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Sample records for bladder transitional cell

  1. Transitional Cell Carcinoma within a Portion of Inguinally Herniated Bladder

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    Matthew A. Uhlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder herniation within the inguinal canal is a relatively uncommon finding. We report an even less-common occurrence of transitional cell carcinoma located within a portion of inguinally herniated bladder. Fewer than 20 reports exist in the literature describing this scenario.

  2. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nourbakhsh; M. G. Mohseni Z. N. Hatmi

    2006-01-01

    Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate th...

  3. Recurrence patterns of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

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    Kim, Bohyun; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Mi-hyun; Cho, Kyung-Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); E-mail: choihj@amc.seoul.kr

    2012-10-15

    Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is widely accepted as an effective imaging modality in monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence after radical cystectomy. Elucidating the pattern of bladder cancer recurrence on CT can increase the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose To evaluate the recurrence patterns of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and the factors associated with cancer recurrence. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 66.55 years; range, 32-86 years) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and radical cystectomy were included in this study. The presence, site, and time of tumor recurrence were recorded retrospectively by two radiologists in a consensus fashion. The association of tumor recurrence and tumor factors (T stage, lymph node metastasis, nuclear grade, and tumor diameter) were also evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier statistics. Results Tumor recurrence occurred in 60 patients (40.3%) with a mean time of 14 months (range, 1-64 months). The sites of recurrence included the operation site (n = 20), lymph node (n = 20), bone (n = 11), liver (n = 6), lung (n = 5), upper urinary tract (n = 4), colon (n = 3), adrenal gland (n = 2), peritoneum (n = 1), abdominal wall (n = 1), psoas muscle (n = 1), and penile skin (n = 1). Tumor recurrence was found to be associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder recur more frequently at the operation site and lymph node, and T-stage and lymph node metastasis are closely associated with tumor recurrence.

  4. Recurrence patterns of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is widely accepted as an effective imaging modality in monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence after radical cystectomy. Elucidating the pattern of bladder cancer recurrence on CT can increase the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose To evaluate the recurrence patterns of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and the factors associated with cancer recurrence. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 66.55 years; range, 32-86 years) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and radical cystectomy were included in this study. The presence, site, and time of tumor recurrence were recorded retrospectively by two radiologists in a consensus fashion. The association of tumor recurrence and tumor factors (T stage, lymph node metastasis, nuclear grade, and tumor diameter) were also evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier statistics. Results Tumor recurrence occurred in 60 patients (40.3%) with a mean time of 14 months (range, 1-64 months). The sites of recurrence included the operation site (n = 20), lymph node (n = 20), bone (n = 11), liver (n = 6), lung (n = 5), upper urinary tract (n = 4), colon (n = 3), adrenal gland (n = 2), peritoneum (n = 1), abdominal wall (n = 1), psoas muscle (n = 1), and penile skin (n = 1). Tumor recurrence was found to be associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder recur more frequently at the operation site and lymph node, and T-stage and lymph node metastasis are closely associated with tumor recurrence

  5. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  6. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  7. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  8. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in childhood: radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in an 11-year-old boy. The rarity of these tumors during childhood is pointed out. The radiological and ultrasonographic findings are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed with respect to other bladder tumors occurring in childhood. (Author) 11 refs

  9. HLA-A, B and DR in Caucasians with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P H; Anderson, S A; Stogdill, V D; Lamm, D L

    1983-11-01

    When HLA-A, B and DR antigens in Caucasian patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were compared with controls, no significant alterations in antigen frequencies were found. PMID:6581580

  10. Factors related to recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors related to the recurrence of TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) in the urinary bladder after transurethal resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients in whom TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) after TUR-BT had been confirmed. Recurrence was evaluated by US, CT, cystoscopy and urine smear during the follow-up period of 6 months. The multiplicity, shape, size, and calcification of TCC, as revealed by radiologic studies, were evaluated retrospectively before TUR-BT. After TUR-BT, the histologic grade and pathologic stage of TCC were evaluated. Radiologically, multiple and/or sessile type TCC had a higher recurrence rate than the single and/or pedunculated type. Pathologically, when the grade and stage of bladder tumor were higher, recurrent rates were higher. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Animal model of naturally occurring bladder cancer: Characterization of four new canine transitional cell carcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Development and further characterization of animal models for human cancers is important for the improvement of cancer detection and therapy. Canine bladder cancer closely resembles human bladder cancer in many aspects. In this study, we isolated and characterized four primary transitional cell carcinoma (K9TCC) cell lines to be used for future in vitro validation of novel therapeutic agents for bladder cancer. Methods Four K9TCC cell lines were established from naturally-occurring...

  12. Synchronous Contra Lateral Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of the Kidney and Bladder

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    Razzaghi MR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous upper urinary tract tumor and s uperficial bladder tumor are uncommon. This is a report of a 62- year- old man pr esented with episode of painless gross hematuria and flank pain. We worked him up and found a left renal mass and bladder lesion. He underwent nephrectomy and TUR-BT, and the pathology report of both showed a high grade urothelial tr ansitional cell carcinoma. The patient was followed by surveillance protocol for ureter stump. Our report included an uncommon case of high gr ade synchronous upper urinary tract and bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

  13. Analysis of failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors for bladder relapse and distant failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients treated in the period 1977 to 1990 by definitive radiotherapy. The factors studied included age, sex, T stage, histological grade, tumor multiplicity, ureteric obstruction, total radiation dose, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The endpoints studied were bladder relapse and distant failure. Results: There were 342 patients with a mean follow-up time of 7.9 years. Bladder relapse was observed in 159 patients. The overall actuarial bladder relapse rate at 5 years was 55% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher bladder relapse rate were: tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), presence of ureteric obstruction (p = 0.001), and higher T stage (p 0.044). Distant failure occurred in 39 patients. The overall actuarial distant failure rate at 5 years was 28% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher distant failure rate were: ureteric obstruction (p = 0.003) and higher T stage (p = 0.030). Conclusion: In our study, patients with invasive bladder TCC fell into distinct prognostic groups determined by the three independent factors, ureteric obstruction, tumor multiplicity, and T stage. These factors provided estimated risks of bladder relapse by 5 years which ranged from 34% to 91%. Knowledge of these prognostic factors can help in the selection of patients more suited for bladder preservation by definitive radiotherapy

  14. Bladder Tumor Recurrence after Primary Surgery for Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Baldauf, Anka; Wiessner, Diana; Gellrich, Jörg; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Wirth, Manfred P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract represents 6–8% of all TCC cases. Nephroureterectomy with removal of a bladder cuff is the treatment of choice. The rates of TCC recurrence in the bladder after primary upper urinary tract surgery described in the literature range between 12.5 and 37.5%. In a retrospective analysis we examined the occurrence of TCC after nephroureterectomy for upper tract TCC in patients without a previous history of bladder TCC a...

  15. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

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    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  16. Nomograms for Prediction of Disease Recurrence in Patients with Primary Ta, T1 Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Joon; Cho, Kang Su; Han, Mooyoung; Rhew, Hyun Yul; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ryu, Soo Bang; Sul, Chong Koo; Chung, Moon Kee; Park, Tong Choon; Kim, Hyung Jin; ,

    2008-01-01

    We developed nomograms to predict disease recurrence in patients with Ta, T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Thirty-eight training hospitals participated in this retrospective multicenter study. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 1,587 patients with newly diagnosed non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were enrolled in this study. Patients with prior histories of bladder cancer, non-transitional cell carcinoma, or a follow-up duration of less than 12 months were excluded. With univari...

  17. Plasmacytoid Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder: A Clinico-pathological Study and Review of Literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiaoli; ZHANG Hongtu; SUN Yuntian; LIU Xiuyun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathologic features of plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, and to analyze the diagnostic features, criteria for differential diagnosis and the clinical significance of the tumor. Methods: Two cases of bladder plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma were studied. Routine paraffin sections with HE staining, Pap smear and immunohistochemistry by S-P method were observed under a light microscope. Pathological and clinical data were analyzed by comparison with early reported cases in literatures. Results: A characteristic feature of this tumor was of deep invasion in the lamina propria and/or muscularis propria, in addition to the component of carcinoma in situ in the mucosa, when tumors were diagnosed. The histological pattern and cytological features showed similarity to a plasmacytoid tumor. The tumor cells were strongly positive for AE1/AE3, CEA and CK18. The prognosis appeared to be worse than ordinary transitional cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of bladder is rare but has typical pathological, immunohistological and clinical features. Pathologists should be aware of this kind of primary tumor of bladder.

  18. Prognostic factors for primary superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tu-bao; ZENG Fu-hua; SUN Zhen-qiu

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that the prognostic factors for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder varied with the findings of different cohorts. Few multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for superficial bladder tumors have been reported in China and bladder preservation as a prognostic index of superficial bladder tumors is limited and scarce in Chinese patients. This study was conducted to analyze a group of risk factors for prognostic outcomes for patients with primary superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.Methods Between January 1980 to December 2000, 198 patients [172 men and 26 women; mean age (52.98±11.28) years] with primary superficial transitional cell carcinoma who were pathologically classified as Ta or T1 in Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital (Changsha, China) were enrolled in this study. Surgical methods included local resection and electric coagulation of bladder tumors, transurethral resection of bladder tumors and partial cystectomy. After initial surgical treatment, patients were followed through a cystoscopy every three months during the first two years and every six months thereafter in the design of retrospective cohort. Survival analysis was performed to analyze risk factors of the prognostic outcomes for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.Canonical correlation analysis was conducted to present and interpret synthetically the multi-correlation between all kinds of prognostic outcomes and risk factor in multiply dimensions.Results The average follow-up period was (6.65±4.74) years. Assessments at three, five, and 10 years showed recurrence rates, respectively, of (28.32 ± 3.45)%, (35.31 ± 3.83)%, and (42.48 ± 4.40)%; progression rates of (8.89±2.14)%, (15.16±2.94)%, and (23.88±4.19)%; bladder-preservation rates of (94.68± 1.74)%, (93.87±1.91)%, and (91.51±2.49)%; metastasis rates of (8.25±2.05)%, (11.24±2.47)%, and (28.94±4.93)%; and cancer-related survival rates of (95.02 ±1

  19. Recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: A mixed nested variant case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    De Berardinis, Ettore; Busetto, Gian Maria; Giovannone, Riccardo; Antonini, Gabriele; Di Placido, Mariarosaria; Gentile, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Nested variant of urothelial cell carcinoma (NVUC) is a rare histological entity, with about 80 reported cases. It has a deceptively benign appearance with an aspect characterized by confluent small nest or urothelial’s cell tubules. This tumour often resembles inverted papilloma, von Brunn’s nests (VBNs), cystitis cystica, nephrogenic metaplasia and sometimes usual transitional cell cancer. It is very important to be able to distinguish between benign lesions and nested variant bladder cance...

  20. Risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the role of various known risk factors for the development of Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder in our set up. Study design: Case control study Place and duration of the study: Department of Radiology CMH Rawalpindi, from March 2007 to December 2007. Material and methods: 70 patients with TCC urinary bladder were included in the study. 70 controls were included. The patients were enquired about the risk factors. The data was analysed on SPSS version 12. Odds ratio for each factor was carried out. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Smoking was the most important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder with odds ratio of 3:1. Driving was the next common factor. Low socioeconomic conditions appear to be an important factor in our set up. The role of chemicals in industrial work could not be established. Conclusion: Differences from the West exist regarding the etiological factors for the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Males outnumber the females by a significant ratio. Smoking is an important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Most bladder cancers arise in low socioeconomic group in our set up. (author)

  1. The Expression of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Tae Jung; Kim, Sung Woo; Lee, Kyung Seop

    2012-01-01

    Background Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic factor. The purpose of this study is to examine the involvement of PEDF in the angiogenesis and biological behavior of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Methods We examined the expression of PEDF in 99 bladder TCCs and ten non-neoplastic tissues, and evaluated microvessel density (MVD). Results The positive immunoreactivity for PEDF was seen in normal urothelium in 60% (6/10) and TCC in 13% (13/99). The PEDF ex...

  2. Rare Association of Anti-Hu Antibody Positive Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome and Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lukacs; Szabo, N; Woodhams, S

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM) and subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN) are remote effects of cancer, usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma and positive anti-Hu antibody. We describe the rare association of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with anti-Hu antibody positivity resulting in this paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. Patient. A 76-year-old female presented with bilateral muscle weakness and paraesthesia of the upper and lower limbs in a leng...

  3. Frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Yaoting; Guo, Guangwu; Huang, Yi;

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Here we sequenced the exomes of nine individuals with TCC and screened all the somatically mutated genes in a prevalence set of 88 additional individuals with TCC with different tumor stages and grades. In our study, we...... discovered a variety of genes previously unknown to be mutated in TCC. Notably, we identified genetic aberrations of the chromatin remodeling genes (UTX, MLL-MLL3, CREBBP-EP300, NCOR1, ARID1A and CHD6) in 59% of our 97 subjects with TCC. Of these genes, we showed UTX to be altered substantially more...... frequently in tumors of low stages and grades, highlighting its potential role in the classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Our results provide an overview of the genetic basis of TCC and suggest that aberration of chromatin regulation might be a hallmark of bladder cancer....

  4. Expression of a inhibitor of apoptosis protein livin in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the expression of two isoforms (i.e. Livin-α and Livin-β) of Livin, a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCC) and to see whether or not the gegen's expression correlate with the grading and staging the TCC. Methods: In the carcinoma tissue of 30 patients with TCC and bladder mucosa from 3 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 2 patients with traumatic bladder rupture expression of livin-α and livin-β mRNA were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Results: Livin mRNA was expressed in 5 of 30 TCC case (16.7%), and in these 5 TCC cases all deep muscle was invasived and whose pathologic grades belonged to III. No livin expression was detected in bladder mucosa in 3 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 2 patients with traumatic bladder rupture. Conclusion: Livin can be a molecular marker of TCC, and can be used in judging the malignancy degree of TCC and the prognosis of TCC. (authors)

  5. Selective arterial embolization for control of haematuria secondary to advanced or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2014-05-02

    Haematuria is a common symptom in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. We report our experience of selective pelvic embolization using gelfoam as an embolic agent to treat intractable haematuria in these patients.

  6. Subclinical miliary Mycobacterium bovis following BCG immunotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang-ho Ryan; Lee, Sang Oh; Smith, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of a 51-year-old man who developed relatively mild non-specific symptoms following intravesical BCG instillation for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, with radiological investigations demonstrating typical features of miliary tuberculosis (TB). Transbronchial biopsy showed small foci of poorly formed granuloma suggestive of Mycobacterium infection. The patient's respiratory symptoms only became apparent 7 days after discharge having ha...

  7. Clinical experience of MRI in two dogs with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kija; Choi, Sooyoung; Choi, Hojung; Lee, Youngwon

    2016-09-01

    This study described high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in two dogs. Ultrasonography revealed a urinary bladder mass with ambiguous result about invasion to the muscular layer. Contrast-enhanced CT showed that the bladder wall in which the mass was attached was more intensely enhanced than the normal bladder walls, supporting invasion to the muscular layer. The mass revealed an intermediate signal intensity with interruption of the hypointense muscular layer on T2-weighted MRI and showed greater enhancement compared with the normal bladder wall on postcontrast T1-weighted images. T2-weighted MRI, postcontrast T1-weighted MRI and contrast-enhanced dual-phasic CT were useful for evaluating muscle-invasive bladder TCC in dogs. PMID:27149892

  8. Hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis associated with bladder transitional cell carcinoma and effects of aluminium-ammonium sulfate irrigation for massive bladder hemorrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although pelvic irradiation is carried out widely on patients with uterine cancer, a few reports have dealt with the occurence of secondary bladder tumors due to pelvic irradiation. Herein, we report a case of radiation induced bladder transitional cell carcinoma. A 72-year-old woman suffered hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis for 2 years in duration following 8000 rads radiotherapy received 4 years before. Primary uterine cervical cancer was well controlled and residual tumor or recurrence of tumor was excluded by clinical examination. Cystoscopic and cytologic examination was initiated in 1981 when first episode of hematuria occurred and was repeated there-after to check for neoplasm in the bladder until June 1983, when a bladder tumor was identified. Cystoscopy revealed a small papillary tumor in trigone, and hyperemic edema and bleeding in almost the whole bladder mucosa. The pathology of the tumor was transitional cell carcinoma. Hemorrhagic cystitis was treated successfully with bladder irrigation of 3 litres of 1% aluminium-ammonium sulfate solution after 3 courses of irrigation. (author)

  9. Low Dose BCG Regimen in T1 Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder: Long Term Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BCG has been used for more than 30 years and is currently the most effective agent for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer therapy after transurethral resection. The high-grade T1 lesion treated by transurethral resection alone is reported to progress to muscle invasion in 30% to 50% of the patients. Until now, optimal treatment schedule and optimal dose have not been defined as the toxicity related to BCG therapy is significant. In this study we tried to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of 60 mg intravesical BCG (Pasteur strain) therapy in patients with T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Patients and Methods: From January 2000 till December 2007, 74 patients with single T1 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (grade 3 in 24 patients and grade 2 in 50 patients) were treated by complete transurethral resection followed by a 6-weeks course of 60 mg BCG intravesically. Follow-up ranged from 26- 96 months with median of 61 months. Results: Nine patients (12.1%) exhibited recurrence with muscle invasion after 6-18 months (5 with grade 3 tumors and 4 with grade 2), all were subjected to radical cystectomy and urine diversion. Whereas 19 patients (29.2%) showed recurrent T1 tumor after 16-45 months (7 with grade 3 tumors and 12 with grade 2) and were treated by TUR-T followed by a second 6-weeks course of 60 mg BCG intravesically. Recurrence index was 0.82/100 patients/month and the median tumor free period was 20 months. Regarding toxicity; irritative symptoms occurred in 24% of patients, fever in 9%, microscopic hematuria in 14%; which appeared to be significantly low when compared with the rates reported for higher doses of BCG. Conclusion: Intravesical therapy of 60 mg BCG is effective in prophylaxis against recurrence and progression of T1 TCC of the bladder. Decreasing the dose resulted

  10. Prostate-derived ets factor represses tumorigenesis and modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chuang, Sung-Ting; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-05-28

    Prostate-derived Ets (E-twenty six) factor (PDEF), an epithelium-specific member of the Ets family of transcription factors, has been shown to play a role in suppressing the development of many epithelium-derived cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. It is not clear, however, whether PDEF is involved in the development or progression of bladder cancer. In a comparison between normal urothelium and bladder tumor tissue, we identified significant decreases of PDEF in the tumor tissue. Further, the immunohistochemistry assays indicated a significantly higher immunostaining of PDEF in low-grade bladder tumors. Additionally, the highly differentiated transitional-cell bladder carcinoma RT-4 cells expressed significantly more PDEF levels than the bladder carcinoma HT1376 and the T24 cells. Ectopic overexpression of PDEF attenuated proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PDEF enhanced the expression levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN), N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), KAI1, and B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2). PDEF modulated epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by upregulating E-cadherin expression and downregulating the expression of N-cadherin, SNAIL, SLUG, and vimentin, leading to lower migration and invasion abilities of bladder carcinoma cells. Filamentous actin (F-actin) polarization and remodeling were observed in PDEF-knockdown RT-4 cells. Our results suggest that PDEF gene expression is associated with the extent of bladder neoplasia and PDEF modulated the expressions of EMT-related genes. The induction of BTG2, NDRG1, MASPIN, and KAI1 gene expressions by PDEF may explain the inhibitory functions of PDEF on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells. PMID:26965996

  11. Co-localization of GSTP1 and JNK in transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac; Ana Savic-Radojevic; Tamara Kravic-Stevovic; Vladimir Bumbasirevic; Jasmina Mimic-Oka; Tatiana Simic

    2010-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder belongs to glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) overexpressing tumors. Upregulated GSTP1 in TCC is related to apoptosis inhibition. This antiapoptotic effects of GSTP1 might be mediated through protein:protein interaction with c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK). Herein, we analyzed whether a direct link between GSTP1 and JNK exists in TCC. The presence of GSTP1/JNK complexes was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting in 20 TCC s...

  12. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Niki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC is the most common type of urinary bladder cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, a key enzyme in prostaglandins biosynthesis, has been introduced as a new candidate for targeted therapy in this cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression of COX-2 in urinary bladder TCCs and its relationship with clinicopathological parameters such as tumor grade and stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Pathology department of Sina Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2006-2011. Pathology reports of patients with definite diagnosis of urinary bladder TCCs who had undergone Transurethral Resection (TUR were reviewed and 40 cases were selected. Subsequently, COX-2 expression was assessed immunohistochemically by the examination of paraffin embedded tissue blocks. Staining in more than 5% of tumor cells was considered as positive expression. Results: COX-2 was expressed in 52.5% of the patients. High-grade tumors revealed a higher (87.5% COX-2 expression versus other grades of the lesions and there was a statistically significant difference in COX-2 expression between them (P<0.001. Patients age was also related to the expression of this marker (P=0.03. In contrast, this marker did not correlate with other characteristics including gender, lymphatic invasion or tumor stage. In addition, perineurial or vascular invasions were not detected in any of the patients. Conclusion: COX-2 expression was seen in more than half of our patients and it had a marked relation to tumor differentiation. Accordingly, this molecule may be a useful tumor marker in the assessment of urinary bladder cancers.

  13. Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Duodenal Metastasis of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H.F. Chan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute upper gastrointestinal (UGI bleeding is a common problem in our clinical practice and is often due to peptic ulcer diseases. Occasionally, malignancy may be implicated in these situations. Here we report a rare case of UGI bleeding secondary to metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. A 62-year-old man with a history of stage IIIb TCC of the urinary bladder presented with hematemesis. Endoscopy showed a large tumor in the second stage of the duodenum that occupied 40% of the duodenal circumference, over 7 cm in length. Biopsies revealed a poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm consistent with metastasis from urothelial carcinoma that was identical to the previous surgical specimen of the urinary bladder. He was treated with supportive therapy and intravenous proton pump inhibitor and was discharged home 2 weeks later. Two weeks after discharge, the patient returned to the hospital with a painful swelling of the floor of his mouth. Biopsy again showed the same cancer type. He had unremitting bleeding from his mouth requiring multiple transfusions and a course of palliative radiation therapy. He progressively deteriorated in his cardiopulmonary and neurological functions and expired with cardiopulmonary arrest one month later.

  14. Skeletal muscle metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Clinicoradiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, G. E-mail: nabeegholam@hotmail.com; Gupta, N.P.; Gandhi, D

    2003-11-01

    AIM: To define the clinicoradiological characteristics of skeletal muscle metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with skeletal muscle metastasis was undertaken between January 1999 to December 2001. Patients suspected of having a metastasis on radiological examinations, and subsequently proven to have metastatic disease on histological examination were included in study. The clinical presentation and radiological features of five patients with skeletal muscle metastasis from bladder tumours were reviewed from hospital records. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients had skeletal muscle metastasis from various primaries. Of these five patients had previous or concurrent primary tumours in the bladder. Patients were aged between 27-70 years (mean 52 years), and all had persistent, localized pain with or without accompanying swelling. The muscles involved were psoas in three patients, adductor muscles of thigh in one and rectus abdominis in one. Four patients had radical cystectomy with urinary diversion (two ileal conduit and two orthotopic sigmoid neobladder). One patient presented with bladder tumour and concomitant muscular metastasis. All patients underwent helical computed tomography (CT) before confirmation of diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy. The typical appearance of low-density enhancing lesions on CT was mistaken for abscess in two patients and failure to respond to conservative treatment led to suspicion of metastasis. Diagnosis was proven histologically in all patients (FNA in three and biopsy in two). All patients had palliative chemotherapy (Mitomycin, Vincristine, Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide). Two patients had local palliative 3500 rad radiotherapy for persistent pain. Mean survival was 8 months (range 6-12 months). CONCLUSION: Muscular metastasis from urothelial tumours typically presents with persistent localized pain with or without swelling. The

  15. Characteristics of Patients With Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Kermanshah Province, Iran

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    Mehrdad Payandeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iran, bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy sites among men, ranking as the fifth with age-specific incidence rate of about 11.2 per 100,000 males. It causes 8% of all malignancies in men and 3% of all malignancies in women. Objectives: The aim of this study was to report the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of bladder cancer in Western Iran compared to other studies. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study between 2003 and 2014 when forty-four patients with bladder cancer referred to Hematology Clinic of Kermanshah, Kermanshah, Iran. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was in 39 patients. Results: In the patients with TCC, the mean age in diagnosis for them was 65.43 years (± 11.64, range of age 42 to 88 years , thirty-three patients (84.6% were male, and six patients (15.4% were female. Of 39 patients with TCC, 16 patients (41% had metastasis. 21 patients (53.8% were smoker and 16 patients (41% had muscle invasive. 35 patients (89.7% were histological high grade and the rest of patients were low grade. In the TCC patients with increasing age, metastasis and muscle invasive increased. Conclusions: The age presentation of TCC in West Iran was similar to other studies. Percentage of patients with high grade is more than other studies, and also the number of patients with bladder cancer has increased during last 4 years. For better results, studies must be conducted with more patients in this area, and other areas of Iran with checking of genetics, race and environmental factors.

  16. Rare Association of Anti-Hu Antibody Positive Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome and Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma

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    S. Lukacs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM and subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN are remote effects of cancer, usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma and positive anti-Hu antibody. We describe the rare association of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC with anti-Hu antibody positivity resulting in this paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. Patient. A 76-year-old female presented with bilateral muscle weakness and paraesthesia of the upper and lower limbs in a length-dependent “glove and stocking” distribution. Central nervous system symptoms included cognitive problems, personality change, and truncal ataxia. Case notes and the literature were reviewed. Result. Autoantibody screening was positive for anti-Hu antibody (recently renamed antineuronal nuclear antibody 1, ANNA-1. The diagnosis of PEM and SSN was supported by MRI and lumbar puncture results. A superficial bladder TCC was demonstrated on CT and subsequently confirmed on histology. No other primary neoplasm was found on full-body imaging. The neurological symptoms were considered to be an antibody-mediated paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and improved after resection of the tumour. Discussion. The association of anti-Hu positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and TCC has not been described in the literature previously. We emphasize the need for detailed clinical examination and the importance of a multidisciplinary thought process and encourage further awareness of this rare association.

  17. G9a Inhibition Induces Autophagic Cell Death via AMPK/mTOR Pathway in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Li; Jin Zeng; Yang Gao; Zhenfeng Guan; Zhenkun Ma; Qi Shi; Chong Du; Jing Jia; Shan Xu; Xinyang Wang; Luke Chang; Dalin He; Peng Guo

    2015-01-01

    G9a has been reported to highly express in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and G9a inhibition significantly attenuates cell proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The present study aimed at examining the potential role of autophagy in the anti-proliferation effect of G9a inhibition on TCC T24 and UMUC-3 cell lines in vitro. We found that both pharmaceutical and genetical G9a inhibition significantly attenuated cell proliferation by MTT assay, Brdu incor...

  18. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

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    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  19. RECURRENCE RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF BLADDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xiang-hui; YANG Xiao-hong; ZHENG Fu-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study recurrence factors and set up a model to evaluate the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer.Methods: An analysis on recurrence-related factors was made by Cox's proportional hazards model analysis and logistic multiple linear regression model analysis in 212 patients with transitional cell carcinoma treated surgically from 1995~2001.These factors included clinical and pathologic figures. Results: The most important factor is metastasis to the regional lymph nodes, the Hazards ratio is 6.6 (P=0.0004), followed by multiple tumors (Hr=2.255, P<0.0001), tumor in trigone and bladder neck (Hr=2.053, P<0.0001), stage (Hr=2.057, P<0.0001), grade (Hr=1.569, P=0.0081), intravesical chemotherapeutic instillations (Hr-0.559, P=0.0011) and hematuria (Hr=0.762, P=0.0076). A predicting equation was established, and the predicting values were calculated according to the individual features of patients. The predicting and actual values were compared, and the sensitivity, specificity and overall concordance were 83.5%, 67.6% and 80.1% respectively. Conclusion:The evaluation of prognosis could be made quite accurately based on these factors.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative histopathology in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. An international investigation of intra- and interobserver reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Sasaki, M; Fukuzawa, S;

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histopathologic, prognosis-related grading of malignancy by means of morphologic examination in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC) may be subject to observer variation, resulting in a reduced level of reproducibility. This may confound comparisons of treatment...

  1. Calcification in transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: Does it have any implication on calcium metabolism and its management?

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar; Modi, Pranjal R.; Pal, Bipin C.; Jayesh Modi

    2015-01-01

    Although transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is most common histological subtype, calcification in TCC is rarely seen. We report a 64-year-old gentleman who on evaluation found to have calcification in TCC of urinary bladder and its implication on calcium metabolism and management.

  2. Quantitative histopathology in the prognostic evaluation of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Fukuzawa, S;

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphologic grading of malignancy is considered to be of prognostic value in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC). This qualitative approach is, however, associated with low reproducibility. Grading of malignancy can be carried out on a reproducible......, quantitative scale. METHODS: A retrospective, prognostic study of 110 patients treated for TCC in clinical Stages Ta-T4 (median follow-up time, 6 years) was performed, evaluating various grading techniques. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vV), nuclear volume fraction...... nuclear vV are prognostically superior to morphologic grading of malignancy in noninvasive TCC, whereas both morphologically and quantitatively based malignancy grading are without prognostic value in invasive TCC....

  3. Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Coexist with Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder and Prostate-A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TongZhang; YongXu; ShuminZhang

    2004-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma(PAC) with transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) of the bladder and prostate is a rare clinicopathological entity, presentation is usually late. We report a case with obstructive voiding symptoms and lumbago. Prostatic and cystic biopsy revealed PAC and TCC of bladder. Bone scan showed multiple bone metastases. He underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and bladder tumor and was found to have PAC with TCC of the bladder and prostate. We discuss the cases of PAC with TCC of the bladder and prostate.

  4. Large bowel obstruction resulting from bladder transitional cell carcinoma metastasis: a common cancer presenting in an uncommon manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohloff, Matthew; VandenBerg, Todd; MacMath, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and large bowel obstructions are both common disease processes typically considered unrelated. Presented below is the case of a 49-year-old male with a large bowel obstruction caused by a bladder TCC metastasis. One year prior to large bowel obstruction presentation, the patient had a T2, Grade III TCC of the bladder with no nodal involvement or metastasis, which was removed via radical cystoprostatectomy. This case serves as a reminder that cancer, despite common pathogenesis patterns, can present in atypical ways. PMID:26197806

  5. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8 in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT

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    Chai Karl X

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8 is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Methods Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. Results Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15 TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Conclusion Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy.

  6. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8) in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15) TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy

  7. Co-localization of GSTP1 and JNK in transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

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    Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of urinary bladder belongs to glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 overexpressing tumors. Upregulated GSTP1 in TCC is related to apoptosis inhibition. This antiapoptotic effects of GSTP1 might be mediated through protein:protein interaction with c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK. Herein, we analyzed whether a direct link between GSTP1 and JNK exists in TCC. The presence of GSTP1/JNK complexes was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting in 20 TCC specimens, obtained after surgery. Co-localization of GSTP1 and JNK was also investigated in the 5637 TCC cell line by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. By means of immunoprecipitation we show for the first time the presence of GSTP1/JNK complexes in all TCC samples studied. A co-localization of GSTP1 and JNK was also demonstrated in the 5637 TCC cell line by means of confocal microscopy. Protein-protein interactions, together with co-localization between GSTP1 and JNK provide evidence that GSTP1 most probably inhibits apoptosis in TCC cells by non-covalent binding to JNK.

  8. Initial Results of Bladder Preserving Approach by Chemo-Radiotherapy in Patients with Muscle Invading Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy and tolerability of trimodality treatment for invasive bladder cancer and to test the possibility of bladder sparing. Methods: This study had been carried out on 50 patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) stage T2- T3 tumors with adequate performance status and renal function. All patients were subjected to maximum transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). Patients were then subjected to chemo-radiation that was executed in two treatment phases. Phase I was external radiotherapy in the form of 46 Gy /23 fractions /5 weeks to whole pelvis with concurrent cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly. Phase II was 20 Gy /10 fractions /2 weeks to the bladder tumor with concurrent cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly. After phase I, patients who had complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) were subjected to phase II and patients who had stationary disease (SD) were subjected to salvage cystectomy. After the end of treatment, patients who had CR were subjected to bladder preservation. Radiological and cystoscopic reevaluation was done to assess the tumor response after phase I and phase II. After completion of the scheduled treatment, patients were under follow up for clinical examination, radiological, and cystoscopic assessment. Results: The treatment schedule was tolerable and was associated with infrequent incidence of moderate toxicity that was easily controlled without interruption of treatment. Bladder preservation was achieved in 72% of patients. The actuarial relapse free survival and overall survival at a median follow up 18 months for patients who were candidate for bladder preservation were 81% and 100%; respectively. Invasive recurrence (16%) sal-Jvaged with cystectomy and superficial recurrence (6%) successfully treated with Bacilles bilie de Calmette- Guerin. Conclusions: This study indicates that in spite of a relatively small number of patients and short follow-up period; the trimodality treatment could be an

  9. Bladder transitional cell carcinoma: correlation of contrast enhancement on computed tomography with histological grade and tumour angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement of bladder cancer in the early enhanced phase of helical computed tomography (CT) and microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and histological grade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were examined by incremental unenhanced CT and helical CT at 40-45 s after initiation of intravenous administration of contrast medium before surgery. The CT density in Hounsfield units of bladder carcinomas were measured in the middle of the maximum diameter section of the cancer lesions on unenhanced and enhanced CT. The degree of contrast enhancement of the tumour was determined as the absolute increase in Hounsfield units. Histological grade, VEGF and MVD were analysed for each cancer. The Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to determine the strength of the relationships between CT enhancement and histological grade, VEGF expression and MVD. RESULTS: Different degrees of enhancement were observed in 91 cancers during the early enhanced phase of helical CT. Mean MVDs and mean CT enhancing values of different histological grade groups were statistically different (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found in the CT-enhancing value of bladder cancer and MVD (Pearson correlation test; r=0.938, p<0.001) and histological grade (Spearman rank correlation; r=0.734, p<0.001). VEGF of bladder cancer did not correlate with the change in CT attenuation (Spearman rank correlation; r=0.087, p=0.410) and MVD (Spearman rank correlation, r=0.103, p=0.330). CONCLUSION: In bladder cancer, the degree of contrast enhancement during the early enhanced helical CT is correlated with the MVD and histological grade of tumour. It is possible that MVD is the histopathological basis of early contrast enhancement of bladder cancer

  10. SPARING CYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL-CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveyev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the results of sparing cystectomy in patients with urinary bladder cancer (UBC.Subjects and methods. The study has covered 82 patients with transitional-cell UBC (T1-4aN0M0 who received radiotherapy (RT and thenunderwent radical cystectomy at the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in 1980 to2007. Among them there were 76 (92.7% males and 6 (7.3% females. The median age was 55.2±10.8 years. Superficial (T1 and inva-sive (Т2—4а carcinomas were detected in 33 (40.2% and 49 (59.8% patients, respectively. Category N+ was identified in 3 (3.7% patients.All the patients received RT to the bladder area (median total focal dose (TFD 56±12.3 Gy and regional metastatic zones (median TFD40.0±0.0 Gy. A full effect of irradiation was achieved in 44 (53.7% patients, of whom 41 (93.2% developed local relapses. All the 82patients underwent radical cystectomy: that with ureterostomy in 28 (34.1% cases, Bricker’s operation in 45 (54.4%, Studer’s operationin 4 (4.9%, and rectal urinary bladder in 5 (6.1%. The median follow-up was 32.7±31.9 months.Results. The median interval between RT and cystectomy was 12.5±5.1 months; the median time of surgery was 360 (60—480 min; themedian blood loss was 1515.2±1227.8 ml. Intraoperative and postoperative complications developed in 10 (12.2% and 40 (48.6%patients, respectively. Repeated operations were performed in 7 (8.4% cases. Mortality was 4.9%. A urinary derivation technique failed toaffect the incidence of complications and the rates of mortality (p > 0.05. Histological studies revealed transitional-cell carcinoma in thedistant specimens in 80 (97.6% cases. Recurrences developed in 40 (48.8% of the 82 patients following an average of 32.9 (1—150months of cystectomy: local relapses in 5 (6.1% cases; distant metastases in 29 (35.4%; a local relapse and distant metastases in 5 (6.1%;urethral recurrence in 1 (1.2% patient. Five-year overall

  11. SPARING CYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL-CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveyev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the results of sparing cystectomy in patients with urinary bladder cancer (UBC.Subjects and methods. The study has covered 82 patients with transitional-cell UBC (T1-4aN0M0 who received radiotherapy (RT and thenunderwent radical cystectomy at the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in 1980 to2007. Among them there were 76 (92.7% males and 6 (7.3% females. The median age was 55.2±10.8 years. Superficial (T1 and inva-sive (Т2—4а carcinomas were detected in 33 (40.2% and 49 (59.8% patients, respectively. Category N+ was identified in 3 (3.7% patients.All the patients received RT to the bladder area (median total focal dose (TFD 56±12.3 Gy and regional metastatic zones (median TFD40.0±0.0 Gy. A full effect of irradiation was achieved in 44 (53.7% patients, of whom 41 (93.2% developed local relapses. All the 82patients underwent radical cystectomy: that with ureterostomy in 28 (34.1% cases, Bricker’s operation in 45 (54.4%, Studer’s operationin 4 (4.9%, and rectal urinary bladder in 5 (6.1%. The median follow-up was 32.7±31.9 months.Results. The median interval between RT and cystectomy was 12.5±5.1 months; the median time of surgery was 360 (60—480 min; themedian blood loss was 1515.2±1227.8 ml. Intraoperative and postoperative complications developed in 10 (12.2% and 40 (48.6%patients, respectively. Repeated operations were performed in 7 (8.4% cases. Mortality was 4.9%. A urinary derivation technique failed toaffect the incidence of complications and the rates of mortality (p > 0.05. Histological studies revealed transitional-cell carcinoma in thedistant specimens in 80 (97.6% cases. Recurrences developed in 40 (48.8% of the 82 patients following an average of 32.9 (1—150months of cystectomy: local relapses in 5 (6.1% cases; distant metastases in 29 (35.4%; a local relapse and distant metastases in 5 (6.1%;urethral recurrence in 1 (1.2% patient. Five-year overall

  12. Development of a Novel Proteomic Approach for the Detection of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahou, Antonia; Schellhammer, Paul F.; Mendrinos, Savvas; Patel, Keyur; Kondylis, Filippos I.; Gong, Lei; Nasim, Suhail; Wright Jr., George L.

    2001-01-01

    Development of noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder remains a challenge. A ProteinChip technology (surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) has recently been developed to facilitate protein profiling of biological mixtures. This report describes an exploratory study of this technology as a TCC diagnostic tool. Ninety-four urine samples from patients with TCC, patients with other urogenital diseases, and...

  13. Novel somatic mutations identified by whole-exome sequencing in muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    PAN, HUIXING; Xu, Xiaojian; WU, DEYAO; QIU, QIAOCHENG; Zhou, Shoujun; He, Xuefeng; Zhou, Yunfeng; QU, PING; Hou, Jianquan; He, Jun; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the one of the most commonly observed types of cancer globally. The identification of novel disease-associated genes in TCC has had a significant effect on the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer; however, there may be a large number of novel genes that have not been identified. In the present study, the exomes of two individuals who were diagnosed with muscle-invasive TCC (MI-TCC) were sequenced to investigate potential variants. Subsequently, follo...

  14. G9a Inhibition Induces Autophagic Cell Death via AMPK/mTOR Pathway in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available G9a has been reported to highly express in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC and G9a inhibition significantly attenuates cell proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The present study aimed at examining the potential role of autophagy in the anti-proliferation effect of G9a inhibition on TCC T24 and UMUC-3 cell lines in vitro. We found that both pharmaceutical and genetical G9a inhibition significantly attenuated cell proliferation by MTT assay, Brdu incorporation assay and colony formation assay. G9a inhibition induced autophagy like morphology as determined by transmission electron microscope and LC-3 fluorescence assay. In addition, autophagy flux was induced by G9a inhibition in TCC cells, as determined by p62 turnover assay and LC-3 turnover assay. The autophagy induced positively contributed to the inhibition of cell proliferation because the growth attenuation capacity of G9a inhibition was reversed by autophagy inhibitors 3-MA. Mechanically, AMPK/mTOR pathway was identified to be involved in the regulation of G9a inhibition induced autophagy. Intensively activating mTOR by Rheb overexpression attenuated autophagy and autophagic cell death induced by G9a inhibition. In addition, pre-inhibiting AMPK by Compound C attenuated autophagy together with the anti-proliferation effect induced by G9a inhibition while pre-activating AMPK by AICAR enhanced them. In conclusion, our results indicate that G9a inhibition induces autophagy through activating AMPK/mTOR pathway and the autophagy induced positively contributes to the inhibition of cell proliferation in TCC cells. These findings shed some light on the functional role of G9a in cell metabolism and suggest that G9a might be a therapeutic target in bladder TCC in the future.

  15. Twisted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition promotes progression of surviving bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT-dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cancer cells maintain telomeres to protect cells from senescence through telomerase activity (TA or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT in different cell types. Moreover, cellular senescence can be bypassed by Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT during cancer progression in diverse solid tumors. However, it has not been elucidated the characteristics of telomere maintenance and progression ability after long-term culture in bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, by using a dominant negative mutant human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT vector to inhibit TA in bladder cancer T24 cells, we observed the appearance of long phenotype of telomere length and the ALT-associated PML body (APB complex after the 27(th passage, indicating the occurrence of ALT-like pathway in surviving T24/DN868A cells with telomerase inhibition. Meanwhile, telomerase inhibition resulted in significant EMT as shown by change in cellular morphology concomitant with variation of EMT markers. Consistently, the surviving T24/DN868A cells showed increased progression ability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found Twist was activated to mediate EMT in surviving T24/DN868A samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings indicate that bladder cancer T24 cells may undergo the telomerase-to-ALT-like conversion and promote cancer progression at advanced stages through promoting EMT, thus providing novel possible insight into the mechanism of resistance to telomerase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  16. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation. PMID:25722217

  17. Effects of Combined siRNA-TR and-TERT on Telomerase Activity and Growth of Bladder Transitional Cell Cancer BIU-87 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文; 位志峰; 高建平; 张征宇; 葛京平; 景抗震; 徐锋; 解鹏

    2010-01-01

    The effects of combined RNA interference(RNAi) of human telomerase RNA(hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT) genes on telomerase activity in a bladder cancer cell line(BIU-87 cells) were investigated by using gene chip technology in vitro with an attempt to evaluate the role of RNAi in the gene therapy of bladder transitional cell cancer(BTCC).Three TR-specific double-stranded small interfering RNAs(siRNAs) and three TERT-specific double-stranded siRNAs were designed to target different reg...

  18. Survivin mRNA expression in urine as a biomarker for patients with transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jian-quan; HE Jun; WEN Duan-gai; CHEN Zi-xing; ZENG Jian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of bladder is the most common malignant tumor in uropoiesis system. Up to date, there is still lack of an ideal marker for the diagnosis of TCC except CT and MRI imaging and cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is an invasive examination, which increases the possibility of urinary tract infection. Urine cytology has low sensitivity (21%-40%) in diagnosis of bladder cancer, especially for those with medium or high differentiation. The specificity is often affected by factors such as specimen collection, urinary tract infection, etc. Detecting the expression of survivin mRNA in urine by real time-PCR is simple in specimen collection and is sensitive and relatively specific, which provides a simple and noninvasive diagnostic method for TCC. Moreover it allows comparing the gene expression levels at different stages and grades of TCC, which can help define malignancy degree of TCC.

  19. AB147. Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 is a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuyuan; Tian, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Objective Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase (Wip1) is known as an oncogene and is associated with development of various types of human cancers. However, the expression and role of Wip1 in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) remains unclear. Methods The expression of Wip1 in bladder cancer patients was determined using immunohistochemistry. Bladder cancer T24 was transfected with Wip1-siRNA or negative control siRNA. Cell proliferation, invasion and migration and were determined u...

  20. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T; Fischer, A; Højgaard, K

    1988-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 500 unselected patients with primary urinary bladder tumours the influence of urothelial atypia on the 5 years survival-rate was examined. All tumours were transitional-cell tumours categorized according to the T-classification. Mucosal biopsies from 7 pre-selected sites...... were taken at the initial cystoscopy in 391 patients (78%) to identify urothelial atypia. The over-all cumulative 5 years survival-rate was 48%. Submucosal and muscle invasion had major influence on survival, whereas tumour grade was less important. Patients with urothelial atypia fared significantly...

