladder cancer, 10 prostatic cancers, 1 prostatic sarcoma, 1 urethral cancer, 1 penile cancer and 1 perivesical granuloma) since October 1985 to September 1986. MRI was performed using a Signa (G.E.) with a 1.5 T superconductive magnet and 3 images, including T1 weighted image, T2 weighted image, and proton density image, were obtained. In conclusion MRI is a noninvasive examination and gives more information than computed tomography despite its high cost. In renal cell carcinoma, the chemical shift in MRI and clear visualization of tumor thrombus enable accurate staging. Differential diagnosis from other renal mass lesions may be possible by the T2 weighted image. In adrenal disease, most of the adrenal masses can be differentiated, but in some cases it is impossible. In bladder cancer, wall invasion of tumor may be evaluated in T2 weighted image, and MRI is suitable for staging of locally advanced tumor. In prostatic cancer, visualization of periprostatic plexus and differentiation between internal and external gland may enable local staging and identification of low stage tumors. (author)

  7. Effects of electrotherapy in treatment of neurogenic bladder in children with occult spinal dysraphism

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirović Dragana; Petronić Ivana; Nikolić Dejan; Brdar Radivoj; Pavićević Polina; Knežević Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Neurogenic bladder can develop as a result of various degrees of neurogenic lesion in spina bifida. The degree of bladder dysfunction depends on the level and type of spina bifida. Due to results upon complete diagnostic protocols, treatment options are applied. Objective Comparison of therapy results of patients with occult spinal dysraphism with neurogenic bladder that under-went medicamentous therapy and medicamentous with electrotherapy treatment. Methods We had 49 patients w...

  8. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Rudkjær, Lise; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... staining on tissue arrays of bladder cancers. The presence and relative amount of ADAM12 in the urine of cancer patients were determined by Western blotting and densitometric measurements, respectively. RESULTS: ADAM12 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer, as determined by...... could be detected in the urine by Western blotting; ADAM12 was present in higher levels in the urine from patients with bladder cancer compared with urine from healthy individuals. Significantly, following removal of tumor by surgery, in most bladder cancer cases examined, the level of ADAM12 in the...

  9. Role of VEGF in the growth and metastasis of a murine bladder carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; WU Jihong; TIAN Yuhua; CHEN Xiafang; HU Honghui; WU Wensen; LI Chuanyuan; HUANG Qian

    2003-01-01

    Bladder transitional cell carcinoma is the most common form of carcinoma in the urinary system. Although overexpression of VEGF has been identified in tissue, serum, and urine of patients with bladder cancer, the role of VEGF in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we dissected the effect of VEGF during bladder tumor growth and progression by modifying a BBN (N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine) induced mouse bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line BTT-T739 by stable transfection of antisense VEGF121 cDNA. The transfection resulted in more than 80% reduction in VEGF production. The growth of the transduced tumor cells in vitro was not affected, however, these cells formed small or no tumors in vivo. Even in the tumors formed, there were mini- mal vascularization, extensive necrosis and longer latency compared to those formed by parental cells. The permeability of tumor vasculature and metastatic tumor growth were also significantly suppressed in antisense VEGF cDNA trans- fected cells. In addition, the transfer of anti-angiogenic gene in a combination of sFlk-1 and ExTek with electroporation can suppress the tumor growth efficiently. Taken together, these results demonstrated that VEGF plays an important role in bladder tumor angiogenesis and angiogenesis plays an important role in bladder tumor growth and metastasis.

  10. A study of image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer based on lipiodol injection in the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. We have tested a procedure of focal injection of the contrast medium Lipiodol as a fiducial marker for image-guided boost of the tumor in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility and the safety of the method as well as the inter- and intra-fraction shift of the bladder tumor. Materials and methods. Five patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer were included in the study. Lipiodol was injected during flexible cystoscopy into the submucosa of the bladder wall at the periphery of the tumor or the post resection tumor-bed. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired daily throughout the course of RT. Results. Lipiodol demarcation of the bladder tumor was feasible and safe with only a minimum of side effects related to the procedure. The Lipiodol spots were visible on CT and CBCT scans for the duration of the RT course. More than half of all the treatment fractions required a geometric shift of 5 mm or more to match on the Lipiodol spots. The mean intra-fraction shift (3D) of the tumor was 3 mm, largest in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Lipiodol can be injected into the bladder mucosa and subsequently visualized on CT and CBCT as a fiducial marker. The relatively large inter-fraction shifts in the positions of Lipiodol spots compared to the intra-fraction movement indicates that image-guided RT based on radio-opaque markers is important for RT of the bladder cancer tumor.

  11. The imaging features of surrounding changes caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions%骨肿瘤与瘤样病变周围组织影像表现分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官景俊; 徐文坚; 李文; 张庆; 陈建文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the imaging features of bone marrow edema(BME)and soft tissue edema(STE)caused by bone tumors and tumor-like lesions.Methods Ninety nine patients with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions which were proved by surgical pathology were reviewed.The patients were divided into benign and malignant groups.Evaluation parameters included the size and signal intensity of BME and STE,the features of enhancement,the bone sclerosis and its relation with BME,and joint effusion,et al.The data of two groups were analyzed by X2 test.Results There were 40 patients in benign group and 59 patients belonged to malignant group.BME and STE demonstrated low signal on T1-weighted images and high signal on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images.Some BMEs demonstrated low signal on T2weighted images,which corresponded to sclerosis on X-ray film and(or)CT.Both BME and STE demonstrated uniform enhancement.There were statistically significant differences between benign and malignant groups including the frequency of BME.sclerosis.the median of the size of the BME and STE (P0.05).Conclusions Both benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions and malignant bone tumors can be accompanied by BME and STE.The size of BME in the benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions is bigger than those in malignant ones,and the size of STE in malignant bone tumors is bigger than benign ones.%目的 分析骨肿瘤与瘤样病变引起的骨髓水肿(BME)和软组织水肿(STE)的影像表现,加强对此征象的认识.方法 复习绛手术病理证实的99例骨肿瘤与瘤样病变资料,将病变分成良性组和恶性组,观察病灶周围BME和STE范围、信号特点、是否有强化、BME区域在X线平片和(或)CT 上是否有骨质硬化、有无关节积液等,比较BME和STE出现率及范围差异.采用X2检验对组间数据进行比较.结果 良性组40例,恶性绀59例.BME和STE在T1WI上呈低信号,脂肪抑制T1WI上为高信号;部分BME在T2WI上呈低信号,相应区域

  12. Partial cystectomy in a 76 year old patient suffering from small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Starownik, Radosław; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Bar, Krzysztof; Płaza, Paweł; Kiś, Jacek; Muc, Kamil; Bar, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder originating from the neuroendocrine cells are extremely rare. We present a case of a 76–year–old patient with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The patient had hematuria and cystoscopy revealed a tumor located in a urinary bladder diverticulum. Partial resection of the bladder wall with diverticulectomy was performed. Microscopic examination established the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistr...

  13. Cathepsin-D And Tnf-α in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 of them are operable cases and 31 are non-operable ones, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and cytosolic Cathepsin-D were estimated. Though both potential markers were elevated in bladder cancer patients, neither Cathepsin-D nor TNF-α showed associations of prognostic value since there were no positive correlations with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzia ova or lymph node involvement.

  14. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options. PMID:27218442

  15. Primary bladder lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type: Case report and literature review of 26 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Greg Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is exceedingly rare, representing 0.2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. Although Matsuno et al. and others state the most common type is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, 20% of all the primary lymphomas of the urinary bladder are considered to be high grade neoplasms; the majority being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. This is a case report of a 48-year-old man that presented with hematuria, frequency, nocturia, and flank pain that was found to have high grade DLBCL. Twenty-six other cases of both low and high grade primary bladder lymphomas were selected in order to provide a thorough comparison of different treatment modalities. Of the cases reviewed, bladder lymphoma was more common in females (2:1. The average age at diagnosis was 63.9 years old (low grade: 68.7 years old, high grade: 58.8 years old. The most common low-grade neoplasm was MALT lymphoma (85.7%. For the low-grade malignancies, the most successful treatments were simple therapies (2 transurethral resection of a bladder tumour [TURBT], 1 antibiotics, solitary chemotherapy, and combination TURBT/chemo; all 3 of which achieved 100% clinical remission (CR in the cases reviewed. The most common high grade neoplasm was DLBCL (76.9%. The most successful therapies used to treat high grade lesions were solitary chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, duanorubacin, vincristine, prednisolone [CHOP] or ritoximab, CHOP [R-CHOP] and combination therapies (2 radiation/CHOP, 2 surgery/CHOP. In the agreement with the current literature, this review has shown that simple therapies (TURBT are equally as effective as aggressive treatments (chemotherapy, radiation and should therefore be used as first line treatment in low grade tumors. For high grade malignancies, chemotherapy (R-CHOP or CHOP alone or combination therapy (CHOP/surgery or CHOP/radiation is recommended.

  16. Suppression of the PI3K pathway in vivo reduces cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy and restores bladder capacity examined by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Qiao

    Full Text Available This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to monitor the real-time status of the urinary bladder in normal and diseased states following cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis, and also examined the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway in the regulation of urinary bladder hypertrophy in vivo. Our results showed that under MRI visualization the urinary bladder wall was significantly thickened at 8 h and 48 h post CYP injection. The intravesical volume of the urinary bladder was also markedly reduced. Treatment of the cystitis animals with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced cystitis-induced bladder wall thickening and enlarged the intravesical volumes. To confirm the MRI results, we performed H&E stain postmortem and examined the levels of type I collagen by real-time PCR and western blot. Inhibition of the PI3K in vivo reduced the levels of type I collagen mRNA and protein in the urinary bladder ultimately attenuating cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy. The bladder mass calculated according to MRI data was consistent to the bladder weight measured ex vivo under each drug treatment. MRI results also showed that the urinary bladder from animals with cystitis demonstrated high magnetic signal intensity indicating considerable inflammation of the urinary bladder when compared to normal animals. This was confirmed by examination of the pro-inflammatory factors showing that interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα levels in the urinary bladder were increased with cystitis. Our results suggest that MRI can be a useful technique in tracing bladder anatomy and examining bladder hypertrophy in vivo during disease development and the PI3K pathway has a critical role in regulating bladder hypertrophy during cystitis.

  17. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@harthosp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaufman, Donald S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heney, Niall M. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  18. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Bladder Cancer Growth And Tumorigenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Wang, Zhiqiang; Flaveny, Colin; Long, Jun; Singh, Samer; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Tokhunts, Robert; Giambelli, Camilla; Briegel, Karoline J.; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Karagas, Margaret; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Jorda, Merce

    2012-01-01

    The role of HEDGEHOG (HH) signaling in bladder cancer remains controversial. The gene encoding the HH receptor and negative regulator PATCHED1 (PTCH1) resides on a region of chromosome 9q, one copy of which is frequently lost in bladder cancer. Inconsistent with PTCH1 functioning as a classic tumor suppressor gene, loss-of-function mutations in the remaining copy of PTCH1 are not commonly found. Here, we provide direct evidence for a critical role of HH signaling in bladder carcinogenesis. We...

  19. Prevention and treatment of early radiation-induced injuries of the urinary bladder in carcinoma of the cervix and corpus uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses early-onset radiation injuries in the urinary bladder of more than 1000 patients with cancer of the cervix and corpus uteri. Clinical symptoms of such injuries were observed in 487 patients (44.3%). In 47 (10%), the lesions were pronounced. The degree of radiation-induced cystitis was evaluated on a 6-point scale used by WHO classification (1982). Said lesions mainly occurred at stage III of tumor and predominantly in cases of cancer of the corpus uteri. Complications development was stimulated by vascular lesions, diabetes mellitus and inflammatiry processes in pelvic organs. Radiation injuries were treated by standard procedures as well as with immobilised trypsin administered in a cellulose powder vehicle. this method proved the immobilised trypsin adminstered in a cellulose powder vehicle. This method proved the most effective. Since patients suffering early-onset radiation-induced destructive injuries are at high risk of further exacerbation at later stages, they should be followed-up closely

  20. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bazzaz Pishtewan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations.

  1. Truncated Isoforms of lncRNA ANRIL Are Overexpressed in Bladder Cancer, But Do Not Contribute to Repression of INK4 Tumor Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle J. Hoffmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The INK4/ARF locus at chromosome 9p21 encoding p14ARF, p15INK4B and p16INK4A is a major tumor suppressor locus, constituting an important barrier for tumor growth. It is frequently inactivated in cancers, especially in urothelial carcinoma (UC. In addition to deletions and DNA hypermethylation, further epigenetic mechanisms might underlie its repression. One candidate factor is the long noncoding RNA ANRIL, which recruits Polycomb proteins (PcG to regulate expression of target genes in cis and trans. We observed ANRIL overexpression in many UC tissues and cell lines mainly resulting from upregulation of 3’-truncated isoforms. However, aberrant ANRIL expression was neither associated with repression of INK4/ARF genes nor with proliferation activity or senescence. We wondered whether truncated ANRIL isoforms exhibit altered properties resulting in loss of function in cis. We excluded delocalization and performed RNA immunoprecipitation demonstrating interaction between full length or truncated ANRIL and PcG protein CBX7, but not SUZ12 of PRC2. Our data indicate that ANRIL in UC cells may not interact with PRC2, which is central for initializing gene repression. Thus, tissue-specific binding activities between ANRIL and PcG proteins may determine the regulatory function of ANRIL. In conclusion, ANRIL does not play a major role in repression of the INK4/ARF locus in UC.

  2. A fully automatic, threshold-based segmentation method for the estimation of the Metabolic Tumor Volume from PET images: validation on 3D printed anthropomorphic oncological lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivanone, F.; Interlenghi, M.; Canervari, C.; Castiglioni, I.

    2016-01-01

    18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a standard functional diagnostic technique to in vivo image cancer. Different quantitative paramters can be extracted from PET images and used as in vivo cancer biomarkers. Between PET biomarkers Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) has gained an important role in particular considering the development of patient-personalized radiotherapy treatment for non-homogeneous dose delivery. Different imaging processing methods have been developed to define MTV. The different proposed PET segmentation strategies were validated in ideal condition (e.g. in spherical objects with uniform radioactivity concentration), while the majority of cancer lesions doesn't fulfill these requirements. In this context, this work has a twofold objective: 1) to implement and optimize a fully automatic, threshold-based segmentation method for the estimation of MTV, feasible in clinical practice 2) to develop a strategy to obtain anthropomorphic phantoms, including non-spherical and non-uniform objects, miming realistic oncological patient conditions. The developed PET segmentation algorithm combines an automatic threshold-based algorithm for the definition of MTV and a k-means clustering algorithm for the estimation of the background. The method is based on parameters always available in clinical studies and was calibrated using NEMA IQ Phantom. Validation of the method was performed both in ideal (e.g. in spherical objects with uniform radioactivity concentration) and non-ideal (e.g. in non-spherical objects with a non-uniform radioactivity concentration) conditions. The strategy to obtain a phantom with synthetic realistic lesions (e.g. with irregular shape and a non-homogeneous uptake) consisted into the combined use of standard anthropomorphic phantoms commercially and irregular molds generated using 3D printer technology and filled with a radioactive chromatic alginate. The proposed segmentation algorithm was feasible in a

  3. Chemoimmunotherapy of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdill, B J; Lamm, D L; Livingston, R B

    1981-11-01

    The lethality of invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) has prompted a search for effective, minimally toxic, adjuvant therapy. Such agents were evaluated in a murine bladder cancer (MBT2) model which parallels the clinical disease. One hundred C3H/He mice were inoculated i.d. with 2.5 x 10(4) viable MBT2 tumor cells and randomized to receive either normal saline (control), cis-Platinum (CPT), cyclophosphamide (CY), methotrexate (MTX), BCG, (CY + MTX), or (CY + MTX + BCG). Chemotherapy was given intraperitoneally weekly starting on day 7 after inoculation. Immunotherapy was given intralesionally on days 1 and 10 only. All mice were treated for 5 weeks followed by 5 weeks of observation. At 5 weeks, tumors of mice receiving cyclophosphamide alone or either of the combinations of therapy were smaller (P less than 0.01) than tumors of controls or other single agents alone. Each regimen increased survival, but only the combination regimen increase survival significantly (P less than 0.01). In the doses and schedule used in this model. Combination chemotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy significantly delay tumor growth and increase duration of survival (P less than 0.01) when compared with controls or single agent groups. PMID:7298287

  4. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  5. Value of the dual phase 18F-FDG PET/CT with oral diuretic in the diagnosis of bladder cancer before therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: PET with 18F-FDG has been considered of limited value for the detection of bladder cancer because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of dual phase 18F-FDG PET/CT with oral diuretic in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: 107 patients with suspected bladder cancer were enrolled in the present study from May, 2003 to May, 2012. Each patient underwent the whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans routinely. After that, all patients received the forced diuresis by orally administration of furosemide (40 mg) and drinking a lot of water. Two hours later, after several times of urination, the patients underwent an additional delayed pelvic PET/CT scans. The intravesical radioactivity was compared between the routine and delayed the scans and the visualization of the tumor was evaluated. The diagnostic efficacy was determined based on the pathological examinations and the clinical following-up. Results: With the forced diuresis, intravesical 18F-FDG activity decreased significantly in 96.3% of the patients. The lesions on the wall of urinary bladder were visualized clearly in the delayed PET images, which weren't seen in the rout/ne PET images. 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 75 patients who all then received the operation. 69 patients were diagnosed pathologically to have the bladder cancer and 6 patients to have benign diseases. 18F-FDG PET/CT was negative in another 32 patients. Four patients of them were then diagnosed to be bladder cancer. Another 28 patients were clinically followed up more than 6 months and none of them was found to have bladder cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the dual phase PET/CT imaging for diagnosing the bladder cancer were 94.5%(69/73), 82.4%(28/34) and 90.7%(97/107), respectively. Conclusion: The forced diuresis using oral furosemide can significantly reduce the intravesical radioactivity and improve the detectability of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the bladder cancer

  6. Possible disease remission in patient with invasive bladder cancer with D-fraction regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, Sensuke

    2009-01-01

    Srinivas Rajamahanty, Brandon Louie, Cormac O’Neill, Muhammad Choudhury, Sensuke KonnoDepartment of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USAAbstract: Superficial bladder tumors are the most prevalent form of bladder cancers and transurethral resection is the primary surgical modality for those tumors. However, nearly 65% of patients will have tumor recurrence in five years while about 15% will have progression to muscle invasion. Thus, the primary therapeutic aim i...

  7. Isolated Polypoid Ganglioneuroma of Gall Bladder - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana U.G.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A ganglioneuroma is a very rare neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and a benign neoplasm of sympathetic nervous system. They predominantly affect the colon and rectum and are rare to arise in gall bladder. Gastrointestinal ganglioneuromas occur as rare isolated (solitary polypoid lesions or more commonly as ganglioneuromatous polyposis and diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. Isolated polypoid lesions are clinically asymptomatic and incidentally detected during endoscopy or surgery. We report a case of a 42-year-female who presented clinically with features of chronic cholecystitis and was operated. There was no association of any hereditary disease. Incidentally the cholecystectomy specimen showed a small sessile polypoid lesion. Histopathological examination showed the lesion to be polypoid ganglioneuroma arising in gall bladder. The isolated polypoid ganglioneuroma is invariably benign. They do not have increased risk of von Recklinghausen’s disease or multiple endocrine neoplasia IIB and show no evidence of recurrence with excellent prognosis after total excision.

  8. Multidisciplinary Approach in the Treatment of Patients with Small Cell Bladder Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, L. Traldi; Ribeiro, J.; Curigliano, G; Fumagalli, L.; Locatelli, M.; Campello Carvalheira, J. Barreto; Quintela, A.; Bertelli, S.; O. De Cobelli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is considered to be a tumor with a neuroendocrine phenotype characterised by aggressive behaviour and poor prognosis. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder comprises 0,35 to 1% of all bladder cancers and is frequently observed in combination with other histological subtypes of carcinoma. Clinical presentation is characterized by advanced stage at diagnosis and rapidly progressive disease. In daily clinical practice ...

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili Nabil; Ghanem Samia; Mellas Nawfel; Afqir Said; Taleb Meriem; Amrani Meryem; Gamra Lamia; Errihani Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is extremely rare. In this paper, we present a case of metastatic SCCB managed by chemotherapy and we would provide a brief review of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, pathologic features, staging, treatment, and prognosis of SCCB. A 52-year-old man was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of a bladder cancer. Computed tomography of the pelvis and abdomen showed a large tumor at the right bladder wall, measuring 10 cm in diameter...

  10. Small cell cancer of the bladder: The Leon-Berard cancer centre experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili, Nabil; Elkarak, Fadi; Heudel, Pierre Etienne; Flechon, Aude; Droz, Jean Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background: Small cell bladder carcinoma is an uncommon tumor. In this retrospective study we report our experience dealing with this disease at the Leon-Berard Cancer Centre. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed various characteristics of small cell bladder carcinoma: patient demographics, histological diagnosis, disease stage, treatment effects and outcome, in 14 non-metastatic small cell bladder carcinoma patients treated at our institution between 1995 and 2006. Results: The...

  11. Cellular origin of bladder neoplasia and tissue dynamics of its progression to invasive carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kunyoo; Lim, Agnes; Odegaard, Justin I.; Honeycutt, Jared D.; Kawano, Sally; Hsieh, Michael H.; Beachy, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malignancies arise within normal tissues requires identification of the cancer cell of origin and knowledge of the cellular and tissue dynamics of tumor progression. Here we examine bladder cancer in a chemical carcinogenesis model that mimics muscle-invasive human bladder cancer. With no prior bias regarding genetic pathways or cell types, we prospectively mark or ablate cells to show that muscle-invasive bladder carcinomas arise exclusively from Sonic hedgehog ( Shh )-expr...

  12. GATA3 in the urinary bladder: suppression of neoplastic transformation and down-regulation by androgens

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yurina; Izumi, Koji; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the involvement of sex hormone receptors in bladder cancer initiation, while precise functions of androgens and estrogens in the carcinogenesis step remain poorly understood. We recently found down-regulation of GATA3, a zinc-finger transcription factor and a new urothelial marker, in bladder cancer, which also correlated with expression status of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs). We here assessed whether GATA3 acted as a suppressor of bladder tumor...

  13. Tumor response assessment to treatment with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate in patients with gastroenteropancreatic and bronchial neuroendocrine tumors: differential response of bone versus soft-tissue lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, E.I. van; Hermans, J.J.; Ridder, M.A. de; Teunissen, J.J.; Kam, B.L.; Krijger, R.R. de; Krenning, E.P.; Kwekkeboom, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    We have noted that bone lesions on CT respond differently from soft-tissue lesions to treatment with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate ((177)Lu-octreotate). We therefore compared the response of bone lesions with that of soft-tissue lesions to treatment with (177)Lu-octreotate in patients with gast

  14. Invalidity of SUV Measurements of Lesions in Close Proximity to Hot Sources due to “Shine-Through” Effect on FDG PET-CT Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that many technical and physiologic factors can affect the reliability of the standardized uptake value (SUV on FDG PET-CT. Another potential problem of which we may be aware but has not been previously discussed is significant SUV overestimation of lesions in the direct neighborhood of large hot sources, namely, areas with high FDG uptake or activity such as a tumor, myocardium, urinary bladder, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract. The magnitude of SUV overestimation of the lesions directly neighboring the large hot sources is varied among the different cases, and it is possibly secondary to “shine-through” effect of the hot sources, which would warrant further systematic investigation such as phantom simulation experiment. If the lesion is in the close territory of the hot source, measured SUV is often overestimated and invalid. Visual interpretation should be used for evaluation of FDG avidity of the lesion.