  1. Prognostic significance of P27 (Kip 1) and MUC1 in papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elazeez, Taghreed A.; El-Balshy, Abd El-Latef M.; Khalil, Mostafa M.; El-Tabye, Magdy M.; Abdul-Halim, Hamdy

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To examine p27 (Kip 1) and MUC1 expression in specimens of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (PTCC) of the urinary bladder and to correlate their expression with the tumor grades,stages and outcome. Patients and Methods: Paraffin sections from previously diagnosed PTCC bladder were graded, staged and the patients were followed up for 5 years. Ten non-neoplastic urological lesions diagnosed as polypoid cystitis were taken as control. Three sections of 4 um thickness were obtained from every case. One was hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained for diagnosis, reviewing and confirmation. The other two sections were immunohistochemically stained for both p27and MUC1. The data of immunohistochemical results were correlated with the following conventional prognostic variables: tumor grade, stage, distant metastasis and 5 year survival. Results: The results showed a highly significant and an insignificant relationship between p27 expression and tumor grade and stage (P0.05), respectively. Correlating p27 expression with distant metastasis and overall survival showed a significant relationship with distant metastasis (P<0.05) and a highly significant one with overall survival (P<0.01). The results showed also a significant relationship between MUC1 expression and both tumor grade (P<0.01) and overall survival (P<0.05). Conclusion: p27 and MUC1 immunohistochemistry augment the classic histochemistry for the prognosis of PTCC of the bladder as well as improving the prediction of the patient outcome and survival. PMID:21346826

  2. Expression of VEGF in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in an Iraqi population subjected to depleted uranium: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbasi, Dhafer S; Al-Janabi, As'ad A; Al-Toriahi, Kaswer M; Jabor, Thekra A; Yasseen, Akeel A

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression and the grade, size, and recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the south of Iraq, which includes regions that have been exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. The study also sought to evaluate whether there is any biomarker in the expression that could be correlated with the increased incidence of this type of cancer in the exposed areas. Samples of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue from 54 patients (41 males and 13 females) with TCC and from 32 patients with benign bladder lesions (cystitis) used as controls were included in this study. The avidin-biotin complex method was used for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. VEGF immunoexpression was positive in 77.77% of TCC but was not found in benign bladder lesions (cystitis) (P0.05). These findings support the role of VEGF in the carcinogenesis of TCC regarding evolution, behavior, and aggressiveness. Hence, VEGF could be considered as a poor prognostic parameter in bladder cancer. No positive correlation between immunohistochemical expression and the high incidence of TCC was detected (R=depleted uranium. PMID:19151604

  3. Decreased expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 is involved in the proliferation and recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    PIAO, YONGRUI; LIU, XIANKUI; Lin, Zhenhua; Jin, Zhehu; JIN, XUANSHUN; Yuan, Kuichang; Wu, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) has been shown to be involved in the development of a number of types of carcinoma. However, the effect of PTPN12 on the proliferation and recurrence of human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and function of PTPN12 in human TCC. Samples from 164 patients with TCC, in addition to 146 patients undergoing bladder surgery for indications other than TCC, were examin...

  4. Laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision for native renal pelvic and ureteral transitional cell carcinoma after renal transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-years-old female who was suffering from end-stage renal disease for about 6 years received allograft renal transplantation 4 years ago. She has been receiving 50mg of Cyclosporin A orally daily for immuno-suppression since then. Gross haematuria was noted and computerised tomography showed native left renal pelvic and ureteral multi-focal transitional cell carcinoma with severe hydronephrosis. Laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision were performed. In the past, history of previous operation was considered a relative contraindication for laparoscopic surgery. To our knowledge, we present the first case of laparoscopic treatment for native renal pelvic and ureteral transitional cell carcinoma after renal allograft transplantation without a hand-assisted device. This case shows the feasibility of laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy in patients with transplanted kidneys.

  5. Identification of Apo-A1 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shixin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC is the fourth most frequent neoplasia in men, clinically characterized by high recurrent rates and poor prognosis. Availability of urinary tumor biomarkers represents a convenient alternative for early detection and disease surveillance because of its direct contact with the tumor and sample accessibility. Results We tested urine samples from healthy volunteers and patients with low malignant or aggressive BTCC to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BTCC by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS and bioinformatics analysis. We observed increased expression of five proteins, including fibrinogen (Fb, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1, clusterin (CLU and haptoglobin (Hp, which were increased in urine samples of patients with low malignant or aggressive bladder cancer. Further analysis of urine samples of aggressive BTCC showed significant increase in Apo-A1 expression compared to low malignant BTCC. Apo-A1 level was measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was suggested to provide diagnostic utility to distinguish patients with bladder cancer from controls at 18.22 ng/ml, and distinguish patients with low malignant BTCC from patients with aggressive BTCC in two-tie grading system at 29.86 ng/ml respectively. Further validation assay showed that Apo-A1 could be used as a biomarker to diagnosis BTCC with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.6% and 85.7% respectively, and classify BTCC in two-tie grading system with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.7% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest Apo-A1 could be a potential biomarker related with early diagnosis and classification in two-tie grading system for bladder cancer.

  6. Correlation between Apoptosis and Histological Grade of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Jalali Nadoushan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between histological grade and apoptotic index (AI in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of urinary bladder.

    Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 75 patients with TCC, who undergone transurethral resection (TUR were studied. One 3-micron section was provided from each TUR samples. In one section after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, tumor grade was

  7. A novel combination of multiple primary carcinomas: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma- report of a case and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Giannikaki Elpida; Datseris George; Dambaki Konstantina I; Koutsopoulos Anastassios V; Froudarakis Marios; Stathopoulos Efstathios

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms increases with age and they are encountered more frequently nowadays than before, the phenomenon is still considered to be rare. Case presentation We report a case of a man in whom urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed within an eighteen-month period. The only known predisposing factor was that he was heavy smoker (90–100 packets pe...

  8. Immunohistochemical positive stained p53 protein in bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimi Monireh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular genetics and immunopathologic analysis of bladder cancer have shown some abnormalities in a number of genes and proteins that have been implicated in the development and progression of such tumors, mainly in the p53 pathway. Aims: To investigate the rate of positively stained p53 protein in patients with urothelial papillary carcinoma of the bladder (UCB by immunohistochemistry and its relationship with tumor grade, gender and age of the patients. Settings and Design: During the present cross-sectional study, 100 paraffin-embedded specimens of UCB, which were provided from biopsies of the bladder by transurethral access, were immunohistochemically stained and studied for p53 protein from May 2006 to May 2007 in our referral center pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: First, 4 µm slices of paraffin sections were provided and then stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase method. The rate of positively stained p53 protein (defined as positive nuclear staining in over 10% of the cells was assessed. This rate was also estimated and compared between grades, genders and age-related groups (< 70 years, ≥70 years. Statistical Analysis: The χ2 , Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparing. Results: The overall rate of positively stained specimens was 11% for nuclear p53 protein. This rate was significantly higher in females (10/29 vs. 1/71; P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.43-306.08, patients with 70 or older than 70 years (8/42 vs. 3/58; P = 0.04; OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 1.07-17.39 and in high-grade tumors (10/58 vs. 1/42; P = 0.02; OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.01-0.95. Conclusions: The rate of positively stained p53 protein for UCB was lower in our population. This rate was also higher in females, patients with 70 or older than 70 years and high grade of UCB.

  9. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induced by Retinoic Acid Combined with Interferon Alpha-2a on Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANLi-xin; LIUXun-liang; ZHOUJian-wei; MonicaLiebert; ZOUChang-chun; ZOUChang-ping

    2004-01-01

    To identify new favorable agents and develop novel approaches for the chemoprevention and treatment of superficial bladder cancer and invesligate the effects of combination of relinoids and interferon α-2a on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in bladder cancer cell lines. Methods: Four bladder cancer cell lines, grade 1 to 3,and two retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid(ATRA) ,9.cis retinoic acid(9cRA) ,combined with inteferon α-2a(INF),were used in the study.We compared the competence of these agents to inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, affect the exptession of nuclear retinoid receptors, and modulate STAT1 protein. Resu/ts: Most of the bladder cancer cell lines were resistant to the effect of ATRA and 9cRA on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, even at higher concentration (10-5M).The effects of ATRA and 9c RA on cell growth and apoptosis were enhanced by INF α-2a.Combination of ATRA and IFNa-2a induced ~ and Slat 1 expression in three bladder cancer cell lines, ~: The results demonstrated that INFw2a synergize with the inhibitory effect of ATRA and 9c RA on the growth intn'bition and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells in vitro, which suggested that it has a potenlJal intexest for the trealment of transitimml cell carcinmna of bladder.

  10. Enhanced Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in High Grade Human Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Kömhoff, Martin; Guan, Youfei; Shappell, Heidi W.; Davis, Linda; Jack, Greg; Shyr, Yu; Koch, Michael O.; Scott B. Shappell; D. Breyer, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    Studies in human and animal models have shown that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is up-regulated in several epithelial carcinomas including colon, breast, and lung. To elucidate the possible involvement of COX-2 in human bladder cancer we examined the expression of COX isoforms in benign tissue and in bladder carcinoma specimens. Paraffin embedded tissues from 75 patients with urothelial carcinomas were immunostained with specific antibodies raised against COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 expression was detec...

  11. Quantitative interrelations of Lewis antigens in normal mucosa and transitional cell bladder carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Limas, C

    1991-01-01

    The factors regulating the expression of the Lewis blood group related antigens in tissues have yet to be clarified. In an attempt to resolve some of the existing controversies the quantitative interrelationship of the Le(a), Le(b), X and Y antigens in normal urothelium and transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) was studied using biopsy specimens derived from 22 patients whose ABO and Lewis red blood cell phenotype was known. A quantitative scale was devised to encompass both the extent and inten...

  12. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TELOMERASE ACTIVITY AND PERIPHERAL VENOUS BLOOD CK-20 EXPRESSION IN BLADDER TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟惟德; 曾广翘; 蔡岳斌; 胡建波; 魏鸿蔼

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between peripheral blood CK-20 Mrna expression and tissue telomerase activity in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCCB) was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of their combined detection in early-stage diagnosis and prognosis estimation of TCCB. Methods: the blood CK-20 was detected by semi-nested RT-PCR and telomerase activity in tumor tissue was examined with silver-stained TRAP reaction. Results: the blood CK-20 expression and tissue telomerase activity in TCCB were 41% and 93% respectively. No statistical significance was detected among pathological grading and clinical staging (P>0.05). Positive correlation was shown between CK-20 expression and telomerase activity with the pathologic grade or clinical stage. Conclusion: combined use of blood CK-20 and tissue telomerase activity detections might be of great importance for clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation.

  13. A rare case of pure small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Singh; Divya Srivastava; Hemant Yadav; Rajeev Sen

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common urologic malignancy. Up to 95% of the urinary bladder tumors are of epithelial origin, from which 90% are transitional neoplasms. However, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare tumor accounting for

  14. Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinogenesis Is Associated with Down-Regulation of NF1 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Vivo and in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Vesa; Boström, Peter J.; Söderström, Karl-Ove; Hirvonen, Outi; Tuukkanen, Juha; Nurmi, Martti; Laato, Matti; Peltonen, Juha

    1999-01-01

    The NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) is known to act as a tumor suppressor protein by inactivating ras. The best documented factors involved in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are ras proto-oncogene activation and p53 suppressor gene mutations. This is the first study reporting alterations in NF1 gene expression in TCC. We examined NF1 gene expression in a total of 29 surgical urinary bladder TCC specimens representing grades 1 to 3 and in three cell lines, RT4, 5637, and T2...

  15. Usefulness of the UBCTM (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBCTM test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBCTM test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBCTM test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBCTM tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBCTM concentration was greater than 12 μg/L. UBCTM levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 ±166.4 μg/L) and group B (19.2 ± 85.6 μg/L)(pTM test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBCTM test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T1 tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, pTM test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBCTM test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBCTM test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBCTM test in association with cytology is helpful to overcome the limited sensitivity of cytology

  16. An experimental study on the sequential changes of the irradiated transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder in rats. An ultrastructural observation with special reference to polyploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyploid cells in the urinary sediments often gives an erroneous clinical judgement in cases of post-pelvic irradiation follow-up, but their nature and evolution have remained unclarified. An experimental induction of polyploid cells in the transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats by administration of 3,000 rads in a single dose, and their sequential morphological changes were analyzed under light and electron microscopes. (Author)

  17. Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder with metastasis in lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an ocelot(Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Y.R. Nakagaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of nonpapillary and infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder with metastasis of lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an adult female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The ocelot had pelvic limb paralysis and skin ulcers in the posterior region of the body and was submitted to euthanasia procedure. At necropsy was observed a multilobulated and irregular shaped, yellowish to white nodule in the urinary bladder. The nodule had a soft consistency and arised from the mucosa of the urinary bladder extending throughout the muscular layers and the serosa. Nodules of similar appearance infiltrating the vertebral column the at L6 and L7 vertebrae with corresponding spinal canal invasion were also observed. The histological evaluation showed epithelial neoplastic proliferation in the urinary bladder with characteristics of nonpapillary and infiltrative TCC, with positive immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin, and strong immunostaining for cytokeratin of low molecular weight, and weak or absent labeling for high molecular weight cytokeratin. This is the first report of TCC of urinary bladder in ocelot in Brazil.

  18. Adaptor protein CRK induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis of bladder cancer cells through HGF/c-Met feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryuji; Tsuda, Masumi; Wang, Lei; Maishi, Nako; Abe, Takashige; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hida, Kyoko; Ohba, Yusuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that an adaptor protein CRK, including CRK-I and CRK-II, plays essential roles in the malignant potential of various aggressive human cancers, suggesting the validity of targeting CRK in molecular targeted therapy of a wide range of cancers. Nevertheless, the role of CRK in human bladder cancer with marked invasion, characterized by distant metastasis and poor prognosis, remains obscure. In the present study, immunohistochemistry indicated a striking enhancement of CRK-I/-II, but not CRK-like, in human bladder cancer tissues compared to normal urothelium. We established CRK-knockdown bladder cancer cells using 5637 and UM-UC-3, which showed a significant decline in cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. It is noteworthy that an elimination of CRK conferred suppressed phosphorylation of c-Met and the downstream scaffold protein Gab1 in a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent and -independent manner. In epithelial–mesenchymal transition-related molecules, E-cadherin was upregulated by CRK elimination, whereas N-cadherin, vimentin, and Zeb1 were downregulated. A similar effect was observed following treatment with c-Met inhibitor SU11274. Depletion of CRK significantly decreased cell proliferation of 5637 and UM-UC-3, consistent with reduced activity of ERK. An orthotopic xenograft model with bioluminescent imaging revealed that CRK knockdown significantly attenuated not only tumor volume but also the number of circulating tumor cells, resulted in a complete abrogation of metastasis. Taken together, this evidence uncovered essential roles of CRK in invasive bladder cancer through the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met/CRK feedback loop for epithelial–mesenchymal transition induction. Thus, CRK might be a potent molecular target in bladder cancer, particularly for preventing metastasis, leading to the resolution of clinically longstanding critical issues. PMID:25816892

  19. Delayed Cystectomy for T1G3 Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Urinary Bladder, NCI Retrospective Case Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: We aim to evaluate the National Cancer Institute (NCI) treatment protocol and its outcome regarding recurrence, progression and survival in patients with T1G3 urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study, between January 2001 and December 2007, all 34 patients with T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), after complete transurethral resection (TURBT), received intravesical BCG as adjuvant therapy. A conservative approach was adopted, whereby those with superficial recurrences were eligible to TURBT, with delayed cystectomy for progression to muscle invasion. Overall, recurrence, and progression-free survival were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three patients were included, 29 were males and 4 were females. The mean age was 61 years (range 35-89 years). Final analysis was made at median follow-up of 15 months (Range of 3-68 months, mean 18 months) for survival. Eleven (33.3%) patients had multi- focal tumors. Associated schistosomiasis was present in 12 (36.6%) patients. Twenty-two (66.67%) patients showed recurrence. Eleven out of these 22 (50.0%) patients progressed to muscle invasion and underwent radical cystectomy. Ten out of 34 (30.3%) patients received post- cystectomy radiotherapy. Two (20.0%) of them, were staged as TNM stage II, 6 (60.0%) as TNM stage III and 2 (20.0%) patients were TNM stage IV. Eight (72.7%) of these 11 patients had post-cystectomy radiotherapy alone; while the 2 (6.0%) other patients with stage IV had adjuvant concomitant Cisplatin and Gemcitabine chemotherapy. Five (14%) patients of those cystectomy patients died of TCC. Three (60%) patients died from metastatic disease (to lung, liver and bone), one patient died from advanced locoregional disease and another patient died from post- operative complications. Among those patients who received radiotherapy alone, 62.5% are alive. Although, we report a biologically more aggressive behavior of T1G3 than that reported by some authors

  20. Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder with metastasis in lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an ocelot(Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Y.R. Nakagaki; Pâmela A. Lima; Kiyoko U. Utiumi; Marco A.M. Pires; Rosana Zanatta; Fabiana M Boabaid; Edson M. Colodel; Djeison L. Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a case of nonpapillary and infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder with metastasis of lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an adult female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The ocelot had pelvic limb paralysis and skin ulcers in the posterior region of the body and was submitted to euthanasia procedure. At necropsy was observed a multilobulated and irregular shaped, yellowish to white nodule in the urin...

  1. Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Alberto A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder with radical cystectomy and determine which prognostic factors can be utilized as disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival independent variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 113 patients submitted to radical cystectomy and bilateral iliac lymphadenectomy between 1993 and 2005 were reviewed. The risk factors analyzed were age, sex, pathological stage, tumor grade, presence of carcinoma in situ and the presence of lymph nodes involvement. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 31.7 ? 28.5 months, 46 patients (40.7% presented recurrence and 24 patients (21.2% died due to cancer. Only pathological stage and the lymph nodes involvement became independent variables for recurrence and survival. Patients with T4 stage presented 9.6 times the risk of recurrence of the disease when compared with stage T0 patients (p = 0.010 and the patients with lymph node involvement presented 2.5 times the risk of recurrence (p = 0.047 and 3.1 times the risk of death (p = 0.022 when compared to patients without lymph nodes involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Pathological stage and the involvement of lymph nodes represented more important prognostic variables, and in the presence of advanced stage tumors (T3/T4 and involvement of lymph nodes, the institution of adjuvant treatment should be considered.

  2. Expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Xing; ZHANG Xu; WU Zhun; MA Xin; JU Zhenghua; WANG Baojun; SHI Taoping

    2007-01-01

    The expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCCB) and its clinical significance were investigated. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 protein expression in 52 TCCB specimens. Correlation between the expression of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 to clinicopathologic factors was statistically analyzed. The results showed that the positive rate of KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 in TCCB was 50% and 61.5%, respectively. The MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 expression was significantly associated with grade of TCCB (P<0.05), but no correlation was found between MRP-1/CD9 or KAI1/CD82 expression and clinical stage of TCCB (P>0.05). The expression level of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in recurrent TCCB samples was lower than that in non-recurrent samples (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the correlation between the KAI1/CD82 expression and MRP-1/CD9 expression was statistically significant (r=0.316, P<0.05). It was concluded that KAI1/CD82 and MRP-1/CD9 expression may be important prognostic indicators and potentially useful for assessing the biological behavior of TCCB.

  3. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  4. Expression of Peroxisome Proferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ in Human Transitional Bladder Cancer and its Role in Inducing Cell Death

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    You-Fei Guan

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the expression and role of the thiazolidinedione (TZD-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, in human bladder cancers. In situ hybridization shows that PPARγ mRNA is highly expressed in all human transitional epithelial cell cancers (TCCa's studied (n=11. PPARγ was also expressed in five TCCa cell lines as determined by RNase protection assays and immunoblot. Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα, a 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated (9-cis-RA heterodimeric partner of PPARγ, was also co-expressed in all TCCa tissues and cell lines. Treatment of the T24 bladder cancer cells with the TZD PPARγ agonist troglitazone, dramatically inhibited 3H-thymidine incorporation and induced cell death. Addition of the RXRα ligands, 9-cis-RA or LG100268, sensitized T24 bladder cancer cells to the lethal effect of troglitazone and two other PPARγ activators, ciglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2. Troglitazone treatment increased expression of two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21wAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4, reduced cyclin D1 expression, consistent with G1 arrest. Troglitazone also induced an endogenous PPARγ target gene in T24 cells, adipocyte-type fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP, the expression of which correlates with bladder cancer differentiation. In situ hybridization shows that A-FABP expression is localized to normal uroepithelial cells as well as some TCCa's. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPARγ is expressed in human TCCa where it may play a role in regulating TCCa differentiation and survival, thereby providing a potential target for therapy of uroepithelial cancers.

  5. Long-term survival after gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: focus on supplementary treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne Birgitte; Sengelov, Lisa; von der Maase, Hans

    2007-01-01

    radiotherapy as supplementary treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with locally advanced bladder cancer, NED following chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus supplementary cystectomy or radiotherapy is essential to achieve long-term survival. Patients with a partial response should be offered radical......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate response and survival, as well as efficacy of subsequent supplementary treatment and follow-up strategy in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder following combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC......: A total of 25 patients (29.8%) with complete response to chemotherapy were followed by close surveillance. This group achieved a median overall survival of 47.6 mo. Another 25 patients had partial response to chemotherapy. Of these patients, 16 had supplementary treatment, with 10 achieving "no evidence...

  6. Radiotherapy may improve overall survival of patients with T3/T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy, the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unknown. We treated 133 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis or ureter at our institution between 1998 and 2008. The 67 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery were assigned to the radiation group (RT). The clinical target volume included the renal fossa, the course of the ureter to the entire bladder, and the paracaval and para-aortic lymph nodes, which were at risk of harbouring metastatic disease in 53 patients. The tumour bed or residual tumour was targeted in 14 patients. The median radiation dose administered was 50 Gy. The 66 patients who received intravesical chemotherapy were assigned to the non-radiation group (non-RT). The overall survival rates for the RT and non-RT groups were not significantly different (p = 0.198). However, there was a significant difference between the survival rates for these groups based on patients with T3/T4 stage cancer. A significant difference was observed in the bladder tumour relapse rate between the irradiated and non-irradiated bladder groups (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis indicated that improved overall survival was associated with age < 60 years, T1 or T2 stage, absence of synchronous LN metastases, and EBRT. Acute gastrointestinal and bladder reactions were the most common symptoms, but mild non-severe (> grade 3) hematologic symptoms also occurred. EBRT may improve overall survival for patients with T3/T4 cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour recurrence in all patients

  7. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Coşkunoğlu, Esra Zeynep; Duran, Berkan; Çiftci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder a...

  8. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Esra Zeynep Coskunoglu; Berkan Duran; Egemen Ciftci

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder ...

  9. Emerging applications of the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. I. Management of invasive transitional cell human bladder carcinoma. II. Fluorescent in situ hybridization Comets for the identification of damaged and repaired DNA sequences in individual cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey-Martin, V J; Ho, E T; McKeown, S R; Johnston, S R; McCarthy, P J; Rajab, N F; Downes, C S

    1998-01-01

    ABSTRACT I: Management of invasive transitional cell human bladder carcinoma. The two main treatment options for invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma are radiotherapy or primary cystectomy with urinary diversion or bladder substitution. Approximately 50% of patients fail to respond to radiotherapy and such patients so treated are disadvantaged by the absence of predictive information regarding their radiosensitivity, since the tumour gains additional time for metastatic spread before cystectomy is performed. The SF2 clonogenic assay, which measures the surviving fraction of tumour cells after 2 Gy X-ray irradiation, is regarded as a good measure of radiosensitivity. However, the assay is time consuming and provides results for only approximately 70% of human tumours. In this paper three bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines (HT1376, UMUC-3 and RT112) were exposed to X-irradiation (0-10 Gy). We have compared the responses obtained using a clonogenic assay and a more clinically feasible alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. A very good inverse correlation was obtained between cell survival (clonogenic assay) and mean tail moment (Comet assay) for the three cell lines, indicating that the Comet assay can be used to predict the radio-responsiveness of individual cell lines. The clinical usefulness of the assay for predicting response to radiotherapy in bladder cancer patients is currently being investigated. ABSTRACT II: Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) Comets for the identification of damaged and repaired DNA sequences in individual cells. In mammalian cells the extent of DNA damage is partly and the rate of DNA repair very considerably dependent on DNA position and transcription. This has been established by biochemical techniques which are labour intensive and require large numbers of cells. The Comet assay for overall DNA damage and repair is relatively simple and allows individual cells to be examined. Here we present a

  10. TOLERABILITY AND TUMOR RESPONSE OF A NOVEL LOW-DOSE PALLIATIVE RADIATION THERAPY PROTOCOL IN DOGS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER AND URETHRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Kevin; Fidel, Janean

    2016-05-01

    Previously reported radiation protocols for transitional cell carcinoma of the canine lower urinary tract have been ineffective or associated with increased side effects. Objectives of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to describe safety of and tumor responses for a novel palliative radiation protocol for transitional cell carcinoma in dogs. Included dogs had cytologically or histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or urethra, and were treated with 10 once-daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 2.7 Gy. Thirteen dogs were sampled, with six treated using radiation as first-line (induction) therapy and seven treated using radiation as rescue therapy after failing previous chemotherapy. Within 6 weeks of radiation, 7.6% (1/13) dogs had a complete response, 53.8% (7/13) partial response, 38.5% (5/13) stable disease, and none had progressive disease. Three patients presenting with urethral obstruction had spontaneous micturition restored during the treatment protocol. A single patient with unilateral ureteral obstruction was patent at recheck examination. Median survival time from time of initial diagnosis was 179 days. Median survival time from start of radiation was 150 days. Acute radiation side effects occurred in 31% (4/13) patients and were classified as grade 1 or 2. No significant late side radiation side effects were reported. No variables examined were identified as prognostic factors. Findings indicated that the reported radiation protocol was safe in this sample of dogs with bladder and urethral transitional cell carcinoma. Future prospective studies are needed to determine utility of this treatment as a rescue therapy in patients with complete urinary tract obstruction. PMID:26841125

  11. Is beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin production by transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder a marker of aggressive disease and resistance to radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biopsies from 75 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (25 Ta-T1; 45 T2-T4, 5M) were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG). Only 5 Ta-T1 tumours contained a small number of β-HCG positive cells but 24 invasive tumours and all patients with metastases showed increased numbers of positive cells. A significant correlation was found between β-HCG immunoreactivity and tumour category. In 30 patients with muscle-invasive disease (T2-T4,NO,MO) who were treated with radical radiotherapy a significant correlation was observed between response to treatment and β-HCG expression; β-HCG positive tumours did not respond to treatment. A difference in survival was found between patients with tumours negative for β-HCG compared with patients with positive tumours, all treated with radical radiotherapy. The results indicate that β-HCG expression increases with tumour invasiveness and the use of immunohistochemistry may prove a useful means of identifying radioresistant and aggressive forms of bladder cancer. (Author)

  12. A novel combination of multiple primary carcinomas: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma- report of a case and review of the literature

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    Giannikaki Elpida

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms increases with age and they are encountered more frequently nowadays than before, the phenomenon is still considered to be rare. Case presentation We report a case of a man in whom urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed within an eighteen-month period. The only known predisposing factor was that he was heavy smoker (90–100 packets per year. The literature on the phenomenon of multiple primary malignancies in a single patient is reviewed and the data is summarized. Conclusion It is important for the clinicians to keep in mind the possibility of a metachronous (successive or a synchronous (simultaneous malignancy in a cancer patient. It is worthy mentioning this case because clustering of three primary malignancies (synchronous and metachronous is of rare occurrence in a single patient, and, to our knowledge, this is the first report this combination of three carcinomas appearing in the same patient.

  13. Substance P induces localization of MIF/α1-inhibitor-3 complexes to umbrella cells via paracellular transit through the urothelium in the rat bladder

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    Vera Pedro L

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is released into the intraluminal fluid during bladder inflammation in the rat complexed to α1-inhibitor-3 (A1-I3; a rodent proteinase inhibitor in the α-macroglobulin family. The location of A1-I3 in the bladder had not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the location of A1-I3 and MIF/A1-I3 complexes in the bladder and changes due to experimental inflammation. Methods Anesthetized male rats had bladders removed with no treatment (intact or were injected with Substance P (SP; s.c.; saline vehicle. After one hour intraluminal fluid was removed, bladder was excised and MIF and A1-I3 levels were determined using ELISA and/or western-blotting. MIF co-immunoprecipitation determined MIF/A1-I3 complexes in the bladder. Bladder sections were immunostained for A1-I3 and MIF/A1-I3. Results A1-I3 immunostaining was observed in interstitial spaces throughout the bladder (including submucosa but not urothelium in intact and saline-treated rats. RT-PCR showed that the bladder does not synthesize A1-I3, therefore, A1-I3 in the interstitial space of the bladder must be plasma derived. In SP-treated rats, A1-I3 in the bladder increased and A1-I3 was observed traversing through the urothelium. Umbrella cells that do not show MIF and/or A1-I3 immunostaining in intact or saline-treated rats, showed co-localization of MIF and A1-I3 after SP-treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that in the bladder MIF formed non-covalent interactions and also binds covalently to A1-I3 to form high molecular weight MIF/A1-I3 complexes (170, 130 and 75-kDa, respectively, verified by co-immunoprecipitation. SP-induced inflammation selectively reduced 170-kDa MIF/A1-I3 in the bladder while increasing 170 and 130-kDa MIF/A1-I3 in the intraluminal fluid. Conclusion A1-I3 and MIF/A1-I3 complexes are resident in bladder interstitium. During SP-induced inflammation, MIF/A1-I3 complexes are released from the bladder

  14. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: CT and MR Imaging Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Kie Hwan; Jung, Seungeun

    2003-01-01

    Objective Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare aggressive malignancy of the urinary bladder, with identical histopathology to that of the lung. The treatment and prognosis of bladder SCC are somewhat different from those of more frequent transitional cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to analyze the CT and MR imaging findings of bladder SCC. Materials and Methods Six adult patients (five males and one female) with pathologically proven SCC of the urinary bladder who had und...

  15. Combined determination of plasma MMP2, MMP9, and TIMP1 improves the non-invasive detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

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    Loening Stefan A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs play a major role in the maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis and are involved in the process of tumour invasion and metastasis in several malignant tumour entities. The goal of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of various circulating MMPs and TIMPs in blood plasma for a non-invasive detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC. Methods In this study the concentrations of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, their inhibitors TIMP1, TIMP2, and the MMP1/TIMP1-complex (MTC1 were quantified in blood plasma with the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Blood plasma samples were investigated from 68 patients (non-metastasized, n = 57 and metastasized, n = 11 with TCC of the bladder and from 79 healthy controls. The mROC program was used to calculate the best two- and three- marker combinations. The diagnostic values for all single markers and the marker combinations were estimated both by the overall diagnostic performance index area under the ROC curve (AUC and the sensitivity and specificity at cutoff limits with the highest diagnostic accuracy and at the 90% and 95% limits of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Results The median MMP2 concentration was elevated in blood plasma in all patient groups with TCC in comparison to the controls (p Conclusion MMP2 is a statistically significant marker in blood plasma for bladder cancer detection with an increased diagnostic value in combination with MMP9 and TIMP1. This study showed that the highest sensitivities and specificities are not obtained by testing each marker alone. As shown by the best two-marker combination, which includes MMP9 and TIMP1, the optimized combination does not always include the best single markers.

  16. Expression microarray meta-analysis identifies genes associated with Ras/MAPK and related pathways in progression of muscle-invasive bladder transition cell carcinoma.

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    Jonathan A Ewald

    Full Text Available The effective detection and management of muscle-invasive bladder Transition Cell Carcinoma (TCC continues to be an urgent clinical challenge. While some differences of gene expression and function in papillary (Ta, superficial (T1 and muscle-invasive (≥T2 bladder cancers have been investigated, the understanding of mechanisms involved in the progression of bladder tumors remains incomplete. Statistical methods of pathway-enrichment, cluster analysis and text-mining can extract and help interpret functional information about gene expression patterns in large sets of genomic data. The public availability of patient-derived expression microarray data allows open access and analysis of large amounts of clinical data. Using these resources, we investigated gene expression differences associated with tumor progression and muscle-invasive TCC. Gene expression was calculated relative to Ta tumors to assess progression-associated differences, revealing a network of genes related to Ras/MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways with increased expression. Further, we identified genes within this network that are similarly expressed in superficial Ta and T1 stages but altered in muscle-invasive T2 tumors, finding 7 genes (COL3A1, COL5A1, COL11A1, FN1, ErbB3, MAPK10 and CDC25C whose expression patterns in muscle-invasive tumors are consistent in 5 to 7 independent outside microarray studies. Further, we found increased expression of the fibrillar collagen proteins COL3A1 and COL5A1 in muscle-invasive tumor samples and metastatic T24 cells. Our results suggest that increased expression of genes involved in mitogenic signaling may support the progression of muscle-invasive bladder tumors that generally lack activating mutations in these pathways, while expression changes of fibrillar collagens, fibronectin and specific signaling proteins are associated with muscle-invasive disease. These results identify potential biomarkers and targets for TCC treatments, and

  17. Postoperative distal ureteric and bladder cuff recurrence in a Grade I renal transitional cell carcinoma diagnosed and restaged by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56-year-old male having Grade I transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of left kidney, postleft nephrectomy and upper 1/3rd ureterectomy presented with painless hematuria. Restaging fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) revealed abnormal linear FDG uptake in the lower 2/3rd of the left ureter and in the bladder adjacent to the left vesicoureteric junction, no locoregional adenopathy nor distant metastases (Figures 1 and 2- left column). Patient underwent left lower ureterectomy with partial cystectomy. Postoperative histopathology was TCC. Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin injection in the bladder was done postoperatively. A follow-up FDG PET/CT scan performed 3 months postoperatively was revealed no abnormal focal FDG uptake in the whole body revealing disease free status. FDG PET was helpful in diagnosing tumor recurrence in the distal remnant ureter. This case attempts to highlight the role of FDG PET/CT in follow-up, residual and recurrence evaluation

  18. Evaluating the Prevalence of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder and its Relationship With Other Prognostic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Mahmoud; Sabet-Rasekh, Parto; Hajian, Parastoo; Mohammadi Torbati, Peyman; Sabet-Rasekh, Parisa; Mirzaei, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in the urinary system has been bladder cancer and the most predominant histologic subtype has been transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There were many molecular risk factors, related with poor prognosis. One of these factors was expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the epidermal growth factor receptor in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder and its relationship with other prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: This analytic descriptive study has performed with 61 patients with TCC of bladder after radical cystectomy whom have been hospitalized in Labbafinejad hospital in Tehran, Iran between 2007 and 2010. We have used Chi-square and t-test to analyze our data samples. Results: Records of 61 patients have studied. Fifty three of the total samples were positive for EGFR expression (86.9%). Fifty samples of these fifty-three belonged to men and three others were women’s samples (P = 0.46). Among the group with EGFR expression the results were as follows: 25 patients (47.2%) were 60 years old or less and 28 patients (52.8%) were older than 60 (P = 0.023), 16 patients (30.2%) had invasion to lamina properia, and the rest of them had invasion to deeper layers (P = 0.56). For most patients we could not determine the invasion of tumoral cells into the lymph nodes (Nx) (P = 0.067). Thirty four patients (64.2%) had not lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.44) and in forty three of patients (81.1%), perineural invasion have not seen (P = 0.23). Finally, 36 patients (67.9%) were grade 3 (P = 0.27). Conclusions: In this study we have concluded that most patients had EGFR positive expression. Also, except for the age, there was not any significant relation between expression of EGFR and the other prognostic factors such as, gender, invasion of the tumor into the layers, involving the lymph nodes, lymphovascular or perineural invasion, and grading. PMID

  19. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Virginia M; Barrow, Willis; Lucia, M. Scott; Wilson, Shandra; La Rosa, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diag...

  20. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

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    Tufan Cicek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder arising in an unusual localization. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 604-608

  1. Hypoxia regulates the expression and localization of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α by hypoxia inducible factor-1α in bladder transitional carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Li, Xu; Chen, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is overexpressed in various types of solid tumor in humans, including bladder cancer. HIF-1α regulates the expression of a series of genes, which are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion and represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human cancer. Despite extensive investigation of the effects of HIF-1α in the progression and metastasis of bladder cancer, the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of HIF-1α on bladder cancer cell proliferation and differentiation remain to be elucidated. It has been suggested that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) acts as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer cell, which are involved in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The present study confirmed that, in bladder cancer cells, the expression and localization of C/EBPα was regulated by hypoxia through an HIF-1α -dependent mechanism, which may be significant in bladder cancer cell proliferation and differentiation. The 5637 and T24 bladder cancer cell lines were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The expression levels of HIF-1α and C/EBPα were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. The results revealed that, under hypoxic conditions, the protein expression levels of HIF-1α were markedly upregulated, but the mRNA levels were not altered. However, the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPα were significantly reduced. The present study further analyzed the subcellular localization of C/EBPα, which was markedly decreased in the nuclei under hypoxic conditions. Following HIF-1α small interference RNA silencing of HIF-1α, downregulation of C/EBPα was prevented in the bladder cancer cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. In addition, groups of cells treated with 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl

  2. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Pant-Purohit, Mukta; López Beltrán, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Cheng, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder(SCCUB) is a rare and aggressive cancer of the bladder.SCCUB is part of neuroendocrine family of tumors thataffect several organ systems including respiratory,gastrointestinal and male and female genitourinary tract.SCCUB affect males predominantly with common riskfactors include smoking, bladder calculi, bladdermanipulation, and chronic cystitis. Prognosis of SCCUBremains poor due to high metastatic potential and lack ofsymptoms in earlier stages of...

  3. Tetrandrine reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bladder cancer by downregulating Gli-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjian; Liu, Wei; He, Wenbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Xiuling; Ma, Yanmin; Zeng, Jin; Kou, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to play a crucial role in vertebrate development and carcinogenesis. Additionally, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process during which epithelial cells become mesenchymal-appearing cells, facilitating cancer metastasis and invasion. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the Hh signaling pathway could potentiate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we demonstrated that tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Stephaniae, exerts its anti-metastatic ability in bladder cancer cells by regulating GLI family zinc finger 1 (Gli-1), a key factor of Hedgehog signaling pathway. In our study, we confirmed that tetrandrine could impede migration and invasion in bladder cancer 5637 and T24 cells. Additionally, tetrandrine reverses EMT by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and reducing the N-cadherin, vimentin and Slug expression in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, tetrandrine also decreases mobility and reduces the expression of Gli-1 in bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we verified that tetrandrine inhibits metastasis and induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) of bladder cancer through downregulation of Gli-1, which could be partially reversed by Gli-1 overexpression. In conclusion, our findings show that tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion, and reverses EMT of bladder cancer cells through negatively regulating Gli-1. It indicates that Gli-1 may be a potential therapeutic target of tetrandrine against bladder cancer. PMID:26983576

  4. Deletion/duplication mutation screening of TP53 gene in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshani, Mohammad Reza R; Nowshadi, Pouriaali A; Shirian, Sadegh; Daneshbod, Yahya; Nabipour, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Maral; Hosseini, Fatemehsadat; Dehghan, Somayeh; Saeedzadeh, Abolfazl; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer is a molecular disease driven by the accumulation of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to detect the deletions/duplication mutations in TP53 gene exons using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method in the patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The achieved formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 60 patients with TCC of bladder were screened for exonal deletions or duplications of every 12 TP53 gene exons using MLPA. The pathological sections were examined by three pathologists and categorized according to the WHO scoring guideline as 18 (30%) grade I, 22 (37%) grade II, 13 (22%) grade III, and 7 (11%) grade IV cases of TCC. None mutation changes of TP53 gene were detected in 24 (40%) of the patients. Furthermore, mutation changes including, 15 (25%) deletion, 17 (28%) duplication, and 4 (7%) both deletion and duplication cases were observed among 60 samples. From 12 exons of TP53 gene, exon 1 was more subjected to exonal deletion. Deletion of exon 1 of TP53 gene has occurred in 11 (35.4%) patients with TCC. In general, most mutations of TP53, either deletion or duplication, were found in exon 1, which was statistically significant. In addition, no relation between the TCC tumor grade and any type of mutation were observed in this research. MLPA is a simple and efficient method to analyze genomic deletions and duplications of all 12 exons of TP53 gene. The finding of this report that most of the mutations of TP53 occur in exon 1 is in contrast to that of the other reports suggesting that exons 5-8 are the most (frequently) mutated exons of TP53 gene. The mutations of exon 1 of TP53 gene may play an important role in the tumorogenesis of TCC. PMID:26685928

  5. Immediate Intravesical Instillation of Mitomycin C after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor in Patients with Low-Risk Superficial Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Jahanbin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

  1. Long non-coding RNA-GAS5 acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder transitional cell carcinoma via regulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 expression

    OpenAIRE

    CAO, QIFENG; Wang, Ning; QI, JUAN; GU, ZHENGQIN; SHEN, HAIBO

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in diverse biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, cell growth and tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate whether lncRNA-growth arrest-specific (GAS)5 regulated bladder cancer progression via regulation of chemokine (C-C) ligand (CCL)1 expression. The viability of BLX bladder cancer cells was detected using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-propidium iodide double-sta...

  2. Arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water did not affect DNA damage repair in urinary bladder transitional cells or micronuclei in bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a recognized human skin, lung, and urinary bladder carcinogen, and may act as a cocarcinogen in the urinary bladder (with cigarette smoking) and skin (with UV light exposure). Possible modes of action of arsenic carcinogenesis/cocarcinogenesis include induction of DNA ...

  3. Long non‑coding RNA‑GAS5 acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder transitional cell carcinoma via regulation of chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qifeng; Wang, Ning; Qi, Juan; Gu, Zhengqin; Shen, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in diverse biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, cell growth and tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate whether lncRNA‑growth arrest‑specific (GAS)5 regulated bladder cancer progression via regulation of chemokine (C‑C) ligand (CCL)1 expression. The viability of BLX bladder cancer cells was detected using a Cell Counting kit‑8 assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by annexin V‑propidium iodide double‑staining. The expression levels of specific genes and proteins were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. In addition, cells were transfected with small interfering (si)RNAs or recombinant GAS5 in order to silence or overexpress GAS5, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of GAS5 expression promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation, whereas overexpression of GAS5 suppressed cell proliferation. Furthermore, knockdown of GAS5 resulted in an increased percentage of cells in S and G2 phase, and a decreased percentage of cells in G1 phase. In addition, the present study performed a hierarchical cluster analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs in bladder cancer cells and detected that CCL1 overexpression resulted in an upregulation of GAS5, which may improve the ability of cells to regulate a stress response in vitro. Furthermore, knockdown of GAS5 expression increased the mRNA and protein expression of CCL1 in bladder cancer cells. Gain‑of‑function and loss‑of‑function studies demonstrated that GAS5 was able to inhibit bladder cancer cell proliferation, at least in part, by suppressing the expression of CCL1. The results of the present study demonstrated that GAS5 was able to suppress bladder cancer cell proliferation, at least partially, by suppressing the expression of CCL1. The results of the present study may provide a basis for developing novel

  4. AB112. Expression of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 and association with p53, microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in the tissue of human bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dawei; Hu, Hailong; Wu, Changli

    2016-01-01

    Objective Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) was initially described in 1997, and there have since been a number of studies on its expression in different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of BAI1 in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) at different stages and the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor endothelial cell proliferation. Methods Normal bladder mucosa biopsy specimens were obtained as the control group, and human BTCC biopsy specimens were used as the study group. Immunohistochemical assays were used to detect the expression levels of BAI1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mutant p53, in addition to microvessel density (MVD) in the tissues. Western blotting was used to analyze the differential expression of BAI1 in the two samples. Results Statistical analysis was performed, which indicated that BAI1 expression levels in the normal bladder mucosa group were significantly higher than those in the BTCC group and were associated with clinical staging. BAI1 levels in the T1 stage BTCC tissues were higher than those in the T2–4 stage BTCC tissues (P<0.05). BAI1 expression levels were negatively correlated with those of VEGF (r=−0.661, P<0.001), mutant p53 (r=−0.406, P=0.002) and with the MVD (r=−0.675, P<0.001). Conclusions BAI1 may be involved in the negative regulation of BTCC microvascular proliferation, and its expression may be associated with a reduction in p53 mutations.

  5. Experimental rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma models

    OpenAIRE

    Arentsen, Harm C.; Hendricksen, Kees; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Witjes, J Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major public health problem. Currently available therapeutic options seem to be unable to prevent bladder cancer recurrence and progression. To enable preclinical testing of new intravesical therapeutic agents, a suitable bladder tumor model that resembles human disease is highly desirable. The aim of this topic paper was to discuss the problems associated with current in vivo animal bladder tumor models, focusing on the orthotopic syngeneic rat bladder tumor model. In the...

  6. A rare bladder cancer - small cell carcinoma: review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB is rare, highly aggressive and diagnosed mainly at advanced stages. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy. The origin of the disease is unknown; however the multipotent stem cell theory applies best to this case. Histology and immunohistochemistry shows a tumour which is indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. Coexistence of SCCB with other types of carcinoma is common. The staging system used is the TNM-staging of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. The treatment is extrapolated from that of SCLC. However, many patients with SCCB undergo radical resection which is rarely performed in SCLC. Patients with surgically resectable disease ( or = cT4bN+M+ should be managed with palliative chemotherapy based on neuroendocrine type regimens comprising a platinum drug (cisplatin in fit patients. The prognosis of the disease is poor mainly in the case of pure small cell carcinoma. Other research programs are needed to improve the outcome of SCCB.