  15. Multiple hemangiomas of the urinary bladder in a child with gross hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeun Yoon Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple hemangiomas involving the urinary bladder in a 4-year-old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of gross hematuria. On ultrasonography, compared with the bladder wall, the lesions presented as multiple isoechoic polypoid intraluminal masses with mildly increased vascularity on color Doppler exam. Cavernous hemangioma was confirmed by cold-cup biopsy, and the all lesions were coagulated with a Holmium laser. Despite their rarity, bladder hemangiomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of multiple intravesical masses in children with gross hematuria.

  16. CLASSIFYING NODULAR LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Bhateja

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of many lesions of the oral cavity is challenging to most cliniciansbecause of their uncommon prevalence. A number of cystic, osteodystrophic,microbial, tumor and tumor like lesions of the oral cavity are present withcharacteristic exophytic/raised surface; which makes their diagnosis and studysimpler. The present article is attempted at classifying the common nodular lesions ofthe oral cavity.

  17. Heterotopic pancreas in gall bladder associated with chronic cholecystolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Elhence, Poonam; Bansal, Rani; Agrawal, Nivesh

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the gallbladder is a very uncommon lesion, which is an incidental finding in most cases. We report here, a case of an 18-year-old, post puerperal female, suffering from right upper quadrant abdominal pain with a clinical diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis, in whom heterotopic pancreatic tissue was found in the gall bladder.

  18. Bladder Paraganglioma with a Calculus: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Hong Wu; Zhou Wu; Jianjun Liu

    2007-01-01

    @@ A 61-year-old female visited our department reporting intermittent microscopic hematuria. She had slight hypertension of 141/78 mmHg, but there was no family history of hypertension. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed an isointense lesion within the posterior wall of the urinary bladder with a calculus on the surface (Fig.1).

  19. Analysis of failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors for bladder relapse and distant failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients treated in the period 1977 to 1990 by definitive radiotherapy. The factors studied included age, sex, T stage, histological grade, tumor multiplicity, ureteric obstruction, total radiation dose, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The endpoints studied were bladder relapse and distant failure. Results: There were 342 patients with a mean follow-up time of 7.9 years. Bladder relapse was observed in 159 patients. The overall actuarial bladder relapse rate at 5 years was 55% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher bladder relapse rate were: tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), presence of ureteric obstruction (p = 0.001), and higher T stage (p 0.044). Distant failure occurred in 39 patients. The overall actuarial distant failure rate at 5 years was 28% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher distant failure rate were: ureteric obstruction (p = 0.003) and higher T stage (p = 0.030). Conclusion: In our study, patients with invasive bladder TCC fell into distinct prognostic groups determined by the three independent factors, ureteric obstruction, tumor multiplicity, and T stage. These factors provided estimated risks of bladder relapse by 5 years which ranged from 34% to 91%. Knowledge of these prognostic factors can help in the selection of patients more suited for bladder preservation by definitive radiotherapy

  20. Long non‑coding RNA‑GAS5 acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder transitional cell carcinoma via regulation of chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qifeng; Wang, Ning; Qi, Juan; Gu, Zhengqin; Shen, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in diverse biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, cell growth and tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate whether lncRNA‑growth arrest‑specific (GAS)5 regulated bladder cancer progression via regulation of chemokine (C‑C) ligand (CCL)1 expression. The viability of BLX bladder cancer cells was detected using a Cell Counting kit‑8 assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by annexin V‑propidium iodide double‑staining. The expression levels of specific genes and proteins were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. In addition, cells were transfected with small interfering (si)RNAs or recombinant GAS5 in order to silence or overexpress GAS5, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of GAS5 expression promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation, whereas overexpression of GAS5 suppressed cell proliferation. Furthermore, knockdown of GAS5 resulted in an increased percentage of cells in S and G2 phase, and a decreased percentage of cells in G1 phase. In addition, the present study performed a hierarchical cluster analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs in bladder cancer cells and detected that CCL1 overexpression resulted in an upregulation of GAS5, which may improve the ability of cells to regulate a stress response in vitro. Furthermore, knockdown of GAS5 expression increased the mRNA and protein expression of CCL1 in bladder cancer cells. Gain‑of‑function and loss‑of‑function studies demonstrated that GAS5 was able to inhibit bladder cancer cell proliferation, at least in part, by suppressing the expression of CCL1. The results of the present study demonstrated that GAS5 was able to suppress bladder cancer cell proliferation, at least partially, by suppressing the expression of CCL1. The results of the present study may provide a basis for developing novel

  1. Long non-coding RNA-GAS5 acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder transitional cell carcinoma via regulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 expression

    OpenAIRE

    CAO, QIFENG; Wang, Ning; QI, JUAN; GU, ZHENGQIN; SHEN, HAIBO

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in diverse biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, cell growth and tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate whether lncRNA-growth arrest-specific (GAS)5 regulated bladder cancer progression via regulation of chemokine (C-C) ligand (CCL)1 expression. The viability of BLX bladder cancer cells was detected using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-propidium iodide double-sta...

  2. Comparison of CT virtual cystoscopy of the contrast material-filled bladder with conventional cystoscopy in the diagnosis of bladder tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the value of virtual cystoscopy using contrast material to fill the bladder during routine abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations for the detection of bladder tumours. Materials and methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients (25 men and eight women; are range 51-82 years; mean age ± SD, 65 ± 7 years) who had painless macroscopic haematuria and were suspected to have bladder neoplasms were prospectively evaluated with virtual cystoscopy. After intravenous injection of contrast medium, the contrast material-filled bladders were examined with single-detector helical CT with 2-mm section thicknesses. Source CT data were transferred to a workstation for interactive navigation using surface rendering. All the patients also underwent conventional cystoscopy. Results: The results of virtual cystoscopy were compared with the findings from the conventional cystoscopy. Seventy-one of 78 bladder tumours detected with conventional cystoscopy in 28 patients were also shown on virtual images. The bladders of five patients appeared normal on both conventional cystoscopy and virtual cystoscopy. On virtual cystoscopy, seven of the 12 lesions that were ≤5 mm in diameter could be identified. The following statistical values for the identification of bladder lesions using virtual cystoscopy were calculated: sensitivity 94%, specificity 90%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 93%, and accuracy 93%. Conclusion: CT virtual cystoscopy is a noninvasive technique that can be used successfully for detection of bladder tumours >5 mm in selected cases during daily routine abdominopelvic work

  3. Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node–Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2–T4, N−) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3–6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node–negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

  4. A rare case of pure small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the second most common urologic malignancy. Up to 95% of the urinary bladder tumors are of epithelial origin, from which 90% are transitional neoplasms. However, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare tumor accounting for<0.7% of bladder cancer, of which the pure form is extremely rare. A 53‑year‑old female presented to urosurgery outpatient department complaining of hematuria and burning micturition since 3 months. Ultrsonography showed a large heteroechoic mass filling whole of the bladder. Histopathological examination of the transurethral debulked tumor mass revealed small cell carcinoma, which was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. We report this case due to its rarity and to add on to literature

  5. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB is extremely rare. In this paper, we present a case of metastatic SCCB managed by chemotherapy and we would provide a brief review of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, pathologic features, staging, treatment, and prognosis of SCCB. A 52-year-old man was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of a bladder cancer. Computed tomography of the pelvis and abdomen showed a large tumor at the right bladder wall, measuring 10 cm in diameter, and a multinodular liver disease. Diagnosis of small cell carcinoma was established from the histological study of the transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. The patient received 12 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy with a good partial response of bladder tumor and liver metastasis. The patient is still alive, 18 months after diagnosis.

  6. Bladder-emptying methods, neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and impact on quality of life in people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J E; van Asbeck, Floris W A; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn X; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; de Kort, Laetitia M O; Post, Marcel W M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe bladder-emptying methods used by people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to determine usage differences in relation to time since injury, sex, lesion level and completeness of lesion. Furthermore, to evaluate the relationship between bladder emptying methods and the

  7. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder; Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül SARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder is very rare. It is a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma that is morphologically different from small cell carcinoma.This manuscript describes a 67-year-old man who presented with hematuria. Ultrasonogrophic and computer tomography revealed a 5 cm mass in right posterolateral wall of the bladder that invaded perivesical tissue and he subsequently underwent transurethral resection. Microscopic examination showed a tumor with a sheet-like and trabecular growth pattern comprising necrotic areas which infiltrated the muscularis propria. Tumoral cells had coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli, moderate amount of cytoplasm and immunohistochemically stained strongly positive with synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56.There are only few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder so the biological behavior and the treatment protocol of these tumors are still obscure. Appropriate management protocols and prognostic estimation could be achived by the increased number of cases being reported. Therefore in a case of a poorly differentiated tumor in bladder, although rare, it is important to consider large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in differential diagnosis.

  8. Aspectos clínico-hematológicos e lesões vesicais na intoxicação crônica espontânea por Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos Clinical and hematological aspects and urinary bladder lesions in chronic spontaneous poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane L. Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    /46 bladders from the UDT SCCs form had gross lesions (red or pale vesical nodules, hemorrhages, and papilomas; red urine was detected at necropsy of only three cases. In BEH form, the bladder had nodules, large neoplastic masses, red urine, papilomas, and hemorrhages. Pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis were seen in a few cases. Microscopically, in the UDT SCCs form, 44/46 (95.65% bladders had 22 different types of morphological changes, characterized by neoplastic lesions (5/22 and non-neoplastic lesions (17/22; the latter were subdivided in non-neoplastic epithelial changes (6/17, general changes of the lamina propria (6/17, and inflammatory changes (5/17. The bladder changes in BEH form were of 19 different types, characterized by neoplastic lesions (5/19 and non-neoplastic lesions (14/19, which were subdivided in non-neoplastic epitelial changes (9/14, general changes of the lamina propria (3/14, and inflammatory changes (2/14. In BEH, mesenchymal neoplasms were more observed than epithelial ones, and most of them were malignant. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to characterize the histogenesis of poorly differentiated neoplasms. In conclusion, the morphological study demonstrated that urinary bladder lesions identical to the those seen in cattle with BEH, are very often present in cattle with the UDT SCCs form.

  9. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection.3H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  10. Cholesterol crystal embolization diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Denis; Cordonnier, Carole; Brevet, Marie; Petit, Jacques; Sevestre, Henri

    2005-08-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is a severe systemic disorder caused by vascular migration of cholesterol crystals originating from ulcerative atherosclerotic plaques located in large arteries. We report 2 cases of CCE diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection in 2 men aged 94 and 72 years. Both patients had atherosclerosis disease. One patient had been treated by heparin 1 month before for pulmonary embolism and the other had had a coronary angiography and bypass graft surgery 5 months before for silent myocardial infarction. One patient presented with hematuria and the other with acute renal failure. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors of the bladder wall. Bladder transurethral resections showed transitional cell carcinoma with cholesterol crystals occluding the lumen of small arterioles in the submucosa. Eight cases of CCE in the bladder wall have been reported in the literature in 3 women and 5 men aged 56 to 79 years. Cholesterol crystal embolization is often discovered in the bladder wall on necropsy specimens. Only 2 cases have been fortuitously discovered on bladder transurethral resection performed for transitional cell carcinoma. Cholesterol crystal embolization in the bladder wall is often a marker of severe disease although the evolution is quite favorable in our patients, still alive 1 and 2 years after diagnosis. PMID:16084459

  11. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity ≥G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity ≥G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity

  12. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Rudkjaer, Lise;

    2006-01-01

    gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...... microarray analysis, and the level of ADAM12 mRNA correlated with disease stage. Reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization validated the gene expression results. Using immunohistochemistry, we found ADAM12 protein expression correlated with tumor stage and grade. Finally, ADAM12...

  13. ADAM15 Is Functionally Associated with the Metastatic Progression of Human Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Lorenzatti Hiles

    Full Text Available ADAM15 is a member of a family of catalytically active disintegrin membrane metalloproteinases that function as molecular signaling switches, shed membrane bound growth factors and/or cleave and inactivate cell adhesion molecules. Aberrant metalloproteinase function of ADAM15 may contribute to tumor progression through the release of growth factors or disruption of cell adhesion. In this study, we utilized human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines to evaluate the expression and function of ADAM15 in the progression of human bladder cancer. Examination of genome and transcriptome databases revealed that ADAM15 ranked in the top 5% of amplified genes and its mRNA was significantly overexpressed in invasive and metastatic bladder cancer compared to noninvasive disease. Immunostaining of a bladder tumor tissue array designed to evaluate disease progression revealed increased ADAM15 immunoreactivity associated with increasing cancer stage and exhibited significantly stronger staining in metastatic samples. About half of the invasive tumors and the majority of the metastatic cases exhibited high ADAM15 staining index, while all low grade and noninvasive cases exhibited negative or low staining. The knockdown of ADAM15 mRNA expression significantly inhibited bladder tumor cell migration and reduced the invasive capacity of bladder tumor cells through MatrigelTM and monolayers of vascular endothelium. The knockdown of ADAM15 in a human xenograft model of bladder cancer inhibited tumor growth by 45% compared to controls. Structural modeling of the catalytic domain led to the design of a novel ADAM15-specific sulfonamide inhibitor that demonstrated bioactivity and significantly reduced the viability of bladder cancer cells in vitro and in human bladder cancer xenografts. Taken together, the results revealed an undescribed role of ADAM15 in the invasion of human bladder cancer and suggested that the ADAM15 catalytic domain may represent a viable

  14. Nerve Disease and Bladder Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... KB) Alternate Language URL Nerve Disease and Bladder Control Page Content On this page: What bladder control ...

  15. Gall bladder distention in newborns.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, R P; Egner, J R

    1988-01-01

    Three cases of gall bladder distention in asphyxiated newborns are described. Clinical and ultrasound examination showed this to be a benign, transient phenomenon. A causal relation between tissue hypoxia and gall bladder distention is proposed.

  16. Hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis associated with bladder transitional cell carcinoma and effects of aluminium-ammonium sulfate irrigation for massive bladder hemorrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although pelvic irradiation is carried out widely on patients with uterine cancer, a few reports have dealt with the occurence of secondary bladder tumors due to pelvic irradiation. Herein, we report a case of radiation induced bladder transitional cell carcinoma. A 72-year-old woman suffered hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis for 2 years in duration following 8000 rads radiotherapy received 4 years before. Primary uterine cervical cancer was well controlled and residual tumor or recurrence of tumor was excluded by clinical examination. Cystoscopic and cytologic examination was initiated in 1981 when first episode of hematuria occurred and was repeated there-after to check for neoplasm in the bladder until June 1983, when a bladder tumor was identified. Cystoscopy revealed a small papillary tumor in trigone, and hyperemic edema and bleeding in almost the whole bladder mucosa. The pathology of the tumor was transitional cell carcinoma. Hemorrhagic cystitis was treated successfully with bladder irrigation of 3 litres of 1% aluminium-ammonium sulfate solution after 3 courses of irrigation. (author)

  17. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVpeak) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Livermean + [2 × Liversd]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm3 or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in tailoring therapy

  18. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hacker-Prietz, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pawlik, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  19. Laparoscopic repair in children with traumatic bladder perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Cetin Ali; Tander, Burak; Erginel, Basak; Demirel, Dilek; Bicakci, Unal; Gunaydin, Mithat; Sever, Nihat; Bernay, Ferit; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report two patients with a traumatic intraperitoneal bladder dome rupture repaired by laparoscopic intracorporeal sutures. The first patient was a 3-year old boy was admitted with a history of road accident. He had a traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed free intraabdominal fluid. The urethragram showed spreading contrast material into the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a 3-cm-length perforation at the top of the bladder. The injury was repaired in a two fold fashion. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. The second case was a 3-year-old boy fell from the second floor of his house on the ground. He had traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Due to bloody urine drainage, a cystography was performed and an extravasation from the dome of the bladder into the peritoneum was detected. On laparoscopy, a 3-cm long vertical perforation at the dome of the bladder was found. The perforation was repaired in two layers with intracorporeal suture technique. The post-operative course was uneventful. Laparoscopic repair of traumatic perforation of the bladder dome is a safe, effective and minimally invasive method. The cosmetic outcome is superior. PMID:27279407

  20. Laparoscopic repair in children with traumatic bladder perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Cetin Ali; Tander, Burak; Erginel, Basak; Demirel, Dilek; Bicakci, Unal; Gunaydin, Mithat; Sever, Nihat; Bernay, Ferit; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report two patients with a traumatic intraperitoneal bladder dome rupture repaired by laparoscopic intracorporeal sutures. The first patient was a 3-year old boy was admitted with a history of road accident. He had a traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed free intraabdominal fluid. The urethragram showed spreading contrast material into the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a 3-cm-length perforation at the top of the bladder. The injury was repaired in a two fold fashion. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. The second case was a 3-year-old boy fell from the second floor of his house on the ground. He had traumatic lesion on his lower abdomen and a pelvic fracture. Due to bloody urine drainage, a cystography was performed and an extravasation from the dome of the bladder into the peritoneum was detected. On laparoscopy, a 3-cm long vertical perforation at the dome of the bladder was found. The perforation was repaired in two layers with intracorporeal suture technique. The post-operative course was uneventful. Laparoscopic repair of traumatic perforation of the bladder dome is a safe, effective and minimally invasive method. The cosmetic outcome is superior. PMID:27279407

  1. Bilateral Ovarian Dermoid Cyst with Bladder Involvement and Hematuria: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Hosseini; Shahrokh Jahanbini; Sara Pakbaz; Shahryar Zeighami

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral ovarian dermoid tumor with invasion to surrounding organ is a rare entity. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with prolonged dysuria and hematuria who had bilateral ovarian dermoid cysts with urinary bladder involvement.

  2. Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Nath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of adenocarcinoma metastatic to the abdominal wall in a 71-year-old man with a history of primary bladder adenocarcinoma. CT-guided core biopsy was performed; imprints and histologic sections showed malignant glands lined by tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, infiltrating through skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for CK7, membranous/cytoplasmic β-catenin, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2, and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and negativity for CK20, p63, prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP. These findings were interpreted as metastatic adenocarcinoma, consistent with bladder primary. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising within glandular metaplasia and is associated with cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis. Predisposing factors include bladder exstrophy, schistosomiasis, and other causes of chronic bladder irritation. This tumor is divided into intestinal, clear cell, and signet ring cell subtypes. Treatment involves radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection, and prognosis is unfavorable. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma should be differentiated from urachal adenocarcinoma, which arises from urachal remnants near the bladder dome, and secondary adenocarcinoma, or vesical involvement by adenocarcinoma from a different primary. CK7, CK20, CDX2, thrombomodulin, and β-catenin can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from colonic adenocarcinoma; PSA and PSAP can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from prostate adenocarcinoma.

  3. The results of treatments and complications of immunotherapy (BCG and alpha-interferon in superficial TCC of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabalameli P

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of choice for bladder tumors is TUR, but because of high incidence of recurrence in these tumors, various treatments are suggested. In one study, 32 patients involved with superficial T.C.C. of bladder selected and divided in two equal groups. In the first group, after T.U.R, 10 million IU of a alpha-interferon was injected into the bladder through a catheter and in the other group, after TUR, they treated with injection of BCG into bladders. The results of these two drugs in prevention of recurrence and their side effects were studied and compaired

  4. Expression of Robo protein in bladder cancer tissues and its effect on the growth of cancer cells by blocking Robo protein

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang; Cheng, Hepeng; Xu, Weibo; Tian, Xin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the expression of Slit signaling protein ligand Robo protein in human bladder cancer and para-carcinoma tissue, and observe the tumor cell survival and growth by inoculating the bladder cancer cells with the blocked signaling protein into the subcutaneous tissue of nude mice. The expression of Robo protein was detected in T24 cells in human bladder uroepithelium carcinoma and cultivated human bladder uroepithelium carcinoma confirmed by pathological diagnosis. The c...

  5. Orbital space-occupying lesions in Denmark 1974-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sven; Heegaard, Steffen; Bøgeskov, Lars;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion......ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion...

  6. Mucinous Bladder Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mello R. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare type of bladder cancer, with aggressive behavior and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The symptoms are similar to those of other bladder tumors. Surgery is the main treatment and remains the only curative option. There may be a progression from mucinous metaplasia to mucinous adenoma and then mucinous adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with recurrent lower urinary tract infections, submitted to imaging tests, which showed a bladder tumor. After transurethral resection, pathology showed intestinal mucinous carcinoma. Metastatic work-up was negative. New surgical procedure showed metaplasia but no recurrence of the carcinoma. The patient is now using antibiotic prophylaxis and will undergo a cystoscopy every 3 months and computed tomography in one year.

  7. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy for bladder cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung

    2016-06-01

    Bladder cancer remains the most immunogenic and expensive malignant tumor in the United States today. As the 4th leading cause of death from cancer in United States, Immunotherapy blocking immune checkpoints have been recently been applied to many aggressive cancers and changed interventions of urological cancers including advanced bladder cancer. The applied inhibition of PD-1-PD-L1 interactions can restore antitumor T-cell activity and enhance the cellular immune attack on antigens. The overall goals of this short review article are to introduce current cancer immunotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and to provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms that block immune checkpoints in tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, this review will address the preclinical and clinical trials to determine whether bladder cancer patients could benefit from this new cancer therapy in near future. PMID:27326412

  8. Tumores ósseos benignos e lesões ósseas Pseudotumorais: tratamento atual e novas tendências Benign bone tumors and tumor-like bone lesions: treatment update and new trends

    OpenAIRE

    José Marcos Nogueira Drumond

    2009-01-01

    O tratamento dos tumores ósseos benignos (TOB) e lesões ósseas pseudotumorais (LOP) tem visto surgir novos medicamentos, como os bisfosfonatos de uso intravenoso, que têm mostrado bons resultados no controle das lesões da displasia fibrosa. O cisto ósseo aneurismático tem sido tratado com agentes esclerosantes com sucesso. Tratamentos adjuvantes permitem a realização de cirurgias que preservam a articulação e a função, com baixas taxas de recidiva. Têm sido mais utilizados o cimento ósseo (PM...