  7. Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. We prospectively evaluated concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer in a phase II EORTC trial to test whether it could be further studied as a potential treatment of bladder cancer. Patients and methods. Patients up to 75 years of age with invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder up to 5 cm, stage pT2 to pT3b, N0M0, without residual macroscopical tumour after transurethral excision were eligible. Radiotherapy consisted of 2 fractions of 1.2 Gy daily up to 60 Gy delivered in a period of 5 weeks. During the first and the last week, cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day and 5 FU 375 mg/m2/day were given concomitantly. Results. The study was interrupted early due to poor recruitment. Nine patients of the originally 43 planned were treated. Mean age was 63 years. Five patients had tumour stage pT2, 1 stage pT3a and 3 stage pT3b. All patients completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy as scheduled. Only one grade 3 and no grade 4 toxicity was seen. All patients were evaluated 3 months after treatment: eight patients had no detectable tumour and one had para-aortic lymph nodes. During further follow-up, a second patient got lymph node metastases and two patients developed distant metastases (lung in the patient with enlarged lymph nodes at the first evaluation and abdominal in one other). Those three patients died at respectively 19, 14, and 18 months after registration. Late toxicity was limited and often temporary. After 26 to 57 months of follow-up, no local recurrences were seen. Six patients remained alive without disease. Discussion. Despite the small cohort, this combination of concomitant chemotherapy and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer seemed to be well tolerated and to result in satisfactory local control with limited early and late toxicity. It could therefore be considered for study in further clinical trials

  8. Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poortmans, Philip M. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Inst., Tilburg (NL)); Van Der Hulst, Marleen; Richaud, Pierre (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Inst. Bergonieacute, Bordeaux (France)); Collette, Laurence; Pierart, Marianne (Statistics Dept., EORTC Data Center, Brussels (Belgium)); Ho Goey, S. (Dept. of Medical Oncology, TweeSteden Hospital, Tilburg (NL)); Bolla, Michel (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CHU, Grenoble (France))

    2008-06-15

    Introduction. We prospectively evaluated concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer in a phase II EORTC trial to test whether it could be further studied as a potential treatment of bladder cancer. Patients and methods. Patients up to 75 years of age with invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder up to 5 cm, stage pT2 to pT3b, N0M0, without residual macroscopical tumour after transurethral excision were eligible. Radiotherapy consisted of 2 fractions of 1.2 Gy daily up to 60 Gy delivered in a period of 5 weeks. During the first and the last week, cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day and 5 FU 375 mg/m2/day were given concomitantly. Results. The study was interrupted early due to poor recruitment. Nine patients of the originally 43 planned were treated. Mean age was 63 years. Five patients had tumour stage pT2, 1 stage pT3a and 3 stage pT3b. All patients completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy as scheduled. Only one grade 3 and no grade 4 toxicity was seen. All patients were evaluated 3 months after treatment: eight patients had no detectable tumour and one had para-aortic lymph nodes. During further follow-up, a second patient got lymph node metastases and two patients developed distant metastases (lung in the patient with enlarged lymph nodes at the first evaluation and abdominal in one other). Those three patients died at respectively 19, 14, and 18 months after registration. Late toxicity was limited and often temporary. After 26 to 57 months of follow-up, no local recurrences were seen. Six patients remained alive without disease. Discussion. Despite the small cohort, this combination of concomitant chemotherapy and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer seemed to be well tolerated and to result in satisfactory local control with limited early and late toxicity. It could therefore be considered for study in further clinical trials

  9. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma urinary bladder coexisting with tuberculosis in pelvic lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Manikandan, Ramanitharan; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Murugan, P Puvai

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder is usually associated with Schistosoma haematobium and chronic bladder irritation. We report a case of coexistent metastatic SCC and tuberculosis in obturator lymph nodes in radical cystoprostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy specimens. Though tubercular iliac lymphadenitis and metastatic transitional carcinoma following intravesical BCG has been reported, the concurrent presence of non-transitional cell cancer and primary lymph nodal tuberculosis in regional lymph nodes is rare. This case is reported to highlight the paucity of management guidelines available presently in the treatment of such patients who require systemic chemotherapy and antitubercular therapy. PMID:24296773

  10. Association of PAX5 Expression with Clinical Outcome in Patients with TaT1 Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babjuk, M.; Soukup, V.; Mareš, J.; Dušková, J.; Pecen, Ladislav; Pešl, M.; Pavlík, I.; Dvořáček, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2006), s. 756-761. ISSN 0090-4295 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8095; GA MZd NR8934 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : bladder carcinoma * PAX5 expression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2006

  11. 30. Knockdown of IGF-IR by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide auguments the sensitivity of bladder cancer cells to MMC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AND AIM: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder represents the fifth most prevalent malignancy in Western population, with peak incidence found in males of the 50-to 70- year-old age group. A major problem in the management of bladder cancer is the low sensitivity of a large proportion (approximately 40%) among bladder tumors to chemotherapy and the high risk for recurrence of bladder tumors after transurethral resection. So drug resistance, especially in its multiple type forms, remains a major and difficult problem to resolve in bladder cancer therapy. This phenomenon has often been ascribed to strictly pharmacolo-gic factors, such as the overexpression of multidrug transporters P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance related protein (MRP), and other variables closely implicated DNA repair and induction/modulation of apoptosis, such as P53 and the Bcl-protein family. Furthermore, it has been recently shown that certain growth factors(IGFs etc) may be involved in the mechanism of drug resistance. Clearly, these findings suggest the design of new strategies that might improve bladder tumor response to chemotherapy. Results have previously shown that human bladder tumor cell lines may be adapted to grow in the complete absence of serum or any other growth supplement and that this can be explained on the basis of autocrine stimulation. The acquirement of autonomous growth capacity was likely to be an important element in the oncogenesis of bladder tumors. Furthermore, criss-cross experiments showed that supernatants stimulated not only proliferation of the autologous cell line of bladder cancer, but also growth of the other bladder cancer cell lines, suggesting the production of common autocrine factors in bladder tumor cells. Some factors or their receptors involved in autocrine loop mechanism of bladder tumor cells have been confirmed, such as IL-6, the epidermal growth factor receptor, IFN-beta, transferrins-like substance etc. But certain factors which may

  12. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  13. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotom...

  14. Single-cell sequencing analysis characterizes common and cell-lineage-specific mutations in a muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Xu, Xun; Song, Luting;

    2012-01-01

    sequencing of 66 individual tumor cells from a muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Analyses of the somatic mutant allele frequency spectrum and clonal structure revealed that the tumor cells were derived from a single ancestral cell, but that subsequent evolution occurred, leading to...... two distinct tumor cell subpopulations. By analyzing recurrently mutant genes in an additional cohort of 99 TCC tumors, we identified genes that might play roles in the maintenance of the ancestral clone and in the muscle-invasive capability of subclones of this bladder cancer, respectively...

  15. Amygdalin Influences Bladder Cancer Cell Adhesion and Invasion In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Makarević; Jochen Rutz; Eva Juengel; Silke Kaulfuss; Igor Tsaur; Karen Nelson; Jesco Pfitzenmaier; Axel Haferkamp; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as...

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  17. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In laboratory animals, it is dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], a major arsenic metabolite in the urine of inorganic arsenic-exposed people, that increases transitional cell carcinoma, namely in F344 r...

  18. Pathogenic and Diagnostic Potential of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 Nuclear Proteins in Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Santoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder is one of the most common malignancies of genitourinary tract. Patients with bladder cancer need a life-long surveillance, directly due to the relatively high recurrence rate of this tumor. The use of cystoscopy represents the gold standard for the followup of previously treated patients. Nevertheless, several factors, including cost and invasiveness, render cystoscopy not ideal for routine controls. Advances in the identification of specific alterations in the nuclear structure of bladder cancer cells have opened novel diagnostic landscapes. The members of nuclear matrix protein family BLCA-1 and BLCA-4, are currently under evaluation as bladder cancer urinary markers. They are involved in tumour cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. In this paper, we illustrate the role of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 in bladder carcinogenesis and their potential exploitation as biomarkers in this cancer.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    HANAZONO, Kiwamu; Fukumoto, Shinya; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; ENDO, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; IWANO, Hidetomo; UCHIDE, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction....

  20. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder; Case Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül SARI; Ermete, Murat; Canan SADULLAHOĞLU; Bal, Kaan; Ahmet BOLÜKBAŞI

    2013-01-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder is very rare. It is a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma that is morphologically different from small cell carcinoma.This manuscript describes a 67-year-old man who presented with hematuria. Ultrasonogrophic and computer tomography revealed a 5 cm mass in right posterolateral wall of the bladder that invaded perivesical tissue and he subsequently underwent transurethral resection. Microscopic examination showed a tumor with a sheet-like and...

  1. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder diverticulum: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a mass with swiftly aggressive and metastatic, and with a poor prognosis. Due to its scarcity, no forward-looking researches assessing the most effective treatment have been issued in the medical literature. It can happen either in connection with urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma or in a pure form. Its treatment should include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article,we report a case occurring in a mixed form in the urinary bladder diverticulum and we concisely review the published literature with respect to the clinical manifestation, pathology,differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  2. Morphometric and flow cytometric analysis of small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomjous, C E; Vos, W; Schipper, N W; de Voogt, H J; Baak, J P; Meijer, C J

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder were studied. Three patients survived for two years and one survived for five years, which was significantly worse when compared with poorly differentiated transitional cell carcinoma (WHO grade 3). Aggressive tumour behaviour was independent of the presence of neuroendocrine characteristics. Morphometric analysis showed that the nuclear size, which was comparable with that reported in pulmonary small cell carcinoma, was significan...

  3. Bladder cancer cells re-educate TAMs through lactate shuttling in the microfluidic cancer microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Degui; Xu, Ting; Liu, Pengfei; Cao, Yanwei; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Xuecheng; Xu, Xiaodong; Wang, XinSheng; Niu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Background In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of lactate shuttling on the functional polarization and spatial distribution of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCCB) cells and macrophages. Methods We designed a microfluidic coculture chip for real-time integrative assays. The effect of lactate shuttling on the re-education of macrophages by TCCB cells was explored by measuring the levels of NO using a total NO assay kit and by evaluating the protein expressi...

  4. Enterovesical fistula caused by a bladder squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hsiang Ou Yang; Keng-Hao Liu; Tse-Ching Chen; Phei-Lang Chang; Ta-Sen Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Enterovesical fistulas are not uncommon in patients with inflammatory or malignant colonic disease, however,fistulas secondary to primary bladder carcinomas are extremely rare. We herein reported a patient presenting with intractable urinary tract infection due to enterovesical fistula formation caused by a squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. This patient underwent en bloc resection of the bladder dome and involved ileum, and recovered uneventfully without urinary complaint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature.

  5. Exosomes derived form bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells induce CTL cytotoxicity in vitro%膀胱移行细胞癌来源的exosome诱导体外细胞毒性T细胞杀伤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家模; 吴小候; 张尧; 夏雨果; 罗春丽

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察膀胱移行细胞癌T24细胞来源的exosome体外诱导细胞毒性特异性T淋巴细胞(CTL)对肿瘤细胞的杀伤效应.方法 采用超滤和蔗糖密度梯度离心法分离T24细胞释放的exosome,电镜、Western blot观察exosome的特征.将exosome和肿瘤细胞负载到人外周血分离培养的树突状细胞(Dc)上,并与T细胞体外共同培养,分为exosome致敏DC组、未致敏DC组和对照组,Alamar blue检测CTL对T24细胞的细胞毒活性.结果 T24细胞分泌的exosome为直径约30~90nm的类圆碟形小囊泡.Western blot证实,exosome表达热休克蛋白70(HSP70)、细胞间黏附分子1(ICAM-1)和人细胞角蛋白20(CK20)分子.与未致敏DC组和对照组比较,exosome致敏DC组活化的T细胞对T24细胞有更强的细胞毒活性(P<0.01).结论 T24细胞来源的exosome负载了HSP70、ICAM-1等免疫相关蛋白;exosome经DC负载后活化CTL产生抗肿瘤活性.%Objective To isolate and purify exosomes derived from human bladder transitional cell carcinoma T24 cells,analyze the morphology and protein composition,and investigate the antitumor effect of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by exosomes.Methods Exosomes were isolated and purified by ultrafihration and sucrose gradient centrifugation,and characterized by electron microscopy and Western blot.Dendritic cells were amplified and purified from peripheral blood and pulsed with exosomes.Then they were co-cultured with T cells,and divided into 3 groups:exosome-pulsed DC group,unplused DC group and control group.Alamar-Blue assay was used to evaluate the specific cytolytic activity.Results The exosomes were in size about 30~90 nm saucer-shaped membranous vesicles.HSP70,ICAM-1 and CK20 were detected by Western blot.The CTL induced by DC pulsed with exosomes had significant cytolytic activity (P<0.01).Conclusion The exosomes derived from T24 cells are loaded with immunoprotein HSP70 and ICAM-1,and DC pulsed with exosomes can promote the anti

  6. Upregulation of cell adhesion through delta Np63 silencing in human 5637 bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Feng He; Dai-Yin Tian; Zheng-Jin Yi; Zhi-Kang Yin; Chun-Li Luo; Wei Tang; Xiao-Hou Wu

    2012-01-01

    Some researchs have demonstrated that the loss of delta Np63 is associated with aggressive phenotypes and poor prognosis.However,other research indicates that delta Np63 is considered to have oncogenic properties,Delta Np63 overexpression is often observed in association with the oncogenic growth of squamous cell carcinomas and bladder cancer.In this study,we investigated the oocogenic role of delta Np63 in regulating cell adhesion in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCCB).The Cells were stably transfected with the delta Np63 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid.Immunocytochemistry was performed to determine the knockdown efficiency.Tumour cells were studied for their ability to adhere to vascular endothelial cells.Confocal microscopy was used to analyse the changes in cytoskeletal F-actin.F-actin expression was measured by flow cytometry.Cell invasion ability was assessed using transwell chambers.fhe delta Np63-silenced tumour cells were shown to adhere more tightly than controls to vascular endothelial cells (P<0.05).The content of F-actin in the delta Np63-silenced cells was enhanced (P<0.05),The Matrigel invasion assays showed that human 5637 bladder cancer cells had a lower degree of motility when transfected with pdetta Np63-shRNA ( P< 0.05).In conclusion,silencing of the delta Np63 expression can enhance the adhesiveness of 5637 cells by inducing F-actin cytoskeleton production,and it will possibly inhibit the TCCB invasion and metastasis.

  7. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare aggressive malignancy of the urinary bladder, with identical histopathology to that of the lung. The treatment and prognosis of bladder SCC are somewhat different from those of more frequent transitional cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to analyze the CT and MR imaging findings of bladder SCC. Six adult patients (five males and one female) with pathologically proven SCC of the urinary bladder who had undergone pelvic CT and/or MR imaging were included in this study. The radiologic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of tumor location, texture, calcification, depth of invasion, perivesical extension, lymph node involvement, and local or distant metastasis, by two radiologists, who established a consensus. CT and MR images depicted all tumors as large, ill-defined, relatively well enhancing, broad-based polypoid intramural masses with (n=3) or without (n=3) cystic portions. Their frequent location was posterior and trigonal (n=3). Calcification was found within one tumor, and lymphadenopathy in four. At T2- weighted MR images, the solid portion of the tumor was relatively hypointense. The stage at the time of diagnosis was C in three patients, and D1 in three. Follow-up imaging showed brain metastasis in one patient and liver metastasis in two. On CT and MR images, SCC of the urinary bladder appeared as a large, enhancing, broad-based polypoid mass. It was stage C or higher, and lymph nodes and distant metastasis were frequent. T2-weighted MR images showed that the solid portion of the tumor was relatively hypointense. When radiologic examinations demonstrate a bladder tumor of this kind in adults, SCC of the urinary bladder should be included in the differential diagnosis

  8. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kie Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seungeun [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare aggressive malignancy of the urinary bladder, with identical histopathology to that of the lung. The treatment and prognosis of bladder SCC are somewhat different from those of more frequent transitional cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to analyze the CT and MR imaging findings of bladder SCC. Six adult patients (five males and one female) with pathologically proven SCC of the urinary bladder who had undergone pelvic CT and/or MR imaging were included in this study. The radiologic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of tumor location, texture, calcification, depth of invasion, perivesical extension, lymph node involvement, and local or distant metastasis, by two radiologists, who established a consensus. CT and MR images depicted all tumors as large, ill-defined, relatively well enhancing, broad-based polypoid intramural masses with (n=3) or without (n=3) cystic portions. Their frequent location was posterior and trigonal (n=3). Calcification was found within one tumor, and lymphadenopathy in four. At T2- weighted MR images, the solid portion of the tumor was relatively hypointense. The stage at the time of diagnosis was C in three patients, and D1 in three. Follow-up imaging showed brain metastasis in one patient and liver metastasis in two. On CT and MR images, SCC of the urinary bladder appeared as a large, enhancing, broad-based polypoid mass. It was stage C or higher, and lymph nodes and distant metastasis were frequent. T2-weighted MR images showed that the solid portion of the tumor was relatively hypointense. When radiologic examinations demonstrate a bladder tumor of this kind in adults, SCC of the urinary bladder should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  9. Chemotherapeutic potential of quercetin on human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oršolić, Nada; Karač, Ivo; Sirovina, Damir; Kukolj, Marina; Kunštić, Martina; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Štajcar, Damir

    2016-07-28

    In an effort to improve local bladder cancer control, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of quercetin on human bladder cancer T24 cells. The cytotoxic effect of quercetin against T24 cells was examined by MTT test, clonogenic assay as well as DNA damaging effect by comet assay. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of quercetin on the primary culture of papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC), histopathological stage T1 of low- or high-grade tumours, was investigated. Our analysis demonstrated a high correlation between reduced number of colony and cell viability and an increase in DNA damage of T24 cells incubated with quercetin at doses of 1 and 50 µM during short term incubation (2 h). At all exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h), the efficacy of quercetin, administered at a 10× higher dose compared to T24 cells, was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for the primary culture of PUC. In conclusion, our study suggests that quercetin could inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation of human bladder cancer cells by inducing DNA damage and that quercetin may be an effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for papillary urothelial bladder cancer after transurethral resection. PMID:27149655

  10. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Gon; Bipasa Majumdar; Ranjan Kumar Dey; Subrata Kumar Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bla...

  11. Stromal mesenchyme cell genes of the human prostate and bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Laura E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal mesenchyme cells play an important role in epithelial differentiation and likely in cancer as well. Induction of epithelial differentiation is organ-specific, and the genes responsible could be identified through a comparative genomic analysis of the stromal cells from two different organs. These genes might be aberrantly expressed in cancer since cancer could be viewed as due to a defect in stromal signaling. We propose to identify the prostate stromal genes by analysis of differentially expressed genes between prostate and bladder stromal cells, and to examine their expression in prostate cancer. Methods Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to cluster designation (CD cell surface antigens was first used to characterize the stromas of the prostate and bladder. Stromal cells were prepared from either prostate or bladder tissue for cell culture. RNA was isolated from the cultured cells and analyzed by DNA microarrays. Expression of candidate genes in normal prostate and prostate cancer was examined by RT-PCR. Results The bladder stroma was phenotypically different from that of the prostate. Most notable was the presence of a layer of CD13+ cells adjacent to the urothelium. This structural feature was also seen in the mouse bladder. The prostate stroma was uniformly CD13-. A number of differentially expressed genes between prostate and bladder stromal cells were identified. One prostate gene, proenkephalin (PENK, was of interest because it encodes a hormone. Secreted proteins such as hormones and bioactive peptides are known to mediate cell-cell signaling. Prostate stromal expression of PENK was verified by an antibody raised against a PENK peptide, by RT-PCR analysis of laser-capture microdissected stromal cells, and by database analysis. Gene expression analysis showed that PENK expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer. Conclusion Our findings show that the histologically similar stromas of the prostate and

  12. Redirecting neutrophils against bladder cancer cells by BCG and Smac mimetic combination

    OpenAIRE

    Jinesh G, Goodwin; Kamat, Ashish M

    2012-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy results in neutrophil recruitment and subsequent secretion of cytokines to eliminate non-muscle invasive bladder cancer cells. However, bladder cancer cells often resist BCG immunotherapy. Thus, understanding the mechanism of action of BCG, and designing appropriate combination therapies might help to overcome BCG resistance and redirect neutrophils against bladder cancer cells.

  13. Role of KIT-Positive Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Urinary Bladder and Possible Therapeutic Target for Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Shoichi Sasaki; Makoto Imura; Yasuhiro Shibata; Yoshiyuki Kojima; Yasue Kubota; Kenjiro Kohri

    2011-01-01

    In the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) act as pacemaker cells to generate slow wave activity. Interstitial cells that resemble ICCs in the gastrointestinal tract have been identified by their morphological characteristics in the bladder. KIT is used as an identification marker of ICCs. ICCs in the bladder may be involved in signal transmission between smooth muscle bundles, from efferent nerves to smooth muscles, and from the urothelium to afferent nerves. Recent re...

  14. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder; Case Presentation

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    Ayşegül SARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder is very rare. It is a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma that is morphologically different from small cell carcinoma.This manuscript describes a 67-year-old man who presented with hematuria. Ultrasonogrophic and computer tomography revealed a 5 cm mass in right posterolateral wall of the bladder that invaded perivesical tissue and he subsequently underwent transurethral resection. Microscopic examination showed a tumor with a sheet-like and trabecular growth pattern comprising necrotic areas which infiltrated the muscularis propria. Tumoral cells had coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli, moderate amount of cytoplasm and immunohistochemically stained strongly positive with synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56.There are only few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder so the biological behavior and the treatment protocol of these tumors are still obscure. Appropriate management protocols and prognostic estimation could be achived by the increased number of cases being reported. Therefore in a case of a poorly differentiated tumor in bladder, although rare, it is important to consider large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in differential diagnosis.

  15. Impact of diabetes mellitus on bladder uroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T; Ruiz, Giovanni W; Daneshgari, Firouz; Liu, Guiming; Apodaca, Gerard; Birder, Lori A

    2013-01-15

    Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD), a prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is characterized by a broad spectrum of symptoms including urinary urgency, frequency, and incontinence. As DBD is commonly diagnosed late, it is important to understand the chronic impact of DM on bladder tissues. While changes in bladder smooth muscle and innervation have been reported in diabetic patients, the impact of DM on the specialized epithelial lining of the urinary bladder, the urothelium (UT), is largely unknown. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and electron microscopy were used to evaluate UT gene expression and cell morphology 3, 9, and 20 wk following streptozotocin (STZ) induction of DM in female Sprague-Dawley rats compared with age-matched control tissue. Desquamation of superficial (umbrella) cells was noted at 9 wk DM, indicating a possible breach in barrier function. One causative factor may be metabolic burden due to chronic hyperglycemia, suggested by upregulation of the polyol pathway and glucose transport genes in DM UT. While superficial UT repopulation occurred by 20 wk DM, the phenotype was different, with significant upregulation of receptors associated with UT mechanosensation (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1; TRPV1) and UT autocrine/paracrine signaling (acetylcholine receptors AChR-M2 and -M3, purinergic receptors P2X(2) and P2X(3)). Compromised barrier function and alterations in UT mechanosensitivity and cell signaling could contribute to bladder instability, hyperactivity, and altered bladder sensation by modulating activity of afferent nerve endings, which appose the urothelium. Our results show that DM impacts urothelial homeostasis and may contribute to the underlying mechanisms of DBD. PMID:23174855

  16. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder with intravesical cervical invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalik, Daniel; Krishnan, Jayashree; Verghese, Mohan; Venkatesan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a complicated urological and gynecological history with uterine didelphys with bilaterally inserting intravesical cervical oses presented with cyclical haematuria. Work up revealed a mass in the ectopic cervical os and adjacent bladder wall. Subsequent resection confirmed a clear cell adenocarcinoma of urological origin with invasion into neighbouring os. PMID:26109625

  17. A rare bladder cancer - small cell carcinoma: review and update

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is rare, highly aggressive and diagnosed mainly at advanced stages. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy. The origin of the disease is unknown; however the multipotent stem cell theory applies best to this case. Histology and immunohistochemistry shows a tumour which is indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Coexistence of SCCB with other types of carcinoma is common. The staging system used is the TNM-staging o...

  18. Effects of steroid sex hormones and adriamycin on human bladder cancer cells in culture.

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    Yoshimoto,Jun

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of steroid sex hormones on the established cell lines derived from human urinary bladder cancer, T24, and from human transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract, 253J, were examined using the colony formation method. Of the seven kinds of steroid hormones tested, estradiol-17 beta was intensively cytotoxic for both cells. The cytotoxic effect was depended on the dose and time of treatment. The combined effect of Adriamycin and estradiol-17 beta on T24 cells could be recognized at low concentrations of Adriamycin (less than or equal to 10(-3 micrograms/ml after exposure for 24 h.

  19. Glutathione S-Transferase π Expression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder%谷胱甘肽S-转移酶-π在膀胱移行细胞癌的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨谷胱甘肽S-转移酶-π(Glutathione-S-Transferase π,GST-π)在膀胱移行细胞癌的表达情况及临床意义。方法:采用免疫组化SP法,检测107例未经化疗的原发性膀胱移行细胞癌中GST-π、P糖蛋白(P-glycoprotein,Pgp)表达情况。结果:GST-π染色分胞浆、胞核、胞浆与胞核共染三种情形,总阳性率为72.9%;GST-π浆染色(单独胞浆、胞浆与胞核共染)阳性率为58.9%,GST-π核染色(单独胞核、胞浆与胞核共染)阳性率为46.7%,其中GST-π总体染色阳性和浆染色阳性与膀胱癌的病理分级、分期和术后腔内化疗复发有关,并与Pgp表达密切相关;GST-π核染色阳性与膀胱癌的分级、术后腔内化疗复发无关,而与病理分期有关。结论:GST-π表达情况是预测原发性膀胱移行细胞癌腔内化疗疗效的有效标志物,GST-π浆染色较核染色更能预测膀胱癌的耐药性,GST-π核染色可能与膀胱癌进展有关。%Objective: The current study was designed to investigate the expression of glutathione s-transferase π ( GST-π ) and its clinical significance in human primary transitional cell carcinoma(TCCs) of bladder. Methods: A total of 107 human primary bladder TCCs of the previously untreated patients were analyzed for expression of GST-π and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) by SP immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: The GST-π positive staining were divided into three groups: single cytoplastic staining, single nuclear staining, both cytoplastic and nuclear staining. GST-π were present in 72.9% generally, GST-π cytoplastic staining (single cytoplastic, both cytoplastic and nuclear staining) were found in 58.9% of the samples, 46.7% of them were positive nuclear staining (single nuclear, both cytoplastic and nuclear staining). GST-π general positive staining and cytoplastic positive staining were significantly correlated with grade, stage and recurrence

  20. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice.

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    Mário Angelo Claudino

    Full Text Available Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking.Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS.Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g. Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM, relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10μM and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100μM, KCl (1 mM-300mM, CaCl2 (1μM-100mM, α,β-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 μM and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100μM was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder.SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo, compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective β3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron and to a non-selective β-adrenergic (isoproterenol agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration.Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the enuresis and infections

  1. Surgical Treatment of Adrenal Gland Metastasis Originating from Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Minekatsu Taga; Hideaki Ito; Naoya Kusukawa; Yoshiji Miwa; Hironobu Akino; Yoshiaki Imamura; Osamu Yokoyama

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of a solitary adrenal metastasis from small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that was successfully treated with surgical resection. A 71-year-old man was suffering from bladder tamponade for hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a bladder tumor at the left wall. The patients underwent radical cystectomy. Histopathological results were obtained in small cell carcinoma of the bladder with muscle invasion. Thus, he received two courses of adjuvant etoposide and ...

  2. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Colarossi Cristina; Pino Piero; Giuffrida Dario; Aiello Eleonora; Costanzo Rosario; Martinetti Daniela; Memeo Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity, accounting less then 1% of urinary bladder malignancies. The vast majority of the neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder is represented by small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma while just few cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) have been reported. In this cases report we describe a rare case of primary bladder LCNEC. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://...

  3. Loss of GATA3 in bladder cancer promotes cell migration and invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Izumi, Koji; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is known as a breast tumor suppressor as well as a urothelial marker, and its loss is often seen in high-grade invasive bladder cancer. Nonetheless, GATA3 functions in bladder cancer cells remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of GATA3 silencing via RNA interference on cell migration, invasion, and proliferation of bladder cancer. GATA3 expression was downregulated in all four bladder cancer lines examined, compared with a non-neoplastic...

  4. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

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    Sonia Gon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  5. Tissue-engineered conduit using bladder acellular matrix and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Wen-biao; SONG Chao; LI Yong-wei; YANG Si-xing; MENG Lin-chao; LI Xin-hui

    2013-01-01

    Background For muscle invasive bladder cancer,radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment now and urinary diversion is often necessary.The use of intestinal tissue for urinary diversion is frequently associated with complications.In this study,we aimed to make a tissue-engineered conduit (TEC) using bladder epithelial cells and bladder acellular matrix (BAM) for urinary diversion in rabbits.Methods Bladder epithelial cells of rabbit were cultivated and expanded in vitro,then seeded on BAM,and cultured for 7 days.Then cell-seeded graft was used to make TEC.In the experimental group,most of bladder of the rabbit was removed while bladder trigone was retained.The proximal end of TEC was anastomosed with bladder trigone and the distal end was anastomosed with the abdominal stoma.In the control group,TEC was made using unseeded BAM.Haematoxylin and eosin staining was conducted,respectively,at 1,2,4,and 8 weeks postoperatively.Immunohistochemistry was performed 8 weeks postoperatively.Intravenous urography,retrograde pyelography,and cystoscopy of TEC were made at 12 weeks postoperatively.Results All animals were alive in the experimental group.Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed epithelial coverage in TEC.Immunohistochemistry showed anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody and anti-ZO1 antibody positive,confirming there were mature and functional epithelial cells on the lumen of TEC.Retrograde pyelography and intravenous urography showed that TEC developed well and that there was no obstruction.In the control group,four rabbits were dead within 2 weeks and scar formation,atresia,and severe hydronephrosis were found.Conclusions We successfully made TEC using BAM and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits.The lumen of this new TEC covered mature epithelial cells and could prevent urinary extravasation.

  6. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intenseresearch and are widely investigated in clinical fieldsincluding the urinary system. The urinary bladderperforms critical complex functions that rely on its highlycoordinated anatomical composition and multiplex ofregulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting insevere dysfunction are common clinical encounter andoften cause significant impairment of patient's quality oflife. Current surgical and medical interventions to correcturinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defectivebladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notablecomplications. As a result, stem cell based therapiesfor the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venuesthat could make up for limitations of existing therapies.In this article, we review research efforts that describethe use of different types of stem cells in bladderreconstruction, urinary incontinence and retentiondisorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence hasbeen a popular target for stem cell based therapiesin reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss therelevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to thedevelopment of bladder cancer. A key subject thatshould not be overlooked is the safety and quality ofstem cell based therapies introduced to human subjectseither in a research or a clinical context.

  7. 组织蛋白酶B在膀胱移行细胞癌中的表达及意义%Expression of Cathepsin B in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma Tissues and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石涛; 高艳; 郭永连

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of cathepsin B (CB) in the bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tissues and the relation between it with the invasion of TCC. Methods Forty samples of TCC including 23 of grade I and 17 grade Ⅱto Ⅲ were studied. Among them, 25 were superficial type (Tis Ta, T1), and 15 were invasion type (T2-4). Another 10 normal samples were designated as the control group. Immunohistochemical staining of CB in TCC and normal tissues was carried out by the streptavidin-biotin method. Results There were no apparent coloring in the normal bladder tissue ground substance. In TCC tissues, CB could dye the cells and a portion of ground substance. CB was positive in part of the capillary endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and in peritumoral vascular endothelial cells, the positive expression of CB was enhanced. Positive diffusion staining existed in high grade and high stage cancers. The proportions of CB staining cells for grade Ⅰ cancer tissues, gradeⅡ -Ⅲ cancer tissues, TCC superficial type of tissues, TCC invasion type of tissues and normal tissues were respectively 10.53% ± 3.76%, 21.52% ± 3.58%, 11.32% ± 2.69%, 20.57% ± 3.25%, and 0.11% ± 0.18%. The mean value of cells of CB staining was significantly higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.01). The mean value of positive CB staining in grade II - IE cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in grade I cancer tissues (P < 0.01). The mean value of posive CB staining in stage T2-4 cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in superficial stage Tls-1 cancer tissues (P < 0.01). Conclusion CB should become a important marker to determine TCC development and its prognosis.%目的 探讨组织蛋白酶B(CB)在膀胱移行细胞癌(TCC)中的表达以及其与TCC浸润的关系.方法 取TCC标本40例,TCC分级Ⅰ级23例,Ⅱ~Ⅲ级17例;表浅型TCC(Tts,Ta,T1期)25例,浸润型TCC(T2~4期)15例.另取10例正常膀胱组织作为对照.用

  8. Amygdalin influences bladder cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro.

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    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as well as tumor cell migration was examined. Effects of drug treatment on integrin α and β subtypes, on integrin-linked kinase (ILK and total and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK were also determined. Integrin knock-down was carried out to evaluate integrin influence on migration and adhesion. A 24 h or 2 week amygdalin application distinctly reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 and RT112 cells. TCCSUP adhesion was also reduced, but migration was elevated under amygdalin. Integrin subtype expression was significantly and specifically altered by amygdalin depending on the cell line. ILK was moderately, and activated FAK strongly, lost in all tumor cell lines in the presence of amygdalin. Knock down of β1 integrin caused a significant decrease in both adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 cells, but a significant increase in TCCSUP adhesion. Knock down of β4 integrin caused a significant decrease in migration of RT112 cells. Since the different actions of amygdalin on the different cell lines was mirrored by β1 or β4 knock down, it is postulated that amygdalin influences adhesion and migratory properties of bladder cancer cells by modulating β1 or β4 integrin expression. The amygdalin induced increase in TCCSUP migratory behavior indicates that any anti-tumor benefits from amygdalin (seen with the other two cell lines may depend upon the cancer cell type.

  9. Effects of increasing carbon nanofiber density in polyurethane composites for inhibiting bladder cancer cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Melissa; Chun, Young Wook; Im, Yeon Min; Khang, Dongwoo; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a versatile elastomer that is commonly used in biomedical applications. In turn, materials derived from nanotechnology, specifically carbon nanofibers (CNFs), have received increasing attention for their potential use in biomedical applications. Recent studies have shown that the dispersion of CNFs in PU significantly enhances composite nanoscale surface roughness, tensile properties, and thermal stability. Although there have been studies concerning normal primary cell functions on such nanocomposites, there have been few studies detailing cancer cell responses. Since many patients who require bladder transplants have suffered from bladder cancer, the ideal bladder prosthetic material should not only promote normal primary human urothelial cell (HUC) function, but also inhibit the return of bladder cancerous cell activity. This study examined the correlation between transitional (UMUC) and squamous (or SCaBER) urothelial carcinoma cells and HUC on PU:CNF nanocomposites of varying PU and CNF weight ratios (from pure PU to 4:1 [PU:CNF volume ratios], 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4 composites to pure CNF). Composites were characterized for mechanical properties, wettability, surface roughness, and chemical composition by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and goniometry. The adhesion and proliferation of UMUC and SCaBER cancer cells were assessed by MTS assays. Cellular responses were further quantified by measuring the amounts of nuclear mitotic protein 22 (NMP-22), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Results demonstrated that both UMUC and SCaBER cell proliferation rates decreased over time on substrates with increased CNF in PU. In addition, with the exception of VEGF from UMUC (which was the same across all materials), composites containing the most CNF activated cancer cells (UMUC and SCaBER) the least, as shown by

  10. Effect of salinomycin on metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cell line T24

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Qu; Bo; Ma; Hao-Feng; Yuan; Zhong-Yang; Wang; Sheng-Jie; Guo; Jing; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of salinomycin on the metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cell line T24 by regulating the related protein expression in the process of epithelialmesenchymal transition(EMT), and to provide experimental basis for the treatment of urological tumors. Methods: The bladder cancer cell line T24 was cultured in vitro. The rat bladder tumor model was established in vivo. The rats were randomized into two groups, among which the rats in the experiment group were given intraperitoneal injection of salinomycin, while the rats in the control group were given intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. The change of tumor cells in the two groups was observed. Transwell was used to detect the cell migration and invasion abilities, Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of m RNA, while Western-blot was utilized for the determination of the expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin proteins. Results: The metastasis and invasion abilities of serum bladder cancer cell line T24 after salinomycin treatment in the experiment group were significantly reduced when compared with those in the control group, and the tumor metastasis lesions were decreased from an average of 1.59 to 0.6(P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation in the experiment group was gradually decreasing. T24 cell proliferation at 48 h was significantly lower than that at 12 h and 24 h(P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation at 24 h was significantly lower than that at 12 h(P<0.05). T24 cell proliferation at each timing point in the experiment group was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0.05). The serum m RNA level and E-cadherin expression in the tumor tissues in the experiment group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while vimentin expression level was significantly lower than that in the control group(P<0.05). Conclusions: Salinomycin can suppress the metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cells, of which the mechanism is probably associated

  11. Expressão nuclear do P53 em carcinoma de células transicionais da bexiga Nuclear expression of P53 protein in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Anastácio Dias Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a expressão imuno-histoquímica da p53 com fator de risco em carcinoma de células transicionais da bexiga (CCT. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados restrospectivamente 90 pacientes com CCT com idade média de 71 anos: G1 - 45, G2 - 29, G3 - 16, pTa-1 - 62 e pT2-4 - 28. Entre os pacientes com tumores não invasivos houve recidiva vesical em 35 casos (55,5%. Os tumores superficiais foram tratados por ressecção trans-uretral associados ao BCG (>G1, e os invasivos por cistectomia radical. O tempo médio de seguimento dos pacientes foi de 55 meses e 25 deles faleceram da doença. A expressão imuno-histoquímica foi estudada em peças preservadas em formol 10% e blocos de parafina pelo método da avidina-biotina-imunoperoxidase. Considerou-se p53 positivo o tumor com índice de marcação nuclear superior a 10%. RESULTADOS: A expressão da p53 mostrou associação com o grau do tumor e com o estádio da lesão primária (p=0,01, mas não com o tamanho do tumor vesical (p=0,25 ou com a taxa de recidiva dos tumores superficiais (p=0,81. Houve forte correlação entre o padrão de marcação da p53 com metástases (p=0,002 e com a sobrevida dos pacientes (p=0,003. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão da p53 mostrou valor preditivo para grau tumoral, estádio, incidência de metástases e sobrevida dos pacientes, mas não para recidiva vesical dos tumores superficiais.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunoexpression of p53 protein as a risk factor in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 90 patients with TCC and mean age of 71 years: G1 - 45, G1 - 29, G3 - 16, pTa-1 - 62 and pT2-4 - 28. The superficial TCC were treated TUR plus intravesical BCG (>G1, and the invasives by radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. The mean time of followup was 55 months and 25 patients died of the disease. The rate or reccurence in superficial tumors was 55.5%. The p53 immunoexpression was determined in formalin fixed

  12. Characterization of Uptake and Internalization of Exosomes by Bladder Cancer Cells

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    Carrie A. Franzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder tumors represent a special therapeutic challenge as they have a high recurrence rate requiring repeated interventions and may progress to invasive or metastatic disease. Exosomes carry proteins implicated in bladder cancer progression and have been implicated in bladder cancer cell survival. Here, we characterized exosome uptake and internalization by human bladder cancer cells using Amnis ImageStreamX, an image cytometer. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from bladder cancer culture conditioned supernatant, labeled with PKH-26, and analyzed on the ImageStreamX with an internal standard added to determine concentration. Exosomes were cocultured with bladder cancer cells and analyzed for internalization. Using the IDEAS software, we determined exosome uptake based on the number of PKH-26+ spots and overall PKH-26 fluorescence intensity. Using unlabeled beads of a known concentration and size, we were able to determine concentrations of exosomes isolated from bladder cancer cells. We measured exosome uptake by recipient bladder cancer cells, and we demonstrated that uptake is dose and time dependent. Finally, we found that uptake is active and specific, which can be partially blocked by heparin treatment. The characterization of cellular uptake and internalization by bladder cancer cells may shed light on the role of exosomes on bladder cancer recurrence and progression.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment in primary bladder small cell carcinoma: Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Orcun Celik; Gokhan Ekin; Tumay Ipekci; Salih Budak; Yusuf Ozlem Ilbey

    2016-01-01

    Small cell bladder carcinoma is a rare and frequently fatal disease. It can be distinguished from classical urothelial carcinoma microscopically and immunohistochemically. Small cell bladder carcinoma has histologically similar properties with other small cell carcinomas in other organs. It has a worse prognosis when compared to urothelial bladder cancer. Multimodal treatments are recommended although there is no widely accepted consensus regarding to the treatment algorithm because of its ra...

  14. Small cell cancer of the bladder: The Leon-Berard cancer centre experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili, Nabil; Elkarak, Fadi; Heudel, Pierre Etienne; Flechon, Aude; Droz, Jean Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background: Small cell bladder carcinoma is an uncommon tumor. In this retrospective study we report our experience dealing with this disease at the Leon-Berard Cancer Centre. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed various characteristics of small cell bladder carcinoma: patient demographics, histological diagnosis, disease stage, treatment effects and outcome, in 14 non-metastatic small cell bladder carcinoma patients treated at our institution between 1995 and 2006. Results: The...

  15. Sequential gemcitabine and tamoxifen treatment enhances apoptosis and blocks transformation in bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, HISASHI; MMEJE, CHINEDU O.; Goodwin G. Jinesh; TAOKA, RIKIYA; Kamat, Ashish M.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy for which regional or metastatic disease is identified at diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether tamoxifen (Tam), an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, can sensitize bladder cancer cell lines to gemcitabine (Gem) chemotherapy. ERα and ERβ protein levels were determined in each cell line using western blot analysis. The TCC-Sup, 5637, and RT4 bladder cancer cells were exposed to various concentrations and regimens of Tam or Gem alone or ...

  16. Different glycosylation of cadherins from human bladder non-malignant and cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lityńska Anna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to determine whether stage of invasiveness of bladder cancer cell lines contributes to alterations in glycan pattern of their cadherins. Results Human non-malignant epithelial cell of ureter HCV29, v-raf transfected HCV29 line (BC3726 and transitional cell cancers of urine bladder Hu456 and T24 were grown in cell culture. Equal amounts of protein from each cell extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and were blotted on an Immobilon P membrane. Cadherins were immunodetected using anti-pan cadherin mAb and lectin blotting assays were performed, in parallel. N-oligosaccharides were analysed by specific reaction with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA, Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA, Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA, Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA, Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAA, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA-L and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA. The cadherin from HCV29 cell line possessed bi- and/or 2,4-branched triantennary complex type glycans, some of which were α2,6-sialylated. The cadherin from BC3726 cell line exhibited exclusively high mannose type glycans. Cadherins from Hu456 and T24 cell lines expressed high mannose type glycans as well as β1,6-branched oligosaccharides with poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures and α2,3-linked sialic acid residues. Additionally, the presence of fucose and α2,6-sialic acid residues on the cadherin from T24 cell line was detected. Conclusions These results indicate that N-glycosylation pattern of cadherin from bladder cancer cell line undergoes modification during carcinogenesis.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment in primary bladder small cell carcinoma: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small cell bladder carcinoma is a rare and frequently fatal disease. It can be distinguished from classical urothelial carcinoma microscopically and immunohistochemically. Small cell bladder carcinoma has histologically similar properties with other small cell carcinomas in other organs. It has a worse prognosis when compared to urothelial bladder cancer. Multimodal treatments are recommended although there is no widely accepted consensus regarding to the treatment algorithm because of its rarity. In this review, clinical properties and diagnosis of small cell bladder carcinoma, its histopathological and immunohistochemical properties and treatment modalities are examined.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment in primary bladder small cell carcinoma: Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Ekin, Gokhan; Ipekci, Tumay; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-03-01

    Small cell bladder carcinoma is a rare and frequently fatal disease. It can be distinguished from classical urothelial carcinoma microscopically and immunohistochemically. Small cell bladder carcinoma has histologically similar properties with other small cell carcinomas in other organs. It has a worse prognosis when compared to urothelial bladder cancer. Multimodal treatments are recommended although there is no widely accepted consensus regarding to the treatment algorithm because of its rarity. In this review, clinical properties and diagnosis of small cell bladder carcinoma, its histopathological and immunohistochemical properties and treatment modalities are examined. PMID:27072176

  19. Knockdown of Ki-67 by Dicer-Substrate Small Interfering RNA Sensitizes Bladder Cancer Cells to Curcumin-Induced Tumor Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Shishkov, Andrei; Zhang, Bi; McCue, Peter; Ponnappa, Biddanda C.

    2012-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR). However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a l...

  20. Ureteral stump transitional cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesan B; Jayanand Sunil; Kathiresan N

    2009-01-01

    Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ureter accounts for less than 1% of all malignancies of upper genitourinary tract .Ureteral stump after radical nephrectomy may develop malignancy very rarely, TCC being the commonest. Definite risk exists if the urinary bladder harbored TCC. Presence of TCC of the urinary bladder and persistent urinary tract infections in a nephrectomized patient may indicate closer evaluation.