  9. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ) exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ), we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and function (LVF) during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5) suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic flow within the tumoral area. In addition, NIRF

  10. Characterization of Uptake and Internalization of Exosomes by Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Franzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder tumors represent a special therapeutic challenge as they have a high recurrence rate requiring repeated interventions and may progress to invasive or metastatic disease. Exosomes carry proteins implicated in bladder cancer progression and have been implicated in bladder cancer cell survival. Here, we characterized exosome uptake and internalization by human bladder cancer cells using Amnis ImageStreamX, an image cytometer. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from bladder cancer culture conditioned supernatant, labeled with PKH-26, and analyzed on the ImageStreamX with an internal standard added to determine concentration. Exosomes were cocultured with bladder cancer cells and analyzed for internalization. Using the IDEAS software, we determined exosome uptake based on the number of PKH-26+ spots and overall PKH-26 fluorescence intensity. Using unlabeled beads of a known concentration and size, we were able to determine concentrations of exosomes isolated from bladder cancer cells. We measured exosome uptake by recipient bladder cancer cells, and we demonstrated that uptake is dose and time dependent. Finally, we found that uptake is active and specific, which can be partially blocked by heparin treatment. The characterization of cellular uptake and internalization by bladder cancer cells may shed light on the role of exosomes on bladder cancer recurrence and progression.

  11. Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Seleim, Manar F; Abdalla, Mohga S.; Sharada, Hayat M; Abdel Wahab, Abdel Hady A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients. Methods The activ...

  12. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wanqiu; Luan, Yang; Jin, Lu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu

    2015-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer with poor prognosis. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy, and most patients have a history of smoking. The disease incidence of malignant bladder tumors in China is approximately 0.74%. Early and accurate diagnosis of SCCB can ensure timely and appropriate treatment of this malignant disease. Oncologic surgery is the standard treatment; however, it may not be a curative approach. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be performed following surgical removal. This case report describes a patient with a single neoplasm diagnosed as SCCB that arose because of recurrence of bladder cancer after bladder tumor resection. In contrast to previously reported cases, this patient had no gross hematuria and no history of smoking. PMID:26271292

  13. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Iida, Keitaro; Etani, Toshiki; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB) is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB. PMID:27099604

  14. Sarcomatoid carcinoma with osseous differentiation in the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Arenas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bladder sarcomatoid carcinoma is a very rare variant of transitional cell carcinoma. With disputed nomenclature, the tumor has been described previously under a variety of names such as sarcomatoid carcinoma, pseudosarcoma, malignant mixed mesodermal/Müllerian tumor, metaplastic carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma. This malignancy represents 0.3% of all bladder tumors and has an aggressive behavior yielding a poor prognosis despite radio and chemotherapy. CASE REPORT: An 81 y/o man presented with a transitional cell carcinoma and underwent a transurethral resection. Adjuvant onco-BCG was introduced. After 9 months of follow-up, a local tumoral recurrence occurred and a new transurethral resection revealed sarcomatoid carcinoma with osseous elements. A radical cystoprostatectomy was then carried out.

  15. A pure microcytic bladder carcinoma synchronous to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Rombis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma (SCC or microcytic carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity comprising approximately 0.5% of all bladder tumors. Due to its rarity, no prospective studies evaluating the most effective treatment have been published in the medical literature. Several cases of bladder SCC have been presented so far. We describe our case report and we revise the recent literature. Our patient was diagnosed with pure bladder SCC and prostatic adenocarcinoma. After the initial and complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TUR-BT, he underwent a thorax and mediastinum computer tomography (CT examination to exclude primary pulmonary small cell carcinoma and a bone scan scintigraphy for staging purposes. He received a three 14-day cycles of Cisplatin-containing chemo - therapeutic schema and a single dose of Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing hormone (LHRH analogue injection after 14 days of bicalutamide administration. The patient is followed for 24 months without any signs of bladder SCC recurrence or biochemical or local relapse from prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  16. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiajia [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Xi [Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjiebjmu@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  17. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy

  18. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma in Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Çamtosun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated; however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material.

  19. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma in Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Çamtosun; Huseyin Çelik; Ramazan Altıntaş; Nusret Akpolat

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated; however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material.

  20. Bladder paraganglioma: safe and feasible management with robot assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, K; Bora, G S; Mavuduru, R S; Devana, S K; Singh, S K; Mandal, A K

    2016-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas of extra-adrenal origin are known as paragangliomas. Urinary bladder is the most common site of genitourinary paragangliomas. The variable functional status of these tumors presents a surgical challenge in their management by minimally invasive surgery. Robot-assisted partial cystectomy offers the advantage of minimal handling of tumor, early ligation of feeding vessels and easy suturing. We hereby report the feasibility and safety of robot-assisted surgery in the management of one such case. PMID:27007467

  1. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotom...

  2. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-01-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Thes...

  3. Bladder Endometriosis Mimicking TCC - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asish; Bhatnagar, Atul; Seth, B N; Dang, Arbinder; Gupta, Vineeta

    2016-02-01

    Endometriosis is the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Though on its own endometriosis is not a rare lesion, the involvement of the urinary tract is rare but with the bladder being the most commonly affected organ. Endometriosis is usually seen in females between the ages of 30-40 years and may occur due to fluctuating levels of oestrogen and progesterone. Clinically the patient maybe asymptomatic or show symptoms of dysmenorrhea, irregular or heavy periods, pain in the pelvic area, lower abdomen or in the back. It has been suggested that ultrasonography should be done either before or during menstruation as the lesion becomes more evident and a biopsy taken during this period is a strong aid in reaching a final diagnosis. We report here an unusual case of bladder endometriosis where the patient came with severe pelvic pain and an endoluminal mass seen on the ultrasonographic report. Based on these findings a differential of transitional cell carcinoma was given which was ruled out based on the cystoscopic findings. PMID:27042525

  4. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  5. CT features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in children. Methods: Eighteen patients with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor proven by surgery and pathology were examined with plain and contrast medium enhancement CT scan. Results: Of 18 cases, 16 had isolated lesions located at lung (n=4), mesentery (n=3), kidney (n=2) and trachea (n=1), left main bronchus (n=1), right thoracic cavity (n=1), peritoneum cavity (n=1), pancreas (n=1), left thigh (n=1), prostate (n=1), superclavicle soft t tissue (n=1), bladder (n=1). The other 2 cases were with multiple lesions on omentum and mesentery, and in intraperitoneal and side of split of right hepatic lobe, respectively. The CT findings of 18 cases included 16 solid mass with calcifications in 3 of them, and 2 solid-cystic mass. After contrast enhancement, moderate or marked homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement were shown in all the solid parts of tumor on dynamic CT. Mass can compress surround great vessel and tube-like structure. On pathological examination, the tumor was mainly composed of spindle- shaped fibrous cells and inflammatory cells, and the immunohistochemically staining for SMA was observed positively. Conclusion: CT can provide specific information for diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, yet definite diagnosis relies on pathology. (authors)

  6. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  7. Application of a global proteomic approach to archival precursor lesions: deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and tissue transglutaminase 2 are upregulated in pancreatic cancer precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Wang; Darfler, Marlene M; Alvarez, Hector;

    2008-01-01

    of invasive cancer. Biomarker discovery in precursor lesions has been hampered by the ready availability of fresh specimens, and limited yields of proteins suitable for large scale screening. METHODS: We utilized Liquid Tissue, a novel technique for protein extraction from archival formalin-fixed material...... their overexpression in IPMNs. CONCLUSION: Global proteomics analysis using the Liquid Tissue workflow is a feasible approach for unbiased biomarker discovery in limited archival material, particularly applicable to precursor lesions of cancer....

  8. Contribution to the morphology and diagnostics of acquired displacements of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired displacements of the urinary bladder refer to intrapelvic pathological anatomy. These alterations of the bladder are predominantly detected via an initial radiologic study with intravenous urography or suprapubic pelvic ultrasonography. According to their clinical incidence displacements of the bladder can occur in: 1. Pelvic space-occupying lesions, 2. Displacements in musculofascial defects of supporting structures as well as in extirpation cavities of the small pelvis, 3. Extrapelvic space-occupying lesions. Herniation, prolapse and descensus of the bladder can be accurately diagnosed by correct examination via intravenous urography. The diagnostics of pelvic and extrapelvic pathogenetic causes require the complex application of all methods of diagnostic imaging, the value of which is determined by clinical diagnosis and by the choice of an appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the caecum metastatic to the bladder: an unusual cause of haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Roger

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary malignancies of colorectal origin can metastasise to the bladder. Reports are however extremely rare, particularly from the caecum. Case report The report describes the case of a 45-year old male with Duke's B caecal carcinoma treated with a laparoscopically-assisted right hemicolectomy and adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy. Subsequently, a metastatic lesion to the bladder was demonstrated and successfully excised by partial cystectomy. Conclusion In order that optimal therapeutic options can be determined, it is important for clinicians to distinguish between primary disease of the bladder and other causes of haematuria. Various immunohistochemical techniques attempt to differentiate primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder from secondary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Suspicion of metastatic disease must be raised when histologically unusual bladder tumours are identified.

  10. Differential diagnosis of sacral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the teaching files of Temple University Hospital and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and selected the best representative cases of various lesions of the sacrum. They selected the following lesions: metastasis, chondrosarcoma, chrodoma, plasmacytoma, giant cell tumor, osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, osteoblastoma, ossifying fibroma, eosinophilic granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, sacrococcygeal teratoma, anterior meningocele, endodermal sinus tumor, and stress fracture. The authors illustrate, for each lesion, the likely age range, sights of predilection, likelihood of occurrence in the sacrum, and radiographic findings helpful in limiting the differential diagnosis. They demonstrate the value of bone scintigraphy in detecting, and CT in confirming, stress fractures of the sacrum

  11. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF UROTHELIAL BLADDER CANCERS

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    Katarina Bevizova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant cancers of urinary bladder are the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract and the fourth most common malignancy in general, especially in men. The aim of this study was a retrospective analysis of selected markers (p53, Ki-67 and E-cadherin of urinary bladder cancers from the Department of Urology in Bratislava, Slovak Republic between years 2007 and 2009. We analysed 244 patients (202 males, 42 females with diagnosed bladder cancer via cystoscopy and subsequent transurethral resection. Patients’ age varied from 36 to 98 years. Obtained samples were fixed by 10% buffered formalin for 24 to 48 h. Subsequently, they were dehydrated in ascending ethanol series and embedded in paraffin. The parafin sections of 5 µm were prepared by microtome and they were stained by haematoxylin and eosin. The antibodies against to p53, Ki-67 and E-cadherin were used in immunohistochemical analysis. Statistical evaluation was performed via SPSS using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and p values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. No significant differences in the expression of selected markers were found between genders. Expression of p53 and Ki-67, in G1 and G2 of low grade tumours was lower in comparison to their expression in G3 tumors. Expression of E-cadherin was the opposite in this case. The expression of p53 and Ki-67 positively correlated with tumor’s depth of invasion, while the expression of E-cadherin significantly decreased. In case of T4 tumors, the expression of all markers exhibited consistently high values. When analysing tumor multiplicity, the expression of p53 and Ki-67 significantly decreased, while the expression of E-cadherin significantly increased. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the analysis of p53, Ki-67 and E-cadherin expression is essential for diagnostics and prognostics of bladder cancer and should be routinely used in daily practise together with

  12. Bladder neck contracture

    OpenAIRE

    Simhan, Jay; Ramirez, Daniel; Hudak, Steven J.; Morey, Allen F.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder neck contracture (BNC) is a well-described complication of the surgical treatment of benign and malignant prostate conditions. Nevertheless, etiologies of BNC development are highly dependent on the primary treatment modality undertaken with BNC also occurring after pelvic radiation. The treatment options for BNC can range from simple, office-based dilation procedures to more invasive, complex abdomino-perineal reconstructive surgery. Although numerous strategies have been described, ...

  13. Gall bladder ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ranendra Hajong

    2013-01-01

    Hepatobiliary ascariasis is commonly reported from highly endemic regions like India, Bangladesh, Latin America, parts of Middle East and Africa. In humans, the usual habitat of Ascaris lumbricoides is the small intestine. When the worm load is high, going as high as more than 1000 worms, then the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site. Patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis may present with biliary colic due to obstruction caused by the worms in the gall bladder, common bile duct or ...

  14. Interrelation between obturator nerve division and obturator nerve reflex in transurethral resection of bladder tumor%闭孔神经分段与闭孔神经反射的相互联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭维; 郭灵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨闭孔神经分段与在泌尿外科微创手术中发生的闭孔神经反射(ONR)及其预防的相互关系。方法:根据闭孔神经自然行走的整个路线与临床需要,把闭孔神经的全长分为五段,然后将经尿道电切除膀胱肿瘤的临床实际与对应的神经段相结合,并细化分析每段神经的结构特点与临床意义。结果:虽然椎管内麻醉可阻断包括第1段闭孔神经根部在内的相关脊神经根传导冲动至中枢,麻醉效果也达到微创手术的要求,但仍无预防作用,还必须联合其它方法才能干预ONR;在第2段闭孔神经行走的间隙内,可用3+1麻醉法预防ONR;第3段闭孔神经邻近膀胱侧壁,是遭受手术电激惹而引发ONR的源头,可从消除激惹性电流或经膀胱途径阻滞神经两方面加以预防;针对第4段神经穿过的通道,可将局部麻醉药物注入到闭膜管内或闭膜管外口处,阻滞神经干或神经分支的起始部而得到预防;针对第5段神经已分发出的前支和后支分别加以阻滞,或者通过静脉注射肌肉松弛剂,阻断神经-肌肉接头处的信息传导,均可预防 ONR。结论:将闭孔神经分段的基础知识与相关的临床实践相互链接和梳理的做法,既容易理解ONR的发生机制,又有依据选择适宜的靶点进行针对性预防。%Objective:To examine interrelation between obturator nerve division, obturator nerve reflex(ONR) and related prevention in transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Methods:Based on natural running-course of obturator nerve and relative clinical applications, whole length of the nerve was divided into five neural segments. Then the intraspinal anesthesia of surgery, mechanism and interventions of ONR were combined with corresponding segments of obturator nerve. Results: Although the first segment(root part)was blocked by performing intraspinal anesthesia, and the anesthesia also met

  15. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  16. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB) and the dysfunctional voiding (DV), have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could ...

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...

  18. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  19. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L;

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed cons...

  20. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  1. A critical role for Choline Kinase alpha in the aggressiveness of bladder carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Eva; Sarmentero-Estrada, Jacinto; Koppie, Theresa; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; de Molina, Victor Ramírez; Cejas, Paloma; Ozu, Choichiro; Le, Carl; Sánchez, Jose Javier; González-Barón, Manuel; Koutcher, Jason; Cordón-Cardó, Carlos; Bochner, Bernard H.; Lacal, Juan Carlos; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common causes of death in industrialized countries. New tumor markers and therapeutic approaches are still needed to improve management of bladder cancer patients. Choline Kinase alpha (ChoKα) is a metabolic enzyme that has a role in cell proliferation and transformation. Inhibitors of ChoKα display antitumoral activity and are expected to be soon in clinical trials. This study is aimed to asses whether ChoKα plays a role in the aggressiveness of bladder tumors and constitute a new approach for bladder cancer treatment. We demonstrate here that ChoKα is constitutively altered in human bladder tumor cells. Furthermore, in vivo murine models including an orthotopic model to mimic as much as possible the physiological conditions, revealed that increased levels of ChoKα potentiates both tumor formation (p≤0.0001) and aggressiveness of the disease over different endpoints (p=0.011). Accordingly, increased levels of ChoKα significantly reduces survival of mice with bladder cancer (p=0.05). Finally, treatment with ChoKα specific inhibitor resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth (p=0.02) and in a relevant increase in survival (p=0.03). PMID:19448670

  2. Value of positron emission tomography in diagnosing synchronous penile metastasis from urothelial bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rouanne, M.; Alhammadi, A.; Vilain, D.; Radulescu, C.; Lebret, T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastases to the penis are extremely rare events. Most frequently, penile metastases come from the urogenital system (bladder, prostate) or the rectum-sigmoid colon. Usually painful, penile lesions may be asymptomatic, making diagnosis more challenging. Hence, we report the adding value of 18F-fludeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the detection of penile metastases originating from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Arguably, penile metastases...

  3. Recurrence patterns of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Mi-hyun; Cho, Kyung-Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); E-mail: choihj@amc.seoul.kr

    2012-10-15

    Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is widely accepted as an effective imaging modality in monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence after radical cystectomy. Elucidating the pattern of bladder cancer recurrence on CT can increase the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose To evaluate the recurrence patterns of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and the factors associated with cancer recurrence. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 66.55 years; range, 32-86 years) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and radical cystectomy were included in this study. The presence, site, and time of tumor recurrence were recorded retrospectively by two radiologists in a consensus fashion. The association of tumor recurrence and tumor factors (T stage, lymph node metastasis, nuclear grade, and tumor diameter) were also evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier statistics. Results Tumor recurrence occurred in 60 patients (40.3%) with a mean time of 14 months (range, 1-64 months). The sites of recurrence included the operation site (n = 20), lymph node (n = 20), bone (n = 11), liver (n = 6), lung (n = 5), upper urinary tract (n = 4), colon (n = 3), adrenal gland (n = 2), peritoneum (n = 1), abdominal wall (n = 1), psoas muscle (n = 1), and penile skin (n = 1). Tumor recurrence was found to be associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder recur more frequently at the operation site and lymph node, and T-stage and lymph node metastasis are closely associated with tumor recurrence.

  4. Recurrence patterns of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is widely accepted as an effective imaging modality in monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence after radical cystectomy. Elucidating the pattern of bladder cancer recurrence on CT can increase the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose To evaluate the recurrence patterns of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and the factors associated with cancer recurrence. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 66.55 years; range, 32-86 years) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and radical cystectomy were included in this study. The presence, site, and time of tumor recurrence were recorded retrospectively by two radiologists in a consensus fashion. The association of tumor recurrence and tumor factors (T stage, lymph node metastasis, nuclear grade, and tumor diameter) were also evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier statistics. Results Tumor recurrence occurred in 60 patients (40.3%) with a mean time of 14 months (range, 1-64 months). The sites of recurrence included the operation site (n = 20), lymph node (n = 20), bone (n = 11), liver (n = 6), lung (n = 5), upper urinary tract (n = 4), colon (n = 3), adrenal gland (n = 2), peritoneum (n = 1), abdominal wall (n = 1), psoas muscle (n = 1), and penile skin (n = 1). Tumor recurrence was found to be associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder recur more frequently at the operation site and lymph node, and T-stage and lymph node metastasis are closely associated with tumor recurrence

  5. Xanthine crystals induced by topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats, cause transitional cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Takeo; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Ashizawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Koji; Iwanaga, Takashi; Saito, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of transitional cell tumors found in the carcinogenicity testing of topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in which topiroxostat was orally given to F344 rats at 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg for 2 years. In the urinary bladder, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas were seen in males receiving 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg (1/49, 3/49, and 10/50, respectively). In the kidney, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas in the pelvis were seen in 2/50 males and 1/50 females receiving 3 mg/kg. In the mechanistic study by 52-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 3 mg/kg to F344 male rats, with and without citrate, simple and papillary transitional cell hyperplasias of the urinary bladder epithelium were observed in 5/17 in the topiroxostat-alone treatment group, along with xanthine-induced nephropathy, in contrast to neither xanthine crystals nor lesions in urinary organs by co-treatment group with citrate. As for sex differences of urinary bladder tumors, the BrdU labeling index for epithelial cells of the urinary bladder by 5-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 10 mg/kg to F344 rats was increased in males only, showing consistency with histopathological findings. Therefore, the present study indicates that transitional cell tumors induced by topiroxostat in rats were due to physical stimulation to transitional cells of xanthine crystals/calculi and provides that other factors were not implicated in this tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that such tumors do not predict for humans since topiroxostat-induced xanthine deposition is a rodent-specific event. PMID:24448833

  6. Diet in bladder cancer ethiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show influence of different foods on bladder cancer appearance, as well as possible consequent ways of prevention. Consumption of food rich in animal fat and cholesterol, fried foods, especially several times used cookin oil for frying, processed meat with additives (nitrates, nitrites, azo-colourrs can influence bladder cancer occurrence. Regularly, continuous consumption of fermented milk products, which contains come types of milky - acids bacterias, is considered as protective factor in developing bladder cancer. Reports that fruit and vegetable are protective food items are pretty consistent. Data about mineral intake and bladder cancer are obscure.

  7. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Neuroendocrine Bladder Cancer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelaj, Arsela; Rebuzzi, Sara Elena; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Speranza, Iolanda; Corongiu, Emanuele; Borgoni, Giuseppe; Perugia, Giacomo; Liberti, Marcello; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer that mainly presents at an advanced stage. As a result of its rarity, it has been described in many case reports and reviews but few retrospective and prospective trials, showing there is no standard therapeutic approach. In the literature the best therapeutic strategy for limited disease is the multimodality treatment and most authors have extrapolated treatment algorithms from the therapy recommendations of small cell lung cancer. CASE REPORT A 71-year-old male patient was referred to our hospital with gross hematuria and dysuria. Imaging and cystoscopy revealed a vegetative lesion of the bladder wall. A transurethral resection of the bladder was performed. Pathological examination revealed a pT2 high-grade urothelial carcinoma with widespread neuroendocrine differentiation. Multimodal treatment with neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy was performed. A CT scan performed after chemotherapy demonstrated a radiological complete response. The patient underwent radical cystectomy and lymphadenectomy. The histopathological finding of bladder and node specimen confirmed a pathological complete response. A post-surgery CT scan showed no evidence of local or systemic disease. Six months after surgery, the patient is still alive and disease-free. CONCLUSIONS A standard treatment strategy of small cell cancer of the urinary bladder is not yet well established, but a multimodal treatment of this disease is the best option compared to surgical therapy alone. The authors confirm the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in limited disease of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. PMID:27072610

  8. Distinct pattern of p53 mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spruck, C H; Rideout, W M; Olumi, A F;

    1993-01-01

    A distinct mutational spectrum for the p53 tumor suppressor gene in bladder carcinomas was established in patients with known exposures to cigarette smoke. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of exons 5 through 8 of the p53 gene showed inactivating mutations in 16 of 40 (40%) bladder....... The results suggest that, although cigarette smoke exposure may not significantly alter the kinds of mutations sustained in the p53 gene, it may act to increase the extent of DNA damage per mutagenic event....