  1. Perioperative search for circulating tumor cells in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Despite having an organ confined tumor stage at the time of radical cystectomy, a certain number of bladder cancer patients will develop local or distant metastases over time. Currently there are no reliable serum markers for monitoring and evaluating risk profiles of urothelial cancers. Several studies suggest that detection of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC may correlate with disease status and prognosis at baseline and early in the treatment of cancers. The presence of CTCs in whole blood before and during radical cystectomy could provide further information on disease status, and could be used as an indicator to determine the need for adjuvant or even perioperative chemotherapy. Methods From 03/2009 to 05/2009, five patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder participated in this study. All patients were admitted to the hospital for radical cystectomy (rCx. A standard or extended lymph node dissection was performed in all cases. Preoperative CT or MRI scans revealed no distant or local metastases. Median age was 66.8 years (55-81 yrs. After obtaining informed consent from each patient, approximately 30 mL of peripheral blood was taken immediately before rCx and again during surgical removal of the urinary bladder from the patients' body. As additional parameters, operation time (OR for surgical removal of the bladder and the amount of blood volume that was used for the detection of CTCs were recorded. Obtained blood samples were processed using the Cell-Search System (Veridex© within 48 hours of collection. CTCs were identified and quantitated using the Cell-Search System, followed by re-evaluation of the provided results by specially trained and experienced personal. (CS, SH Results CTCs were detected before and during surgical removal of the urinary bladder in one of five patients (20%. In the one patient positive for CTC, two CTCs were detected in the blood sample that was

  2. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  3. Multidisciplinary Approach in the Treatment of Patients with Small Cell Bladder Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, L. Traldi; Ribeiro, J.; Curigliano, G; Fumagalli, L.; Locatelli, M.; Campello Carvalheira, J. Barreto; Quintela, A.; Bertelli, S.; O. De Cobelli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is considered to be a tumor with a neuroendocrine phenotype characterised by aggressive behaviour and poor prognosis. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder comprises 0,35 to 1% of all bladder cancers and is frequently observed in combination with other histological subtypes of carcinoma. Clinical presentation is characterized by advanced stage at diagnosis and rapidly progressive disease. In daily clinical practice ...

  4. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Results Sirolimus inhibits the growth of bladder carcinoma cells and decreases their viability. Significant correlations were found between cell proliferation and sirolimus concentration (r = 0.830; p Conclusion Sirolimus has an anti-proliferation effect on the T24 bladder carcinoma cell line. The information from our results is useful for a better understanding sirolimus's anti-proliferative activity in the T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  5. The granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor surface modified MB49 bladder cancer stem cells vaccine against metastatic bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tong Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The MB49 bladder cancer cell vaccine was effective against bladder cancer in the mice model in previous studies. However, part of the tumors regrew as the vaccine could not eliminate the cancer stem cells (CSCs. MB49 bladder cancer stem cells (MCSCs were isolated by a combination of the limited dilution method and the serum free culture medium method. MCSCs possessed higher expression of CD133, CD44, OCT4, NANOG, and ABCG2, the ability of differentiation, higher proliferative abilities, lower susceptibility to chemotherapy, greater migration in vitro, and stronger tumorigenic abilities in vivo. Then streptavidin–mouse granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor (SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine was prepared. SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine extended the survival of the mice and inhibited the growth of tumor in protective, therapeutic, memorial and specific immune response experiments. The level of immunoglobulin G and the ratio of dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were highest in the experimental group when compared to those in other four control groups, as well as for the cytotoxicity assay. We demonstrated that SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine induces an antitumor immune response to metastatic bladder cancer.

  6. An Investigation into the Cytotoxic Effects of 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Active compounds from natural products have been widely studied. The anti-tumor effects of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide isolated from Formosan soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on bladder cancer cells were examined in this study. An MTT assay showed that 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide was cytotoxic to bladder female transitional cancer (BFTC cells. We determined that the BFTC cells underwent cell death through apoptosis by flow cytometry. Due to the highly-migratory nature of the BFTC cells, the ability of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide to stop their migration was assessed by a wound healing assay. To determine which proteins were affected in the BFTC cells upon treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed. By LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified that 19 proteins were up-regulated and eight were down-regulated. Seven of the proteins were confirmed by western blotting analysis. This study reveals clues to the potential mechanism of the cytotoxic effects of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide on BFTC cells. Moreover, it suggests that PPT1 and hnRNP F could be new biomarkers for bladder cancer. The results of this study are also helpful for the diagnosis, progression monitoring and therapeutic strategies of transitional cell tumors.

  7. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC of the urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colarossi Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity, accounting less then 1% of urinary bladder malignancies. The vast majority of the neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder is represented by small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma while just few cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC have been reported. In this cases report we describe a rare case of primary bladder LCNEC. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2474700528951562.

  8. Impact of diabetes mellitus on bladder uroepithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T.; Ruiz, Giovanni W.; Daneshgari, Firouz; Liu, Guiming; Apodaca, Gerard; Birder, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD), a prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is characterized by a broad spectrum of symptoms including urinary urgency, frequency, and incontinence. As DBD is commonly diagnosed late, it is important to understand the chronic impact of DM on bladder tissues. While changes in bladder smooth muscle and innervation have been reported in diabetic patients, the impact of DM on the specialized epithelial lining of the urinary bladder, the urothelium (UT),...

  9. 饮食习惯与青年人膀胱移行细胞癌关系的病例对照研究%A case-control study of the relation of eating habit and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients 40 years old or younger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任维果; 边家盛; 夏宝山; 宋海峰; 吴石; 许真俊; 章建胜

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relation of eating habit and patients with carcinoma of the bladder with 40 years old or younger. Methods: A case - control study was deployed. From January 1995 to August 2006,82 patients with age less than 40 with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated at Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong Tumor Hospital and The Central Hospital of Feicheng Mining Group Company were selected as the case group( EG ), and another 82 young adult without bladder cancer as control group( CG ). X test was used for monovariate factor analysis while non - conditional logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results: Non - conditional logistic regression for multivariate analysis displayed that the bladder cancer in patients younger than 40 was associated with the following factors: Irregular food and drink ( OR = 6. 117,95%CI:1. 079 -34.685 )milchigs intake( OR =0. 031,95% CI: 0. 002 - 0. 544 ). While monovariate analysis displayed that the bladder cancer in patients younger than 40 was associated with the following factors: regular food and drink, milk product intake, vegetable consumption, dietary soy. Conclusion: The bladder cancer in patients younger than 40 was associated with eating habit, regular food and drink, ordinarily intake milk products and vegetable, much water intake and less dietary soy may be the possible protective factors for patients younger than 40 of bladder cancer.%目的:探讨饮食习惯与青年人膀胱移行细胞癌的关系.方法:采用以人群为基础的1∶1病例对照研究,病例组为1995年1月1日至2006年8月31日山东省省立医院、山东省肿瘤医院、山东肥城矿业中心医院三家医院收治的40岁以下膀胱移行细胞癌患者,对照组为无膀胱癌的40岁以下青年人.病例组与对照组各82例.单因素分析采用χ2检验,多因素分析采用非条件Logistic回归分析.结果:多因素非条件Logistic 回归分析显示40岁以下膀胱癌患者与下列

  10. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; Maase, Hans von der; Sørensen, Flemming B.; Wolf, Hans; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors. METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups of...

  11. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

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    Hossein Tezval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotomy which showed massive tumor burden within the pelvis and peritoneal carcinosis. This case demonstrated an extremely fast tumor growth. Therefore, patients with clear cell urothelial carcinoma should be treated vigorously and without time delay. We present a case of clear cell variant of TCC which exhibited an extremely aggressive behavior. To our knowledge this is the fifth report of this rare disease.

  12. Spontaneous Electrical Activity of Cultured Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Mouse Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Jeong, Han-Seong; Jang, Sujeong; Wu, Mei-Jin; Park, Jong Kyu; Jiao, Han-Yi; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Park, Jong-Seong

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from the urinary bladder regulate detrusor smooth muscle activities. We cultured ICCs from the urinary bladder of mice and performed patch clamp and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) imaging to investigate whether cultured ICCs can be a valuable tool for cellular functional studies. The cultured ICCs displayed two types of spontaneous electrical activities which are similar to those recorded in intact bladder tissues. Spontaneous electrical activities of cultured...

  13. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili Nabil; Ghanem Samia; Mellas Nawfel; Afqir Said; Taleb Meriem; Amrani Meryem; Gamra Lamia; Errihani Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is extremely rare. In this paper, we present a case of metastatic SCCB managed by chemotherapy and we would provide a brief review of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, pathologic features, staging, treatment, and prognosis of SCCB. A 52-year-old man was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of a bladder cancer. Computed tomography of the pelvis and abdomen showed a large tumor at the right bladder wall, measuring 10 cm in diameter...

  14. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    OpenAIRE

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek; Servet Güreşçi; Ural Oğuz; Ali Ünsal

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  15. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  16. Differences of response of human bladder cancer cells to photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Hypericum perforantum L extract and Photofrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nikos E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, Unwana U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    Refractory carcinoma in situ and resistant multifocal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the human urinary bladder respond modestly to PHOTOFRIN (PII) PDT. Hypericum perforatum L., (St. John"s wort /Epirus" Vasalmo, Greece), a medicinal plant used for many human ailments, is under investigation as a new photosensitizer. We have reported on the antiproliferative activity of the lipophilic extract of the Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) against cultured T-24, and NBT-11 bladder cancer cells. We investigated response of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of the HP extract versus PHOTOFRIN in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human bladder cancer cells, RT-4 and T-24.The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid extraction with petroleum ether. RT-4/T-24, were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PII 2ug/ml, or PMF 60ug /ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were treated with laser light (630nm) with 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules. The cells were then washed and reincubated for another 24 hours. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT induced percent cell kill of 0%, 0%, 0%, 29% and 75%, in RT-4 cells (primary noninvasive urinary bladder TCC) versus 5%, 9%, 13%, 69% and 86%, in T-24 cells(metastatic TTC) at 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules respectively. PII-PDT induced cell kill of 0 %, 0% ,0%,0% and 9 %, in RT-4 cells versus 0%,10%,0%,21% and 77%, in T-24 cells at 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules respectively.RT-24 cells were relatively more resistant than T-24 cells to PMF and PII-PDT. Understanding mechanisms of such differential responses might prove useful

  17. Familial aggregation of bladder cancer

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    Ilić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Except for smoking and certain occupational exposures, the etiology of bladder cancer is largely unknown. Several case reports have described familial aggregation of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Although the majority of patients with bladder cancer do not have family history of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract, the study of familial transitional cell carcinoma may lead to the knowledge on the pathogenesis of this disease. The purpose of this study was to describe three cases of urinary bladder cancer in a single three-member family, i.e. in two generations (mother and son and a family member related by marriage (the patient’s wife. Case report. Three cases of urinary bladder cancer occurred in a three-member family within the interval of 5 years. The following common characteristics were detected in our patients: old age (over 60, working as farmers for more than 50 years, negative personal medical history on relevant health disorders, place of birth - village, place of residence - village, the same water supply, similar nutrition, positive family history on urinary bladder cancer or other malignant tumors, the first sign of illness was macroscopic hematuria in all the patients and the same pathohistological type of cancer - carcinoma papillare transitiocellulare. Conclusion. The stated common characteristics in our cases indicate, above all, the impact of exposure to external surrounding factors on the occurrence of urinary bladder cancer.

  18. Expression of second mitochondria derived activator of Caspase in transitional cell cancer of bladder and the significance%线粒体促凋亡蛋白在膀胱移行细胞癌中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 廖贵益; 曾甫清; 白杨; 王竞

    2008-01-01

    目的 检测线粒体促凋亡蛋白(Smac)在膀胱移行上皮细胞癌(TCC)中的表达并探讨其临床意义.方法 逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和免疫组织化学SP法分别在基因和蛋白水平检测Smac在15例正常膀胱黏膜和72例TCC中的表达.结果 Smac蛋白和mRNA在正常膀胱黏膜与分化Ⅰ级TCC中均有较强表达,两者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),在TCC中的表达随分级的增加都显著性减少(P<0.01,P<0.05).浸润性TCC中Smac蛋白和mRNA的表达都低于表浅性TCC(P<0.01).结论 Smac在正常膀胱黏膜强表达,而在TCC中低表达,且与TCC的分级分期密切相关,检测Smac可辅助临床TCC分级、分期的判断.%Objective To detect the expression of second mitochondria-derived activator of Caspase(Smac)in transitional cell cancer of bladder(TCC)and discuss its clinical significance.Methods Smac was detected in 15 specimens of normal bladder epithelium and 72 specimens of TCC by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and immunohistochemistry at the level of gene and protein,respectively.Results There was no statistically significant difference in the Smac protein and mRNA expression levels between normal mucous membrane of bladder and grade Ⅰ TCC(P>0.05).The expression of Smac protein and mRNA in TCC was decreased gradually and signifieantly with the increase in grade of TCC(P<0.01 and P<0.05,respectively).In invasive TCC,the expression levels of Smac protein and mRNA were higher than those of in superficial TCC(P<0.01 ).Conclusion Normal bladder epithelium has high expression of Smac while TCC has low expression of Smac.The expression of Smac iS closely related to the grade and stage of TCC.Detection of Smac expression helps to iudge the grade and stage of TCC.

  19. Partial cystectomy in a 76 year old patient suffering from small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Starownik, Radosław; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Bar, Krzysztof; Płaza, Paweł; Kiś, Jacek; Muc, Kamil; Bar, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder originating from the neuroendocrine cells are extremely rare. We present a case of a 76–year–old patient with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The patient had hematuria and cystoscopy revealed a tumor located in a urinary bladder diverticulum. Partial resection of the bladder wall with diverticulectomy was performed. Microscopic examination established the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistr...

  20. Implantation of Bladder Cancer into the Abdominal Wall; a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    M Ghafoori; M. Narooinejad; D. Saedi; Asgari, M.

    2006-01-01

    Implantation of high grade and invasive bladder carcinoma into the abdominal wall is not common and can occur as side effects of uninary bladder interventions and surgical procedures, including perforation of bladder wall during transurethral resection of the tumor. Herein, we present a case of implantation of bladder transitional cell carcinoma into abdominal wall into an incisional hernia of a previous small bowel operation; three years after the bladder tumor had been diagnosed and treated...

  1. Ferritinophagy drives uropathogenic Escherichia coli persistence in bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauckman, Kyle A; Mysorekar, Indira U

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is a cellular recycling pathway, which in many cases, protects host cells from infections by degrading pathogens. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the predominant cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs), persist within the urinary tract epithelium (urothelium) by forming reservoirs within autophagosomes. Iron is a critical nutrient for both host and pathogen, and regulation of iron availability is a key host defense against pathogens. Iron homeostasis depends on the shuttling of iron-bound ferritin to the lysosome for recycling, a process termed ferritinophagy (a form of selective autophagy). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that UPEC shuttles with ferritin-bound iron into the autophagosomal and lysosomal compartments within the urothelium. Iron overload in urothelial cells induces ferritinophagy in an NCOA4-dependent manner causing increased iron availability for UPEC, triggering bacterial overproliferation and host cell death. Addition of even moderate levels of iron is sufficient to increase and prolong bacterial burden. Furthermore, we show that lysosomal damage due to iron overload is the specific mechanism causing host cell death. Significantly, we demonstrate that host cell death and bacterial burden can be reversed by inhibition of autophagy or inhibition of iron-regulatory proteins, or chelation of iron. Together, our findings suggest that UPEC persist in host cells by taking advantage of ferritinophagy. Thus, modulation of iron levels in the bladder may provide a therapeutic avenue to controlling UPEC persistence, epithelial cell death, and recurrent UTIs. PMID:27002654

  2. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Virtual CT cystoscopic findings

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    Tsili A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man underwent multidetector CT virtual cystoscopy due to macroscopic hematuria. A large, irregularly-surfaced, solid bladder mass was detected, infiltrating the perivesical fat, the seminal vesicles and the prostate. CT examination of the chest and abdomen showed no distant metastases. Radical cystectomy was performed and pathology reported pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  3. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Virtual CT cystoscopic findings

    OpenAIRE

    Tsili A; Giannakis D; Sofikitis N; Tsampoulas K

    2009-01-01

    A 74-year-old man underwent multidetector CT virtual cystoscopy due to macroscopic hematuria. A large, irregularly-surfaced, solid bladder mass was detected, infiltrating the perivesical fat, the seminal vesicles and the prostate. CT examination of the chest and abdomen showed no distant metastases. Radical cystectomy was performed and pathology reported pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  4. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiajia [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Xi [Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjiebjmu@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  5. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Urinary Human Complement Factor H-Related Protein (BTA Stat and BTA TRAK) and Fragments of Cytokeratins 8, 18 (UBC Rapid and UBC IRMA) as Markers for Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babjuk, M.; Koštířová, M.; Mudra, K.; Pecher, S.; Smolová, H.; Pecen, Ladislav; Ibrahim, Z.; Dvořáček, J.; Jarolím, L.; Novák, J.; Zima, T.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2002), s. 34-39. ISSN 0302-2838 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5961 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : TCC of bladder * BTA stat and BTA TRAK * UBC Rapid and UBC IRMA * urinary cytology Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2002

  7. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

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    Ismaili Nabil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB is extremely rare. In this paper, we present a case of metastatic SCCB managed by chemotherapy and we would provide a brief review of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, pathologic features, staging, treatment, and prognosis of SCCB. A 52-year-old man was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of a bladder cancer. Computed tomography of the pelvis and abdomen showed a large tumor at the right bladder wall, measuring 10 cm in diameter, and a multinodular liver disease. Diagnosis of small cell carcinoma was established from the histological study of the transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. The patient received 12 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy with a good partial response of bladder tumor and liver metastasis. The patient is still alive, 18 months after diagnosis.

  8. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: KIT and PDGFRA Gene Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Nuket Eliyakin; Hakan Postaci; Yasemin Baskin; Zafer Kozacioğlu

    2015-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%). The tumo...

  9. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wanqiu; Luan, Yang; Jin, Lu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu

    2015-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer with poor prognosis. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy, and most patients have a history of smoking. The disease incidence of malignant bladder tumors in China is approximately 0.74%. Early and accurate diagnosis of SCCB can ensure timely and appropriate treatment of this malignant disease. Oncologic surgery is the standard treatment; however, it may not be a curative approach. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be performed following surgical removal. This case report describes a patient with a single neoplasm diagnosed as SCCB that arose because of recurrence of bladder cancer after bladder tumor resection. In contrast to previously reported cases, this patient had no gross hematuria and no history of smoking. PMID:26271292

  10. Oncogenic activation of Pak1-dependent pathway of macropinocytosis determines BCG entry into bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Redelman-Sidi, Gil; Iyer, Gopa; Solit, David; Glickman, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that is used widely as a vaccine for tuberculosis and is used as an effective treatment for superficial bladder carcinoma. Despite being the most successful cancer biotherapy, its mechanism of action and response determinants remain obscure. Here we establish a model system to analyze BCG interaction with bladder cancer cells, using it to show that these cells vary dramatically in their susceptibility to BCG infectio...

  11. ALTERATION OF G1-CYCLINS (D1 AND E) IN TRANSITIONAL CELLCARCINOMA OF HUMAN URINARY BLADDER WITH INFECTION OF HPV-18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑闪; 何祖根; 刘海涛; 王顺宝

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate differential pattern of G1-cyclins (D1 and E) in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of human urinary bladder with or without human papillomavirus-18 (HPV-18) infection. Methods: Immunohistochemistry method was used in the detection of the expression of G1-cyclins in 57 cases of TCC (7 normal bladders as control), and HPV-18 DNA was found in 29 cases by polymerases chain reaction (PCR). Results: Cyclin D1 expression was found in 41 of 57 (71.93%) TCCs and it was reverse associated with HPV (x2=8.21, P0.05). Cyclin E expression was found in 17 of 29 (56.82%) in HPV-18 infection group and 19 of 28 (67.86%) in non-HPV infection group. There was obvious difference in the cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression between the TCC and normal tissue (x2=7.46, P<0.05; x2=7.45, P<0.05, respectively). Conclusion: These data demonstrated that HPV infection altered the control of G1 cell cycle. And changes of G1 cell cycle regulatory proteins, either by interaction of cellular protein with viral oncoproteins or by changes in the cellular proteins themselves, may be critical for carcinogenesis of TCC of urinary bladder.

  12. Potential of HSV-TK gene in gene-radiotherapy for human bladder carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the killing effect of retrovirus-mediated HSV-TK/GCV system combined with radiotherapy on human bladder carcinoma cells. Methods: By using retrovirus-mediated gene transfer technique, hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene (HyTK) was transferred into EJ bladder carcinoma cells. Antitumor effects were observed after irradiation with 60Co γ-rays as well as gancyclovir treatment. Results: EJ bladder carcinoma cells transduced with HyTK gene and treated with low concentrations of gancyclovir, which alone showed little cytotoxicity, were highly sensitive to radiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) was 1.36. Conclusion: The combination of retrovirus-mediated HyTK/GCV gene therapy with standard radiation therapy might improve the therapeutic effectiveness for bladder carcinoma in clinical practice

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of concurrent weekly low dose cisplatin during radiation treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma: A report of two sequential Phase II studies from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To determine the feasibility, toxicity, and clinical effectiveness of concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive radiation in the treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: In January 1997 the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group embarked on a Phase II study (TROG 97.01) of weekly cisplatin (35 mg/m2 x 7 doses) plus radiation to a dose of 63 Gy over 7 weeks. Following an interim toxicity analysis, the dose intensity of cisplatin was reduced to 6 cycles and the radiation schedule changed to 64 Gy over 6.5 weeks leading to the second study (TROG 99.06). A total of 113 patients were enrolled. Results: Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity occurred in 23% of the patients. Acute grade 4 pelvic toxicity was not seen. Thirty-eight patients (33%) experienced grade 3 or 4 cisplatin related toxicities with 15 patients (12%) requiring significant dose modification. The reduced dose intensity in Study 99.06 improved tolerability. Incidence of significant late morbidity was low (6%). Seventy-nine patients (70%) achieved complete remission at the 6 month cystoscopic assessment. Local invasive recurrence was seen in 11 of the 79 patients (14%). In 18 patients (16%) isolated superficial TCC/CIS were detected (6 months and beyond).The local control rate was 45% with a functional bladder being retained in 69 of the 113 patients (61%). RFS and DSS at 5 years were 33% and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: Our two sequential Phase II studies have shown that concurrent chemoradiation using weekly cisplatin in the management of localised invasive bladder TCC is feasible and reasonably well tolerated. This approach is currently being investigated further in a randomised study

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells protect against the tissue fibrosis of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aram; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Heo, Jinbeom; Song, Miho; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jisun; Yoon, Soo-Jung; Kim, YongHwan; Lee, Seungun; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of the hallucinogenic drug ketamine promotes the development of lower urinary tract symptoms that resemble interstitial cystitis. The pathophysiology of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) is largely unknown and effective therapies are lacking. Here, using a KC rat model, we show the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Daily injection of ketamine to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2-weeks resulted in defective bladder function, indicated by irregular voiding frequency, increased maximum contraction pressure, and decreased intercontraction intervals and bladder capacity. KC bladders were characterized by severe mast-cell infiltration, tissue fibrosis, apoptosis, upregulation of transforming growth factor-β signaling related genes, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 proteins. A single administration of MSCs (1 × 10(6)) into bladder tissue not only significantly ameliorated the aforementioned bladder voiding parameters, but also reversed the characteristic histological and gene-expression alterations of KC bladder. Treatment with the antifibrotic compound N-acetylcysteine also alleviated the symptoms and pathological characteristics of KC bladder, indicating that the antifibrotic capacity of MSC therapy underlies its benefits. Thus, this study for the first-time shows that MSC therapy might help to cure KC by protecting against tissue fibrosis in a KC animal model and provides a foundation for clinical trials of MSC therapy. PMID:27481042

  15. HIF-1α activates hypoxia-induced PFKFB4 expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Lu, Chengyin; Fang, Meng; Yan, Wangjun; Chen, Mo; Ji, Yingzheng; He, Shaohui; Liu, Tielong; Chen, Tianrui; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-07-29

    PFKFB4 is reported to regulate glycolysis by synthesizing fructose-2, 6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP) and has proved to be associated with most malignancies. However, the underlying mechanism for increased PFKFB4 expression in bladder cancer remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that PFKFB4 was overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues. In addition, the expression of PFKFB4 elevated in bladder cancer cells in the hypoxic condition, while in nomoxic condition, the expression of PFKFB4 still very low. Furthermore, we identified the hypoxia-responsive elements (HRE)-D from five putative HREs in the promoter region of PFKFB4 and demonstrated that the HRE-D was transactivated by the HIF-1α in bladder cancer cells. By using the Double-immunofluorescence co-localization assay, we revealed that the HIF-1α expression was associated with PFKFB4 expression in human bladder cancer specimens. Altogether, our study for the first time identified the pivotal role of HIF-1α in the connection between PFKFB4 and hypoxia in bladder cancer, which may prove to be a potential target for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27181362

  16. Detection of specific chromosomal aberrations in urine using BCA-1 (oligo-CGH-array) enhances diagnostic sensitivity and predicts the aggressiveness of non-muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cussenot, Olivier; Sighar, Karim; Mohammed, Mansoor; Hugonin, Sylvain; Ondet, Valérie; Larre, Stéphane; Lacave, Roger; Roupret, Morgan; Cancel-Tassin, Géraldine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bladder carcinoma (B-TCC) is the fifth most prevalent carcinoma in the United States (US) or Europe. In addition, B-TCC is the most expensive carcinoma per patient between diagnosis and death, because of its 50–80 % recurrence rate. B-TCC is an optimal carcinoma for which to detect DNA alterations in urine, which is easily obtainable. Chromosomal aberrations in tumors have been closely related to the carcinogenesis process. Material and Methods We developed a highly specific and ...

  17. Knockdown of Ki-67 by dicer-substrate small interfering RNA sensitizes bladder cancer cells to curcumin-induced tumor inhibition.

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    Sivakamasundari Pichu

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR. However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a large nucleolar phosphoprotein whose expression is tightly linked to cell proliferation, and curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess powerful anticancer properties. In this study, we evaluated the combined efficacy of curcumin and a siRNA against Ki-67 mRNA (Ki-67-7 in rat (AY-27 and human (T-24 bladder cancer cells. The anticancer effects were assessed by the determination of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Ki-67-7 (10 nM and curcumin (10 µM, when treated independently, were moderately effective. However, in their combined presence, proliferation of bladder cancer cells was profoundly (>85% inhibited; the rate of apoptosis in the combined presence of curcumin and Ki-67-7 (36% was greater than that due to Ki-67-7 (14% or curcumin (13% alone. A similar synergy between curcumin and Ki-67-7 in inducing cell cycle arrest was also observed. Western blot analysis suggested that pretreatment with Ki-67-7 sensitized bladder cancer cells to curcumin-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by p53- and p21-independent mechanisms. These data suggest that a combination of anti-Ki-67 siRNA and curcumin could be a viable treatment against the proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

  18. MicroRNA-3713 regulates bladder cell invasion via MMP9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Wei; Du, Yi-Heng; Li, Hao; Xia, Shu-Jie; Liu, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer but its carcinogenesis remains not completely elucidated. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is well known to be involved in the development of various cancers, including TCC, whereas a role of miR-3713 in the pathogenesis of TCC has not been appreciated. Here, we reported that significantly higher levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), and significantly lower levels of miR-3713 were detected in TCC tissue, compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissue, and were inversely correlated. Moreover, the low miR-3713 levels in TCC specimens were associated with poor survival of the patients. In vitro, overexpression of miR-3713 significantly decreased cell invasion, and depletion of miR-3713 increased cell invasion in TCC cells. The effects of miR-3713 on TCC cell growth appeared to result from its modification of MMP9 levels, in which miR-3713 was found to bind to the 3'-UTR of MMP9 mRNA to inhibit its protein translation in TCC cells. This study highlights miR-3713 as a previously unrecognized factor that controls TCC invasiveness, which may be important for developing innovative therapeutic targets for TCC treatment. PMID:27577949

  19. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  20. Multiple factor analysis of metachronous upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P; J.D. Luo; Wu, W. F.; Wang, S.; S.L. Cai; Shen, B.H.; S.F. Shi; K.X. Wei; Zhang, Z. G; Chen, Z. D.

    2007-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium is often multifocal and subsequent tumors may occur anywhere in the urinary tract after the treatment of a primary carcinoma. Patients initially presenting a bladder cancer are at significant risk of developing metachronous tumors in the upper urinary tract (UUT). We evaluated the prognostic factors of primary invasive bladder cancer that may predict a metachronous UUT TCC after radical cystectomy. The records of 476 patients who underwent r...

  1. TRAIL-induced apoptosis and expression of death receptor TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in bladder cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon P Czuba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L is a member of TNF superfamily able to induce programmed death in cancer cells with no toxicity against normal tissues. TRAIL mediate apoptosis follows binding to the two death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4 and/or TRAIL-R2 (DR5. In this study we investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of TRAIL on bladder cancer cells and the expression of death receptor TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on the surface of these cancer cells. Three human bladder transitional cancer cell (TCC lines - SW780, 647V and T24 were tested for TRAIL sensitivity. The bladder cancer cells were incubated with human soluble recombinant TRAIL. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide and LDH (lactate dyhydrogenase assays. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide and by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33342/annexin V-FITC/Ethidium Homodimer. The cell surface expression of TRAIL death receptors on bladder cancer were determined using flow cytometry with phycoerythrin-conjugated monoclonal anti-human TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Our investigations confirmed that SW780 cells were sensitive to TRAIL, and two other bladder cancer cell lines, 647V and T24, were resistant to TRAIL induced apoptosis. We therefore examined the expression of TRAIL death receptors on bladder cancer cell surfaces. We showed decreased expression of TRAIL-R2 receptor in TRAIL-resistant bladder cancer cells and increased expression of this death receptor in TRAIL-sensitive SW780 cells. The expression of TRAILR1 receptor was similar in all bladder cancer cell lines. TRAIL is one of the promising candidates for cancer therapeutics. However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. It is therefore important to overcome this resistance for the clinical use of TRAIL in cancer therapy. TRAIL death receptors are attractive therapeutic targets in

  2. Outcome of recurrent and metastatic small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder small cell carcinoma is an uncommon tumour. Through a retrospective study we will present the evolution of recurrent and metastatic disease and outcome of patients treated at Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre. Methods Only 15 patients having recurrent or metastatic bladder small cell carcinoma were treated at Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre between 1996 and 2007. The patients were divided in two groups: a mixed small cell carcinoma group (9 patients and a pure small cell carcinoma group (6 patients. All the records and informations related to treatment and outcome of the 15 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Various characteristics of small cell carcinoma were investigated. Results The median age of the 15 patients having recurrent or metastatic bladder small cell carcinoma and treated at Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre was 63 years and the disease was at stage IV for all cases. Nine patients were treated by chemotherapy. Four patients were treated by local radiotherapy (3 with radiotherapy without previous surgery and 1 with surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One patient was treated by whole brain radiotherapy. And one patient died before treatment. After 52.4 months median follow up, 12 patients died. Median overall survival was 7.6 months. Survival probability at 1 year was 33%. Median overall survival was 9.9 months in the mixed small cell carcinoma group, and was only 4.6 months in the pure small cell carcinoma group. Survival probability at 1 year in the mixed small cell carcinoma group was 44% as compared to 17% in the pure small cell carcinoma group (Log-rank test: p = 0.228. Conclusion Recurrent and metastatic bladder small cell carcinoma is associated with very poor prognosis. The pure bladder small cell carcinoma appears to have poorer outcome than the mixed bladder small cell carcinoma. Chemotherapy using platinum drugs is a mainstay treatment.

  3. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation is associated with bladder cancer cell growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fu-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 signaling pathway plays an important role in several human cancers. Activation of Stat3 is dependent on the phosphorylation at the tyrosine residue 705 by upstream kinases and subsequent nuclear translocation after dimerization. It remains unclear whether oncogenic Stat3 signaling pathway is involved in the oncogenesis of bladder cancer. Results We found that elevated Stat3 phosphorylation in 19 of 100 (19% bladder cancer tissues as well as bladder cancer cell lines, WH, UMUC-3 and 253J. To explore whether Stat3 activation is associated with cell growth and survival of bladder cancer, we targeted the Stat3 signaling pathway in bladder cancer cells using an adenovirus-mediated dominant-negative Stat3 (Y705F and a small molecule compound, STA-21. Both prohibited cell growth and induction of apoptosis in these bladder cancer cell lines but not in normal bladder smooth muscle cell (BdSMC. The survival inhibition might be mediated through apoptotic caspase 3, 8 and 9 pathways. Moreover, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin and a cell cycle regulating gene (cyclin D1 was associated with the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion These results indicated that activation of Stat3 is crucial for bladder cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, interference of Stat3 signaling pathway emerges as a potential therapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  4. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human transitional cell carcinoma of bladder%环氧合酶-2蛋白在人膀胱移行细胞癌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平; 杨恬

    2002-01-01

    目的研究环氧合酶-2(COX-2)在膀胱移行细胞癌(Transitional cell carcinoma,TCC)组织中的表达及其意义.方法采用SP免疫组化技术,对48例尿路上皮TCC石蜡标本切片进行免疫组化染色,对阳性表达率与肿瘤分级及侵袭性间的相关性进行统计学分析.结果 COX-2蛋白的阳性表达率与TCC分级及侵袭性呈显著相关,在低分级TCC中没有COX-2蛋白的表达(0/18),在高分级TCC中COX-2阳性表达率为44%(8/18).结论 COX-2在高分级TCC和侵袭性TCC中阳性表达率显著上升,表明COX-2可能在TCC的形成中起重要作用,有可能成为治疗人类TCC的作用靶点.

  5. Pathologic bladder microenvironment attenuates smooth muscle differentiation of skin derived precursor cells: implications for tissue regeneration.

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    Cornelia Tolg

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cell containing organs (bladder, heart, blood vessels are damaged by a variety of pathological conditions necessitating surgery or organ replacement. Currently, regeneration of contractile tissues is hampered by lack of functional smooth muscle cells. Multipotent skin derived progenitor cells (SKPs can easily be isolated from adult skin and can be differentiated in vitro into contractile smooth muscle cells by exposure to FBS. Here we demonstrate an inhibitory effect of a pathologic contractile organ microenvironment on smooth muscle cell differentiation of SKPs. In vivo, urinary bladder strain induces microenvironmental changes leading to de-differentiation of fully differentiated bladder smooth muscle cells. Co-culture of SKPs with organoids isolated from ex vivo stretched bladders or exposure of SKPs to diffusible factors released by stretched bladders (e.g. bFGF suppresses expression of smooth muscle markers (alpha SMactin, calponin, myocardin, myosin heavy chain as demonstrated by qPCR and immunofluorescent staining. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling, previously observed to prevent bladder strain induced de-differentiation of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells in vitro, inhibits FBS-induced smooth muscle cell differentiation of undifferentiated SKPs. These results suggest that intended precursor cell differentiation may be paradoxically suppressed by the disease context for which regeneration may be required. Organ-specific microenvironment contexts, particularly prevailing disease, may play a significant role in modulating or attenuating an intended stem cell phenotypic fate, possibly explaining the variable and inefficient differentiation of stem cell constructs in in vivo settings. These observations must be considered in drafting any regeneration strategies.

  6. Outcome of recurrent and metastatic small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili Nabil; Heudel Pierre; Elkarak Fadi; Kaikani Wafaa; Bajard Agathe; Ismaili Mohammed; Errihani Hassan; Droz Jean; Flechon Aude

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bladder small cell carcinoma is an uncommon tumour. Through a retrospective study we will present the evolution of recurrent and metastatic disease and outcome of patients treated at Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre. Methods Only 15 patients having recurrent or metastatic bladder small cell carcinoma were treated at Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre between 1996 and 2007. The patients were divided in two groups: a mixed small cell carcinoma group (9 patients) and a pure small cell carcin...

  7. Clinical outcome of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,2 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linko, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China Purpose: Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignant disease. It accounts for less than 1% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical features, the treatment modalities, and the overall survival of these patients. We also compare the clinical outcomes between patients of bladder small cell carcinoma (SCC and bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC. Materials and methods: We reviewed the charts of patients with bladder tumors from January 1995 to December 2012 in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A total of 2421 malignant bladder tumor patients were reviewed and there were 18 patients who were diagnosed with primary bladder SCC. The patients' characteristics, including age, gender, smoking history, presented symptoms, tumor size, locations, clinical stages, treatment modalities, pathology appearance, recurrence conditions, and survival conditions were all recorded. We also compared the clinical outcomes and the overall survival rates between patients with bladder SCC and those with UC. Results: Bladder SCC accounted for about 0.74% of all bladder malignancies in our institution. The mean age at diagnosis was 70.67 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.6:1. Thirteen patients had a history of cigarette smoking. All patients presented with symptoms of gross hematuria, and three of them had bladder tamponade requiring blood clot evacuation by cystoscopy. Only one patient had T1 disease, ten patients had stage III disease, and seven patients had lymph node or distant metastasis (stage IV disease. The mean tumor size was 4.29 cm in diameter. For the majority (61.11% of patients, SCC coexisted with UC components. The average survival time

  8. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  9. Bladder cancer cell in co-culture induces human stem cell differentiation to urothelial cells through paracrine FGF10 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Seyung S.; Koh, Chester J.

    2013-01-01

    FGF10 is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of limb bud formation. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF10 as a lead induction factor for stem cell differentiation toward urothelial cell. To this end, human multi-potent stem cell in vitro system was employed. Human amniotic fluid stem cells were co-cultured with immortalized bladder cancer lines to induce directed differentiation into urothelial cells. Urothe...

  10. Expressin of cyclooxygenase-2 in human transitional cell carcinoma of bladder%膀胱移行细胞癌COX-2的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈合群; 张向阳; 黄振国; 齐范

    2005-01-01

    目的研究环氧合酶-2(cyclooxygenase-2,COX-2)在膀胱移行细胞癌(transitional cell carcino--ma,TCC)组织中的表达及其意义.方法采用免疫组化技术,对49例膀胱TCC石蜡切片和18例正常膀胱黏膜组织进行COX-2蛋白检测,对阳性表达率与肿瘤分级及侵袭性间的相关性与TCC分级及侵袭性进行分析.结果COX-2蛋白在膀胱TCC中表达率为63.2%,正常膀胱黏膜无表达(P<0.01).低分级TCC阳性率36.4%,高分级为92.8%(P<0.05).表浅TCC阳性表达率38.9%,浸润TCC为77.4%(P<0.05).结论COX-2在高分级和侵袭性膀胱TCC中阳性表达率显著上升,可能会成为膀胱肿瘤患者恶性度和判断预后的重要生物学指标,并有可能成为治疗人类TCC的作用靶点.

  11. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  12. High prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Morgan; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Rodriguez, Maria Angelica Mendoza; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Matthew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) are detectable in the majority of urothelial carcinomas. The detection of TERT-mut in urine is under investigation as a potential urine-based molecular-screening assay for bladder cancer. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are pure squamous cell carcinoma. We sought to assess the incidence of TERT-mut in squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A retrospective search of the institutional pathology archives yielded 15 cystectomy specimens performed for squamous cell carcinoma (2000-2014). Histologic slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm the diagnosis and select a representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block for mutational analysis. All cases yielded adequate material for DNA analysis. Sequencing for TERT-mut was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. We detected TERT-mut in 12/15 (80%) of bladder squamous cell carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations, commonly found in conventional urothelial carcinoma, are also highly prevalent in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma suggesting a common tumorigenesis and potential utility as a molecular urine-based-screening assay. PMID:26965579

  13. Implantation of Bladder Cancer into the Abdominal Wall; a Case Report

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    M. Ghafoori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of high grade and invasive bladder carcinoma into the abdominal wall is not common and can occur as side effects of uninary bladder interventions and surgical procedures, including perforation of bladder wall during transurethral resection of the tumor. Herein, we present a case of implantation of bladder transitional cell carcinoma into abdominal wall into an incisional hernia of a previous small bowel operation; three years after the bladder tumor had been diagnosed and treated. In evaluating any mass lesion in the abdominal wall, it is important to consider the possibility of bladder tumor implantation.

  14. Local control rate and prognosis after sequential chemoradiation for small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term outcome and the risk for local recurrence of patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by external beam radiotherapy (sequential chemoradiation). All consecutive patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder (n=66), treated in our institution between 1993 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated from an institutional database. Only patients with limited disease (Tx-4N0-1M0) small cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with sequential chemoradiation (n=27) were included in this study. Recurrence rates, overall survival and cancer-specific survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Median time to recurrence was 20 months, median overall survival 26 months, 5-year overall survival 22.2%, median cancer-specific survival 47 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 39.6%. For complete responders after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=19), median cancer-specific survival was 52 months with a 5-year cancer-specific survival 45.9% versus a median cancer-specific survival of 22 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 0.0% for incomplete responders (n=8; P=0.034). Eight patients (29.6%) underwent transurethral resections (TUR-BT) for local recurrences in the bladder. At the end of follow up, four patients had undergone cystectomy for recurrence of disease resulting in a bladder-preservation rate of 85.2%. Median time to local recurrence was 29 months and median time to distant recurrence was 10 months. Sequential chemoradiation for limited disease small cell carcinoma of the bladder results in a reasonable outcome with a high bladder preservation rate. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy represents a significant prognostic factor in this patient population. (author)

  15. Overexpression of Bcl-2 enhances metastatic potential of human bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, H; Hara, I.; Yamanaka, K.; Gohji, K.; Arakawa, S; Kamidono, S.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Bcl-2 expression on the metastatic process of bladder cancer cells by using the Bcl-2-transfected human bladder cancer cell lines (KoTCC-1/BH) and the control vector only-transfected cell line (KoTCC-1/C), which were generated in our previous study (Miyake et al (1998) Oncogene 16: 933–934). When they were injected intravenously into athymic nude mice, KoTCC-1/BH formed more than three times as many tumour nodules in the lungs as did KoTCC-1/C. In addition, tumou...

  16. Lack of decorin expression by human bladder cancer cells offers new tools in the therapy of urothelial malignancies.

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    Annele Sainio

    Full Text Available Decorin, a multifunctional small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycan, has been shown to possess potent antitumour activity. However, there is some uncertainty whether different cancer cells express decorin in addition to non-malignant stromal cells. In this study we clarified decorin expression by human bladder cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the effect of adenovirus-mediated decorin expression on human bladder cancer cells in vitro was examined. We first demonstrated using the publicly available GeneSapiens databank that decorin gene expression is present in both normal and malignant human bladder tissues. However, when we applied in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes for decorin on human bladder carcinoma tissue samples derived from a large radical cystectomy patient cohort (n = 199, we unambiguously demonstrated that invasive and non-invasive bladder carcinoma cells completely lack decorin mRNA. The cancer cells were also negative for decorin immunoreactivity. Instead, decorin expression was localized solely to original non-malignant stromal areas of bladder tissue. In accordance with the aforementioned results, human bladder cancer cells in vitro were also negative for decorin expression as shown by RT-qPCR analyses. The lack of decorin expression by bladder cancer cells was shown not to be due to the methylation of the proximal promoter region of the decorin gene. When bladder cancer cells were transfected with a decorin adenoviral vector, their proliferation was significantly decreased. In conclusion, we have shown that human bladder cancer cells are totally devoid of decorin expression. We have also shown that adenovirus-mediated decorin gene transduction of human bladder cancer cell lines markedly inhibits their proliferation. Thus, decorin gene delivery offers new potential therapeutic tools in urothelial malignancies.

  17. Spectrum of Lesions in Cystoscopic Bladder Biopsies -A Histopathological Study

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    Mahesh Kumar U

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diseases of the bladder, particularly inflammation (cystitis, constitute an important source of clinical signs and symptoms. Tumors of the bladder are an important source of both morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1 To study the histopathological features of various lesions in bladder biopsies. 2 To study the frequency of different pathological lesions, particularly Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC in urinary bladder biopsies. Results: Sixty cases of urinary bladder biopsies were received. Out of 60 patients, 43 were males and 17 were females. The spectrum of pathological lesions included inflammations, metaplastic lesions and tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common tumour seen in this study. A case of paraganglioma and malakoplakia were also seen. Conclusions: Our study has revealed that the bladder tumours are the commonest lesions in cystoscopic biopsies and TCC was the predominant tumour type

  18. A comparison of cell-collecting methods for the Comet assay in urinary bladders of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Ohnuma, Aya; Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2012-02-18

    Conducting the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in the urinary bladders of rodents is technically problematic because the bladder is small and thin, which makes it difficult to collect its mucosal cells by scraping. We performed the Comet assay using a simple mincing method in which tissues are minced with scissors. We then compared data obtained with this method with data obtained using the scraping method. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were orally given twice the known carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or o-anisidine (OA). Three hours after the second administration, the bladder of each rat was divided into two parts and each part was processed by either the mincing or the scraping method. Both mincing and scraping methods detected DNA damage in MNU-, EMS-, but not OA-treated rats, and thus the mincing method had a sufficient capability to detect DNA damaging agents. The morphological analysis of the prepared cell suspensions revealed that more than 80% of the cells collected by the mincing method were from the epithelium. Because the mincing method requires only one-half of a bladder, the other half remains intact and can be used for histopathological examination. We conclude that the mincing method is easier and more appropriate for the Comet assay in urinary bladder tissue than the scraping method. PMID:22155339

  19. Microsatellite instability as prognostic marker in bladder tumors: a clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal RD; Mandhani Anil; Vaish Minal; Mittal Balraj

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Carcinoma of urinary bladder is one of the leading causes of death in India. Successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on the early detection & specific diagnostic approaches. In the present study, microsatellite instability (MSI) has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in patients with superficial urinary bladder cancer in lower urinary tract for determining risk of recurrence. Methods A total of 44 patients with bladder tumors diagnosed with Transitional Cell Carc...