  9. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author)

  10. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  11. Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the inguinal region: A rare entity in a rarer location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Aggarwal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Buschke–Lowenstein tumor (BLT, also known as giant condyloma accuminata, first described in 1896 by Buschke, is a rare, slow‑growing, locally invasive, mass lesion commonly affecting the anogenital region in immunocompromised males. This florid type of verrucous carcinoma is known for its high rate of recurrence as well as malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinoma. BLTs have been commonly reported to involve the penis, scrotum, bladder, vulva and perianal or anorectal regions. Our index case remains distinguished on the account of the rare anatomical location, causing a diagnostic dilemma, and once diagnosed managed adequately via surgery alone

  12. Evaluation of delivered dose for a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy for bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To account for variable bladder size during bladder cancer radiotherapy, a daily plan selection strategy was implemented. The aim of this study was to calculate the actually delivered dose using an adaptive strategy, compared to a non-adaptive approach. Material and methods: Ten patients were treated to the bladder and lymph nodes with an adaptive full bladder strategy. Interpolated delineations of bladder and tumor on a full and empty bladder CT scan resulted in five PTVs for which VMAT plans were created. Daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were used for plan selection. Bowel, rectum and target volumes were delineated on these CBCTs, and delivered dose for these was calculated using both the adaptive plan, and a non-adaptive plan. Results: Target coverage for lymph nodes improved using an adaptive strategy. The full bladder strategy spared the healthy part of the bladder from a high dose. Average bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy significantly reduced with 60 and 69 ml, respectively (p < 0.01). Other parameters for bowel and rectum remained unchanged. Conclusions: Daily plan selection compared to a non-adaptive strategy yielded similar bladder coverage and improved coverage for lymph nodes, with a significant reduction in bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy only, while other sparing was limited

  13. MR imaging of bladder endometriosis and its relationship with the anterior uterine wall: Experience in a tertiary referral centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Both the intraperitoneal seeding and the uterine-vesical extension theory have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of bladder endometriosis. The aim of this study was to describe MR imaging findings of bladder endometriosis and involvement of the anterior uterine wall in a tertiary referral centre for endometriosis in a effort to improve diagnosis and help clarify the pathogenesis. Methods: In a single-centre, retrospective study (2004–2009), 463 consecutive patients analysed for deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) were studied independently by two experienced readers for the presence of bladder endometriosis. MR studies revealing bladder endometriosis were then analysed in consensus for: location, size, signal intensity characteristics, uterine involvement, continuity with adenomyosis and presence of cysts. There was histopathologic correlation in 9 patients who had undergone partial bladder resection. Results: Bladder endometriosis was diagnosed in 32 patients on MR imaging (k = 0.85). Most lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity compared to that of muscle on T2-weighed imaging, containing foci of high signal intensity, suggesting cystic ectopic endometrial glands. On T1-weighted imaging lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity with foci or small cysts, demonstrating high signal intensity, indicating hemorrhage, was observed. Uterine involvement was found in 94% of the lesions, with either “continuous” or “hourglass” configurations. Presence of contiguous adenomyosis was found in only 4 lesions. Conclusions: With MR imaging, uterine involvement in bladder endometriosis is frequently found and in most cases located subserosally, suggesting extensive DIE, favouring the intraperitoneal seeding theory

  14. MR imaging of bladder endometriosis and its relationship with the anterior uterine wall: Experience in a tertiary referral centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busard, M.P.H., E-mail: m.busard@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijatovic, V., E-mail: Mijatovic@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lüchinger, A.B., E-mail: ab.luchinger@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bleeker, M.C.G., E-mail: MCG.Bleeker@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, I.C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schats, R., E-mail: r.schats@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijk, C. van, E-mail: C.vanKuijk@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hompes, P.G.A., E-mail: p.hompes@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Waesberghe, J.H.T.M. van, E-mail: JHTM.vanwaesberghe@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Both the intraperitoneal seeding and the uterine-vesical extension theory have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of bladder endometriosis. The aim of this study was to describe MR imaging findings of bladder endometriosis and involvement of the anterior uterine wall in a tertiary referral centre for endometriosis in a effort to improve diagnosis and help clarify the pathogenesis. Methods: In a single-centre, retrospective study (2004–2009), 463 consecutive patients analysed for deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) were studied independently by two experienced readers for the presence of bladder endometriosis. MR studies revealing bladder endometriosis were then analysed in consensus for: location, size, signal intensity characteristics, uterine involvement, continuity with adenomyosis and presence of cysts. There was histopathologic correlation in 9 patients who had undergone partial bladder resection. Results: Bladder endometriosis was diagnosed in 32 patients on MR imaging (k = 0.85). Most lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity compared to that of muscle on T2-weighed imaging, containing foci of high signal intensity, suggesting cystic ectopic endometrial glands. On T1-weighted imaging lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity with foci or small cysts, demonstrating high signal intensity, indicating hemorrhage, was observed. Uterine involvement was found in 94% of the lesions, with either “continuous” or “hourglass” configurations. Presence of contiguous adenomyosis was found in only 4 lesions. Conclusions: With MR imaging, uterine involvement in bladder endometriosis is frequently found and in most cases located subserosally, suggesting extensive DIE, favouring the intraperitoneal seeding theory.

  15. Antitumor activity of recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guérin secreting interleukin-15-Ag85B fusion protein against bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ario; Eto, Masatoshi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Shiota, Masaki; Yamada, Hisakata; Kamiryo, Yoriyuki; Dejima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Yokomizo, Akira; Ohara, Naoya; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used for the treatment of bladder cancer. The recruitment of neutrophlis to the bladder after BCG instillation exerts anti-tumor activity against bladder tumor. We have recently demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-17A produced by γδ T cells played a role in the recruitment of neutrophlis to the bladder after BCG instillation. IL-15 is known to play an important role in neutrophil migration during inflammation. We previously constructed a recombinant BCG strain expressing the fusion protein of IL-15 and Ag85B (BCG-IL-15) for prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here we compared the efficacy of the BCG-IL-15 in protection against bladder cancer with that of rBCG-Ag85B (BCG). Six-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with MB49 bladder tumor cells in the bladder and subsequently intravesically inoculated with BCG or BCG-IL-15. BCG-IL-15 treatment significantly prolonged survival of mice inoculated with bladder cancer cells compared with BCG treatment. Infiltration of neutrophils was significantly elevated in BCGB-IL-15 treated mice accompanied by increased chemokines (MIP-2 and MIP-1α) in the bladder. Thus, BCG-IL-15 exerted additive effect on Infiltration of neutrophils in the bladder. BCG-IL-15 may be a promising drug for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. PMID:27093372

  16. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Harris, S C; Reyna, J A; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M

    1980-07-01

    Thirty-seven patients were enrolled in a randomized prospective study to compare standard surgical therapy for superficial bladder cancer to standard therapy plus bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Side effects of BCG have been tolerated well and include dysuria in 95 per cent of the patients, urinary frequency in 83 per cent, hematuria in 39 per cent, fever in 22 per cent and nausea in 22 per cent. Of 19 control patients 8 (42 per cent) had recurrent tumors in the followup period, compared to 3 of 18 patients (17 per cent) treated with BCG. One patient treated wih BCG had 2 recurrences, yielding a recurrence rate of 22 per cent in the group receiving BCG compared to 42 per cent in controls. When the incidence of recurrent tumors in matched intervals before and after entry into the protocol is compared, no change in the rate of tumor recurrence (p equals 0.726 chi-square) occurred in controls, whereas tumor recurrences were reduced significantly in the group treated with BCG (p equals 0.010 chi-square). The reduction in tumor recurrence in patients treated with BCG compared to controls is statistically significant (p equals 0.029 chi-square). Of 4 patients who presented with new bladder tumors remain free of tumor after BCG therapy, while 2 of 5 comparable control patients developed recurrent tumors. Intravesical and percutaneous BCG immunotherapy appears to decrease the rate of tumor recurrence in patients followed for 1 year. PMID:6997513

  17. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA), anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense) on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma

  18. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  19. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  20. Computer-aided detection of bladder mass within contrast-enhanced region of CTU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer on CTU. The bladder was automatically segmented with our Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS). In this preliminary study, we developed a system for detecting mass within the contrast-enhanced (C) region of the bladder. The C region was delineated from the segmented bladders using a method based on maximum intensity projection. The bladder wall of the C region was extracted using thresholding to remove the contrast material. The wall on each slice was transformed into a wall profile. Morphology and voxel intensity along the profile were analyzed and suspicious locations were labeled as lesion candidates. The candidates were segmented and 20 morphological features were extracted from each candidate. A data set of 35 patients with 45 biopsy-proven bladder lesions within the C region was used for system evaluation. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out method was used for training and validation. For each partition in the leave-one-case-out method, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the lesion candidates into bladder lesions and normal findings in the left-out case. A single score was generated for each lesion candidate. The performance of the CAD system was evaluated by FROC analysis. At an FP rate of 2.5 FPs/case, the system achieved a sensitivity of 82%, while at 1.7 FPs/case, a sensitivity of 71%.

  1. 30. Knockdown of IGF-IR by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide auguments the sensitivity of bladder cancer cells to MMC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AND AIM: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder represents the fifth most prevalent malignancy in Western population, with peak incidence found in males of the 50-to 70- year-old age group. A major problem in the management of bladder cancer is the low sensitivity of a large proportion (approximately 40%) among bladder tumors to chemotherapy and the high risk for recurrence of bladder tumors after transurethral resection. So drug resistance, especially in its multiple type forms, remains a major and difficult problem to resolve in bladder cancer therapy. This phenomenon has often been ascribed to strictly pharmacolo-gic factors, such as the overexpression of multidrug transporters P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance related protein (MRP), and other variables closely implicated DNA repair and induction/modulation of apoptosis, such as P53 and the Bcl-protein family. Furthermore, it has been recently shown that certain growth factors(IGFs etc) may be involved in the mechanism of drug resistance. Clearly, these findings suggest the design of new strategies that might improve bladder tumor response to chemotherapy. Results have previously shown that human bladder tumor cell lines may be adapted to grow in the complete absence of serum or any other growth supplement and that this can be explained on the basis of autocrine stimulation. The acquirement of autonomous growth capacity was likely to be an important element in the oncogenesis of bladder tumors. Furthermore, criss-cross experiments showed that supernatants stimulated not only proliferation of the autologous cell line of bladder cancer, but also growth of the other bladder cancer cell lines, suggesting the production of common autocrine factors in bladder tumor cells. Some factors or their receptors involved in autocrine loop mechanism of bladder tumor cells have been confirmed, such as IL-6, the epidermal growth factor receptor, IFN-beta, transferrins-like substance etc. But certain factors which may

  2. TERT Core Promotor Mutations in Early-Onset Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedl, Johannes; Rogler, Anja; Wild, Andreas; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Filbeck, Thomas; Burger, Maximilian; Rümmele, Petra; Hurst, Carolyn; Knowles, Margaret; Hartmann, Arndt; Zinnall, Ulrike; Stoehr, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Activating mutations in the core promoter of the TERT gene have been described in many different tumor entities. In vitro models showed a two- to fourfold increase in transcriptional activity of the TERT promoter through creation of a consensus binding motif for Ets/TCF transcription factors caused by these mutations. TERT core promoter mutations are the most common mutations in bladder cancer with a frequency between 55.6% and 82.8% described so far, and are independent of stage and grade. Since limited data on molecular alterations of early-onset bladder tumors exists, we assessed the frequency of TERT core promoter mutations in early-onset bladder cancer. Two cohorts of bladder tumors (early-onset patient group; n=144 (age of onset of disease ≤45 years); unselected, consecutive group; n=125) were examined for TERT core promoter mutations. After microdissection and extraction of DNA the corresponding hotspot regions in the TERT core promoter were examined by Sanger-sequencing or a SNaPshot approach. A significantly lower frequency of TERT core promoter mutations was found in tumors from the early-onset cohort compared to the consecutive cohort (57.6% vs. 84.8%, p<0.001). Among the early-onset cohort cases younger than the cohort's median age of 39 years at disease onset showed a significantly reduced number of TERT promoter mutations (31/67, 46,3%) than cases aged between 39 and 45 years (52/77, 67.5%; p=0.012). This association was not found in the consecutive cases. Mutation status was independent of tumor stage and grade. We conclude that in tumors from early-onset bladder cancer patients TERT core promoter mutations are not as frequent as in bladder tumors from consecutive cases, but seem to play an important role there as well. In patients below 39 years of age TERT core promoter mutations are a more infrequent event, suggesting different mechanisms of tumorigenesis in these young patients. PMID:27313781

  3. HMFG-2 as a prognostic indicator in superficial bladder cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Conn, I G; Crocker, J.; Emtage, L A; Wallace, D M

    1988-01-01

    A series of transitional cell carcinomas and mucosal biopsy specimens of bladder were stained immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody HMFG-2. Staining characteristics ranged from luminal staining in well differentiated, superficial lesions to staining of all cells in invasive carcinomas. Invasive tumour nests also stained strongly with the antibody. There was good correlation between the staining pattern and histological assessment of both tumours and mucosal biopsy specimens. Corr...