  20. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene array profiles in female patients with involuntary bladder contractions

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    Bluth MH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wellman Cheung1, Mark J Bluth1, Sohail Khan2, Christopher Johns2, Martin H Bluth31State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA; 2Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory – Microarray Shared Resource, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA; 3Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USABackground: Patients with urgency represent a group of incontinence sufferers whose diagnosis remains difficult to establish. Urodynamic testing demonstrating involuntary bladder contraction provides objective confirmation but represents an invasive approach. We have previously demonstrated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC can provide a reporter function in solid organ disease toward biomarker discovery. Here we investigated the utility of using PBMC as marker for patients with confirmed involuntary bladder contraction.Methods: Fifteen female patients were evaluated for involuntary bladder contractions and stress urinary incontinence as demonstrated by urodynamics and also assessed for pelvic prolapse, stress incontinence by history, bladder neck dysfunction, and bladder capacity. PBMC were obtained from patients’ whole blood, and RNA was subjected to microarray gene chip analysis.Results: Microarray analysis revealed that eleven genes were differentially regulated (five upregulated and six downregulated. Of these, PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component 1, EIF2S3 (eukaryotic initiation factor, C3AR1 (complement receptor, and three unknown genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes included MYOM2 (myomesin M-protein, a cytoskeletal protein; KTN1 (kinectin; and AAK 1 (AP2 associated kinase.Conclusions: Microarray analysis revealed many genes that were differentially regulated in PBMC from patients with involuntary detrusor contractions. These genes may be important in regulating structural integrity of bladder and supporting tissues. These data suggest that PBMC can provide a reporter function for patients with

  1. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a

  2. Analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma

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    Claudio B. Murta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas who are treated surgically and to analyze the occurrence of bladder tumors as well as the development of metastases outside the urinary tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective analysis of 25 patients treated between February 1994 and August 2006. The variables analyzed were: patient age, gender, and clinical presentation; diagnostic methods; pathologic characteristics at the primary site of the tumor (pelvis or ureter; tumor stage and grade; and presence of carcinoma in situ, microvascular invasion and squamous differentiation. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Log-Rank test were used for statistical analysis of bladder recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of patients were male, and macroscopic hematuria was the most common clinical presentation. The majority of cases (56% were infiltrative (T2-T3 and high-grade (76% tumors. Synchronous or metachronous bladder tumors were found in 72% of cases. Five (20% patients had a history of bladder tumor before the diagnosis of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas. The mean follow-up period was 36 months (range: 1.5 to 156. During the follow-up period, eleven (44% patients developed bladder tumors. After five years, the probability of being free of bladder tumor recurrence was 40%. No pathological variable was predictive for bladder tumor recurrence. Four patients presented disease recurrence outside the urinary tract. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metachronous bladder tumors is more often observed after the diagnosis of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas. All of these patients should undergo rigorous follow-up during the postoperative period. Only patients with infiltrative and high-grade tumors developed metastases outside the urinary tract.

  3. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K; Tsai, Y C; Spruck, C H; Miyao, N; Nichols, P W; Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X chr...

  4. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression. Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies. The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer

  5. Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Yan, Chunri; Lee, Il-Seok; Piao, Xuan-Mei; Byun, Young Joon; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Materials and Methods Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort ...

  6. Precursor T-Cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with rare presentation in the urinary bladder

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    Alexander Pham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the 16th reported case of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL with involvement in the bladder. Our patient was a 22 yearold man with T-cell ALL with a mediastinal mass. He received hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (HyperCVAD with mediastinal radiation. Prior to starting maintenance, he relapsed in the bladder and marrow. He received a nelarabine- based induction regimen and achieved remission. This was followed by an unrelated 11/12 HLA-matched myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant. He is in complete remission for the past 409 days.

  7. Transfection of promyelocytic leukemia in retrovirus vector inhibits growth of human bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei LI; Da-lin HE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To construct a recombinant retrovirus vector carrying human promyelocytic leukemia (PML) cDNA and identify its expression and biology role in bladder cancer UM-UC-2 cells for future gene therapy. Methods: PML full-length cDNA was inserted into the EcoR I and BamHI site of pLXSN vector containing the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. The vector was identified by restriction enzyme digestion and then transfected into PA317 packaging cell line by calcium phosphate coprecipitation. PML cDNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the protein was identified by laser confocal microscopy and Western blot in bladder cancer cells, respectively. The morphology was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope, and MTT assay determined growth curve of the bladder cancer cells. Results: Restriction enzyme digestion proved that a 2.1kb PML cDNA was inserted into the pLXSN vector. PCR assay demonstrated that 304 bp fragments were found in UM-UC-2/pLPMLSN transfects. Laser confocal microscopy showed speck dots fluorescence in the UM-UC-2/pLPMLSN nucleus.A 90 kD specific brand was found by Western blot. MTT assay demonstrated the UM-UC-2/pLPMLSN bladder cancer growth inhibition. Conclusion: The retrovirus pLPMLSN vector was successfully constructed and could generate high effective expression of human PML in bladder cancer cell UM-UC-2, suggesting that PML recombinant retrovirus have potential utility in the gene therapy for bladder cancer.

  8. Antiproliferative factor regulates connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression in T24 bladder carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Matika, Christina A.; Wasilewski, Melissa; Arnott, John A.; Planey, Sonia Lobo

    2012-01-01

    Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a sialoglycopeptide elevated in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC)—a chronic, painful bladder disease of unknown etiology. APF inhibits the proliferation of normal bladder epithelial and T24 bladder carcinoma cells in vitro by binding to cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) and altering the transcription of genes involved in proliferation, cellular adhesion, and tumorigenesis; however, specific molecular mechanisms and effector genes t...

  9. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon C Snow-Lisy

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2 and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36% in Cyr61OX (over-expressing vs Cyr61KD (knock-down groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically

  10. [Solitary Bladder Metastasis of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Satoshi; Suetomi, Takahiro; Kojou, Kousuke; Tanaka, Ken; Kurobe, Masahiro; Yoshino, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Kazumitu; Kimura, Tomokazu; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Kawai, Kouji; Miyazaki, Jun; Yano, Youko; Yamada, Kenji; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Bladder metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is relatively rare, and only 43 cases have been reported in the Japanese literature. In most cases, the histology of the primary site was clear cell type. Here, we report a case of bladder metastasis of chromophobe RCC. A 74-year-old man presented with asymptomatic gross hematuria. He had a history of chromophobe RCC treated with radical nephrectomy 11 years previously. Since cystoscopy revealed a papillary pedunculated tumor, he underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-Bt). The pathological diagnosis was chromophobe RCC because the histological findings were similar to those of nephrectomized specimens. Four years after TUR-Bt, the patient received bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy under the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ of urothelial cancer of the bladder but not chromophobe RCC. There was no recurrence of chromophobe RCC within 5 years follow-up after TUR-Bt. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one other case report of bladder metastasis of chromophobe RCC in the Japanese literature. PMID:27018407

  11. The Prognostic Significance of p53, Bcl-2, Cytokeratin 20 and Ki-67 in Primary Superficial Papillary Transitional Bladder Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of factors that determine individual patient risk for recurrence and progression in superficial papillary carcinoma of the bladder is a subject of extensive research as it would be a major outcome in patient management. It has been well recognized that traditional prognostic markers as tumor grade and stage are not accurate enough in predicting biological behavior. A large number of markers have been investigated as potential prognostic factors and relatively few can help in predicting outcome. Material and Methods: Forty-nine cases undergoing complete transurethral resection for primary superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma were subjected to clinicopathologic evaluation as well as immunohistochemical staining for p53, bcl-2, cytokeratin 20 and Ki-67. The CAS-200 image analyzer was used to estimate the Ki-67 labeling index. Results: Recurrence was observed in 19 cases (38.8%) and progression in 7 cases (14.3%) with a median followup of 49 months (range 24-84 months). p53 was detected in 33 tumors (67.3%). There was a significant correlation between p53 expression and tumor stage (p < 0.001). Six (85.7%) of 7 cases that progressed had a p53-positive tumor at initial diagnosis. Bcl-2 overexpression was observed in 30 cases (61.2%). The expression of bcl-2 did not correlate with histological grade, clinical stage, or relapse. Five cases showed normal pattern of staining with cytokeratin 20 (2 pTa and 3 pTl). All cases with normal expression of cytokeratin 20 showed no recurrence or progression. Ki-67 labeling index ranged from I % to 60%. We could not detect prognostic significance of Ki67 labeling index using multiple cut off values. Sixteen cases (32.7%) were associated with bilharziasis. The frequency of p53 positivity, bcl-2, abnormal cytokeratin 20 expression and high Ki-67 labeling index appeared to be similar in bilharzial and non-bilharzial cases. COl/elusions: These results suggest that evaluation of p53 may help to identify

  12. Electroporation enhances mitomycin C cytotoxicity on T24 bladder cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Luis; Gehl, Julie; Hermann, Gregers G

    2012-01-01

    Intravesical mitomycin instillation combined with electric pulses is being used experimentally for the treatment of T1 bladder tumors, in patients unfit for surgery. Electroporation may enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutics by permeabilization of cell membranes. We investigated if electroporation...... improves the cytotoxicity of mitomycin. In two cell lines, T24 (bladder cancer cell line) and DC3F (Chinese hamster fibroblast), exposure to different concentrations of mitomycin (0.01-2000μM) was tested with and without electroporation (6 pulses of 1kV/cm, duration: 99μs, frequency: 1Hz). Cell viability...... was assessed by colorimetric assay (MTT). For both cell lines, mitomycin's IC_50 was approximately 1000μM in both pulsed and unpulsed cells. On T24 cells, electroporation and mitomycin caused (relative reduction) RR of survival of: 25%, 31% and 29%, by concentrations 0μM, 500μM and 1000μM respectively...

  13. Roles of ERβ and GPR30 in Proliferative Response of Human Bladder Cancer Cell to Estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiren Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer belongs to one of the most common cancers and is a leading cause of deaths in our society. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB is the main type of this cancer, and the estrogen receptors in UCB remain to be studied. Our experiment aimed to investigate the possible biological effect of 17β-estradiol on human bladder-derived T24 carcinoma cells and to indicate its related mechanisms. T24 cells were treated with various doses of 17β-estradiol, and cell proliferation was detected using MTT assays. 17β-estradiol promoted T24 cell proliferation independent of ERβ/GPR30-regulated EGFR-MAPK pathway, while it inhibited cell growth via GPR30. Furthermore, the expression levels of downstream genes (c-FOS, BCL-2, and CYCLIN D1 were increased by 17β-estradiol and this effect was independently associated with activity of the EGFR-MAPK pathway. The two estrogen receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  14. The TREK2 Channel Is Involved in the Proliferation of 253J Cell, a Human Bladder Carcinoma Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung-Sun; Han, Min Ho; Jang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kyung-A; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Yangmi

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men that smoke, and the incidence of disease increases with age. The mechanism of occurrence has not yet been established. Potassium channels have been linked with cell proliferation. Some two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P), such as TASK3 and TREK1, have recently been shown to be overexpressed in cancer cells. Here we focused on the relationship between cell growth and the mechanosensitive K2P channel, TREK2, in the human bladder cancer cell ...

  15. miR-96 regulates FOXO1-mediated cell apoptosis in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Liu, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Chao; Song, Yongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies and a leading cause of genitourinary system cancer mortality worldwide. The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1, a member of the forkhead box O (FOXO) subfamily of transcription factors, is downregulated in a number of cancers, including TCC; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we used microRNA (miRNA) target prediction algorithms to identify a conserved potential miR-96 binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of FOXO1. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and northern blot analysis, we identified that miR-96 was downregulated in TCC tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (NB), suggesting that the loss of FOXO1 expression in TCC may be mediated by miR-96. To confirm this, we transfected pre-miR-96/anti-miR-96 into the T24 TCC cell line and revealed that miR-96 expression was sufficient to significantly reduce FOXO1 expression. Conversely, FOXO1 expression was not completely restored by the inhibition of miR-96 in T24 cells. Moreover, RNA silencing of FOXO1 significantly reduced miR-96 inhibitor-mediated T24 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the miR-96 targeting of FOXO1 is upregulated in TCC; in addition, TCC tumorigenesis may be partly due to the ability of miR-96 to promote FOXO1 repression, thereby bypassing cell apoptosis controls. PMID:23741253

  16. Expression of Robo protein in bladder cancer tissues and its effect on the growth of cancer cells by blocking Robo protein

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang; Cheng, Hepeng; Xu, Weibo; Tian, Xin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the expression of Slit signaling protein ligand Robo protein in human bladder cancer and para-carcinoma tissue, and observe the tumor cell survival and growth by inoculating the bladder cancer cells with the blocked signaling protein into the subcutaneous tissue of nude mice. The expression of Robo protein was detected in T24 cells in human bladder uroepithelium carcinoma and cultivated human bladder uroepithelium carcinoma confirmed by pathological diagnosis. The c...

  17. Clinical outcome of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou CP; Lin YH; Chen CL; Chang PL; Tsui KH

    2013-01-01

    Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,2 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linko, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China Purpose: Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignant disease. It accounts for less than 1% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical features, the treatment modalities, and th...

  18. Clinical outcome of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,2 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linko, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China Purpose: Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignant disease. It accounts for less than 1% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical features, the treatment modalities, and t...

  19. Analysis of the interaction of extracellular matrix and phenotype of bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracellular matrix has a major effect upon the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells both in vitro in 3-dimensional culture and in vivo. Comparing gene expression of several bladder cancer cells lines grown under permissive and suppressive conditions in 3-dimensional growth on cancer-derived and normal-derived basement membrane gels respectively and on plastic in conventional tissue culture provides a model system for investigating the interaction of malignancy and extracellular matrix. Understanding how the extracellular matrix affects the phenotype of bladder cancer cells may provide important clues to identify new markers or targets for therapy. Five bladder cancer cell lines and one immortalized, but non-tumorigenic, urothelial line were grown on Matrigel, a cancer-derived ECM, on SISgel, a normal-derived ECM, and on plastic, where the only ECM is derived from the cells themselves. The transcriptomes were analyzed on an array of 1186 well-annotated cancer derived cDNAs containing most of the major pathways for malignancy. Hypervariable genes expressing more variability across cell lines than a set expressing technical variability were analyzed further. Expression values were clustered, and to identify genes most likely to represent biological factors, statistically over-represented ontologies and transcriptional regulatory elements were identified. Approximately 400 of the 1186 total genes were expressed 2 SD above background. Approximately 100 genes were hypervariable in cells grown on each ECM, but the pattern was different in each case. A core of 20 were identified as hypervariable under all 3 growth conditions, and 33 were hypervariable on both SISgel and Matrigel, but not on plastic. Clustering of the hypervariable genes showed very different patterns for the same 6 cell types on the different ECM. Even when loss of cell cycle regulation was identified, different genes were involved, depending on the ECM. Under the most permissive conditions

  20. Treatment Trends and Outcomes of Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Treatment for small-cell carcinoma of the bladder is largely guided by case reports, retrospective reviews, and small prospective trials. This study aimed to study outcomes using a large population-based database. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database (1991–2005) was used to analyze how different treatment combinations of specific bladder surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiation affected patient outcomes. Trends in the use of these combinations over time were also analyzed. Results: A total of 533 patients were retrieved from the database. A bladder-sparing approach involving transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) combined with chemotherapy and radiation yielded no significant difference in overall survival compared with patients undergoing at least a cystectomy (of whom over 90% received radical cystectomy) with chemotherapy (p > 0.05). The analysis of treatment trends indicated that these two general strategies for cure combined to account for fewer than 20% of patients. A majority of patients (54%) received TURBT as their only surgical treatment, and a subset analysis of these patients indicated that chemotherapy played a role in all stages of disease (p < 0.05) whereas radiation improved overall survival in regional-stage disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively few patients with small-cell carcinoma of the bladder receive potentially curative therapies. Chemotherapy should be a major component of treatment. Cystectomy and bladder-sparing approaches represent two viable strategies and deserve further investigation to identify the patients who may benefit from organ preservation or not. In addition, the role of radiation in regional-stage disease should be investigated further, because it positively affects survival after TURBT.

  1. Treatment Trends and Outcomes of Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koay, Eugene J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Teh, Bin S., E-mail: bteh@tmh.org [Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C.; Butler, E. Brian [Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Treatment for small-cell carcinoma of the bladder is largely guided by case reports, retrospective reviews, and small prospective trials. This study aimed to study outcomes using a large population-based database. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database (1991-2005) was used to analyze how different treatment combinations of specific bladder surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiation affected patient outcomes. Trends in the use of these combinations over time were also analyzed. Results: A total of 533 patients were retrieved from the database. A bladder-sparing approach involving transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) combined with chemotherapy and radiation yielded no significant difference in overall survival compared with patients undergoing at least a cystectomy (of whom over 90% received radical cystectomy) with chemotherapy (p > 0.05). The analysis of treatment trends indicated that these two general strategies for cure combined to account for fewer than 20% of patients. A majority of patients (54%) received TURBT as their only surgical treatment, and a subset analysis of these patients indicated that chemotherapy played a role in all stages of disease (p < 0.05) whereas radiation improved overall survival in regional-stage disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively few patients with small-cell carcinoma of the bladder receive potentially curative therapies. Chemotherapy should be a major component of treatment. Cystectomy and bladder-sparing approaches represent two viable strategies and deserve further investigation to identify the patients who may benefit from organ preservation or not. In addition, the role of radiation in regional-stage disease should be investigated further, because it positively affects survival after TURBT.

  2. Afatinib inhibits proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis of the T24 bladder cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yunhua; Zhang, XiangYang; QI, FAN; CHEN, MINGFENG; Li, Yuan; Liu, Longfei; He, Wei; Li, Zhuo; Zu, Xiongbing

    2015-01-01

    Afatinib is a highly selective, irreversible inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human EGFR 2 (HER-2). Although preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that afatinib has antitumor activity and clinical efficacy in non-small cell lung carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer, there are few studies investigating its inhibitory effect on human bladder carcinoma cells. In this study, the antitumor effect of afatinib was investigated on th...

  3. Research on the bioactivity of isoquercetin extracted from marestail on bladder cancer EJ cell and the mechanism of its occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Juhong; Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Minyu; Zhang, Haiying

    2016-05-01

    Research studies in recent years have found that isoquercetin has an inhibiting effect on multiple carcinogens, but research studies filed on isoquercetin in bladder cancer are quite few. This paper observed the influence of isoquercetin on biological activity of the EJ cell of bladder cancer through HC dyeing and trypan blue counting, studied the EJ cell cycle by flow cytometry (FCM), and then analyzed the influence of isoquercetin and its effect on the protein expression of STAT3 and STAT3-inhibiting factors (PIAS3) in EJ cells. Research has shown that isoquercetin has an inhibitory effect on the EJ cells of bladder cancer, but it is not obvious. PMID:25650648

  4. Sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma component of the urinary bladder: a case report with review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon neoplasm characterized histopathologically by the presence of malignant spindle cell and epithelial components. Albeit extremely rare, sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma has been reported. Herein, we describe an additional case of sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and review the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. An 82-year-old Japanese mal...

  5. Lack of Decorin Expression by Human Bladder Cancer Cells Offers New Tools in the Therapy of Urothelial Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Sainio, Annele; Nyman, Marie; Lund, Riikka; Vuorikoski, Sanna; Boström, Pia; Laato, Matti; Boström, Peter J.; Järveläinen, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Decorin, a multifunctional small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycan, has been shown to possess potent antitumour activity. However, there is some uncertainty whether different cancer cells express decorin in addition to non-malignant stromal cells. In this study we clarified decorin expression by human bladder cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the effect of adenovirus-mediated decorin expression on human bladder cancer cells in vitro was examined. We first demon...

  6. Proepithelin is an autocrine growth factor for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lovat, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandro; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Fassan, Matteo; Goldoni, Silvia; Metalli, David; Wubah, Vera; McCue, Peter; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor proepithelin functions as an important regulator of proliferation and motility. Proepithelin is overexpressed in a great variety of cancer cell lines and clinical specimens of breast, ovarian and renal cancer, as well as glioblastomas. Using recombinant proepithelin on 5637 transitional cell carcinoma-derived cells, we have shown previously that proepithelin plays a critical role in bladder cancer by promoting motility of bladder cancer cells. In this study, we used the ONCO...

  7. Inhibition of growth, migration and invasion of human bladder cancer cells by antrocin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea, and its molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Kun-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Chi; Chia, Chi-Hao; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2016-04-10

    Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer around the world, and is a severe urological cancer irrespective of sex. Approximately 65% of the bladder cancers will recur following surgery; with more than 20% of those patients showing an advanced and metastatic stage, with reducing prognosis. Metastasis causes the most death of bladder cancer yet current therapeutic options remain limited. Antrocin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea, has been identified as a strong cytotoxic agent against lung and metastatic breast cancer cells; however, the effects and mechanisms of antrocin on cancer growth and metastasis remain largely unclear. This study showed that treatment with cytotoxic concentration of antrocin induced both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in human bladder cancer 5637 cells, evidenced by increase of Fas, DR5, Bax expression and caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation. Exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of antrocin significantly inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin. Antrocin also reduced subcellular distribution of FAK and paxillin at the focal adhesion contacts of the cell periphery site, and disrupted the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. Moreover, antrocin increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related gene E-cadherin and decreased vimentin expression. Real-time PCR analysis showed that antrocin downregulated the expression of mRNA of several MMPs, including MMP-2. Moreover, the phosphorylation of ERK and c-Fos were also attenuated by antrocin. Data from chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that antrocin decreased the DNA binding activity of c-Fos to the upstream/enhancer region of MMP-2 promoter, an action likely to result in the reducing MMP-2 expression. Overall, this is the first study which demonstrates that antrocin-inhibited migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells is partly

  8. Bladder cancer arising in a spina bifida patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, X; Villers, A; Malavaud, B; Sarramon, J

    1999-11-01

    We report the case of a 52-year-old patient with spina bifida, neurologic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in whom a bladder cancer was incidentally discovered. Cytology, cystoscopy, and cystography showed nonspecific, extensive inflammatory lesions. Cystography demonstrated a complex of diverticulae and cellules. Pathologic examination of a diverticulectomy specimen revealed a grade III pT3b transitional and squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the similar disease causation (recurrent UTIs, stones, and indwelling catheterization), we suggest extension of the guidelines proposed for patients with spinal cord injuries (ie, annual serial bladder biopsies) to patients with nontraumatic neurogenic bladder. PMID:10754152

  9. Prima-1 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines by activating p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila B. Piantino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bladder cancer represents 3% of all carcinomas in the Brazilian population and ranks second in incidence among urological tumors, after prostate cancer. The loss of p53 function is the main genetic alteration related to the development of high-grade muscle-invasive disease. Prima-1 is a small molecule that restores tumor suppressor function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Our aim was to investigate the ability of Prima-1 to induce apoptosis after DNA damage in bladder cancer cell lines. METHOD: The therapeutic effect of Prima-1 was studied in two bladder cancer cell lines: T24, which is characterized by a p53 mutation, and RT4, which is the wild-type for the p53 gene. Morphological features of apoptosis induced by p53, including mitochondrial membrane potential changes and the expression of thirteen genes involved in apoptosis, were assessed by microscopic observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Prima-1 was able to reactivate p53 function in the T24 (p53 mt bladder cancer cell line and promote apoptosis via the induction of Bax and Puma expression, activation of the caspase cascade and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane in a BAK-independent manner. CONCLUSION: Prima-1 is able to restore the transcriptional activity of p53. Experimental studies in vivo may be conducted to test this molecule as a new therapeutic agent for urothelial carcinomas of the bladder, which characteristically harbor p53 mutations.

  10. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Jane Barkla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples was used to identify 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR. Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na and Cl ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggest large alterations in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  11. Role of reactive oxygen species in cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum-induced cytotoxicity on bladder cancer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyajima, A; Nakashima, J.; Yoshioka, K; Tachibana, M.; Tazaki, H.; Murai, M

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the intracellular induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (CDDP) and the augmentation of their cytotoxicity in bladder cancer cells (KU7) by enhancement of ROS generation by the glutathione (GSH) depletors buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM). CDDP-induced cytotoxicity in KU7 cells and its modulation by GSH depletors were determined using spectrophotometric measurement with crystal violet staining. T...

  12. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-01-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Thes...

  13. The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Inhibits the Proliferation of Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis of certain malignancies. However, the mechanisms for the anti-cancer effects of metformin remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effects of metformin on human bladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. Metformin significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of 5637 and T24 cells in vitro; specifically, metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases, accompanied by a strong decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4, E2F1 and an increase of p21waf-1. Further experiments revealed that metformin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the central regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, daily treatment of metformin led to a substantial inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft model with concomitant decrease in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D1 and p-mTOR. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that metformin efficiently suppresses the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and suggest that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  14. Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Yan, Chunri; Lee, Il-Seok; Piao, Xuan-Mei; Byun, Young Joon; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Materials and Methods Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort 2 (83 BC patients, 54 nonmalignant hematuric patients, and 61 normal controls) provided urine samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of TopoIIA mRNA in tissues and TopoIIA cell-free DNA in urine samples. Results The results showed that expression of TopoIIA mRNA in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancer control tissues (p<0.001). The expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA in BC patients was also significantly higher than that in noncancer patient controls and hematuria patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). High expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA was also detected in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) when compared with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity/specificity of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA for diagnosing BC, NMIBC, and MIBC. The areas under the ROC curve for BC, NMIBC, and MIBC were 0.741, 0.701, and 0.838, respectively. Conclusions In summary, the results of this study provide evidence that cell-free TopoIIA DNA may be a potential biomarker for BC. PMID:26981592

  15. Photokilling of T-24 human bladder cancer cells with titanium dioxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Y; Shuin, T; Kawasaki, C.; Hosaka, M; Kitamura, H.; Cai, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, K; Fujishima, A

    1994-01-01

    A photoexcited titanium dioxide surface has a strong ability to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. We have studied this effect in order to use it to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. A distinct cell killing effect was observed on cultured T-24 human bladder cancer cells treated with titanium dioxide particles and 300-400 nm UV light irradiation. Titanium dioxide plus UV light also dramatically suppressed the tumour growth of T-24 cells that were implanted in nude mice. Cells cult...

  16. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Eliyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%. The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, CD3, CD20, LCA, CDX2, uroplakin, thyroid transcription factor 1, PSA and p63. Metastatic workup was performed an no primary or metastatic lung lesions were noted. Due to the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as primary small cell carcinoma of bladder. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18 genes was performed, in paraffin micro dissection specimens, by the PCR-direct sequencing method. According to the sequencing analyses, two mutations were found at positions 558 (p.K558N and 562 (p.E562D in KIT gene exon 11 in our case. The another hand the same case presented two mutations in PDGFRA gene exon 14 at position 631 (p.P631A and 638 (p.638Q_639AinsC. The disease process was fulminant and the patient was lost due to several complications prior to any chemotherapy.

  17. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: KIT and PDGFRA Gene Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyakin, Nuket; Postaci, Hakan; Baskin, Yasemin; Kozacioğlu, Zafer

    2015-12-29

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. A 72-year-old was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder full of multiple, solid and papillary tumors. Biopsies from the deep and papillary tumors were taken. Histologically, tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, chromo-granin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD117 and Ki67 (labeling 70%). The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK20, CD3, CD20, LCA, CDX2, uroplakin, thyroid transcription factor 1, PSA and p63. Metastatic workup was performed an no primary or metastatic lung lesions were noted. Due to the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as primary small cell carcinoma of bladder. A molecular genetic analysis for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes was performed, in paraffin micro dissection specimens, by the PCR-direct sequencing method. According to the sequencing analyses, two mutations were found at positions 558 (p.K558N) and 562 (p.E562D) in KIT gene exon 11 in our case. The another hand the same case presented two mutations in PDGFRA gene exon 14 at position 631 (p.P631A) and 638 (p.638Q_639AinsC). The disease process was fulminant and the patient was lost due to several complications prior to any chemotherapy. PMID:26788274

  18. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: changing trends in the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Gökmen Umut; Özdemir, Nuriye Yıldırım; Demirci, Nebi Serkan; Şahin, Süleyman; Bozkaya, Yakup; Zengin, Nurullah

    2016-06-01

    Background Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (SmCC), also known as oat cell carcinoma or small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, is characterized by an aggressive clinical course with early metastasis pattern and a short life expectancy. So far, there is no prospective, data-based case-control study due to its low incidence. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology, morphopathology, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of bladder SmCC in the light of the literature. Scope PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting abstracts were searched according to the following keywords: 'extrapulmonary SmCC', 'bladder cancer', and 'therapeutic approach'. The last search was performed on 1 October 2015. Some additional papers were determined by reviewing references of the appropriate articles. Most of the data regarding small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SmCCB) were found to be based on the retrospective trials. Findings Bladder SmCC is more frequent in men and usually appears in the seventh to eighth decades. Macroscopic hematuria is the most common clinical symptom. The diagnosis of SmCCB is performed based on the same criteria determined by the WHO classification for the diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Prognosis is closely correlated with the stage at presentation. Although the prognosis of the disease is poor, a long survival can be achieved particularly by radical surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage tumors. Cystectomy is still the current standard local treatment. However, cystectomy alone is not sufficient. Chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy should be preferred for limited disease in patients who are not candidate for surgery. Conclusion Considering the poor prognosis of the disease, further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment options and new molecular markers in the way of early diagnosis and favorable outcomes. Prospective

  19. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF MELATONIN ON THE GROWTH OF HUMAN BLADDER CARCINOMA T24 CELL LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳红; 慕慧; 赵晏; 蔡晓宏; 王中秋; 郭瑗

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory effects of melatonin and its inhibitory mechanism on the growth of human bladder carcinoma T24. Methods The inhibitory effects of melatonin with various concentrations on the human bladder carcinoma T24 lines in vitro were determined by MTT assay. The mechanism of the inhibition was observed by flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The 30% inhibition concentration (IC30) value was 0.71mmol·L-1 and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) value was 1.20mmol·L-1. The population doubling time of T24 cells treated with melatonin at 0.71mmol·L-1 was 43.2 hours, which was significant different from that of 34.6 hours of the control group. Using FCM, we found that the cell percentage increased during the G1 phase, but decreased during the S stage. The degenerated ultra-structure of the cell treated with melatonin was also observed by TEM. Conclusion The results suggest that melatonin can inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma T24. The inhibitory effects of melatonin might be the prolonging of the staging from G1 to S in the cell cycle.

  20. Xanthine crystals induced by topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats, cause transitional cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Takeo; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Ashizawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Koji; Iwanaga, Takashi; Saito, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of transitional cell tumors found in the carcinogenicity testing of topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in which topiroxostat was orally given to F344 rats at 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg for 2 years. In the urinary bladder, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas were seen in males receiving 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg (1/49, 3/49, and 10/50, respectively). In the kidney, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas in the pelvis were seen in 2/50 males and 1/50 females receiving 3 mg/kg. In the mechanistic study by 52-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 3 mg/kg to F344 male rats, with and without citrate, simple and papillary transitional cell hyperplasias of the urinary bladder epithelium were observed in 5/17 in the topiroxostat-alone treatment group, along with xanthine-induced nephropathy, in contrast to neither xanthine crystals nor lesions in urinary organs by co-treatment group with citrate. As for sex differences of urinary bladder tumors, the BrdU labeling index for epithelial cells of the urinary bladder by 5-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 10 mg/kg to F344 rats was increased in males only, showing consistency with histopathological findings. Therefore, the present study indicates that transitional cell tumors induced by topiroxostat in rats were due to physical stimulation to transitional cells of xanthine crystals/calculi and provides that other factors were not implicated in this tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that such tumors do not predict for humans since topiroxostat-induced xanthine deposition is a rodent-specific event. PMID:24448833

  1. Molecular Genetic Evidence for a Common Clonal Origin of Urinary Bladder Small Cell Carcinoma and Coexisting Urothelial Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Liang; Jones, Timothy D.; McCarthy, Ryan P.; Eble, John N.; Wang, Mingsheng; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Yang, Ximing J; Koch, Michael O.; Zhang, Shaobo; Pan, Chong-xian; Baldridge, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    In most cases, small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is admixed with other histological types of bladder carcinoma. To understand the pathogenetic relationship between the two tumor types, we analyzed histologically distinct tumor cell populations from the same patient for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and X chromosome inactivation (in female patients). We examined five polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosome 3p25-26 (D3S3050), chromosome 9p21 (IFNA and D9S171), chromoso...

  2. Study of wavy laminar growth of human urinary bladder cancer cell line in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Guo-hong; CONG Yan-guang; LIU Jun-kang; XU Qi-wang; YUAN Ze-tao

    2001-01-01

    To observe the ordered growth behavior of human urinary bladder cancer cell line (BIU) under culture in vitro. Methods: The suspension of BIU cells was spread locally in a culture container. When the cells grew along the wall to form a cellular colony, macroscopic and microscopic observations complemented with measurements of the parameters including expanding diameter, expanding rate, cell shape, average cell density, average cell size, dehydrogenase activity and sensitivity to pH were conducted dynamically. Results: During cell culture, obvious laminar characteristics appeared in localized growing BIU cell colonies and there was difference between the cells of different zones in shape, size, density, dehydrogenase activity and sensitivity to pH. Conclusion: Space closing and bio-dissipation result in self-organization of BIU cells with ordered growth behavior. The present experiment offers a simple, controllable model for the study of wavy growth of human cells.

  3. Differential repair of platinum-DNA adducts in human bladder and testicular tumor continuous cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and removal of four platinum-DNA adducts were immunochemically quantitated in cultured cells derived from a human bladder carcinoma cell line (RT112) and from two lines derived from germ cell tumors of the testis (833K and SUSA), following exposure in vitro to 16.7 microM (5 micrograms/ml) cisplatin. RT112 cells were least sensitive to the drug and were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, whereas SUSA cells, which were 5-fold more sensitive, were deficient in the repair of DNA-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the sequences pApG and pGpG. Despite expressing a similar sensitivity to SUSA cells, 833K cells were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, although less so than the RT112 bladder tumor cells. In addition, SUSA cells were unable to repair DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links whereas 50-85% of these lesions were removed in RT112 and 833K cells 24 h following drug exposure. It is possible that the inability of SuSa cells to repair platinated DNA may account for their hypersensitivity to cisplatin

  4. Type 1 pilus-mediated bacterial invasion of bladder epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Juan J.; Mulvey, Matthew A.; Schilling, Joel D.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2000-01-01

    Most strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) encode filamentous adhesive organelles called type 1 pili. We have determined that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, mediates not only bacterial adherence, but also invasion of human bladder epithelial cells. In contrast, adherence mediated by another pilus adhesin, PapG, did not initiate bacterial internalization. FimH-mediated invasion required localized host actin reorganization, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activation and host...

  5. Evaluation of energy deposition to the urinary bladder wall considering radiosensitive basal cells by beta-ray emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the dose evaluation of the urinary bladder since its absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals tends to be higher than other organs. For an accurate dose evaluation, a simple bladder model considering radiosensitive basal cells was used to calculate SAF (specific absorbed fractions) for the basal cells and the whole bladder wall from mono energetic photon and electron sources using Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, S values (the mean absorbed doses for the target organ per unit cumulated activity in the source organ) were evaluated for 36 beta-ray emitters. Consequently, considering basal cells and beta particle spectra in the evaluation of absorbed dose for the urinary bladder are very important for an accurate evaluation. (author)

  6. System-Level Biochip for Impedance Sensing and Programmable Manipulation of Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsin Chuang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a dielectrophoretic (DEP chip with multi-layer electrodes and a micro-cavity array for programmable manipulations of cells and impedance measurement. The DEP chip consists of an ITO top electrode, flow chamber, middle electrode on an SU-8 surface, micro-cavity arrays of SU-8 and distributed electrodes at the bottom of the micro-cavity. Impedance sensing of single cells could be performed as follows: firstly, cells were trapped in a micro-cavity array by negative DEP force provided by top and middle electrodes; then, the impedance measurement for discrimination of different stage of bladder cancer cells was accomplished by the middle and bottom electrodes. After impedance sensing, the individual releasing of trapped cells was achieved by negative DEP force using the top and bottom electrodes in order to collect the identified cells once more. Both cell manipulations and impedance measurement had been integrated within a system controlled by a PC-based LabVIEW program. In the experiments, two different stages of bladder cancer cell lines (grade III: T24 and grade II: TSGH8301 were utilized for the demonstration of programmable manipulation and impedance sensing; as the results show, the lower-grade bladder cancer cells (TSGH8301 possess higher impedance than the higher-grade ones (T24. In general, the multi-step manipulations of cells can be easily programmed by controlling the electrical signal in our design, which provides an excellent platform technology for lab-on-a-chip (LOC or a micro-total-analysis-system (Micro TAS.

  7. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate: Cytological analyses of four cases with emphasis on the usefulness of cytological examination

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Keiko; ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; Kagotani, Akiko; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Iwai, Muneo; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of small cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder and prostate is rare. Only a few reports on the cytological features of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the urine specimen have been documented and, moreover, the urinary cytological features of prostate small cell carcinoma have been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed the cytological features of four cases of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate, and discussed the usefulness of cytologic...

  8. EHMT2 inhibitor BIX-01294 induces apoptosis through PMAIP1-USP9X-MCL1 axis in human bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jing; Sun, Wendong; Hao, Xuexi; Wei, Minli; Su, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yajing; Su, Ling; Liu, Xiangguo

    2015-01-01

    BIX-01294, an euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2) inhibitor, has been reported to induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells and inhibit the proliferation of bladder cancer cells. However, the definite mechanism of the apoptosis mediated by BIX-01294 in bladder cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that BIX-01294 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Moreover, our data show BIX-01294 stimulates endoplasmic reticulum s...

  9. Growth inhibiting effects of antisense eukaryotic expression vector of proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene on human bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童强松; 曾甫清; 林晨; 赵军; 鲁功成

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the growth inhibiting effects on human bladder cancer by antisense RNA targeting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector for antisense PCNA cDNA was constructed and transferred into a bladder cancer EJ cell line. The PCNA expression in the cancer cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. The in vitro proliferation activities of the transferred cells were observed by growth curve, tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry, tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR)incorporation, flow cytometry and clone formation testing, while its in vivo anti-tumor effects were detected on nude mice allograft models.Results After the antisense vector, pLAPSN, was transferred, cellular PCNA expression was inhibited at both protein and mRNA levels. The growth rates of EJ cells were reduced from 27.91% to 62.07% (P<0.01), with an inhibition of DNA synthesis rate by 52.31% (P<0.01). Transferred cells were blocked at G0/G1 phases in cell-cycle assay, with the clone formation ability decreased by 50.81% (P<0.01). The in vivo carcinogenic abilities of the transferred cancer cells were decreased by 54.23% (P<0.05). Conclusions Antisense PCNA gene transfer could inhibit the growth of bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which provided an ideal strategy for gene therapy of human cancers.

  10. White blood cell DNA adducts and fruit and vegetable consumption in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Airoldi, L; Magagnotti, C; Fiorini, L; Munnia, A; Hautefeuille, A; Malaveille, C; Vineis, P

    2000-02-01

    The 'Mediterranean diet', a diet rich in cereals, fruit and vegetables, has been associated with lowering the risk of a variety of cancers of the digestive tract and the bladder. In a previous study, we showed that the high phenolic content these dietary components produce in the urine could be associated with higher antimutagenic properties of the urine and lower arylamine-DNA adducts in exfoliated bladder cells. We have conducted a case-control study on 162 bladder cancer patients and 104 hospital controls. Total aromatic DNA adducts were measured in white blood cells (WBC) of all subjects by (32)P-post-labelling. Genetically based metabolic polymorphisms were analysed by PCR-RFLP (NAT2, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, COMT and NQO1). All subjects were interviewed about their tobacco use, dietary habits and other risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of bladder cancer according to the presence/absence of WBC DNA adducts (detection limit 0.1 RALx10(8)) was 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-6.3] and a dose-response relationship with levels of adducts was apparent. The association between case/control status and the presence of WBC DNA adducts was significantly stronger in the subjects who consumed fewer portions of fruit or vegetables per day (OR 7.80, 95% CI 3.0-20.30 for 0-1 portions of vegetables) than in the heavy consumers (OR 4.98 for consumers of 2 portions daily, OR 1.97 for consumers of > or =3 portions; similar but lower estimates were found for the intake of fruit). No association was noticed between tobacco smoking and WBC DNA adducts. Only NAT-2, among the several genotypes considered, was associated in a statistically significant way with the risk of bladder cancer (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03-2.87) and with the levels of WBC DNA adducts. Our report suggests that fruit and vegetables could protect against bladder cancer by inhibiting the formation of DNA adducts. PMID:10657956

  11. Evidence for toxicity differences between inorganic arsenite and thioarsenicals in human bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic toxicity is dependent on its chemical species. In humans, the bladder is one of the primary target organs for arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, and what arsenic species are responsible for this carcinogenicity. The present study aimed at comparing the toxic effect of DMMTAV with that of inorganic arsenite (iAsIII) on cell viability, uptake efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) toward human bladder cancer EJ-1 cells. The results were compared with those of a previous study using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Although iAsIII was known to be toxic to most cells, here we show that iAsIII (LC50 = 112 μM) was much less cytotoxic than DMMTAV (LC50 = 16.7 μM) in human bladder EJ-1 cells. Interestingly, pentavalent sulfur-containing DMMTAV generated a high level of intracellular ROS in EJ-1 cells. However, this was not observed in the cells exposed to trivalent inorganic iAsIII at their respective LC50 dose. Furthermore, the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of DMMTAV but not iAsIII, suggesting that production of ROS was the main cause of cell death from exposure to DMMTAV, but not iAsIII. Because the cellular uptake of iAsIII is mediated by aquaporin proteins, and because the resistance of cells to arsenite can be influenced by lower arsenic uptake due to lower expression of aquaporin proteins (AQP 3, 7 and 9), the expression of several members of the aquaporin family was also examined. In human bladder EJ-1 cells, mRNA/proteins of AQP3, 7 and 9 were not detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/western blotting. In A431 cells, only mRNA and protein of AQP3 were detected. The large difference in toxicity between the two cell lines could be related to their differences in uptake of arsenic species.

  12. Amygdalin Blocks Bladder Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro by Diminishing Cyclin A and cdk2

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Makarević; Jochen Rutz; Eva Juengel; Silke Kaulfuss; Michael Reiter; Igor Tsaur; Georg Bartsch; Axel Haferkamp; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml) on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regu...

  13. AB169. CCDC34 is up-regulated in bladder cancer and its silencing suppresses bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yanqing; Zhou, Liqun; Li, Xuesong; Guo, Yinglu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The coiled coil is a superhelical structural protein motif that has been thoroughly investigated in recent years and coiled-coil domain-containing proteins have exhibited a large diversity of function in biological systems (e.g., gene regulation, cell division, membrane fusion, drug extrusion). The aim of this study was to investigate the critical role of coiled-coil domain-containing protein 34 (CCDC34) in bladder carcinogenesis, which has never been reported to date. Methods Immun...

  14. Simultaneous Penile and Signet Ring Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Renal Transplant Recipient: A First Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Manassero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of cancer increase with time after transplantation. Therefore, a risk-adapted screening process is very important in order to identify low-grade malignancies early in their development. This provides the opportunity to initiate appropriate immunosuppressive regimens depending on the tumor type and stage of development. The first case presented is one of a 65-year-old patient with a double genitourinary carcinoma (penis and bladder. The patient received kidney transplantation 7 years prior to this event. After adequate surgical treatment (partial amputation of the penis for squamous cell carcinoma and complete transurethral resection of bladder adenocarcinoma, the patient was noted to be free of tumor recurrence and had functioning renal graft with a 2-year follow-up.

  15. [Linitis plastica type of primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Sandid, Marwan; Peraldi, Renaud; Pernin, François

    2002-04-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma represent 0.5 to 2% of all bladder tumours and are classified according to whether or not they are derived from the urachus, although, histologically, this classification now appears to be obsolete. The authors report a very rare case of linitis plastica type of primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder in a 53-year-old patient. This carcinoma, with very unusual histological features, needs to be distinguished. Due to the delayed diagnosis, it has a poor prognosis despite the most aggressive treatment modalities, as reported in the literature. The elevated CA 19-9 observed in the present case may be a useful marker for follow-up. PMID:12108351

  16. In vitro evaluation of endothelial progenitor cells from adipose tissue as potential angiogenic cell sources for bladder angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhua Zhou

    Full Text Available Autologous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs might be alternative angiogenic cell sources for vascularization of tissue-engineered bladder, while isolation and culture of EPCs from peripheral blood in adult are usually time-consuming and highly inefficient. Recent evidence has shown that EPCs also exist in the adipose tissue. As adipose tissue is plentiful in the human body and can be easily harvested through a minimally invasive method, the aim of this study was to culture and characterize EPCs from adipose tissue (ADEPCs and investigate their potential for the neovascularization of tissue-engineered bladder. Adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF was isolated and used for the culture of ADEPCs and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs. After SVF was cultured for one week, ADEPCs with typical cobblestone morphology emerged and could be isolated from ADSCs according to their different responses to trypsinization. Rat bladder smooth muscle cells (RBSMCs were isolated and cultured from rat bladder. RBSMCs exhibited typical spindle-shaped morphology. ADEPCs had higher proliferative potential than ADSCs and RBSMCs. ADEPCs stained positive for CD34, Stro-1, VEGFR-2, eNOS and CD31 but negative for α-SMA, CD14 and CD45. ADSCs stained positive for CD34, Stro-1 and α-SMA but negative for VEGFR-2, eNOS, CD31, CD14 and CD45. RBSMCs stained only positive for α-SMA. ADEPCs could be expanded from a single cell at an early passage to a cell cluster containing more than 10,000 cells. ADEPCs were able to uptake DiI-Ac-LDL, bind UEA-1 and form capillary-like structures in three-dimensional scaffolds (Matrigel and bladder acellular matrix. ADEPCs were also able to enhance the human umbilical vein endothelial cells' capability of capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel. Additionally, significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein of vascular endothelial growth factor were found in ADEPCs than in RBSMCs. These results suggest the potential use of ADEPCs as

  17. TOX3 (TNRC9) Over Expression in Bladder Cancer Cells Decreases Cellular Proliferation and Triggers an Interferon-Like Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Mansilla Castaño, Francisco; Dyrskjøt, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    identification and immunoprecipitation studies were used for DNA binding studies. Results: Microarray transcript profiling of 89 bladder biopsies showed a significant up-regulation of TOX3 (p<10-4) in non-muscle invasive (Ta-T1) bladder tumors compared to muscle-invasive (T2-T4) bladder tumors and normal...... urothelium. Microarray expression profiling of human bladder cancer cells over expressing TOX3 followed by Pathway analysis showed that TOX3 Overexpression mainly affected the Interferon Signaling Pathway. TOX3 up regulation induced the expression of several genes with a gamma interferon activation site (GAS...... expressing cell extracts with an artificial “GAS”- DNA element resulted in an enrichment of the GAS containing DNA-sequence, providing evidence for a potential interaction of TOX3 with the GAS-sequence of STAT1. Conclusions: These results provide evidence for an alternative activation of the downstream...

  18. Quantifying mast cells in bladder pain syndrome by immunohistochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.S.; Mortensen, S.; Nordling, J.;

    2008-01-01

    . frequency and nocturia), as > 28 mast cells/mm(2) is defined as mastocytosis and correlated with clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS The current enzymatic staining method (naphtolesterase) on 10 mu m sections for quantifying mast cells is complicated. In the present study, 61 patients had detrusor...... sections between, respectively. Mast cells were counted according to a well-defined procedure. RESULTS The old and the new methods, on 10 and 3 mu m sections, showed a good correlation between mast cell counts. When using tryptase staining and 3 mu m sections, the mast cell number correlated well with the...... clinical score (Spearman's. 0.576; 95% confidence interval 0.155-0.820) and 27 mast cells/mm(2) was the threshold suggesting mastocytosis. CONCLUSIONS We recommend taking biopsies from the detrusor of patients with suspected BPS and examining them with tryptase-stained 3 mu m thick sections, with every...

  19. Global Identification and Differential Distribution Analysis of Glycans in Subcellular Fractions of Bladder Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ganglong; Huang, Luyu; Zhang, Jiaxu; Yu, Hanjie; Li, Zheng; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular components and their associated biological processes is crucial for cellular function. Protein glycosylation provides a basis for diversity of protein functions. Diversity of glycan composition in animal cells remains poorly understood. We used differential centrifugation techniques to isolate four subcellular protein fractions from homogenate of metastatic bladder YTS1 cells, low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer KK47 cells and normal bladder epithelia HCV29 cells: microsomal (Mic), mitochondrial (Mito), nuclear (Nuc), and cytosolic (Cyto). An integrated strategy combining lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was then applied to evaluate protein glycosylation of the four fractions. Lectin microarray analysis revealed significant differences among the four fractions in terms of glycan binding to the lectins LCA, AAL, MPL, WGA and PWM in YTS1 cell, STL, Jacalin, VVA, LCA and WGA in KK47, and ConA, GNA, VVA and ACA in HCV29 cell. Among a total of 40, 32 and 15 N-glycans in four fractions of three cells detected by MS analysis, high-mannose and fucosylated structures were predominant, 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 5 N-glycans in KK47 and 7 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in all four fractions; and 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 16 N-glycans in KK47, and 3 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in only one fraction. Glycans in the latter category are considered potential markers for the corresponding organelles. The integrated strategy described here allows detailed examination of glycomes subcellular fraction with high resolution and sensitivity, and will be useful for elucidation of the functional roles of glycans and corresponding glycosylated proteins in distinct organelles. PMID:27313494

  20. Global Identification and Differential Distribution Analysis of Glycans in Subcellular Fractions of Bladder Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ganglong; Huang, Luyu; Zhang, Jiaxu; Yu, Hanjie; Li, Zheng; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular components and their associated biological processes is crucial for cellular function. Protein glycosylation provides a basis for diversity of protein functions. Diversity of glycan composition in animal cells remains poorly understood. We used differential centrifugation techniques to isolate four subcellular protein fractions from homogenate of metastatic bladder YTS1 cells, low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer KK47 cells and normal bladder epithelia HCV29 cells: microsomal (Mic), mitochondrial (Mito), nuclear (Nuc), and cytosolic (Cyto). An integrated strategy combining lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was then applied to evaluate protein glycosylation of the four fractions. Lectin microarray analysis revealed significant differences among the four fractions in terms of glycan binding to the lectins LCA, AAL, MPL, WGA and PWM in YTS1 cell, STL, Jacalin, VVA, LCA and WGA in KK47, and ConA, GNA, VVA and ACA in HCV29 cell. Among a total of 40, 32 and 15 N-glycans in four fractions of three cells detected by MS analysis, high-mannose and fucosylated structures were predominant, 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 5 N-glycans in KK47 and 7 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in all four fractions; and 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 16 N-glycans in KK47, and 3 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in only one fraction. Glycans in the latter category are considered potential markers for the corresponding organelles. The integrated strategy described here allows detailed examination of glycomes subcellular fraction with high resolution and sensitivity, and will be useful for elucidation of the functional roles of glycans and corresponding glycosylated proteins in distinct organelles. PMID:27313494

  1. Genetic Variant as a Selection Marker for Anti–Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Immunotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kohaar, Indu; Porter-Gill, Patricia; Lenz, Petra; Fu, Yi-Ping; Mumy, Adam; Tang, Wei; Apolo, Andrea B.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Baris, Dalsu; Schned, Alan R.; Ylaya, Kris; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Jones, Michael; Kida, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody against prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) has emerged as a novel cancer therapy currently being tested in clinical trials for prostate and pancreatic cancers, but this treatment is likely to be efficient only in patients with PSCA-expressing tumors. The present study demonstrates that a genetic variant (rs2294008) discovered by bladder cancer genome-wide association studies is a strong predictor of PSCA protein expression in bladder tumors, as measured by two-sided multi...

  2. Effects of calcitriol, seocalcitol, and medium-chain triglyceride on a canine transitional cell carcinoma cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaewsakhorn, T.; Kisseberth, W.C.; Capen, C.C.;

    2005-01-01

    Background: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in dogs is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Calcitriol and its analog seocalcitol, combined with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), have potential for the treatment of this disease. Materials and Methods: TCC cells were treated with...... calcitriol or seocalcitol, alone or combined with MCT. Cell growth, cell cycle kinetics, vitamin D receptor (VDR) localization and expression, and Bcl-2 expression were measured. Results: Canine TCC expresses high levels of nuclear VDR. Furthermore, calcitriol and seocalcitol significantly inhibited cell...... inhibited TCC cell growth via induction of cell cycle arrest and MCT enhanced this effect. Therefore, calcitriol and seocalcitol with MCT may have therapeutic potential for canine bladder cancer....

  3. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  4. Urinary bladder lesions after the chernobyl accident. Immunohistochemical assessment of p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and p21WAF1/Cip1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 11-year period subsequent to the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancer in Ukraine has increased from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 population. Cesium-137 (137Cs) accounts for 80-90% of the incorporated radioactivity in this population, which has been exposed to long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation, and 80% of the more labile pool of cesium is excreted via the urine. The present study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features and the immunohistochemical status of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1, cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in urinary bladder mucosa of 55 males (49-92 years old) with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent surgery in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1995 and 1996. Group I (28 patients) inhabiting radiocontaminated areas of the country, group II (17 patients) from Kiev city with less radiocontamination and a control group III (10 patients) living in so-called ''clean'' areas of Ukraine were compared. In groups I and II, an increase in multiple areas of moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was seen in 42 (93%) of 45 cases. In addition, two small transitional cell carcinomas were found in one patient in each of groups I and II. Nuclear accumulation of p53, PCNA, cyclin D1, and to a lesser extent p21WAF1/Cip1, was significantly increased in both groups I and II as compared with the control group III, indicating possible transformation events or enhancement of repair activities, that may precede the defect in the regulatory pathway itself, at least in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that early malignant transformation is taking place in the bladder urothelium of people in the radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine and that this could possibly lead sometime in the future to an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer. (author)

  5. TOX3 (TNRC9) overexpression in bladder cancer cells decreases cellular proliferation and triggers an interferon-like response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Mansilla, Francisco; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Thorsen, Kasper; Fristrup, Niels; Brems-Eskildsen, Anne Sofie; Madsen, Pia Pinholt; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Borre, Michael; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2013-01-01

    cell extracts with an artificial “GAS”-DNA element resulted in an enrichment of the GAS containing DNA-sequence, providing evidence for a potential interaction of TOX3 with the GAS-sequence of STAT1. Conclusions These results provide evidence for an alternative activation of the downstream interferon......Background Human TOX3 (TOX high mobility group box family member 3) regulates Ca2+-dependent transcription in neurons and has been associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Aim of the study was to investigate the expression of TOX3 in bladder cancer tissue samples and to identify genes and...... identification and immunoprecipitation studies were used for DNA binding studies. Results Microarray transcript profiling of 89 bladder biopsies showed a significant upregulation of TOX3 (p< 10-4) in non-muscle invasive (Ta-T1) bladder tumors compared to muscle-invasive (T2-T4) bladder tumors and normal...

  6. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder successfully managed with cisplatin and gemcitabine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ammari Jalal Eddine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare variant of mucus-producing adenocarcinoma constituting approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all primary carcinomas of the bladder. This tumor initially presents as a high-grade, high-stage lesion and diffusely invades the bladder wall without forming intraluminal growth. The patients have no specific symptoms, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old Moroccan Berber man consulting for gross hematuria. Ultrasonography and a computed tomography scan found a bladder tumor diffusely invading the bladder wall. A histopathological examination of the tumor chips from a transurethral resection of the bladder revealed signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma. The gastrointestinal tract exploration did not reveal any other tumor localization. A radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy were therefore performed resulting in 18 months of survival without metastasis and a good quality of life within that time. Conclusion The rarity and the successful management with carboplatin and gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy of this entity, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report.

  7. Amygdalin Blocks Bladder Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro by Diminishing Cyclin A and cdk2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Juengel, Eva; Kaulfuss, Silke; Reiter, Michael; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25–10 mg/ml) on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug. PMID:25136960

  8. Amygdalin blocks bladder cancer cell growth in vitro by diminishing cyclin A and cdk2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP. Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug.

  9. Modification of Alternative Splicing of Bcl-x Pre-mRNA in Bladder Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhaohui; XING Shi'an; CHENG Ping; ZENG Fuqing; LU Gongcheng

    2006-01-01

    To modify the splicing pattern of Bcl-x and compare the effect of this approach with that of the antisense gene therapy in BIU-87 cell line of bladder cancer, by using 5'-Bcl-x AS to target downstream alternative 5'-Bcl-x splice site to shift splicing from Bcl-xL to Bcl-xS and 3'-Bcl-x AS antisense to the 3'-splice site of exon Ⅲ in Bcl-x pre- mRNA to down regulation of Bcl-xL expression,the inhibitory effects on cancer cells by modification of alternative splicing and antisense gene therapy were observed and compared by microscopy, MTT Assay, RT-PCR, FACS, Westhern bloting and clone formation. The growth of cells BIU-87 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its inhibitory effect began 12 h after the exposure, reaching a maximum value after 72h. The number of cells decreased in S phase and the number increased in G1 phase. The ability to form foci was reduced and the antisense gene therapy was approximately half as efficient as modification of alternative splicing in inducing apoptosis. It is concluded that modification of splicing pattern of Bcl-x pre-mRNA in bladder cancer cell BIU-87 is better than antisense gene therapy in terms of tumor inhibition.

  10. Use of cell proliferation data in modeling urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S M; Ellwein, L. B.

    1993-01-01

    A multistage, probabilistic, biologically based model of carcinogenesis has been developed involving qualitative and quantitative aspects of the process. A chemical can affect the risk of cancer by directly damaging DNA and/or increasing the number of cell divisions during which errors in DNA replication can occur. Based on this model, carcinogens are classified as genotoxic versus nongenotoxic; nongenotoxic chemicals are further divided on the basis of whether or not they act through a speci...

  11. The dual effects of polar methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, U. O.; Nseyo, O. U.; Shiverick, K. T.; Medrano, T.; Mejia, M.; Stavropoulos, N.; Tsimaris, I.; Skalkos, D.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction and background: We have reported on the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Hypericum Perforatum L as a novel photosensitizing agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic diagnosis (PDD). PMF has been tested in human leukemic cells, HL-60 cells, cord blood hemopoietic progenitor cells, bladder cancers derived from metastatic lymph node (T-24) and primary papillary bladder lesion (RT-4). However, the mechanisms of the effects of PMF on these human cell lines have not been elucidated. We have investigated mechanisms of PMF + light versus PMF-alone (dark experiment) in T-24 human bladder cancer cells. Methods: PMF was prepared from an aerial herb of HPL which was brewed in methanol and extracted with ether and methanol. Stock solutions of PMF were made in DSMO and stored in dark conditions. PMF contains 0.57% hypericin and 2.52% hyperforin. The T24 cell line was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). In PDT treatment, PMF (60μg/ml) was incubated with cells, which were excited with laser light (630nm) 24 hours later. Apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation/laddering assay. DNA isolation was performed according to the manufacture's instructions with the Kit (Oncogene Kit#AM41). Isolated DNA samples were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% in agarose gels and bands were visualized by ethidium bromide labeling. The initial cell cycle analysis and phase distribution was by flow cytometry. DNA synthesis was measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, and cell cycle regulatory proteins were assayed by Western immunoblot. Results: The results of the flow cytometry showed PMF +light induced significant (40%) apoptosis in T24 cells, whereas Light or PMF alone produced little apoptosis. The percentage of cells in G 0/G I phase was decreased by 25% and in G2/M phase by 38%. The main impact was observed on the S phase which was blocked by 78% from the specific photocytotoxic process. DNA laddering analysis showed that PMF (60

  12. Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata Induce Bladder Cancer Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting Akt Signaling Pathway through Downregulating miR-155 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Tao Pan; Yip Sheung; Wen-Peng Guo; Zhi-Bin Rong; Zhi-Ming Cai

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is increasingly used to treat cancer. Our clinical experiences identify Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common herb-pair (couplet medicinal) used for the core treatment of bladder cancer. This study aims to investigate the antitumor effect of the herb-pair in bladder cancer cells. The results show that Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata inhibited bladder cancer cell growth and clone formation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent mann...

  13. T24 human bladder carcinoma cells with activated Ha-ras protooncogene: nontumorigenic cells susceptible to malignant transformation with carcinogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Senger, D. R.; Perruzzi, C A; Ali, I U

    1988-01-01

    A comparative analysis of T24 human bladder carcinoma cells and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MeNNG)-transformed derivatives (MeNNG-T24 cells) revealed the following: (i) The presence of an activated c-Ha-ras gene (in the absence of the normal allele) is insufficient to confer upon T24 cells a tumor-associated phenotype. (ii) MeNNG-transformed T24 cells not only acquire tumor-associated (in vitro) traits (growth in soft agar and rhodamine retention) but, are highly tumorigenic in nude...

  14. [A CASE OF ADVANCED BLADDER NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA) SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED BY LOW DOSE OF ORAL TEGAFUR-URACIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Hayahito; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Minami, Koichiro; Maenosono, Ryoichi; Matsunaga, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Tsujino, Takuya; Hirano, Hajime; Inamoto, Teruo; Yamamoto, Ikuhisa; Tsuji, Motomu; Kiyama, Satoshi; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-10-01

    A 81-old-woman underwent a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) at a nearby hospital in April 2011. The diagnosis was invasive urothelial carcinoma, G3 with a component of bladder small cell carcinoma, T1 or more. She was recommended to visit our hospital for combined modality therapy of bladder cancer, but she refused the treatment for over one year. In May 2012, she came to our hospital with the chief complaint of pain at urination. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary sessile tumor in the top of the bladder, and CT scan demonstrated the presence of the right obturator lymph nodes swollen up to 1.2 cm in size. The second TURBT was performed and the diagnosis was bladder small cell carcinoma (pT3N2M0) according to urothelial cancer guidelines of the Japanese Urological Association (JUA). Because she strongly refused hospitalization anymore, we started daily oral intake of low dose Tegafur-Uracil (100 mg) for the treatment. After one month, the serum Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE; tumor maker of small cell cancer) level was elevated to 27.6 ng/ml and the right obturator lymph node was enlarged up to 1.9 cm. Therefore, the Trgafur-Uracil dose was increased to 200 mg daily. After then, the serum NSE level was decreased to 15.5 ng/ml following reduction in size of the obturator lymph nodes with partial response in December 2013. After two years of follow-up period, her regular urine test showed normal findings, and no apparent recurrence was detected on urinary bladder with MRI and Cystoscopy. This is a case of advanced bladder small cell carcinoma significantly improved by oral administration of Tegafur-Uracil 200 mg/day for over 2 years. PMID:26717786

  15. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  16. Beneficial effects of urine-derived stem cells on fibrosis and apoptosis of myocardial, glomerular and bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xingyou; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Jingzhen; Zhao, Jiang; Li, Jia; Sun, Bishao; Ding, Guolin; Hu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Longkun

    2016-05-15

    Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are isolated from voided urine and display high proliferative activity and multiple differentiation potentials. The applicability of USCs in the treatment of bladder dysfunction and in cell-based urological tissue engineering has been demonstrated. Whether they could serve as a potential stem cell source for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications has not been investigated. Here, we report the repairing and protective effects of USCs on pancreatic islets, the myocardium, the renal glomerulus and the bladder detrusor in diabetic rat models. Type 2 diabetic rat models were induced by means of a high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin. USCs isolated from voided urine were administered via tail veins. The functional changes of pancreatic islets, left ventricle, glomerulus and bladder micturition were assessed by means of insulin tolerance tests, echocardiography, urine biochemical indexes and cystometry. The histologic changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining and TUNEL staining. Treatment with USCs significantly alleviated the histological destruction and functional decline. Although the USC treatment did not decrease fasting blood glucose to a significantly different level, the fibrosis and apoptosis of the myocardium, glomerulus and detrusor were significantly inhibited. This study indicates that administration of USCs may be useful for the treatment of the complications of DM. PMID:26952874

  17. Complete en bloc urinary exenteration for synchronous multicentric transitional cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features in a hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio M. Siqueira Jr

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC in patients submitted to hemodialysis is low. The presence of TCC with sarcomatoid features in this cohort is even scarcer. Herein, we describe a very rare case of synchronous multicentric muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with prostate invasion in a hemodialysis patient, submitted to complete en bloc urinary exenteration.

  18. The probability of involvement of human papillomavirus in the carcinogenesis of bladder small cell carcinoma, prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and penile squamous cell carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Soichiro; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus is associated with urogenital carcinogenesis such as penile and uterine cervix cancer. On the other hand, association between human papillomavirus infection and risk of bladder and prostatic cancer remains controversial. Case presentation We report a rare case of a 67-year-old Japanese man with synchronous triple urogenital cancer including bladder small cell carcinoma, prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and penile squamous cell carcinoma, who presented with a hi...

  19. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  20. High dose etretinate and interferon-alpha--a phase I study in squamous cell carcinomas and transitional cell carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Arnaud; Morant, Rudolf Hans Joséf; Alberto, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous exposure to retinoids and interferons can result in enhanced antiproliferative and differentiating effects on malignant lesions. We studied the toxicity and the potential efficacy of an association of high dose etretinate and Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, head and neck, the esophagus, cervix and the penis, as well as in transitional carcinomas of the bladder. The treatment consisted of etretinate (Tigason) 4 mg/kg/d on 2, 3, 4 and finally 5...

  1. Inhibition of inducible heat shock protein-70 (hsp72 enhances bortezomib-induced cell death in human bladder cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi

    Full Text Available The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade is a promising new agent for bladder cancer therapy, but inducible cytoprotective mechanisms may limit its potential efficacy. We used whole genome mRNA expression profiling to study the effects of bortezomib on stress-induced gene expression in a panel of human bladder cancer cell lines. Bortezomib induced strong upregulation of the inducible HSP70 isoforms HSPA1A and HSPA1B isoforms of Hsp72 in 253J B-V and SW780 (HSPA1A(high cells, but only induced the HSPA1B isoform in UM-UC10 and UM-UC13 (HSPA1A(low cells. Bortezomib stimulated the binding of heat shock factor-1 (HSF1 to the HSPA1A promoter in 253JB-V but not in UM-UC13 cells. Methylation-specific PCR revealed that the HSPA1A promoter was methylated in the HSPA1A(low cell lines (UM-UC10 and UM-UC13, and exposure to the chromatin demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored HSPA1A expression. Overexpression of Hsp72 promoted bortezomib resistance in the UM-UC10 and UM-UC13 cells, whereas transient knockdown of HSPA1B further sensitized these cells to bortezomib, and exposure to the chemical HSF1 inhibitor KNK-437 promoted bortezomib sensitivity in the 253J B-V cells. Finally, shRNA-mediated stable knockdown of Hsp72 in 253J B-V promoted sensitivity to bortezomib in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Together, our results provide proof-of-concept for using Hsp72 inhibitors to promote bortezomib sensitivity in bladder cancers and suggest that selective targeting of HSPA1B could produce synthetic lethality in tumors that display HSPA1A promoter methylation.

  2. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  3. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  4. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kuiqing; Chen, Xu [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Liu, Cheng [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Gu, Peng; Li, Zhuohang; Wu, Shaoxu [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Xu, Kewei [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Lin, Tianxin, E-mail: tianxinl@sina.com [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Huang, Jian, E-mail: urolhj@sina.com [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. - Highlights: • Pirarubicin induced autophagy in bladder cancer cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced pirarubicin-induced apoptosis. • Pirarubicin induced autophagy through inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway.

  5. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. - Highlights: • Pirarubicin induced autophagy in bladder cancer cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced pirarubicin-induced apoptosis. • Pirarubicin induced autophagy through inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway

  6. Cholesterol crystal embolization diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Denis; Cordonnier, Carole; Brevet, Marie; Petit, Jacques; Sevestre, Henri

    2005-08-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is a severe systemic disorder caused by vascular migration of cholesterol crystals originating from ulcerative atherosclerotic plaques located in large arteries. We report 2 cases of CCE diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection in 2 men aged 94 and 72 years. Both patients had atherosclerosis disease. One patient had been treated by heparin 1 month before for pulmonary embolism and the other had had a coronary angiography and bypass graft surgery 5 months before for silent myocardial infarction. One patient presented with hematuria and the other with acute renal failure. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors of the bladder wall. Bladder transurethral resections showed transitional cell carcinoma with cholesterol crystals occluding the lumen of small arterioles in the submucosa. Eight cases of CCE in the bladder wall have been reported in the literature in 3 women and 5 men aged 56 to 79 years. Cholesterol crystal embolization is often discovered in the bladder wall on necropsy specimens. Only 2 cases have been fortuitously discovered on bladder transurethral resection performed for transitional cell carcinoma. Cholesterol crystal embolization in the bladder wall is often a marker of severe disease although the evolution is quite favorable in our patients, still alive 1 and 2 years after diagnosis. PMID:16084459

  7. Role of VEGF in the growth and metastasis of a murine bladder carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; WU Jihong; TIAN Yuhua; CHEN Xiafang; HU Honghui; WU Wensen; LI Chuanyuan; HUANG Qian

    2003-01-01

    Bladder transitional cell carcinoma is the most common form of carcinoma in the urinary system. Although overexpression of VEGF has been identified in tissue, serum, and urine of patients with bladder cancer, the role of VEGF in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we dissected the effect of VEGF during bladder tumor growth and progression by modifying a BBN (N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine) induced mouse bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line BTT-T739 by stable transfection of antisense VEGF121 cDNA. The transfection resulted in more than 80% reduction in VEGF production. The growth of the transduced tumor cells in vitro was not affected, however, these cells formed small or no tumors in vivo. Even in the tumors formed, there were mini- mal vascularization, extensive necrosis and longer latency compared to those formed by parental cells. The permeability of tumor vasculature and metastatic tumor growth were also significantly suppressed in antisense VEGF cDNA trans- fected cells. In addition, the transfer of anti-angiogenic gene in a combination of sFlk-1 and ExTek with electroporation can suppress the tumor growth efficiently. Taken together, these results demonstrated that VEGF plays an important role in bladder tumor angiogenesis and angiogenesis plays an important role in bladder tumor growth and metastasis.

  8. Short-term resveratrol exposure causes in vitro and in vivo growth inhibition and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Li Wu

    Full Text Available Conventional adjuvant chemotherapies for bladder transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs may cause strong systemic toxicity and local irritation. Non-toxic resveratrol inhibits TCC cell growth but its feasibility in clinical management of TCCs remains obscure. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and anti-TCC efficacy of resveratrol, using the experimental models closer to the clinical treatment condition. Human TCC EJ cells were exposed to 100 µM, 150 µM and 200 µM resveratrol respectively for 1 hour and 2 hours to mimic intravesical drug instillation and the cell responses were analyzed by multiple experimental approaches. An orthotopic TCC nude mouse model was established by injecting EJ cells into the sub-urothelial layer and used for short-term intravesical resveratrol instillation. The safety of resveratrol instillation was evaluated and compared with that of MCC. The results revealed that 2 h 150 µM or 200 µM resveratrol treatment leaded to remarkable S phase arrest and apoptosis at 72 h time-point, accompanied with attenuated phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcription of STAT3, down-regulation of STAT3 downstream genes (survivin, cyclinD1, c-Myc and VEGF and nuclear translocations of Sirt1 and p53. The importance of STAT3 signaling in cell growth was confirmed by treating EJ cells with JAK2 inhibitor tyrphostin AG490. The efficacy and safety of resveratrol instillation were proved by the findings from nude mouse orthotopic xenograft models, because this treatment caused growth suppression, distinctive apoptosis and STAT3 inactivation of the transplanted tumors without affecting normal urothelium. Our results thus suggest for the first time the practical values of resveratrol as a safe and effective agent in the post-operative treatment of TCCs.

  9. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  10. Rapid Fatal Outcome from Pulmonary Arteries Compression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Voutsadakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignancy that metastasizes frequently to lymph nodes including the mediastinal lymph nodes. This occurrence may produce symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures such as the superior vena cava syndrome or dysphagia from esophageal compression. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma for whom mediastinal lymphadenopathy led to pulmonary artery compression and a rapidly fatal outcome. This rare occurrence has to be distinguished from pulmonary embolism, a much more frequent event in cancer patients, in order that proper and prompt treatment be initiated.

  11. Activation of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Bα by Methylene-Substituted Diindolylmethanes in Bladder Cancer Cells Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Tumor GrowthS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Dae Cho, Sung; Lee, Syng-Ook; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Abdelrahim, Maen; Khan, Shaheen; Yoon, Kyungsil; Kamat, Ashish M.; Safe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor-induced B (NGFI-B) genes are orphan nuclear receptors, and NGFI-Bα (Nur77, TR3) is overexpressed in bladder tumors and bladder cancer cells compared with nontumorous bladder tissue. 1,1-Bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-methoxyphenyl)-methane (DIM-C-pPhOCH3) and 1,1-bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-phenyl)methane have previously been identified as activators of Nur77, and both compound...

  12. Apoptosis inducing effects of arsenic trioxide on human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童强松; 曾甫清; 赵军; 鲁功成; 郑丽端

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the apoptosis inducing effects of arsenictrioxide (As2O3) on human bladder cancer cells and elucidate possible mechanisms. Methods After treatment with As2O3, the growth inhibition rates of human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 were studied by MTT and cell counts methods. DNA synthesis rates were detected by 3 H-TdR assay. The morphological changes of cancer cells were observed by light and electronic microscopy and cell apoptosis rates were detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). bcl-2 gene expression of BIU-87 cells was observed by strept avidin-biotin complex (SABC) immunohistochemical method. Results As2O3 could effectively inhibit the growth of BIU-87 (P<0.05), which were time and concentration dependent. The inhibition rate of 4.0?μmol/L As2O3 for DNA synthesis of cancer cells was 55.64% (P<0.01). Partial cancer cells presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis which depended on the time of exposure to drug (P<0.05). bcl-2 expression of BIU-87 cells was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion As2O3 can significantly induce apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by down-regulating the expression of the bcl-2 gene and inhibiting DNA synthesis. This provides a potentially effective method for prevention and cure of human bladder cancer.%目的观察三氧化二砷(As2O3)对人膀胱癌细胞的诱导凋亡作用并探讨其机制。方法采用细胞计数和MTT法检测As2O3对人膀胱癌细胞株BIU-87的生长抑制作用;采用3H-TdR掺入法 检测癌细胞DNA合成速率;采用普通光镜、透射电镜观察癌细胞形态学变化;采用TUNEL检测癌细胞凋 亡比率;采用SABC免疫组化观察BIU-87细胞中bcl-2的表达变化。 结果As2O3可有效地抑制BIU-87细胞的体外生长(P<0.05),并具有时间及浓度依赖性的特点。经 4μmol/LAs2O3作用后,癌细胞DNA合成抑制率为55.64%。部分膀胱癌细胞体积缩小、核固缩、染色质核 膜下聚

  13. Silencing of RTKN2 by siRNA suppresses proliferation, and induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Xiang; Zeng, Jin-Min; Zhou, Jia-Jie; Yang, Guang-Hua; Ding, Kun; Zhang, Xian-Jue

    2016-06-01

    Human bladder cancer is the most common urological malignancy in China. One of the causes of carcinogenesis in the cancer may be gene mutation. Therefore, the present study investigated the expression levels of Rhotekin 2 (RTKN2), a Rho effector protein, in human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, and examined the effect of RTKN2 on the proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and invasion of human bladder cancer cell lines. The mRNA expression levels of RTKN2 in 30 human bladder cancer tissue samples were significantly higher, compared with those in 30 normal human bladder tissue samples. The protein expression levels of RTKN2 was markedly higher in T24 and 5637 cells, compared with those in four other human bladder cancer cell lines. The silencing of RTKN2 by small interfering (si)RNA inhibited cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle at the G1 phase, via reducing the expression levels of the MCM10, CDK2, CDC24A and CDC6 cell cycle‑associated proteins in the T24 and 5637 cells. Furthermore, RTKN2 knockdown in the cells led to cell apoptosis and the suppression of invasion. These results suggested that RTKN2 is involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of human bladder cancer, indicating that RTKN2 may be a molecular target in cancer therapy. PMID:27082503

  14. Imaging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common urothelial neoplasm to involve the upper urinary tract and bladder. Prognosis significantly worsens with deeper invasion. The role of imaging is to detect the tiniest urothelial neoplasms while still potentially resectable and curable. In case of advance disease, imaging should identify the extent of disease. Intravenous or retrograde urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging have been used for diagnosis of TCC. The diagnostic performances of these imaging modalities differ from each other. A recent review regarding imaging of TCC by Razavi et al states that the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for the detection of TCC of upper urinary tract for CT urography (CTU), MR urography, excretory urography, and retrograde urography were 96%/99%, 69%/97%, 80%/81%, and 96%/96%, respectively. For detecting bladder cancer, the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for CT cystography, MR cystography, and ultrasonography were 94%/98%, 91%/95%, and 78%/96%, respectively. They conclude that CT urography is the best imaging technique for confirming or excluding malignancy in the upper urinary tract, whereas CT cystography has the best diagnostic performance for diagnosing bladder cancer. While cystoscopy is still considered by most to be the gold-standard for evaluation of the urinary bladder, CTU is playing an increasing role in the detection of urinary bladder urothelial neoplasms. As with the upper urinary tract, bladder urothelial neoplasms typically present as a filling defect, a focal mass, or an area of abnormal focal wall thickening. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior for evaluation of the depth of tumour invasion into the bladder wall, but this knowledge may not ultimately affect treatment as feasibility for radical cystectomy depends on staging by a combination of clinical, histopathological and imaging findings. Radical cystectomy may include resection of adjacent organs

  15. Primary uterine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the urinary bladder with urinary cytology mimicking carcinomas: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiyo Adachi; Kazuto Yamazaki; Shan-Guang Liang; Yasuo Ishida

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 69-year-old woman in whom diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) originated from the uterus and involved the urinary bladder. The cervical smears of the case mostly consisted of discohesive atypical round cells, which were highly suggestive of lymphoma; however, in voided urine smears, a majority of the cells formed large aggregates of degenerated cells, mimicking those of urothelial carcinoma (UC). The smears also represented some small loose clusters, in which tumo...

  16. Transitional Cell Carcinoma Involving the Prostate: Transrectal Grayscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here on three cases of prostatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), two confirmed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided core biopsy and one by transurethral resection of the prostate. TCC was found in the right distal ureter in one case, in the urinary bladder in another, and was confined within the prostate in the third. On gray-scale ultrasonography (GSUS), two cases showed focal, low echoic lesions in the outer gland, and differentiation between the inner and outer glands was difficult. The third case showed no definite focal prostatic lesion. On color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), two cases showed diffusely increased blood flow in the entire prostate, and the third showed focally increased blood flow in the inner gland. The serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels were normal in all three patients. The GSUS and CDUS findings of TCC involving the prostate were similar to those of prostatic cancer. In the case of normal serum PSA levels, the presence of focal, low echoic lesions and increased blood flow of the prostate in those patients with previous or current TCC in the bladder or upper urinary tract may be the distinguishing manifestations of TCC involving the prostate

  17. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  18. High frequency of TERT promoter mutation in small cell carcinoma of bladder, but not in small cell carcinoma of other origins

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoyong; Zhuge, Jian; Bezerra, Stephania M.; Faraj, Sheila F.; Munari, Enrico; Fallon, John T.; Yang, Ximing J; Argani, Pedram; Netto, George J.; Zhong, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    TERT promoter mutations were recently discovered in melanoma by next generation sequencing. Subsequently, several malignancies including urothelial carcinoma were also found to be associated with the same TERT promoter mutations. Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder is a rare subtype with an aggressive clinical course. Despite the frequent occurrence of TERT promoter mutations in urothelial carcinoma, the incidence of the mutations in SCC of the urinary bladder is unknown. In add...

  19. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  20. Antiproliferative factor decreases Akt phosphorylation and alters gene expression via CKAP4 in T24 bladder carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen-Ou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide, and outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer remain poor. Antiproliferative factor (APF is a potent glycopeptide inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation that was discovered in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, a disorder with bladder epithelial thinning and ulceration. APF mediates its antiproliferative activity in primary normal bladder epithelial cells via cytoskeletal associated protein 4 (CKAP4. Because synthetic asialo-APF (as-APF has also been shown to inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations in vitro, and because the peptide segment of APF is 100% homologous to part of frizzled 8, we determined whether CKAP4 mediates as-APF inhibition of proliferation and/or downstream Wnt/frizzled signaling events in T24 cells. Methods T24 cells were transfected with double-stranded siRNAs against CKAP4 and treated with synthetic as-APF or inactive control peptide; cells that did not undergo electroporation and cells transfected with non-target (scrambled double-stranded siRNA served as negative controls. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Expression of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, β-catenin, p53, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 mRNA was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Akt, GSK-3β, MMP2, β-catenin, and p53 protein expression, plus Akt, GSK-3β, and β-catenin phosphorylation, were determined by Western blot. Results T24 cell proliferation, MMP2 expression, Akt ser473 and thr308 phosphorylation, GSK3β tyr216 phosphorylation, and β-catenin ser45/thr41 phosphorylation were all decreased by APF, whereas p53 expression, and β-catenin ser33,37/thr41 phosphorylation, were increased by APF treatment in non-electroporated and non-target siRNA-transfected cells. Neither mRNA nor total protein expression of Akt, GSK3β, or

  1. Primary bladder lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type: Case report and literature review of 26 cases

    OpenAIRE

    W Greg Simpson; Armando Lopez; Paurush Babbar; Lynnetta Faith Payne

    2015-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is exceedingly rare, representing 0.2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. Although Matsuno et al. and others state the most common type is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, 20% of all the primary lymphomas of the urinary bladder are considered to be high grade neoplasms; the majority being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This is a case report of a 48-year-old man that presented with hematuria, frequency, nocturia, and flan...

  2. Origins of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Bogdan; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David

    2016-05-23

    Bladder cancer, one of the most frequently occurring human cancers, develops via two tracks referred to as papillary and nonpapillary that correspond to clinically different forms of the disease. Most bladder cancers are chemically induced, with tobacco smoking being the leading risk factor. Recent advances in bladder cancer research have enhanced our understanding of the origin of this disease from urothelial progenitor cells via field effects along papillary/luminal and nonpapillary/basal pathways. Evident from the outset of the disease, the diversity of the luminal and basal pathways, together with cell lineage tracing studies, postulates the origin of molecularly distinct subtypes from different uroprogenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms initiating field effects involve a new class of genes referred to as forerunner (FR) genes that generally map around major tumor suppressors such as RB1. These genes are silenced, predominantly by hypermethylation and less frequently by mutations, and drive the expansion of intraurothelial preneoplastic cells. Different FR genes are involved in various molecular subtypes of bladder cancer and they sensitize the uroprogenitor cells to the development of luminal and basal bladder cancers in animal models. In human bladder cancer, luminal and basal forms have dissimilar clinical behavior and response to conventional and targeted chemotherapeutic manipulations. These new research developments hold the promise of expanding our armamentarium of diagnostic and treatment options for patients with bladder cancer and improving our ability to select patients most likely to respond to a specific therapy. PMID:26907529

  3. Correlation between Grade in Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC and Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Jallali Nadoushan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR expression with grade of Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC. Methods: Tumor samples of 75 patients from Mostafa Khomaini Hospital with Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the bladder were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of EGFR. In this context, we assigned the bladder tumors a grade accord¬ing WHO classification. Results analyzed for possible correlation with the expression status of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR. Results: This cross-sectional study showed that all grades of Transitional Cell Carcinoma expressed EGFR, and 14 cases were LMP (18.9% which 10 cases among them had negative cells according EGFR point of view(71.4% and 4 cases had re¬ported positive (28.6%. Thirty five cases were low grade (46.7% which 18 cases among them had reported negative cells (51.4% and 17 cases had positive cells (48.6%. Twenty six cases were high grade (34.7% that 9 cases among them had reported negative cells (34.6%. Seventeen cases had positive cells (65.4%. Mann-Witney test showed relation between grade and expression of EGFR (P<0.05. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of EGFR is correlated with grade of tumor.

  4. Structure of the major membrane protein complex from urinary bladder epithelial cells by cryo-electron crystallography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostergetel, GT; Keegstra, W; Brisson, A

    2001-01-01

    Numerous protein plaques cover the apical surface of mammalian urinary bladder epithelial cells. These plaques contain four integral membrane proteins, called uroplakins, which form a well-ordered array of hexameric complexes. The 3D structure of these naturally occurring 2D crystals was studied by

  5. Speciation of arsenic in exfoliated urinary bladder epithelial cells from individuals exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Zavala, A.; Valenzuela, O.L.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Drobná, Z.; Dědina, Jiří; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Thomas, D. J.; Del Razo, L.M.; Stýblo, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 12 (2008), s. 1656-1660. ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : arsenic species * drinking water * exfoliated human urinary bladder epithelial cells Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.123, year: 2008

  6. Bladder Retraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a better voiding pattern around the clock. Do Kegel Exercises Help People with IC? Some bladder retraining programs recommend practicing Kegel exercises as part of bladder retraining. Kegel exercises ...

  7. Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symphysis pubis, and below the parietal peritoneum . The size and shape of the urinary bladder ... outer layer of the bladder wall is parietal peritoneum. In all other regions, the outer layer is ...

  8. Bladder Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life (the person’s level of health, comfort, and happiness). In fact, people with bladder problems may have a lower quality of life than people with diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Bladder problems ...

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary bladder neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Patidar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound has been shown to be a sensitive method for evaluating patients with chronic obstruction, bladder outlet obstruction, urinary tract infection, renal failure, renal and bladder neoplasm and renal transplants. It is now recommended as the method of choice for preliminary assessment and follow-up of several of these disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonographic features of neoplastic lesions of urinary bladder. Methods: Clinical impression about the suspected abnormality was obtained from the case papers or from referring by clinical colleagues. Data was recorded under headings like clinical history, clinical examinations, investigations like urine analysis, serum creatinine and blood urea, X-ray of chest and Kidney Urinary Bladder, pelvic and abdominal Ultrasonography, and if require CT scan and guided biopsy. Results: out of total 35 cases 29 were Transitional Cell Carcinoma, 4 were Squamous Cell Carcinoma, One leiomyoma and one was secondary from bronchogenic carcinoma. Most of tumours were irregular in shape in both TCC and SCC patients. Most of tumour showed heterogeneous echo-texture in ultrasonography. While all SCC showed heterogeneous with calcification echo-texture. Most of the cases had residual urine volume was less than 100 cc. Conclusions: The primary advantage of ultrasound over the conventional study was found to be its ability to detect focal or diffuse bladder wall abnormalities in patients who presented with commonest complaint of painless hematuria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3775-3778

  10. Characterization of HGF/Met Signaling in Cell Lines Derived From Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young H. [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Apolo, Andrea B. [Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Agarwal, Piyush K.; Bottaro, Donald P., E-mail: dbottaro@helix.nih.gov [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-11-25

    There is mounting evidence of oncogenic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met signaling in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. The effects of three kinase inhibitors, cabozantinib, crizotinib and EMD1214063, on HGF-driven signaling and cell growth, invasion and tumorigenicity were analyzed in cultured UC cell lines. SW780 xenograft growth in SCID and human HGF knock-in SCID (hHGF/SCID) mice treated with cabozantinib or vehicle, as well as tumor levels of Met and pMet, were also determined. Met content was robust in most UC-derived cell lines. Basal pMet content and effector activation state in quiescent cells were low, but significantly enhanced by added HGF, as were cell invasion, proliferation and anchorage independent growth. These HGF-driven effects were reversed by Met inhibitor treatment. Tumor xenograft growth was significantly higher in hHGF/SCID mice vs. SCID mice and significantly inhibited by cabozantinib, as was tumor phospho-Met content. These studies indicate the prevalence and functionality of the HGF/Met signaling pathway in UC cells, suggest that paracrine HGF may contribute to UC tumor growth and progression, and that support further preclinical investigation of Met inhibitors for the treatment of UC is warranted.

  11. A droplet-based building block approach for bladder smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering based on building blocks is an emerging method to fabricate 3D tissue constructs. This method requires depositing and assembling building blocks (cell-laden microgels) at high throughput. The current technologies (e.g., molding and photolithography) to fabricate microgels have throughput challenges and provide limited control over building block properties (e.g., cell density). The cell-encapsulating droplet generation technique has potential to address these challenges. In this study, we monitored individual building blocks for viability, proliferation and cell density. The results showed that (i) SMCs can be encapsulated in collagen droplets with high viability (>94.2 ± 3.2%) for four cases of initial number of cells per building block (i.e. 7 ± 2, 16 ± 2, 26 ± 3 and 37 ± 3 cells/building block). (ii) Encapsulated SMCs can proliferate in building blocks at rates that are consistent (1.49 ± 0.29) across all four cases, compared to that of the controls. (iii) By assembling these building blocks, we created an SMC patch (5 mm x 5 mm x 20 μm), which was cultured for 51 days forming a 3D tissue-like construct. The histology of the cultured patch was compared to that of a native rat bladder. These results indicate the potential of creating 3D tissue models at high throughput in vitro using building blocks.

  12. Renal Cell Carcinoma with Concurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Danko; Tomasović-Lončarić, Čedna; Galešić-Ljubanović, Danica; Heinzl, Renata; Savić, Ivan; Marušić, Petar

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 71-year-old male with multiple primary malignancies involving kidney and urinary bladder, combined with synchronous lymphoma. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of painless gross hematuria. Examination revealed tumor of the right kidney and papillary tumor in the urinary bladder and enlarged lymph nodes along aorta and inferior vena cava. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR), radical nephrectomy of the right kidney and retroperitoneal lymphadenect...