  4. Effects of electrotherapy in treatment of neurogenic bladder in children with occult spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurogenic bladder can develop as a result of various degrees of neurogenic lesion in spina bifida. The degree of bladder dysfunction depends on the level and type of spina bifida. Due to results upon complete diagnostic protocols, treatment options are applied. Objective Comparison of therapy results of patients with occult spinal dysraphism with neurogenic bladder that under-went medicamentous therapy and medicamentous with electrotherapy treatment. Methods We had 49 patients with neurogenic bladder that were treated at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in the period 2003-2008. The first group of children received medicamentous therapy and the second group received medicamentous therapy with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. In both groups we evaluated 4 symptoms: daily enuresis, enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency and 4 urodynamic parameters: lower bladder capacity, unstable contractions and residual urine and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Follow-up urodynamic evaluation was done after 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results Our findings pointed out a high statistical significance of improvement in all evaluated urodynamic parameters of neurogenic bladder (predominantly in bladder capacity in the group of children with combined therapy as well in resolution of symptoms (predominantly enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency. Conclusion Combined therapy is more efficient in treatment of children with neurogenic bladder. Electrotherapy is non-invasive, easily applicable and has had a significant place in treatment of children with dysfunctional voiding.

  5. Role of chronic E. coli infection in the process of bladder cancer- an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mosalamy Hala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in Egypt. A history of urinary tract infection can be considered as a risk factor for bladder cancer. Escherichia coli (E. coli infection is responsible for 70% of urinary tract infection. This study aimed to evaluate the role of chronic E. coli infection during bladder carcinogenesis. In order to achieve this aim, we investigated the histopathological changes in bladder tissue and measured the level of nuclear factor kappa p65 (NF-κBp65, Bcl-2 and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in four groups each consisting of 25 male albino rats except of control group consisting of 20 rats. The first group was normal control group, the second group was infected with E. coli, the third group was administered nitrosamine precursor, and the forth group was infected with E. coli and administered nitrosamine precursor. Results The histopathological examination revealed that E. coli infected group was able alone to produce some histopathological changes in bladder tissue and that nitrosamine precursor plus E. coli group showed highest incidences of urinary bladder lesions than the nitrosamine precursor group. NF-κBp65, Bcl-2 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in nitrosamine precursor plus E. coli group than the other groups. Conclusion These findings suggested that urinary bladder infection by E. coli may play a major additive and synergistic role during bladder carcinogenesis.

  6. Prostatic hyperplasia and congenital bladder diverticulum. A case report

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    Ciro Esteban Delgado Cantero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diverticula in adults are typically associated with bladder outlet obstruction and their manifestation is most commonly by urinary sepsis. The case of a 69 years old male patient who attended consultation because of nocturia, thin urine stream, pushing, urgent urination and sense of incomplete emptying is presented. Through rectal examination grade I prostate with discrete grade I asymmetry consistent with right nodular lobe that did not rise to the surface was detected. During the physical examination tumor mass was palpated in the lower abdomen region. It was painless. Ultrasound and cystography showed giant bladder diverticulum with a narrow neck into the right lateral wall of the bladder. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was treated trough surgery. Histology revealed mucosal layers and muscle and adventitia in the wall, thus confirming congenital origin. Recovering after surgery was satisfactor.

  7. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, Oliver; Vasdev, Nikhil; Allchorne, Paula; Green, James Sa

    2015-01-01

    It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest benefit in metastatic disease, although the role in superficial bladder cancer remains unclear. PMID:26000263

  8. Neurogenic Bladder and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupin V.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been presented general information of neurogenic bladder and the data on pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. The characteristics of clinical presentations of neurogenic bladder in multiple sclerosis have been stated. There have been considered diagnosis and treatment problems of urinary disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  9. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  10. Management of invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle invasive disease accounts for a quarter of all cases of bladder cancer. A bewildering variety of treatment options are available for patients with this disease, with combinations of surgery and/or radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. This review discusses these treatment options and their relative merits for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. 22 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Coexist with Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder and Prostate-A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TongZhang; YongXu; ShuminZhang

    2004-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma(PAC) with transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) of the bladder and prostate is a rare clinicopathological entity, presentation is usually late. We report a case with obstructive voiding symptoms and lumbago. Prostatic and cystic biopsy revealed PAC and TCC of bladder. Bone scan showed multiple bone metastases. He underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and bladder tumor and was found to have PAC with TCC of the bladder and prostate. We discuss the cases of PAC with TCC of the bladder and prostate.

  12. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuge O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Fuge,1 Nikhil Vasdev,1 Paula Allchorne,2 James SA Green2 1Department of Urology, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK; 2Department of Urology, Bartshealth NHS Trust, Whipps Cross Rd, London, UK Abstract: It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest

  13. Urinary Bladder Xanthoma - Is Immunohistochemistry Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendran, M; Venugopal, A; Kaushik, Vinay N

    2016-09-01

    Urinary Bladder Xanthomas (UBX) are non-neoplastic reactive tumor like process. Isolated UBX is rare with only around 15 cases reported (Yu, Patel, & Bonert, 2015). UBX are reported in older patients who present with non specific symptoms like UTI or hematuria. Patients often have associated lipid anomalies. UBX have been vaguely described as yellowish white plaques or patches. Also, recent reports have stressed on the role of Immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis (Al-Daraji, Varghese, & Husain, 2007; Vimal, Masih, Manipadam, & Chacko, 2012). The objective of this report is to provide a cystoscopic view of the tumor which will enable easier identification and also to debate on the role of IHC in diagnosis. PMID:27462546

  14. Conservative Management of Unusual Keratinising Squamous Metaplasia of the Bladder in a 28-Year-Old Female and Overview of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Vázquez Alonso; Raquel Berrio Campos; Ignacio Puche Sanz; Manuel Segura Sánchez; Jose Miguel Molina Hernandez; Jose Francisco Flores Martin; Jose Manuel Cózar Olmo

    2012-01-01

    Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder is rare and is usually associated with urinary tract infections and chronic irritation. It is considered a precancerous condition of squamous cell carcinoma, especially when more than 50% of the bladder surface is affected. Medical treatment cannot eradicate this lesion. When it is limited to a small area of the bladder, transurethral resection is possible. Annual cystoscopy with multiple biopsies as well as annual upper tract imaging is propose...

  15. Changing trends in the management of small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

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    Anshuma Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma (SCC of the urinary bladder is a rare presentation, accounting for <1% of all bladder carcinomas. It has been considered as an aggressive variant of bladder carcinoma, with high incidence of distant relapse. Though cisplatin-based chemotherapy is considered the gold standard approach for this variety of bladder tumor, the role of radical cystectomy and radiotherapy cannot be neglected, due to its frequent association with transitional cell carcinoma. Different management strategies have been adopted by oncologists worldwide, in an effort to obtain survival benefits. Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery has been tried and the results are encouraging. This review article particularly focuses on the treatment evolution of SCC of bladder, various treatment options and their effects on the outcome, so that an optimal management can be planned for individual cases.

  16. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Chuangyu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in a previously healthy 16-year-old male adolescent with 2-month history of frequent micturition and dysuria with no significant apparent causative factors. The tumor regressed after a 6-week course of glucocorticosteroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our case is a rare case of inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder treated with complete conservative management. Due to its glucocorticosteroid-sensitive nature, we postulate that this disease belongs to a subgroup of eosinophilic disorders.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Pengyuan; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Zhang, Jianmin; Luo, Wei; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Sabatini, Linda; Vedell, Peter; Xiong, Donghai; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin; Shen, He; Li, Yinwei; Omilian, Angela R.; Hill, Annette; Head, Karen; Guru, Khurshid; Kunnev, Dimiter; Leach, Robert; Eng, Kevin H.; Darlak, Christopher; Hoeflich, Christopher; Veeranki, Srividya; Glenn, Sean; You, Ming; Pruitt, Steven C.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using complete genome analysis, we sequenced five bladder tumors accrued from patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) and identified a spectrum of genomic aberrations. In three tumors, complex genotype changes were noted. All three had tumor protein p53 mutations and a relatively large number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; average of 11.2 per megabase), structural variants (SVs; average of 46), or both. This group was best characterized by chromothripsis and the presence of subclonal populations of neoplastic cells or intratumoral mutational heterogeneity. Here, we provide evidence that the process of chromothripsis in TCC-UB is mediated by nonhomologous end-joining using kilobase, rather than megabase, fragments of DNA, which we refer to as “stitchers,” to repair this process. We postulate that a potential unifying theme among tumors with the more complex genotype group is a defective replication–licensing complex. A second group (two bladder tumors) had no chromothripsis, and a simpler genotype, WT tumor protein p53, had relatively few SNVs (average of 5.9 per megabase) and only a single SV. There was no evidence of a subclonal population of neoplastic cells. In this group, we used a preclinical model of bladder carcinoma cell lines to study a unique SV (translocation and amplification) of the gene glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl D-aspertate as a potential new therapeutic target in bladder cancer. PMID:24469795

  18. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors; Radiologische Diagnostik von Knochentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Kinderradiologie; Herget, G.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Dept. Orthopaedie und Traumatologie

    2008-07-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions.

  19. Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  20. Bladder Preservation by Combined Modality Therapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Five-Year Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Ho; Lim, Ji Hoon; Seong, Jin Sil; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Koom, Woong Soup; Suh, Chang Ok; Hong, Sung Jun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Purpose : To determine the long-term results of bladder-preserving approach by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB), systemic chemotherapy, and radiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer Methods and materials : From 1991 Jan, through 1994 Dec., 25 patients with muscle invading clinical stage T2 to T4NxM0 bladder cancer were treated width induction by maximal TURB and (arm 1, n=4) three cycles of chemotherapy [MVAC(methotrexate, vincristine, adriamycin, ciplatin)] followed by 64.8 Gy of radiation with concomitant cisplatin, or two cycles of chemotherapy [MCV (methotrexate, ciplatin, vincristine)] after irradiation with concomitant cisplatin (arm 2, n=14), or concurrent chemoradiation only (arm 3, n=7). Tumor response was scored as a clinical complete response (CR) when the cystoscopic tumor-site biopsy and urine cytology results were negative. Those with less than a CR underwent cystectomy. The median follow-up of al patients was 70 months. Results : Most treatment toxicities were mild to moderate. Grade 3 acute hematologic toxicity and chronic cystitis were observed in only 1 and 2 patients, respectively. Overall 5 year survival was 67.3%. Complete remission rate was 80% (20/25). Sixth-three percent of all survivors retained their bladders. In multivariate analysis, prognostic factors that significantly affect survival were T-stage (p=0.013) and Complete remission (p=0.002). Conclusion : Combined modality therapy with TURB, chemotherapy, and radiation has a 67.3% overall 5 year survival rate. This result is similar to cystectomy-based studies for patients of similar clinical stages. Sixty-three percent of long term survivors preserved their bladders.