  13. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induces downregulation of critical Hsp90 protein clients and results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human urinary bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and scratch-wound assay in RT4, RT112 and T24 human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have demonstrated that, upon 17-AAG treatment, bladder cancer cells are arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-AAG administration was shown to induce a pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream effectors, such as IGF-IR, Akt, IKK-α, IKK-β, FOXO1, ERK1/2 and c-Met, resulting in sequestration-mediated inactivation of NF-κB, reduced cell proliferation and decline of cell motility. In total, we have clearly evinced a dose-dependent and cell type-specific effect of 17-AAG on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of multiple Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling integrity

  14. Analysis on Pathogenesis of 50 Cases of Bladder Proliferative Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 蓝儒竹; 叶章群; 杨为民

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the pathogenesis, clinical and pathological characteristics of prolifera-tive lesions of the bladder, 50 cases of proliferative lesions of the bladder from 150 patients withcomplaints of frequency, urgency, hematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopic biopsy ofthe suspicious foci in the bladder. In combination with the symptoms, urine routine and urodynam-ics, the relationship of proliferative lesions of the bladder to the inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract was analyzed. Of the 50 cases of proliferative bladder lesions, 44 cases (88%)had lower urinary tract infection and 29 (58%) lower urinary tract obstruction. The patients withlower urinary tract obstruction were all complicated with infection. Three cases were associatedwith transitional cell carcinoma. Malignant cells were detected in 1 case by urinary cytologic exami-nation. Proliferative lesions of the bladder, especially those without other obvious mucosa changesunder cystoscopy, are common histological variants of urothelium in the patients with chronic in-flammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract. Chronic inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract might be the causes for proliferative lesions of the bladder. It is suggested thatdifferent treatments should be applied according to the scope and histological type of the prolifera-tive lesions.

  15. Liposome-administered tetramethylhematoporphyrin (TMHP) as a photodynamic agent for bladder tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Ella D.; Bachor, Ruediger; Miller, Kurt; Koenig, Karsten; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1993-06-01

    This study was made in order to determine whether liposomes can bind and deliver the photosensitizer to human bladder carcinoma cells and how effective the photodynamic activity of this photosensitizer is. TMHP (synthesized by Prof. Muller v.d. Haegen) was incorporated into small unilamellar vesicles of DPPC, following the procedure described by Jori et al TMHP was used in a dosage of 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 (mu) g/ml on two different cell lines. Cellular uptake of TMHP in liposomes was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Dark toxicity became evident, when doses of 10 and 20 (mu) g/ml TMHP encapsulated in liposomes were compared to control liposomes without photosensitizer. PDT was performed after sensitization of cells for one hour using an argon-pumped dye laser at 630 nm and a power density of 30 mW/cm2. Irradiation with 3,6 and 7,2 Joule/cm2 resulted in a decreasing survival rate. This study demonstrates PDT-efficiency being dependent on the dose of liposome-encapsulated TMHP as well as the fluence rate. There is also a difference in cell survival according to the cell line.

  16. Identification of Differently Expressed Genes in Chemical Carcinogen-induced Rat Bladder Cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangfu CHEN; Franky L. CHAN; Xu ZHANG; Peter S.F. CHAN

    2009-01-01

    Possible altered gene expression patterns in bladder turnout carcinogenesis in rat bladder cancers induced by BBN [N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine] was examined by cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression profiles.Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were given drinking water containing 0.05% BBN ad libitum for 24 to 28-weeks.Equal numbers of control rats were given tap water without BBN.After treatment,the rat bladders were excised for RNA extraction and histopathological examinations.Total RNAs were extracted from rat transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tissues and micro-dissected normal rat bladder epithelia.The atlas glass rat microarray was used,which included oligonucleotides of 1081 rat genes.Some of the up-regulated genes in rat bladder TCCs were further confirmed by Northern blotting.Our results showed that the transcriptions of 30 genes were significantly elevated in the rat bladder TCCs,and these included fly proto-oncogene,Lipocortin 2,COX Ⅳ,COX Ⅴ a,and cathepsin D.Also,15 genes were significantly down-regulated in the rat bladder TCCs and they included B7.1,TNFrl,APOAI and VHL.The resuits of cDNA microarray analysis demonstrated that normal rat bladder epithelia and bladder TCC exhibited different and specific gene statement profiles.The increased expressions of the identified genes may play an important role in the chemically induced bladder carcinogenesis.

  17. Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 Regulates Glucose Metabolism in Bladder Cancer Cells through Coactivation of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chang, Cunjie; Cui, Yangyan; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Yang, Jun; Shen, Lan; Zhou, Ji; Hou, Zhibo; Zhang, Zhen; Ye, Changxiao; Hasenmayer, Donald; Perkins, Robert; Huang, Xiaojing; Yao, Xin; Yu, Like; Huang, Ruimin; Zhang, Dianzheng; Guo, Hongqian; Yan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cell proliferation is a metabolically demanding process, requiring high glycolysis, which is known as “Warburg effect,” to support anabolic growth. Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a steroid receptor coactivator, is overexpressed and/or amplified in multiple cancer types, including non-steroid targeted cancers, such as urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, whether SRC-3 regulates the metabolic reprogramming for cancer cell growth is unknown. Here, we reported that overexpression of SRC-3 accelerated UBC cell growth, accompanied by the increased expression of genes involved in glycolysis. Knockdown of SRC-3 reduced the UBC cell glycolytic rate under hypoxia, decreased tumor growth in nude mice, with reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and lactate dehydrogenase expression levels. We further revealed that SRC-3 could interact with hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), which is a key transcription factor required for glycolysis, and coactivate its transcriptional activity. SRC-3 was recruited to the promoters of HIF1α-target genes, such as glut1 and pgk1. The positive correlation of expression levels between SRC-3 and Glut1 proteins was demonstrated in human UBC patient samples. Inhibition of glycolysis through targeting HK2 or LDHA decelerated SRC-3 overexpression-induced cell growth. In summary, overexpression of SRC-3 promoted glycolysis in bladder cancer cells through HIF1α to facilitate tumorigenesis, which may be an intriguing drug target for bladder cancer therapy. PMID:24584933

  18. Changes in autofluorescence based organoid model of muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Fleming, Stewart; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-04-01

    Muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer is one of the most lethal cancers and its detection at the time of transurethral resection remains limited and diagnostic methods are urgently needed. We have developed a muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) model of the bladder using porcine bladder scaffold and the human bladder cancer cell line 5637. The progression of implanted cancer cells to muscle invasion can be monitored by measuring changes in the spectrum of endogenous fluorophores such as reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and flavins. We believe this could act as a useful tool for the study of fluorescence dynamics of developing muscle invasive bladder cancer in patients. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. PMID:27446646

  19. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Danilewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like in the walls of the urinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either the trigonum (Group A or the corpus (Group B, was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117. Histological morphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysis system. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their morphology and counted in the vesical muscle layer in ten adjacent high power fields, each of 0.0479 mm2. The areas of the epithelial and subepithelial layers containing c-kit positive mast cells (rounded body with no dendritic processes were neglected. The results were expressed as the number of ICCs-like cells per mm2. Differences between groups were tested using unpaired Student’s t-test preceded by evaluation of normality and Levene’s test. Results were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. In Group A, the mean number of ICCs-like cells was statistically significantly higher (41.5 cells/mm2 than in Group B (30.4 cells/mm2, p < 0.05. ICCs-like cells were found within the smooth muscle layer of the urinary bladder. There was a different distribution of these cells in particular parts of the bladder, which was probably due to the different roles of the trigonum and the corpus in the bladders of children. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 431–435

  20. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-09-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. These proteins increased the Annexin-V staining and the amount of condensed chromatin, demonstrating that the Gecko proteinsinduced cell death was caused by apoptosis. Gecko proteins suppressed Akt activation, and the overexpression of constitutively active form of myristoylated Akt prevented Gecko proteins-induced death of 5637 cells. Furthermore, Gecko proteins activated caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Gecko proteins suppressed the Akt pathway and activated the intrinsic caspase pathway, leading to the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 531-536]. PMID:26246284

  1. Induction of Apoptosis by Costunolide in Bladder Cancer Cells is Mediated through ROS Generation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Tsuji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, a safer and more effective modality is urgently needed for treatment of bladder cancer. Costunolide, a member of sesquiterpene lactone family, possesses potent anticancer properties. In this study, for the first time we investigated the effects of costunolide on the cell viability and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Treatment of T24 cells with costunolide resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis which was associated with the generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm. These effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with N-acetyl- cysteine (NAC, a specific ROS inhibitor. Exposure of T24 cells to costunolide was also associated with increased expression of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, survivin and significant activation of caspase-3, and its downstream target PARP. These findings provide the rationale for further in vivo and clinical investigation of costunolide against human bladder cancer.

  2. A method for isolating smooth muscle cells from pig urinary bladder with low concentrations of collagenase and papain: the relation between calcium concentration and isolated cell length.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asselt (Els); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); R. Schot

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present study describes a method for isolating single smooth muscle cells from pig urinary bladder using a continuous resuspension device. Low concentrations of collagenase and papain were sufficient to obtain a high yield of viable smooth muscle cells, which remained viable for abou

  3. Bladder squamous cell carcinomas express psoriasin and externalize it to the urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H;

    1996-01-01

    were identified from 100 samples of patients with suspected transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The protein profiles of the 4 SCCs (56-1, grade III, T4; 181-1, grade I, T3; 219-1, grade III, T3 and 239-1, grade not determined, T2-4) resembled that of keratinocytes, suggesting that these cells express an...

  4. Electron-microscopic study of the apical region of the toad bladder epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, J; Tilles, S; Condeelis, J; Carboni, J; Meiteles, L; Franki, N; Bolon, R; Robertson, C; Hays, R M

    1984-09-01

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) promotes fusion of cytoplasmic tubules with the luminal membrane and delivery of particles from the tubules to the membrane. The particles are believed to be the water-conducting elements in the membrane. We have employed several scanning (SEM) and transmission electron-microscopic (TEM) techniques to study the relationship of the cytoplasmic tubules to the luminal membrane and to the apical cytoskeleton of the toad bladder epithelial cell. This paper reports the results of freeze-crack SEM and tannic acid-fixed TEM studies, as well as studies with a resinless method of embedding. Freeze-cracked epithelial cells reveal that the tubules are anchored in a matrix of cytoskeleton and granules just below the luminal membrane, and many, if not all, retain their anchorage to the matrix after ADH-induced fusion. Tannic acid-fixed specimens show that the tubules in unstimulated cells lie horizontally. Fusion appears to involve an angulation of the tubules, and this may be the major mode of ADH-induced tubule movement. There are suggestions in the tannic acid sections of filamentous attachments of tubules to the surrounding cytoskeleton. In addition there are prominent microfilament bundles running down the microvilli and a dense concentration of filaments just below the luminal membrane. The presence of these filaments is confirmed in the resinless sections, and their possible role in ADH action is discussed. PMID:6433717

  5. Effect of Photodynamic Therapy with BPD-MA on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanshan Xu; Shiming Wu; Zhigang Wang; Lehua Yu; Qing Yang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of photodynamic therapy with benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells.METHODS Rhotosensitization of BPD-MA was activated with a red light laser (632.8 nm) delivered at 10 mw/cm2 to give a total dose of 2.4 J/cm2.Cellular proliferative activity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylethiazil-2-yl)-2,5-Diph3-eyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Cell apoptosis was determined with flow cytometry analysis and the terminal deoxyuridine nicked-labeling (TUNEL) assay.RESULTS At 24 h post photodynamic treatment, photodynamic therapy significantly decreased cellular proliferative activity. The rate of apoptosis in BIU-87 cells 8 h after photodynamic treatment significantly increased up to 26.11± 2.59% as analyzed with flow cytometry. In situ labeling of DNA cleavage products with the terminal deoxyuridine nicked-labeling (TUNEL) assay reinforced these observations, BPD-MA-mediated photosensitization increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells compared to the controls. However, laser irradiation alone, BPD-MA alone and sham radiation did not affect cellular proliferative activity or apoptosis of the human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells.CONCLUSION Photodynamic therapy with BPD-MA significantly decreases cellular proliferative activity and enhances apoptosis. Therapy using this method might be a promising approach to treat patients with bladder cancer.

  6. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%); specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%), 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30) and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81). CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV) disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26). CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests

  7. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsilieris Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Methods Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+ and negative likelihood ratios (LR- of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Results Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%; specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%, 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30 and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81. CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26. Conclusions CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder/polymorphous B-cell lymphoma of the urinary bladder: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Sandhya; Zhang, Kai

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a localized Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD)/polymorphous B cell lymphoma of the urinary bladder in a 67 years old female patient. She had no known predisposing immunodeficiencies and presented with recent onset of hematuria. The CT and cystoscopic examination revealed a localized 2.5 cm polypoid or plaque-like mucosal mass on the right posterior and lateral wall of the bladder. The biopsy sample showed a diffuse and dens...

  9. miR-34a Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of Bladder Cancer Cells by Targeting Orphan Nuclear Receptor HNF4G

    OpenAIRE

    Huaibin Sun; Jun Tian; Wanhua Xian; Tingting Xie; Xiangdong Yang

    2015-01-01

    miR-34a is a member of the miR-34 family and acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer. This study explored the regulative role of miR-34a on an orphan nuclear receptor HNF4G, which has a well-confirmed role in bladder tumor growth and invasion. qRT-PCR analysis was applied to measure miR-34a expression in two tumorigenic bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and T24 and one normal human urothelial cell line SV-HUC-1. Luciferase assay was performed to verify the putative binding between miR-34a a...

  10. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder with coexisting high-grade urothelial carcinoma: a case report and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalbuss Walid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary bladder are rare. Here, we report a case of an 82-year-old man who presented with hematuria and was found to have an ulcerated lesion in the bladder. A diagnosis of small neuroendocrine cell carcinoma with coexisting minor high-grade urothelial components was rendered. In this report, the clinical, cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical features of this case are described, and a review of the literature about this neoplasm is presented. The differential diagnoses of small cell tumor in urinary bladder washing specimens are discussed.

  11. Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aldousari, Saad; Sircar, Kanishka; Kassouf, Wassim

    2009-01-01

    Plasmacytoid bladder cancer is a rare variant of transitional cell carcinoma. A 57-year-old man was referred to our institution for management of invasive transitional cell carcinoma diagnosed at a peripheral hospital. His complaints were of vague lower abdominal pain with associated urgency and frequency requiring oxybutynin. Metastatic workup was negative and was subsequently scheduled for a radical cystectomy. Routine colonoscopy 3 weeks prior to surgery was negative. Intraoperatively, he ...

  12. Oncoprotein DEK as a tissue and urinary biomarker for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the United States of America with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential for removing the tumor with preservation of the bladder, avoiding metastasis and hence improving prognosis and long-term survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of DEK protein in voided urine of bladder cancer patients as a urine-based bladder cancer diagnostic test. We examined the expression of DEK protein by western blot in 38 paired transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine was analyzed by western blot in 42 urine samples collected from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals. The DEK protein is expressed in 33 of 38 bladder tumor tissues with no expression in adjacent normal tissue. Based on our sample size, DEK protein is expressed in 100% of tumors of low malignant potential, 92% of tumors of low grade and in 71% of tumors of high grade. Next, we analyzed 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals for DEK protein expression by western blot analysis. We are the first to show that the DEK protein is present in the urine of bladder cancer patients. Approximately 84% of TCC patient urine specimens were positive for urine DEK. Based on our pilot study of 38 bladder tumor tissue and 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals; DEK protein is expressed in bladder tumor tissue and voided urine of bladder cancer patients. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine is potentially a suitable biomarker for bladder cancer and that the screening for the presence of DEK protein in urine can be explored as a noninvasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer

  13. Molecular Imaging of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Canine Transitional Cell Carcinomas In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Cekanova, Maria; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Bartges, Joseph W.; Callens, Amanda; Legendre, Alfred M.; Rathore, Kusum; Wright, Laura; Carter, Amanda; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced at high levels in tumors, but not in surrounding normal tissues, which makes it an attractive target for molecular imaging of cancer. We evaluated the ability of novel optical imaging agent, fluorocoxib A to detect urinary bladder canine transitional cell carcinomas (K9TCC). Here, we show that fluorocoxib A uptake overlapped with COX-2 expression in primary K9TCC cells in vitro. Using subcutaneously implanted primary K9TCC in athymic mice, we dem...

  14. Knockdown of Bmi1 inhibits bladder cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo by blocking cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-bo; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wei-gang; Xu, Chuan-rui

    2015-10-01

    Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb group family of proteins, and it drives the carcinogenesis of various cancers and governs the self-renewal of multiple types of stem cells. However, its role in the initiation and progression of bladder cancer is not clearly known. The present study aimed to investigate the function of Bmi1 in the development of bladder cancer. Bmi1 expression was detected in human bladder cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues (n=10) by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Bmi1 small interference RNA (siRNA) was synthesized and transfected into human bladder carcinoma cells (EJ) by lipofectamine 2000. The Bmil expression at mRNA and protein levels was measured in EJ cells transfected with Bmil siRNA (0, 80, 160 nmol/L) by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell viability and Ki67 expression (a marker of cell proliferation) were determined in Bmi1 siRNA-transfected cells by CCK-8 assay and qRT-PCR, respectively. Cell cycle of transfected cells was flow-cytometrically determined. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of cell cycle-associated proteins cyclin D1 and cyclin E in the cells. Pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase 3 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were detected by Western blotting as well. Additionally, xenograft tumor models were established by inoculation of EJ cells (infected with Bmil shRNA/pLKO.1 lentivirus or not) into nude mice. The tumor volumes were measured every other day for 14 days. The results showed that the Bmil expression was significantly increased in bladder tumor tissues when compared with that in normal tissues (Pcells (Pcells were accumulated in G1 phase and the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E were down-regulated. Bax and caspase-3 expression levels were significantly increased and Bcl-2 levels decreased after Bmi1 knockdown. Tumor volume was conspicuously reduced in mice injected with EJ cells with Bmi1 knockdown

  15. Synchronous and metachronous transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract: Prevalence, incidence, and radiographic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors retrospectively evaluated 645 patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary tract who were seen over a 10-yer period. Synchronous upper tract lesions were found in 14% of 68 patients with renal TCC, 18% of 38 patients with ureteral TCC, and 2.3% of 597 patients with bladder TCC. Metachronous upper tract TCC occurred in 10% of patients with renal TCC and in 13% of patients with ureteral TCC after average delays of 20 and 22 months, respectively. In 3.9% of patients with bladder TCC, metachronous upper tract lesions developed after an average delay of 40 months. Timely recognition of these lesions requires adequate, global distention of the pyelocalyceal systems and ureters and detection of subtle filling defects, minimal marginal irregularities, and covert calyceal amputation

  16. MCP-1-Induced Histamine Release from Mast Cells Is Associated with Development of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Lv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is characterized by overexpression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in bladder tissues and induction of mast cell (MC degranulation. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism of action of MCP-1 in the development of IC/BPS. Methods. A rat model of IC/BPS was developed by perfusing bladders of nine SPF- grade female Sprague-Dawley rats with protamine sulfate and lipopolysaccharide (PS+LPS. MCP-1 and histamine levels in bladder tissue and urine were detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. MC degranulation was measured by immunofluorescence techniques and chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 was assayed by flow cytometry. Results. Increased MCP-1 expression in bladder tissue and elevated MCP-1 and histamine levels were observed in the urine of LS+LPS-treated rats. This was accompanied by the expression of CCR2 on MC surfaces, suggesting MCP-1 may induce MC degranulation through CCR2. Exposure to LPS stimulated MCP-1 expression in bladder epithelial cells, and exposure to MCP-1 induced histamine release from MCs. Conclusions. MCP-1 upregulation in IC/BPS is one of possible contributing factors inducing histamine release from MCs. CCR2 is involved in the process of mast cell degranulation in bladder tissues. These changes may contribute to the development of symptoms of IC/BPS.

  17. Inhibiting Invasion into Human Bladder Carcinoma 5637 Cells with Diallyl Trisulfide by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities and Tightening Tight Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hyun Choi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl trisulfide (DATS, an organosulfur compound in garlic, possesses pronounced anti-cancer potential. However, the anti-invasive mechanism of this compound in human bladder carcinoma is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-invasive effects of DATS on a human bladder carcinoma (5637 cell line and investigated the underlying mechanism. The results indicated that DATS suppressed migration and invasion of 5637 cells by reducing the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 at both the protein and mRNA levels. DATS treatment up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in 5637 cells. The inhibitory effects of DATS on invasiveness were associated with an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and repression of the levels of claudin family members. Although further studies are needed, our data demonstrate that DATS exhibits anti-invasive effects in 5637 cells by down-regulating the activity of tight junctions and MMPs. DATS may have future utility in clinical applications for treating bladder cancer.

  18. WIF1, a Wnt pathway inhibitor, regulates SKP2 and c-myc expression leading to G1 arrest and growth inhibition ofhuman invasive urinary bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R; Liao, Wu-Xiang; Yi, Guo; Hope, Christopher; Liu, Feng; Li, Shunqiang; Xie, Jun; Holcombe, Randall F; Jurnak, Frances A.; Mercola, Dan; Hoang, Bang H.; Zi, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of secreted wingless-type (Wnt) antagonists through hypermethylation is associated with tobacco smoking and with invasive bladder cancer. The secreted Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF1) has shown consistent growth-inhibitory effect on various cancer cell lines. Therefore,we assessed the mechanisms of action of WIF1 by either restoring WIF1 expression in invasive bladder cancer cell lines (T24 and TSU-PR1) or using a recombinant protein containing functional WIF1 domain. Both ...

  19. Cell Cycle Inhibitors and Outcome after Radiotherapy in Bladder Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to correlate the expression of cell cycle inhibitors with outcome of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy (46 Gy/4-5 weeks or 20 Gy/1 week) and cystectomy. Patients with pT3b (n=42) or pT0 (n=17) were included in the study. Expression of p16INK4a and p27KIP1 was assessed immunohistochemically in pre-radiotherapy biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Previously reported results of p21CIP1 expression were also included. No difference in pretreatment protein expression was found between patients with pT0 and pT3b. Expression of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 was lower in cystectomy specimens than in pretreatment biopsies. None of the proteins showed significant impact on survival when analysed separately. However, patients with tumours showing > 50% expression of p16INK4a, p21CIP1, or p27KIP1 displayed poorer cancer-specific survival rates compared with the remaining patients (p=0.025). This effect was more pronounced in patients receiving 46 Gy than in those receiving 20 Gy. In conclusion, low expression of cell cycle inhibitors is related to favourable survival after precystectomy radiotherapy

  20. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  1. Muscle invasive bladder cancer culminating with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Swallow, Tom W.; Mabbutt, Scott; Bell, Charles R.W.

    2015-01-01

    This case reports highlights a rare metastatic manifestation of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The onset of symptoms associated with meningeal irritation should be investigated. However, there is little consensus in the treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis and it should be considered a poor prognostic sign with symptomatic management.

  2. Hemorrhagic Cystitis Requiring Bladder Irrigation is Associated with Poor Mortality in Hospitalized Stem Cell Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valary T. Raup

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the overall prognosis of post-stem cell transplant inpatients who required continuous bladder irrigation (CBI for hematuria. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of adult stem cell transplant recipients who received CBI for de novo hemorrhagic cystitis as inpatients on the bone marrow transplant service at Washington University from 2011-2013. Patients who had a history of genitourinary malignancy and/or recent surgical urologic intervention were excluded. Multiple variables were examined for association with death. Results: Thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 48 years (23-65. Common malignancies included acute myelogenous leukemia (17/33, 57%, acute lymphocytic leukemia (3/33, 10%, and peripheral T cell lymphoma (3/33, 10%. Median time from stem cell transplant to need for CBI was 2.5 months (0 days-6.6 years. All patients had previously undergone chemotherapy (33/33, 100% and 14 had undergone prior radiation therapy (14/33, 42%. Twenty-eight patients had an infectious disease (28/33, 85%, most commonly BK viremia (19/33, 58%, cytomegalovirus viremia (17/33, 51%, and bacterial urinary tract infection (8/33, 24%. Twenty-two patients expired during the same admission as CBI treatment (22/33 or 67% of total patients, 22/28 or 79% of deaths, with a 30-day mortality of 52% and a 90-day mortality of 73% from the start of CBI. Conclusions: Hemorrhagic cystitis requiring CBI is a symptom of severe systemic disease in stem cell transplant patients. The need for CBI administration may be a marker for mortality risk from a variety of systemic insults, rather than directly attributable to the hematuria.

  3. Primary bladder lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type: Case report and literature review of 26 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Greg Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is exceedingly rare, representing 0.2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. Although Matsuno et al. and others state the most common type is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, 20% of all the primary lymphomas of the urinary bladder are considered to be high grade neoplasms; the majority being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. This is a case report of a 48-year-old man that presented with hematuria, frequency, nocturia, and flank pain that was found to have high grade DLBCL. Twenty-six other cases of both low and high grade primary bladder lymphomas were selected in order to provide a thorough comparison of different treatment modalities. Of the cases reviewed, bladder lymphoma was more common in females (2:1. The average age at diagnosis was 63.9 years old (low grade: 68.7 years old, high grade: 58.8 years old. The most common low-grade neoplasm was MALT lymphoma (85.7%. For the low-grade malignancies, the most successful treatments were simple therapies (2 transurethral resection of a bladder tumour [TURBT], 1 antibiotics, solitary chemotherapy, and combination TURBT/chemo; all 3 of which achieved 100% clinical remission (CR in the cases reviewed. The most common high grade neoplasm was DLBCL (76.9%. The most successful therapies used to treat high grade lesions were solitary chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, duanorubacin, vincristine, prednisolone [CHOP] or ritoximab, CHOP [R-CHOP] and combination therapies (2 radiation/CHOP, 2 surgery/CHOP. In the agreement with the current literature, this review has shown that simple therapies (TURBT are equally as effective as aggressive treatments (chemotherapy, radiation and should therefore be used as first line treatment in low grade tumors. For high grade malignancies, chemotherapy (R-CHOP or CHOP alone or combination therapy (CHOP/surgery or CHOP/radiation is recommended.

  4. Clear cell carcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis: a unique case with bladder and lymph node metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haiyuan; Leng, Jinghua; Lang, Jinghe; Cui, Quancai

    2014-01-01

    The malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis is a rare event and poorly understood. Less than 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of the reported cases have a solitary tumor in the abdominal scar. A few cases have metastasis. Here we report a case of clear cell carcinoma in abdominal wall endometriosis with bladder and lymph system metastasis. The patient had a history of abdominal wall endometriosis and recently developed symptoms of urgent urination and ingui...

  5. AB061. Clinical analysis of small cell carcinoma of the bladder: 9 cases report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Qingquan; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zhuo; Li, Mingchao; Ling, Qing; Wu, Licheng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaming; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with nine patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) who were treated with different modalities and review the literature for patients with SCCB who have been reported in 56 literatures. SCCB is a rare, highly aggressive tumor that presents in an advanced stage and has a propensity for early metastasis. Hematuria is the main clinical manifestations. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, either alone or as part of combined therapy have been ...

  6. Small cell gall bladder carcinoma complicated by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) treated with mozavaptan

    OpenAIRE

    TAMURA, Tetsuo; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Small cell gall bladder carcinoma (Scc-GB) is a very rare entity. Although some cases present with endocrine manifestations, paraneoplastic hyponatraemia has been reported in only one previous case. Recently, the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) receptor antagonist mozavaptan has become available. Herein we report a case with Scc-GB complicated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) treated with mozavaptan. A 47-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for hypon...

  7. Dynamin2- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase–regulated invasion of bladder epithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhimin; Humphrey, Ceba; Frilot, Nicole; Wang, Gaofeng; Nie, Zhongzhen; Moniri, Nader H.; Daaka, Yehia

    2011-01-01

    Invasion of bladder epithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contributes to antibiotic-resistant and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), but this process is incompletely understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the large guanosine triphosphatase dynamin2 and its partner, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS [eNOS]), mediate bacterial entry. Overexpression of dynamin2 or treatment with the NO donor S-nitrosothiols increases, whereas targeted reduction ...

  8. Promotion of mitotic catastrophe via activation of PTEN by paclitaxel with supplement of mulberry water extract in bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nien-Cheng Chen; Charng-Cherng Chyau; Yi-Ju Lee; Hsien-Chun Tseng; Fen-Pi Chou

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. Mulberry fruit is rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids and exhibits chemopreventive activities. In this study, mulberry water extract (MWE) was used as a supplement to synergize with the effects of paclitaxel in the treatment of the TSGH 8301 human bladder cancer cell line. Treatment with paclitaxel combined with MWE (paclitaxel/MWE) enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and induced severe G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe a...

  9. Multiple factor analysis of metachronous upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urothelium is often multifocal and subsequent tumors may occur anywhere in the urinary tract after the treatment of a primary carcinoma. Patients initially presenting a bladder cancer are at significant risk of developing metachronous tumors in the upper urinary tract (UUT. We evaluated the prognostic factors of primary invasive bladder cancer that may predict a metachronous UUT TCC after radical cystectomy. The records of 476 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for primary invasive bladder TCC from 1989 to 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The prognostic factors of UUT TCC were determined by multivariate analysis using the COX proportional hazards regression model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also used to assess the variable incidence of UUT TCC according to different risk factors. Twenty-two patients (4.6%. developed metachronous UUT TCC. Multiplicity, prostatic urethral involvement by the bladder cancer and the associated carcinoma in situ (CIS were significant and independent factors affecting the occurrence of metachronous UUT TCC (P = 0.0425, 0.0082, and 0.0006, respectively. These results were supported, to some extent, by analysis of the UUT TCC disease-free rate by the Kaplan-Meier method, whereby patients with prostatic urethral involvement or with associated CIS demonstrated a significantly lower metachronous UUT TCC disease-free rate than patients without prostatic urethral involvement or without associated CIS (log-rank test, P = 0.0116 and 0.0075, respectively. Multiple tumors, prostatic urethral involvement and associated CIS were risk factors for metachronous UUT TCC, a conclusion that may be useful for designing follow-up strategies for primary invasive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy.

  10. BROMINATED TRIHALOMETHANE (BrTHM) TOXICITY IN HUMAN BLADDER CELL LINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology studies have consistently found that greater exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer. In 2010, Cantor et al. (Environ. Health Perspect. 118: 1545) reported that this increased risk was depende...

  11. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  12. Visualizing cell state transition using Raman spectroscopy.

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    Taro Ichimura

    Full Text Available System level understanding of the cell requires detailed description of the cell state, which is often characterized by the expression levels of proteins. However, understanding the cell state requires comprehensive information of the cell, which is usually obtained from a large number of cells and their disruption. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy, which can report changes in the cell state without introducing any label, as a non-invasive method with single cell capability. Significant differences in Raman spectra were observed at the levels of both the cytosol and nucleus in different cell-lines from mouse, indicating that Raman spectra reflect differences in the cell state. Difference in cell state was observed before and after the induction of differentiation in neuroblastoma and adipocytes, showing that Raman spectra can detect subtle changes in the cell state. Cell state transitions during embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation were visualized when Raman spectroscopy was coupled with principal component analysis (PCA, which showed gradual transition in the cell states during differentiation. Detailed analysis showed that the diversity between cells are large in undifferentiated ESC and in mesenchymal stem cells compared with terminally differentiated cells, implying that the cell state in stem cells stochastically fluctuates during the self-renewal process. The present study strongly indicates that Raman spectral morphology, in combination with PCA, can be used to establish cells' fingerprints, which can be useful for distinguishing and identifying different cellular states.

  13. Intravesical BCG therapy in bladder carcinoma. Effect on cytotoxicity, IL-2 production and phenotype of peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Petersen, K R; Zeuthen, J; Steven, K

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of intravesical BCG treatment on the cytotoxicity, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and distribution of the subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Treatments were made in 6 patients...... during a conventional BCG treatment schedule. Four patients showed a complete response, one a partial response and one had a progressive disease after BCG treatment. Intravesical BCG did not induce significant changes in the cytotoxicity of PBMC. The distribution of NK-cells and T-cells also remained...

  14. A Large Bladder Tumor Covered With a Thick “Shell” of Necrotic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Zhe; Gong, Miao-zi; Pan, Dong-liang; Zhang, Xiang-hua; Li, Ning-chen; Na, Yan-qun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bladder tumor arising in a spina bifida patient is rare and may be clinically latent. We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient with spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. A B-ultrasound and non-contrast computed tomography scan did not reveal any bladder mass, but an unexplained “well-filled” bladder was observed, which was confusing as the catheter was present and open. However, a subsequent cystoscopic evaluation revealed a large bladder mass measuring 9.5 × 9.0 × 6.5 cm3, which almost filled the entire bladder. The mass had coarse and flocculent surface and seemed to be free from each observed wall of the urinary bladder. It was diagnosed as an infectious necrotic mass based on its appearance. During transurethral resection of the mass, a bladder tumor was suspected as small blood vessels and bleeding appeared within the inner layer of the mass. Pathological examination revealed necrotic material, inflammatory cells, and urothelial carcinoma cells. Then, a radical cystectomy was performed, and the pathological results indicated stage pT3bN0M0 transitional cell carcinoma. In the gross specimen, the base of the tumor measured 3 × 3 cm2 on the top of the back wall of the bladder. Bladder tumors may have atypical presentations in patients with spina bifida. Regular screening is helpful for earlier detection and improving outcomes of bladder tumors in such patients. PMID:27100442

  15. Primary uterine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the urinary bladder with urinary cytology mimicking carcinomas: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiyo Adachi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a 69-year-old woman in whom diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL originated from the uterus and involved the urinary bladder. The cervical smears of the case mostly consisted of discohesive atypical round cells, which were highly suggestive of lymphoma; however, in voided urine smears, a majority of the cells formed large aggregates of degenerated cells, mimicking those of urothelial carcinoma (UC. The smears also represented some small loose clusters, in which tumor cells formed short chains with nuclear molding, mimicking those of small cell carcinoma. The cytodiagnosis got definitive when we identified the atypical cells that showed CD20+/CD3-/cytokeratin-/NSE- immunophenotype. These are of particular concern as they may have misleading similarities to other epithelial neoplasms when examining lymphoma involving the urinary bladder. Accordingly, this case highlights the importance of immunocytochemistry to rule out malignant lymphoma when encountering large and/or small loose clusters of atypical round cells on urinary cytology.

  16. Primary uterine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the urinary bladder with urinary cytology mimicking carcinomas: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Sumiyo; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Liang, Shan-Guang; Ishida, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 69-year-old woman in whom diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) originated from the uterus and involved the urinary bladder. The cervical smears of the case mostly consisted of discohesive atypical round cells, which were highly suggestive of lymphoma; however, in voided urine smears, a majority of the cells formed large aggregates of degenerated cells, mimicking those of urothelial carcinoma (UC). The smears also represented some small loose clusters, in which tumor cells formed short chains with nuclear molding, mimicking those of small cell carcinoma. The cytodiagnosis got definitive when we identified the atypical cells that showed CD20+/CD3-/cytokeratin-/NSE- immunophenotype. These are of particular concern as they may have misleading similarities to other epithelial neoplasms when examining lymphoma involving the urinary bladder. Accordingly, this case highlights the importance of immunocytochemistry to rule out malignant lymphoma when encountering large and/or small loose clusters of atypical round cells on urinary cytology. PMID:26729979

  17. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder with coexisting high-grade urothelial carcinoma: a case report and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Khalbuss Walid; Bui Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary bladder are rare. Here, we report a case of an 82-year-old man who presented with hematuria and was found to have an ulcerated lesion in the bladder. A diagnosis of small neuroendocrine cell carcinoma with coexisting minor high-grade urothelial components was rendered. In this report, the clinical, cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical features of this case are described, and a review of the literature about this neoplasm ...

  18. 5-azacytidine inhibits the proliferation of bladder cancer cells via reversal of the aberrant hypermethylation of the hepaCAM gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Chen, E; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yin; Quan, Zhen; Wu, Xiaohou; Luo, Chunli

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocyte cell adhesion molecule (hepaCAM), a tumor-suppressor gene, is rarely expressed in bladder carcinoma. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms of low hepaCAM expression in bladder cancer. Abnormal hypermethylation in the promoter plays a crucial role in cancer by silencing tumor-suppressor genes, which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). In the present study, a total of 31 bladder cancer and 22 adjacent tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry to detect DNMT3A/3B and hepaCAM expression. Methylation of hepaCAM was determined by methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). The mRNA and protein levels of DNMT3A/3B and hepaCAM were determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis after treatment with 5-azacytidine (AZAC). Following AZAC treatment, the proliferation of bladder cancer cells was detected by CCK-8 and colony formation assays. Cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry. To further evaluate the tumor‑suppressive roles of AZAC and the involved mechanisms, the anti-tumorigenicity of AZAC was tested in vivo. The expression of DNMT3A/3B protein was markedly increased in the bladder carcinoma tissues (P<0.05), and had a negative linear correlation with hepaCAM expression in the same patients according to Pearson's analysis (r=-0.7176/-0.7127, P<0.05). The MSP results indicated that the hepaCAM gene was hypermethylated in three bladder cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that downregulation of DNMT3A/3B expression, after treatment with AZAC, reversed the hypermethylation and expression of hepaCAM in bladder cancer cells. In addition, AZAC inhibited the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase. The in vivo results showed that expression of DNMT3A/3B and hepaCAM as well as tumor growth of nude mice were markedly altered which corresponded with the in vitro results. Due to the ability to reactivate expression of hepaCAM and inhibit growth of bladder cancer cells

  19. Telomerase Activity, Cytokeratin 20 and Cytokeratin 19 in Urine Cells of Bladder Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of the Study: This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. Patients and Methods: The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. Results: For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only KI9 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCe. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K 19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20 . o Conclusion: K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K 19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry ([HC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K 19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder

  20. Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata Induce Bladder Cancer Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting Akt Signaling Pathway through Downregulating miR-155 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Tao; Sheung, Yip; Guo, Wen-Peng; Rong, Zhi-Bin; Cai, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is increasingly used to treat cancer. Our clinical experiences identify Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common herb-pair (couplet medicinal) used for the core treatment of bladder cancer. This study aims to investigate the antitumor effect of the herb-pair in bladder cancer cells. The results show that Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata inhibited bladder cancer cell growth and clone formation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. It also induced cell apoptosis through decreasing Akt activation and reducing the expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Further experiments showed that miR-155 was reduced by the herb-pair and miRNA-155 inhibitor induced cell apoptosis and suppressed Akt activation. Overexpression of miR-155 reversed herb-pair induced cell apoptosis through activating Akt pathway in both bladder cancer cell lines. The findings reveal that Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata reduce Akt activation through reducing miR-155 expression, resulting in cell apoptosis. It demonstrated the potential mechanism of Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata for the core treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:26989427

  1. Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata Induce Bladder Cancer Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting Akt Signaling Pathway through Downregulating miR-155 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tao Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is increasingly used to treat cancer. Our clinical experiences identify Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common herb-pair (couplet medicinal used for the core treatment of bladder cancer. This study aims to investigate the antitumor effect of the herb-pair in bladder cancer cells. The results show that Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata inhibited bladder cancer cell growth and clone formation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. It also induced cell apoptosis through decreasing Akt activation and reducing the expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Further experiments showed that miR-155 was reduced by the herb-pair and miRNA-155 inhibitor induced cell apoptosis and suppressed Akt activation. Overexpression of miR-155 reversed herb-pair induced cell apoptosis through activating Akt pathway in both bladder cancer cell lines. The findings reveal that Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata reduce Akt activation through reducing miR-155 expression, resulting in cell apoptosis. It demonstrated the potential mechanism of Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata for the core treatment of bladder cancer.

  2. 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates miRNA expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Hu, Qiang; Luo, Wei; Pratt, Rachel N; Glenn, Sean T; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2015-04-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and eighth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Epidemiological and experimental studies strongly suggest a role for 1α,25(OH)2D3 in cancer prevention and treatment. The antitumor activities of 1α,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by the induction of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. miRNAs play important regulatory roles in cancer development and progression. However, the role of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the regulation of miRNA expression and the potential impact in bladder cancer has not been investigated. Therefore, we studied 1α,25(OH)2D3-regulated miRNA expression profiles in human bladder cancer cell line 253J and the highly tumorigenic and metastatic derivative line 253J-BV by miRNA qPCR panels. 253J and 253J-BV cells express endogenous vitamin D receptor (VDR), which can be further induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. VDR target gene 24-hydroxylase was induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 in both cell lines, indicating functional 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling. The miRNA qPCR panel assay results showed that 253J and 253J-BV cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles. Further, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulated miRNA expression profiles in 253J and 253J-BV cells in a dynamic manner. Pathway analysis of the miRNA target genes revealed distinct patterns of contribution to the molecular functions and biological processes in the two cell lines. In conclusion, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates the expression of miRNAs, which may contribute to distinct biological functions, in human bladder 253J and 253J-BV cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:25263658

  3. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  4. Effect of Ad-p16 Combined with CDDP or As2O3 on Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朝辉; 邢诗安; 林晨

    2003-01-01

    Summary: To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of combined use of p16-expressing adenovirus and chemotherapeutic agents CDDP or As2O3 on human bladder cancer cell line E J, the human bladder cancer cell line EJ were transfected with adenovirus-mediated p16 gene (Ad-p16), with administration of cisplatin (CDDP) or arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The cell growth, morphological changes, cell cycle, apoptosis and molecular changes were measured using cell counting, reverse microscopy, flow cytometry, cloning formation, immunocytochemical assays and in vivo therapy experiments to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such combined regimen. Ad-p16 transfer and CDDP or As2O3 administration to EJ cells could exert substantially stronger therapeutic effects than the single agent treatment. Especially in in vivo experiments, combined administration of p16 and CDDP or As2O3 induced almost tumor diminish compared to the partial tumor diminish induced by single agent. Moreover,delivery of Ad-p16, or administration of minimal-dose CDDP or As2O3 or combined regimen could induce massive apoptosis of EJ cell. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that administration of CDDP or As2O3 remarkably arrested EJ cell in G1 prior to apoptotic cell death. When treated with combined regimen, cells were arrested in G1 to a greater extent prior to apoptotic cell death. It is concluded that after introduction into EJ cell, Ad-p16 shows enhanced therapeutic efficacy for EJ cell when used in combination with CDDP or As2O3.

  5. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our initial experiences with laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2002 and October 2004, laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed in 6 cases at 3 institutions; 3 cases were urachal adenocarcinomas and the remaining 3 cases were bladder transitional cell carcinomas. All patients were male, with a median age of 55 years (45-72 years. Gross hematuria was the presenting symptom in all patients, and diagnosis was established with trans-urethral resection bladder tumor in 2 patients and by means of cystoscopic biopsy in the remaining 4 patients. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed using the transperitoneal approach under cystoscopic guidance. In each case, the surgical specimen was removed intact entrapped in an impermeable bag. One patient with para-ureteral diverticulum transitional cell carcinoma required concomitant ureteral reimplantation. RESULTS: All six procedures were completed laparoscopically without open conversion. The median operating time was 110 minutes (90-220 with a median estimated blood loss of 70 mL (50-100. Frozen section evaluations of bladder margins were routinely obtained and were negative for cancer in all cases. The median hospital stay was 2.5 days (2-4 and the duration of catheterization was 7 days. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Final histopathology confirmed urachal adenocarcinoma in 3 cases and bladder transitional cell carcinoma in 3 cases. At a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range: 26 to 44 months, there was no evidence of recurrent disease as evidenced by radiologic or cystoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic partial cystectomy in carefully selected patients with urachal and bladder cancer is feasible and safe, offering a promising and minimally invasive alternative for these patients.

  6. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity ≥G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity ≥G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity

  7. Unusual presentation of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the Urinary bladder with small-cell and large-cell features

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Fiorin de Vasconcellos; João Lapa Lima Trancoso; Aloísio Felipe-Silva; Angélica Braz Simões; Pedro José dos Santos Neto; Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi Fugita; Carla Rachel Ono; Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel

    2013-01-01

    High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder comprehends small-cell and large-cell variants. It is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, mostly diagnosed in advanced stages. It is more frequently encountered among Caucasian men in the sixth decade of life. Urinary symptoms are the most common clinical presentation. Diagnosis is generally not troublesome once the lesions are easily detectable by imaging exams and cystoscopy. This neoplasia is associated with tobacco smoking, and is fre...

  8. miR-96 regulates FOXO1-mediated cell apoptosis in bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yan; Liu, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; SHANG, CHAO; Song, YongSheng

    2012-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies and a leading cause of genitourinary system cancer mortality worldwide. The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1, a member of the forkhead box O (FOXO) subfamily of transcription factors, is downregulated in a number of cancers, including TCC; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we used microRNA (miRNA) target prediction algorithms to identify a conserved potential miR-96 bindi...

  9. Cytogenetic damage in the oral mucosa cells of bladder cancer patients exposed to tobacco in Southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Khlifi, Rim; Mhiri, Mohamed-Nabil; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-11-01

    Bladder cancer was associated to exposure to several pollutants which can be absorbed, inhaled, or possibly ingested. We analyzed the frequency of micronuclei (MNC) and binucleated cells (BNC) in exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa of 24 bladder cancer (BC) patients and 48 controls residing in Southern Tunisia. An assessment was carried out on the incidence of MNC and BNC in 1,000 cells per individual. The data were analyzed with SPSS, using the chi-square and the Mann-Whitney U test, α = 0.05. The frequency of MN cells in BC cases was 2.5-fold higher, than in the control group (P < 0.001), while the difference for BNC between both groups was not significant. The smoking habits, age, and gender significantly influenced the MN but not the BNC alterations. The results of our study showed significantly increased frequencies of MN but not of BNC in exfoliated oral cells of BC patients associated with the smoking status, sex, and age. This study provides preliminary evidence that the frequency of MN in oral mucosa could be a predictive biomarker for cancers in parts of the body other than the upper aerodigestive tract, such as BC. Further scrupulous investigations are certainly warranted in order to implement this assay as a routine test in the planning and validation of cancer surveillance and prevention programs. PMID:24981033

  10. Quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction from Uncaria tomentosa induces cell death by apoptosis in the T24 human bladder cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Fabrícia; Kaiser, Samuel; Rockenbach, Liliana; Figueiró, Fabrício; Bergamin, Letícia Scussel; da Cunha, Fernanda Monte; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Ortega, George González; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in the genitourinary tract and remains a therapeutic challenge. In the search for new treatments, researchers have attempted to find compounds with low toxicity. With this goal in mind, Uncaria tomentosa is noteworthy because the bark and root of this species are widely used in traditional medicine and in adjuvant therapy for the treatment of numerous diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of one purified bioactive fraction of U.tomentosa bark on cell proliferation in two human bladder cancer cell lines, T24 and RT4. Quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction (QAPF) of U.tomentosa decreased the growth and viability of both T24 and RT4 cell lines. In T24 cells, QAPF induced apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and NF-κB. Further study showed that this fraction does not induce cell cycle arrest and does not alter PTEN and ERK levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that QAPF of U.tomentosa has a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of human bladder cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis through modulation of NF-κB, and we suggest that QAPF may become a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of this cancer. PMID:24607820

  11. Ipsilateral synchronous renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, M. J.; Song, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 53-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hypercalcemia and a huge staghorn calculus in the opposite kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of left flank pain and intermittent fever which he had had for 2 months. Computerized tomography revealed a huge stone in...

  12. RADIATION THERAPY OF A PRESUMPTIVE URETHRAL TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA IN AN EASTERN GRAY SQUIRREL (SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Sanford, Sara E; St-Vincent, Rachel; Hiss, Anne

    2015-12-01

    An adult female Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), with a previous history of primary renal transitional cell carcinoma treated by nephrectomy, was diagnosed with a metastatic urethral transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) utilizing the veterinary bladder tumor antigen test in combination with other noninvasive diagnostic tests. The squirrel was treated with piroxicam and external beam radiation therapy given in 18 treatments over 30 days to achieve a total of 54 gray. Mild to moderate side effects from the pelvic irradiation were self-limiting and easily managed. Resolution of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 6 mo until recurrence of metastasis. This report represents the first published account of both TCC and external beam radiation therapy in an Eastern gray squirrel. PMID:26667551

  13. Unusual presentation of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the Urinary bladder with small-cell and large-cell features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Fiorin de Vasconcellos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder comprehends small-cell and large-cell variants. It is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, mostly diagnosed in advanced stages. It is more frequently encountered among Caucasian men in the sixth decade of life. Urinary symptoms are the most common clinical presentation. Diagnosis is generally not troublesome once the lesions are easily detectable by imaging exams and cystoscopy. This neoplasia is associated with tobacco smoking, and is frequently associated with other carcinomatous components such as urothelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and sarcomatoid carcinoma. The authors report a case of an apparently healthy female patient who presented cervical lymph node enlargement not accompanied by systemic symptoms. The supraclavicular lymph node biopsy revealed metastatic small cell carcinoma. The computed tomography scan showed a bladder wall nodular thickening, enlarged lymph nodes along the iliac, periaortic, mediastinal, cervical and supraclavicular chains, as well as an insufflating lytic bone lesion in the right iliac wing. The positron emission tomography-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG added to these findings, the presence of a paraesophageal lymph node, lymphadenomegaly in the gluteal region and a vertebral lytic lesion in T10. Resected specimen of the bladder tumor revealed a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with small-cell and large-cell features.

  14. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Danilewicz; Andrzej Kulig; Monika Dzieniecka; Anna Małgorzata Piaseczna-Piotrowska; Andrzej Chilarski

    2011-01-01

    We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like) in the walls of the urinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either the trigonum (Group A) or the corpus (Group B), was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117). Histological morphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysis system. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their m...

  15. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Małgorzata Piaseczna-Piotrowska; Monika Dzieniecka; Andrzej Kulig; Marian Danilewicz; Andrzej Chilarski

    2011-01-01

    We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like) in the walls of theurinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either thetrigonum (Group A) or the corpus (Group B), was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117). Histologicalmorphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysissystem. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their morph...

  16. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... in boys and is often linked to other birth defects. Surgery is necessary to: Allow the child to ...

  17. Risk factors, therapy and survival outcomes of small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Raj Bhatt; Fausto R. Jr. Loberiza; Pavankumar Tandra; Jairam Krishnamurthy; Rajesh Shrestha; Jue Wang

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors, the optimal therapy and prognostic factors contributing to poor outcomes of neuroendocrine urinary bladder carcinoma are not fully elucidated because of its rarity. We reviewed the medical records of neuroendocrine bladder carcinoma patients treated at the University of Nebraska Medical Center between 1996 and 2011. Eighteen patients, 55% female with a median age of 77 years, had stage IV disease at diagnosis in 50% of cases. There was a high prevalence of smoking (78%), med...

  18. HMFG-2 as a prognostic indicator in superficial bladder cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Conn, I G; Crocker, J.; Emtage, L A; Wallace, D M

    1988-01-01

    A series of transitional cell carcinomas and mucosal biopsy specimens of bladder were stained immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody HMFG-2. Staining characteristics ranged from luminal staining in well differentiated, superficial lesions to staining of all cells in invasive carcinomas. Invasive tumour nests also stained strongly with the antibody. There was good correlation between the staining pattern and histological assessment of both tumours and mucosal biopsy specimens. Corr...

  19. Renal vein thrombosis in transitional cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A rare case of renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) associated with bland thrombus of the renal vein extending into the inferior vena cava is described. Tumour thrombus in renal cell carcinoma is frequently encountered, but only very rarely occurs with TCC. Bland renal vein thrombosis occurring with renal TCC has not been described before. Contrast enhanced computed tomography assisted in distinguishing between bland and tumour thrombosis and aided in surgical management

  20. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells treated with the DNA-damaging drug etoposide markedly increases apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Mathias; Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; Nexo, Ebba;

    2007-01-01

    : These results suggest that activation of the EGFR induced a cell-survival function when bladder cancer cells were treated with the DNA-damaging drug VP16, and that combined treatment with VP16 and the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib might improve the efficacy of treatment. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  1. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs. PMID:10996723

  2. Bladder cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M

    1982-11-01

    A randomized controlled prospective evaluation of intravesical and percutaneous bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy was done in 57 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, 9 patients at high risk for tumor recurrence were treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin produced a self-limited cystitis and 1 complication (hydronephrosis) of immunotherapy was observed. Of the 57 randomized patients 54 were followed for 3 to 30 months. Tumor recurrence was documented in 13 of 26 controls (50 per cent) and only 6 of 28 patients (21 per cent) treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (p equals 0.027, chi-square). The interval free of disease was prolonged significantly with bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment (p equals 0.014, generalized Wilcoxon test). Importantly, a simple purified protein derivative skin test distinguished those patients who responded to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy from those who did not. Only 1 of 17 treated patients (6 per cent) whose purified protein derivative test converted from negative to positive had tumor recurrence compared to 5 recurrences (38 per cent) among the 13 patients whose test remained negative or had been positive before treatment (p equals 0.022, chi-square). Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was given to 10 patients with stage B transitional cell carcinoma who were not candidates for cystectomy and 7 are free of disease. Of 5 patients with carcinoma in situ 3 remain free of tumor after bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment and 5 of 6 who had multiple recurrences after intravesical chemotherapy responded favorably to bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy. PMID:6757467

  3. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang11School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, ChinaObjective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69% patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31% patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59% patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001 and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625. The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001. Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG tumors (P = 0.031 and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG tumors (P = 0.003, respectively

  4. Sarcomatoid carcinoma with osseous differentiation in the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Arenas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bladder sarcomatoid carcinoma is a very rare variant of transitional cell carcinoma. With disputed nomenclature, the tumor has been described previously under a variety of names such as sarcomatoid carcinoma, pseudosarcoma, malignant mixed mesodermal/Müllerian tumor, metaplastic carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma. This malignancy represents 0.3% of all bladder tumors and has an aggressive behavior yielding a poor prognosis despite radio and chemotherapy. CASE REPORT: An 81 y/o man presented with a transitional cell carcinoma and underwent a transurethral resection. Adjuvant onco-BCG was introduced. After 9 months of follow-up, a local tumoral recurrence occurred and a new transurethral resection revealed sarcomatoid carcinoma with osseous elements. A radical cystoprostatectomy was then carried out.

  5. Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, Sm...

  6. A Large Bladder Tumor Covered With a Thick "Shell" of Necrotic Material: Misdiagnosis of a Patient With Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Zhe; Gong, Miao-Zi; Pan, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Li, Ning-Chen; Na, Yan-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Bladder tumor arising in a spina bifida patient is rare and may be clinically latent.We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient with spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. A B-ultrasound and non-contrast computed tomography scan did not reveal any bladder mass, but an unexplained "well-filled" bladder was observed, which was confusing as the catheter was present and open. However, a subsequent cystoscopic evaluation revealed a large bladder mass measuring 9.5 × 9.0 × 6.5 cm, which almost filled the entire bladder. The mass had coarse and flocculent surface and seemed to be free from each observed wall of the urinary bladder. It was diagnosed as an infectious necrotic mass based on its appearance.During transurethral resection of the mass, a bladder tumor was suspected as small blood vessels and bleeding appeared within the inner layer of the mass. Pathological examination revealed necrotic material, inflammatory cells, and urothelial carcinoma cells. Then, a radical cystectomy was performed, and the pathological results indicated stage pT3bN0M0 transitional cell carcinoma. In the gross specimen, the base of the tumor measured 3 × 3 cm on the top of the back wall of the bladder.Bladder tumors may have atypical presentations in patients with spina bifida. Regular screening is helpful for earlier detection and improving outcomes of bladder tumors in such patients. PMID:27100442

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell death in bladder cancer is associated with chromatin modification and modifying protein expression: A proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingdi Quentin; Hao, Jian-Jiang; Zhang, Zheng; Hsu, Iawen; Liu, Yi; Tao, Zhen; Lewi, Keidren; Metwalli, Adam R; Agarwal, Piyush K

    2016-06-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project recently identified the importance of mutations in chromatin remodeling genes in human carcinomas. These findings imply that epigenetic modulators might have a therapeutic role in urothelial cancers. To exploit histone deacetylases (HDACs) as targets for cancer therapy, we investigated the HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) romidepsin, trichostatin A, and vorinostat as potential chemotherapeutic agents for bladder cancer. We demonstrate that the three HDACIs suppressed cell growth and induced cell death in the bladder cancer cell line 5637. To identify potential mechanisms associated with the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the HDACIs, we used quantitative proteomics to determine the proteins potentially involved in these processes. Our proteome studies identified a total of 6003 unique proteins. Of these, 2472 proteins were upregulated and 2049 proteins were downregulated in response to HDACI exposure compared to the untreated controls (P<0.05). Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that those differentially expressed proteins were involved in multiple biological functions and enzyme-regulated pathways, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, autophagy, free radical generation and DNA damage repair. HDACIs also altered the acetylation status of histones and non-histone proteins, as well as the levels of chromatin modification proteins, suggesting that HDACIs exert multiple cytotoxic actions in bladder cancer cells by inhibiting HDAC activity or altering the structure of chromatin. We conclude that HDACIs are effective in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in the 5637 bladder cancer cells through multiple cell death-associated pathways. These observations support the notion that HDACIs provide new therapeutic options for bladder cancer treatment and thus warrant further preclinical exploration. PMID:27082124

  8. Fucoidan induces G1 arrest of the cell cycle in EJ human bladder cancer cells through down-regulation of pRB phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Young Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide found in marine algae and brown seaweeds, has been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of human cancer cells. This study was conducted in cultured human bladder cancer EJ cells to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which fucoidan exerts its anti-proliferative activity, which until now has remained poorly understood. Fucoidan treatment of EJ cells resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan led to G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. It was associated with down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent-kinases (Cdks in a concentration-dependent manner, without any change in Cdk inhibitors, such as p21 and p27. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB by this compound was associated with enhanced binding of pRB with the transcription factors E2F-1 and E2F-4. Overall, our results demonstrate that fucoidan possesses anticancer activity potential against bladder cancer cells by inhibiting pRB phosphorylation.

  9. Kinetics of carboplatin-DNA binding in genomic DNA and bladder cancer cells as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hah, S S; Stivers, K M; Vere White, R; Henderson, P T

    2005-12-29

    Cisplatin and carboplatin are platinum-based drugs that are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The cytotoxicity of these drugs is mediated by platinum-DNA monoadducts and intra- and interstrand diadducts, which are formed following uptake of the drug into the nucleus of cells. The pharmacodynamics of carboplatin display fewer side effects than for cisplatin, albeit with less potency, which may be due to differences in rates of DNA adduct formation. We report the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a sensitive detection method often used for radiocarbon quantitation, to measure both the kinetics of [{sup 14}C]carboplatin-DNA adduct formation with genomic DNA and drug uptake and DNA binding in T24 human bladder cancer cells. Only carboplatin-DNA monoadducts contain radiocarbon in the platinated DNA, which allowed for calculation of kinetic rates and concentrations within the system. The percent of radiocarbon bound to salmon sperm DNA in the form of monoadducts was measured by AMS over 24 h. Knowledge of both the starting concentration of the parent carboplatin and the concentration of radiocarbon in the DNA at a variety of time points allowed calculation of the rates of Pt-DNA monoadduct formation and conversion to toxic cross-links. Importantly, the rate of carboplatin-DNA monoadduct formation was approximately 100-fold slower than that reported for the more potent cisplatin analogue, which may explain the lower toxicity of carboplatin. T24 human bladder cancer cells were incubated with a subpharmacological dose of [{sup 14}C]carboplatin, and the rate of accumulation of radiocarbon in the cells and nuclear DNA was measured by AMS. The lowest concentration of radiocarbon measured was approximately 1 amol/10 {micro}g of DNA. This sensitivity may allow the method to be used for clinical applications.

  10. Usefulness of Bladder Tumour Antigen (BTA) and Urinary Bladder Cancer test (UBC) in Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer (TCC) diagnosis and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: We evaluated BTA and UBC clinical utility in TCC diagnosis and follow-up. Materials and Methods: We enrolled consecutively 96 untreated TCC, 73 other genitourinary carcinomas (OC), 106 benign genitourinary diseases (BD) and 75 normal controls (C). After trans-urethral resection (TUR), TCC were classified by clinical staging (9 Ta, 27 T1, 32 T2, 20 T3 and 8 T4) and pathological grading (14 G1, 28 G2, 41 G3 and 13 G4). Urine BTA and UBC were assayed by monoclonal antibody methods, IEMA and IRMA, respectively (cut-off:14 U/ml and 8 μg/l, respectively). Results: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 83.6%, 75.1%, 64.6%, 89.% and 72.4%, respectively for BTA and 53.1%, 89.4%, 72.8%, 78% and 75.6%, respectively for UBC. BTA and UBC specificities were determined combining OC and BD data, although UBC reached the highest value in OC (93.15%). Sensitivity and specificity differences between the two markers were significant (p<0.00001). BTA and UBC sensitivity and mean values significantly increased with progressive staging and grading. Moreover, marker levels were significantly higher in TCC compared to OC, BD and C. Seventy-one high stage and/or grade TCC underwent radical cystectomy, while 25 were monitored after TUR (14 cases: group A) or segmental cystectomy (11 cases: group B) for 8-32 months by periodical clinical examination, cystoscopy and urinary BTA and UBC assays. During follow-up, 9 group A cases developed recurrences and 5 were NED. BTA was elevated in 8/9 cases (88.8%) with recurrence, while borderline in the remaining one. UBC was above cut-off in 6/9 cases (66.6%) all with high BTA, while low in the remaining 3, confirming first observation data. Both marker increases preceded by several months the cystoscopic evidence of recurrence. In NED patients, BTA was low in all cases (100%), while UBC was under cut-off in 4/5 cases (80%) and slightly high in the remaining asymptomatic patient. Ten group B patients developed local recurrences, while one was NED. In the former, BTA increased in 9/10 cases (90%) and was under cut-off in the remaining one. UBC was high only in 6/10 cases (60%), all with high BTA; in the only NED patient both markers were under cut-off. Conclusion: Both BTA and UBC can be useful in TCC diagnosis and follow-up. BTA proved significantly more sensitive than UBC to identify both primary carcinomas and recurrences in our cases, while UBC could better discriminate TCC from OC and BD

  11. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction caused by a Richter's-type hernia into the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Naomi S.; Acharya, Vikas; Mansour, Sami; Saleemi, Mohammed A.; Cheslyn-Curtis, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The authors present an unusual case of small bowel obstruction in a 62-year-old man. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old man with a background of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, distension, vomiting and had not opened his bowels for three days. 3 weeks previously he had a repeat Transurtheral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), during which there was an iatrogenic perforation of the bladder. A CT scan of ...

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  13. Microvesicles derived from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells attenuate bladder tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wu

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess antitumor properties; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, microvesicles (MVs are considered as a novel avenue intercellular communication, which may be a mediator in MSCs-related antitumor effect. In the present study, we evaluated whether MVs derived from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs may inhibit bladder tumor T24 cells growth using cell culture and the BALB/c nu/nu mice xenograft model. CCK-8 assay and Ki-67 immunostaining were performed to estimate cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to assess cell cycle and apoptosis. To study the conceivable mechanism by which hWJMSC-MVs attenuate bladder tumor T24 cells, we estimated the expression of Akt/p-Akt, p-p53, p21 and cleaved Caspase 3 by Western blot technique after exposing T24 cells to hWJMSC-MVs for 24, 48 and 72h. Our data indicated that hWJMSC-MVs can inhibit T24 cells proliferative viability via cell cycle arrest and induce apoptosis in T24 cells in vitro and in vivo. This study showed that hWJMSC-MVs down-regulated phosphorylation of Akt protein kinase and up-regulated cleaved Caspase 3 during the process of anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis in T24 cells. These results demonstrate that hWJMSC-MVs play a vital role in hWJMSC-induced antitumor effect and may be a novel tool for cancer therapy as a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication.

  14. KCNQ Currents and Their Contribution to Resting Membrane Potential and the Excitability of Interstitial Cells of Cajal From the Guinea Pig Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ursula A.; Carson, Christopher; McCloskey, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The presence of novel KCNQ currents was investigated in guinea pig bladder interstitial cells of Cajal and their contribution to the maintenance of the resting membrane potential was assessed. Materials and Methods Enzymatically dispersed interstitial cells of Cajal were patch clamped with K+ filled pipettes in voltage clamp and current clamp modes. Pharmacological modulators of KCNQ channels were tested on membrane currents and the resting membrane potential. Results Cells were stepp...

  15. The properties of the ATP-induced depolarization and current in single cells isolated from the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, R.; Brading, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of exogenously applied ATP were investigated with the whole-cell patch clamp method in single cells isolated from guinea-pig urinary bladder with a modified concentration jump technique. 2. Rapid application of ATP (threshold ca. 100 nM) depolarized the cell membrane with superimposition of action potentials which was followed by transient hyperpolarization. In the presence of D600, the amplitude of the ATP-induced depolarization was a function of the ATP concentration (EC50: 0...

  16. Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Giselle

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy among Uruguayan men. A previous study from Uruguay suggested a high risk of bladder cancer associated with maté drinking. We conducted an additional case-control study in order to further explore the role of non-alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis. Methods In the time period 1996–2000, 255 incident cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and 501 patients treated in the same hospitals and in the same time period were frequency matched on age, sex, and residence. Both cases and controls were face-to-face interviewed on occupation, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and intake of maté, coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Statistical analysis was carried out by unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results Ever maté drinking was positively associated with bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.9 and the risk increased for increasing duration and amount of maté drinking. Both coffee and tea were strongly associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for coffee drinking 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.3; OR for tea drinking 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4. These results were confirmed in a separate analysis of never-smokers. Conclusion Our results suggest that drinking of maté, coffee and tea may be risk factors for bladder carcinoma in Uruguay.

  17. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was ≥ 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  18. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, A.H.M.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M.; Pieters, B.R.; Koning, C.C.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, F.J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Inst., Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reijke, T.M. de [Dept. of Urology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was {>=} 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  19. Myrtucommulone-A treatment decreases pluripotency- and multipotency-associated marker expression in bladder cancer cell line HTB-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Banu; Izgi, Kenan; Karaca, Halit; Canatan, Halit

    2015-10-01

    Cancer and stem cells exhibit similar features, including self-renewal, differentiation and immortality. The expression of stem-cell-related genes in cancer cells is demonstrated to be potentially correlated with cancer cell behaviour, affecting both drug response and tumor recurrence. There is an emerging body of evidence that subpopulations of tumors carry a distinct molecular sign and are selectively resistant to chemotherapy. Therefore, it is important to find novel therapeutic agents that could suppress the stem-like features of cancer cells while inhibiting their proliferation. Myrtucommulone-A (MC-A) is an active compound of a nonprenylated acylphloroglucinol isolated from the leaves of myrtle. Here we have investigated the potential of MC-A in inhibiting the expression of self-renewal regulatory factors and cancer stem cell markers in a bladder cancer cell line HTB-9. We used RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and western blotting to examine the expression of pluripotency- and multipotency-associated markers with or without treatment with MC-A. Treatment with MC-A not only decreased cancer cell viability and proliferation but also resulted in a decrease in the expression of pluripotency- and multipotency-associated markers such as NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, CD90, CD73 and CD44. MC-A treatment was also observed to decrease the sphere-forming ability of HTB-9 cells. In summary, this study provides valuable information on the presence of stem-cell marker expression in HTB-9 cells and our results imply that MC-A could be utilized to target cancer cells with stem-like characteristics. PMID:26054707

  20. Apoptosis-related molecular differences for response to tyrosin kinase inhibitors in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family is reportedly overexpressed in bladder cancer, and tyrosine kinaseinhibitors (TKIs have been suggested as treatment. Gefitinib is a selective inhibitor of the EGFR and lapatinib is a dual inhibitor of both the EGFR and HER2 (human EGFR type 2 receptor. Both compounds compete with the binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP to the tyrosine kinase domain of the respective receptors to inhibit receptor autophosphorylation causing suppression of signal transduction. Unfortunately, resistance to these inhibitors is a major clinical problem. Aims: To compare the apoptosis signaling pathway(s induced by gefitinib and lapatinib, in UM-UC-5 (drug-sensitive and UM-UC-14 (drug-resistant bladder cancer cells and to identify molecular differences that might be useful predictors of their efficacy. Materials and Methods: Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assay were used to detect the effect of TKIs on UM-UC-5 and UM-UC-14 cells. Molecular differences for response to TKIs were examined by protein array. Results: TKIs strongly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis in UM-UC-5 cells. Most notable apoptosis molecular differences included decreased claspin, trail, and survivin by TKIs in the sensitive cells. In contrast, TKIs had no effect on resistant cells. Conclusions: Claspin, trail, and survivin might be used to determine the sensitivity of bladder cancers to TKIs.

  1. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  2. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  3. Porcelain gall bladder in a case of papillary renal cell carcinoma: A rare occurrence and its impact on treatment verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan V. Sugi Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN is a rare clinical entity in which two primary malignancies are encountered in the same individual which can be synchronous (second primary within 6 months or metachronous (beyond 6 months. We present a case of a 41-year-old male who underwent left partial nephrectomy for suspected renal cell carcinoma and it was confirmed based on histopathology. The gallbladder was normal on contrast-enhanced computed tomogram (CECT abdomen. Follow-up CECT done 1 year later showed no enhancing masses in both kidneys, but incidentally porcelain gallbladder was detected. An elective open cholecystectomy was done for acalculous porcelain gall bladder owing to its premalignant nature. We report this case to highlight the relative risk of second primaries in patients treated for primary malignancies and that relevant premalignant conditions should be managed as possible second malignancies to avoid potential complications.

  4. Problems in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in a spinal cord injury patient: Report of a case of simultaneous production of granulocyte colony stimulating factor and parathyroid hormone-related protein by squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurpreet

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typical symptoms and signs of a clinical condition may be absent in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. Case presentation A male with paraplegia was passing urine through penile sheath for 35 years, when he developed urinary infections. There was no history of haematuria. Intravenous urography showed bilateral hydronephrosis. The significance of abnormal outline of bladder was not appreciated. As there was large residual urine, he was advised intermittent catheterisation. Serum urea: 3.5 mmol/L; creatinine: 77 umol/L. A year later, serum urea: 36.8 mmol/l; creatinine: 632 umol/l; white cell count: 22.2; neutrophils: 18.88. Ultrasound: bilateral hydronephrosis. Bilateral nephrostomy was performed. Subsequently, blood tests showed: Urea: 14.2 mmol/l; Creatinine: 251 umol/l; Adjusted Calcium: 3.28 mmol/l; Parathyroid hormone: A repeat ultrasound scan demonstrated a tumour arising from right lateral wall; biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. In view of persistently high white cell count and high calcium level, immunohistochemistry for G-CSF and PTHrP was performed. Dense staining of tumour cells for G-CSF and faintly positive staining for C-terminal PTHrP were observed. This patient expired about five months later. Conclusion This case demonstrates how delay in diagnosis of bladder cancer could occur in a SCI patient due to absence of characteristic symptoms and signs.

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms at Familial Bladder Cancer: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ceylan

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men in the world, it is the second most seen cancer after lung cancer and the first in urogenital tumours in Turkey. Many molecular epidemiologic studies have been reported to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. In this report, a family with transitional bladder cancer have also MTHFR A1298C heterozygosity which supports the association between MTHFR variants and bladder canc...

  6. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Wang

    Full Text Available Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1 kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  7. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  8. Prediction of radiosensitivity in tumour cells: use of the alkaline comet assay to assess radiosensitivity in bladder and colorectal tumour cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for a wide range of solid tumours yet it is impossible to predict which tumours will show a good response. We have investigated the radiosensitivity of a number of tumour cell lines (5 bladder and 4 colorectal) to verify whether the alkaline comet assay (ACA) can be used to predict tumour radiosensitivity. Preliminary studies showed that it is essential to carry out irradiations on cells pre-embedded in agarose to ensure that repair, prior to lysis, is kept to a minimum. Cells were embedded prior to irradiation, lysed and the comet tail moment analysed; this was compared to cell survival measured using a clonogenic assay. For all doses (0 - 6Gy) there was a good correlation between the two measures: r2 0.897 for bladder tumour cells and r2 = 0.929 for colorectal tumour cells. We also irradiated cells with 4Gy X-rays and measured initial damage, repair rate and residual damage. In both groups initial DNA damage and residual damage correlated with clonogenic survival; repair rate was very similar for the cell lines and was not predictive. One cell line (T24) had a pronounced shoulder on the radiation dose response curve such that there was a radioresistant response at 2 Gy and a radiosensitive response at 4 Gy. This change in response within the clinically relevant range emphasises that for a predictive test to have validity in the clinic it must be carried out in the clinically relevant range. The finding that initial damage varies between individual cell lines is consistent with some, but not all reports in the literature. We have also carried out nuclear texture analysis to measure phenotypic changes in DNA distribution and chromatin organisation. The results support the contention that organisation of nuclear chromatin is inherently different in different cell lines and may be significant in determining their response to radiation damage

  9. Licochalcone A-Induced Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells Apoptosis Triggered by Mitochondria Dysfunction and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Licochalcone A (LCA, a licorice chalconoid, is considered to be a bioactive agent with chemopreventive potential. This study investigated the mechanisms involved in LCA-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. LCA significantly inhibited cells proliferation, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and caused T24 cells apoptosis. Moreover, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activation, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals. Besides, exposure of T24 cells to LCA triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress; as indicated by the enhancement in 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153/C/EBP homology protein (GADD153/CHOP expression, ER stress-dependent apoptosis is caused by the activation of ER-specific caspase-12. All the findings from our study suggest that LCA initiates mitochondrial ROS generation and induces oxidative stress that consequently causes T24 cell apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent and the ER stress-triggered signaling pathways.

  10. Targeting PPM1D by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits the tumorigenicity of bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein phosphatase magnesium/manganese-dependent 1D (PPM1D) is a p53-induced phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of stress response pathways and has oncogenic properties. However, the functional role of PPM1D in bladder cancer (BC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, lentivirus vectors carrying small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting PPM1D were used to explore the effects of PPM1D knockdown on BC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PPM1D significantly inhibited cell growth and colony forming ability in the BC cell lines 5637 and T24. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PPM1D silencing increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Downregulation of PPM1D also inhibited 5637 cell tumorigenicity in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that PPM1D plays a potentially important role in BC tumorigenicity, and lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA against PPM1D might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of BC

  11. Targeting PPM1D by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits the tumorigenicity of bladder cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [Institute of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of the Intensive Care Unit, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, H. [Department of the Intensive Care Unit, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, H.; Zhang, L. [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ding, Q.; Jiang, H. [Institute of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-09-23

    Protein phosphatase magnesium/manganese-dependent 1D (PPM1D) is a p53-induced phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of stress response pathways and has oncogenic properties. However, the functional role of PPM1D in bladder cancer (BC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, lentivirus vectors carrying small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting PPM1D were used to explore the effects of PPM1D knockdown on BC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PPM1D significantly inhibited cell growth and colony forming ability in the BC cell lines 5637 and T24. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PPM1D silencing increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Downregulation of PPM1D also inhibited 5637 cell tumorigenicity in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that PPM1D plays a potentially important role in BC tumorigenicity, and lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA against PPM1D might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of BC.

  12. Inverse p16 and p63 expression in small cell carcinoma and high-grade urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Natalia; Cohen, Paul J; Pei Hui; Parkash, Vinita

    2010-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the urinary bladder is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm. The diagnosis is usually made on morphologic grounds, with the help of immunohistochemistry to document neuroendocrine differentiation. However, neuroendocrine markers generally have low sensitivity, ranging between 30-70%. Recent studies have reported p16 over-expression in SmCC of the lung, suggesting that p16 immunohistochemistry may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder SmCC. This is the first study to analyze the usefulness of p16 in the distinction of small cell and high grade urothelial cell carcinoma (HG-UCC). Fourteen cases of SmCCs and sixteen cases of HG-UCC of the bladder were stained with p16, p63, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), chromogranin (Chr), synaptophysin (Syn), and CD56. P16 expression was significantly higher in SmCCs (92.8%) when compared to HG-UCCs (43.7%). P63 and CK20, on the other hand, were positive in the majority of HG-UCCs (81.3% and 50%, respectively), while only 14.3% of SmCCs showed focal immunoreactivity with CK20. The sensitivity of the traditional neuroendocrine markers was low, ranging between 28.6% (Chr) and 71.4% (CD56) in SmCCs. P16 positivity in the absence of p63 and CK20 is highly characteristic of SmCC, while p63 and CK20 positivity with or without p16 expression is typical of HG-UCC. PMID:20164052

  13. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study of 107 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, David, E-mail: d-pasquier@o-lambret.fr [Academic Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Barney, Brandon [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Sundar, Santhanam [Department of Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Poortmans, Philip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Villa, Salvador [Radiation Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, H. Universitari Germans Trías, Badalona, Barcelona (Spain); Nasrallah, Haitam [Division of Oncology, Rambam Health Care Campus and Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Boujelbene, Noureddine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ghadjar, Pirus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Senkus, Elżbieta [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk (Poland); Oar, Andrew [Genesis Cancer Care, Southport (Australia); Roelandts, Martine [Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Amichetti, Maurizio [Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy, Trento (Italy); Vees, Hansjoerg [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital de Sion, Sion (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Small cell carcinomas of the bladder (SCCB) account for fewer than 1% of all urinary bladder tumors. There is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for SCCB. Methods and Materials: Fifteen academic Rare Cancer Network medical centers contributed SCCB cases. The eligibility criteria were as follows: pure or mixed SCC; local, locoregional, and metastatic stages; and age ≥18 years. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze survival as functions of clinical and therapeutic factors. Results: The study included 107 patients (mean [±standard deviation, SD] age, 69.6 [±10.6] years; mean follow-up time, 4.4 years) with primary bladder SCC, with 66% of these patients having pure SCC. Seventy-two percent and 12% of the patients presented with T2-4N0M0 and T2-4N1-3M0 stages, respectively, and 16% presented with synchronous metastases. The most frequent curative treatments were radical surgery and chemotherapy, sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and radical surgery alone. The median (interquartile range, IQR) OS and DFS times were 12.9 months (IQR, 7-32 months) and 9 months (IQR, 5-23 months), respectively. The metastatic, T2-4N0M0, and T2-4N1-3M0 groups differed significantly (P=.001) in terms of median OS and DFS. In a multivariate analysis, impaired creatinine clearance (OS and DFS), clinical stage (OS and DFS), a Karnofsky performance status <80 (OS), and pure SCC histology (OS) were independent and significant adverse prognostic factors. In the patients with nonmetastatic disease, the type of treatment (ie radical surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy vs conservative treatment) did not significantly influence OS or DFS (P=.7). Conclusions: The prognosis for SCCB remains poor. The finding that radical cystectomy did not influence DFS or OS in the patients with nonmetastatic disease

  14. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study of 107 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Small cell carcinomas of the bladder (SCCB) account for fewer than 1% of all urinary bladder tumors. There is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for SCCB. Methods and Materials: Fifteen academic Rare Cancer Network medical centers contributed SCCB cases. The eligibility criteria were as follows: pure or mixed SCC; local, locoregional, and metastatic stages; and age ≥18 years. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze survival as functions of clinical and therapeutic factors. Results: The study included 107 patients (mean [±standard deviation, SD] age, 69.6 [±10.6] years; mean follow-up time, 4.4 years) with primary bladder SCC, with 66% of these patients having pure SCC. Seventy-two percent and 12% of the patients presented with T2-4N0M0 and T2-4N1-3M0 stages, respectively, and 16% presented with synchronous metastases. The most frequent curative treatments were radical surgery and chemotherapy, sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and radical surgery alone. The median (interquartile range, IQR) OS and DFS times were 12.9 months (IQR, 7-32 months) and 9 months (IQR, 5-23 months), respectively. The metastatic, T2-4N0M0, and T2-4N1-3M0 groups differed significantly (P=.001) in terms of median OS and DFS. In a multivariate analysis, impaired creatinine clearance (OS and DFS), clinical stage (OS and DFS), a Karnofsky performance status <80 (OS), and pure SCC histology (OS) were independent and significant adverse prognostic factors. In the patients with nonmetastatic disease, the type of treatment (ie radical surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy vs conservative treatment) did not significantly influence OS or DFS (P=.7). Conclusions: The prognosis for SCCB remains poor. The finding that radical cystectomy did not influence DFS or OS in the patients with nonmetastatic disease

  15. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Yagnik Vipul; Chadha Amit; Chaudhari Sanjay; Patel Keyuri

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of bladder is an uncommon benign tumor of bladder, which is of unknown neoplastic potential, characterized by spindle cell proliferation with characteristic fibroinflammatory and pseudosarcomatous appearance. Essential criteria for the diagnosis of IMT are: spindle myoepithelial cell proliferation and lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice.

  16. miR-145 induces caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in urothelial cancer cell lines with targeting of an expression signature present in Ta bladder tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Lamy, Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Downregulation of miR-145 in a variety of cancers suggests a possible tumor suppressor function for this microRNA. Here, we show that miR-145 expression is reduced in bladder cancer and urothelial carcinoma in situ, compared with normal urothelium, using transcription profiling and in situ...... hybridization. Ectopic expression of miR-145 induced extensive apoptosis in urothelial carcinoma cell lines (T24 and SW780) as characterized by caspase activation, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, cellular shrinkage, and detachment. However, cell death also proceeded upon caspase inhibition by the...... pharmacological inhibitor zVAD-fmk and ectopic expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, indicating the activation of an alternative caspase-independent death pathway. Microarray analysis of transcript levels in T24 cells, before the onset of cell death, showed destabilization of mRNAs enriched for miR-145 7mer target...

  17. Risk factors, therapy and survival outcomes of small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Raj Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk factors, the optimal therapy and prognostic factors contributing to poor outcomes of neuroendocrine urinary bladder carcinoma are not fully elucidated because of its rarity. We reviewed the medical records of neuroendocrine bladder carcinoma patients treated at the University of Nebraska Medical Center between 1996 and 2011. Eighteen patients, 55% female with a median age of 77 years, had stage IV disease at diagnosis in 50% of cases. There was a high prevalence of smoking (78%, medical co-morbidities (94%, prior cancer history (22% and family history of cancer (61%. Treatment modalities included surgery (72%, platinum-based chemotherapy (50% and/or radiation (22%. Median overall survival was 18.5 months (95% confidence interval, 7-36 months. Patients with Stage II and III cancer who underwent radical surgery with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a median survival of 37 months. In addition to smoking, for the first time, our study indicates that the personal or family history of cancer may increase risk to neuroendocrine bladder cancer. Advanced age and stage at diagnosis, and the presence of multiple co-morbidities contribute to poor overall survival. Patients with early-stage disease are likely to benefit from a combination of radical surgery and platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. Designing the selenium and bladder cancer trial (SELEBLAT, a phase lll randomized chemoprevention study with selenium on recurrence of bladder cancer in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Maria E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2% and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%. Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported that selenium concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer. This suggests that selenium may also be suitable for chemoprevention of recurrence. Method The SELEBLAT study opened in September 2009 and is still recruiting all patients with non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder on TURB operation in 15 Belgian hospitals. Recruitment progress can be monitored live at http://www.seleblat.org. Patients are randomly assigned to selenium yeast (200 μg/day supplementation for 3 years or matching placebo, in addition to standard care. The objective is to determine the effect of selenium on the recurrence of bladder cancer. Randomization is stratified by treatment centre. A computerized algorithm randomly assigns the patients to a treatment arm. All study personnel and participants are blinded to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. Design The SELEnium and BLAdder cancer Trial (SELEBLAT is a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, academic, double-blind superior trial. Discussion This is the first report on a selenium randomized trial in bladder cancer patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00729287

  19. Growth delay of human bladder cancer cells by Prostate Stem Cell Antigen downregulation is associated with activation of immune signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein expressed not only in prostate but also in pancreas and bladder cancer as shown by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analysis. It has been targeted by monoclonal antibodies in preclinical animal models and more recently in a clinical trial in prostate cancer patients. The biological role played in tumor growth is presently unknown. In this report we have characterized the contribution of PSCA expression to tumor growth. A bladder cell line was engineered to express a doxycycline (dox) regulated shRNA against PSCA. To shed light on the PSCA biological role in tumor growth, microarray analysis was carried out as a function of PSCA expression. Expression of gene set of interest was further analyzed by qPCR Down regulation of the PSCA expression was associated with reduced cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors showed a reduced tumor growth upon treatment with dox, which effectively induced shRNA against PSCA as revealed by GFP expression. Pathway analysis of deregulated genes suggests a statistical significant association between PSCA downregulation and activation of genes downstream of the IFNα/β receptor. These experiments established for the first time a correlation between the level of PSCA expression and tumor growth and suggest a role of PSCA in counteracting the natural immune response

  20. MEK1 and MEK2 differentially regulate human insulin-and insulin glargine-induced human bladder cancer T24 cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shan-ying; LIANG Ying; LIN Tian-xin; SU Fang; LIANG Wei-wen; Uwe Heemann; LI Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased risk of bladder cancer has been reported in diabetic patients.This study was to investigate the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1 and 2 in the regulation of human insulin-and insulin glargine-induced proliferation of human bladder cancer T24 cells.Methods In the absence or presence of a selective inhibitor for MEK1 (PD98059) or a specific siRNA for MEK2 (siMEK2),with or without addition of insulin or glargine,T24 cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay.Protein expression of MEK2,phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt was analyzed by Western blotting.Results T24 cell proliferation was promoted by PD98059 at 5-20 μmol/L,inhibited by siMEK2 at 25-100 nmol/L.PD98059 and siMEK2 remarkably reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2.Insulin-and glargine-induced T24 cell proliferation was enhanced by PD98059,suppressed while not blocked by siMEK2.Insulin-and glargine-induced ERK1/2 activation was blocked by PD98059 or siMEK2 treatment,whereas activation of Akt was not affected.Conclusion MEK1 inhibits while MEK2 contributes to normal and human insulin-and insulin glargine-induced human bladder cancer T24 cell proliferation.

  1. RIP kinase-mediated ROS production triggers XAF1 expression through activation of TAp73 in casticin-treated bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoon Hee; Kim, Daejin

    2016-08-01

    The p53 family protein p73 plays an important role in apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. Transcriptionally active (TA) p73 (TAp73) substitutes for p53 in the response to stress. XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1) is a novel predictive and prognostic factor in patients with bladder cancer, but the association between TAp73 and XAF1 expression in bladder cancer cells is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the status of TAp73 and XAF1 in T24 bladder cancer cells to identify molecular mechanisms in casticin‑exposed T24 cells. Casticin induced activation of JNK/p38 MAPK that preceded activation of the caspase cascade and disruption of the mitochondria membrane potential (∆ψm). Expression of XAF1 and TAp73 was also upregulated in casticin-treated T24 cells. Casticin treatment of T24 cells induced receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase expression and increased intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Casticin-mediated ROS induced an increase in phosphorylated JNK/p38 MAPK, resulting in progressive upregulation of TAp73, which in turn led to XAF1 expression. Our data suggest that the apoptotic activity of casticin in T24 cells is mediated by activation of the TAp73-XAF1 signaling pathway through RIP kinase-mediated ROS production. PMID:27349281

  2. Penile metastasis from primary transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: first manifestation of systemic spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost one-third of all penile metastases are detected at the same time as a primary tumor, whereas the remaining two-thirds are detected a mean of 18 months after the discovery of the primary tumor. Cutaneous metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is extremely rare and generally accepted as the late manifestation of a systemic spread. We report the first case of simultaneous penile and lung metastases from a primary TCC of the renal pelvis in a 76-year-old man, that occurred 8 years after a left nephroureterectomy. This case report underscores the importance of physical examinations of the skin of patients who undergo surgical procedures for TCC from bladder as well as from the upper urinary tract, including those seemingly without metastatic disease, because of the possibility of skin and penile metastatic spread

  3. Transitional cell carcinoma of urethra with cardiac and pulmonary metastasis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of urethral carcinoma in 15-year-old mongrel male dog is described. Signs of dysuria, urethral obstruction, tenesmus, pain and cough were mentioned. Clinically, the animal was undernourished and showed signs of pain and bladder repletion during the palpation of the abdominal region. Other complementary exams were made such as routine urinalyses, X-ray, ultrassonography and measurement of blood urea and creatinine. Macroscopically, the mucous membrane of pelvic urethra was somewhat irregular, due to the presence of several small white irregular and ulcerated nodules of imprecise boundaries. Similar nodules were found in the lungs and heart. Histologically, transitional cell carcinoma of urethra with metastasis to lung and heart was detected

  4. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Biliary, Pancreatic, Urothelial, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  5. Clinical implications in the shift of syndecan-1 expression from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic and prognostic capability of urinary and tumoral syndecan-1 (SDC-1) levels in patients with cancer of the urinary bladder. SDC-1 levels were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 308 subjects (102 cancer subjects and 206 non-cancer subjects) to assess its diagnostic capabilities in voided urine. The performance of SDC-1 was evaluated using the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining assessed SDC-1 protein expression in 193 bladder specimens (185 cancer subjects and 8 non-cancer subjects). Outcomes were correlated to SDC-1 levels. Mean urinary levels of SDC-1 did not differ between the cancer subjects and the non-cancer subjects, however, the mean urinary levels of SDC-1 were reduced in high-grade compared to low-grade disease (p < 0.0001), and in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) compared to non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p = 0.005). Correspondingly, preliminary data note a shift from a membranous cellular localization of SDC-1 in normal tissue, low-grade tumors and NMIBC, to a distinctly cytoplasmic localization in high-grade tumors and MIBC was observed in tissue specimens. Alone urinary SDC-1 may not be a diagnostic biomarker for bladder cancer, but its urinary levels and cellular localization were associated with the differentiation status of patients with bladder tumors. Further studies are warranted to define the potential role for SDC-1 in bladder cancer progression

  6. Molecular detection of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumor tissues and exfoliated cells by aberrant promoter methylation of laminin-5 encoding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Ubaradka G; Maruyama, Riichiroh; Padar, Asha; Suzuki, Makoto; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Minna, John D; Frenkel, Eugene P; Grossman, H Barton; Czerniak, Bogdan; Gazdar, Adi F

    2004-02-15

    Laminin-5 (LN5) anchors epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane, and it is encoded by three distinct genes: LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2. To metastasize and grow, cancer cells must invade and destroy the basement membrane. Our previous work has shown that epigenetic inactivation is a major mechanism of silencing LN5 genes in lung cancers. We extended our methylation studies to resected bladder tumors (n = 128) and exfoliated cell samples (bladder washes and voided urine; n = 71) and correlated the data with clinicopathologic findings. Nonmalignant urothelium had uniform expression of LN5 genes and lacked methylation. The methylation frequencies for LN5 genes in tumors were 21-45%, and there was excellent concordance between methylation in tumors and corresponding exfoliated cells. Methylation of LAMA3 and LAMB3 and the methylation index were correlated significantly with several parameters of poor prognosis (tumor grade, growth pattern, muscle invasion, tumor stage, and ploidy pattern), whereas methylation of LAMC2 and methylation index were associated with shortened patient survival. Of particular interest, methylation frequencies of LAMA3 helped to distinguish invasive (72%) from noninvasive (12%) tumors. These results suggest that methylation of LN5 genes has potential clinical applications in bladder cancers. PMID:14973053

  7. A Common MicroRNA Signature Consisting of miR-133a, miR-139-3p, and miR-142-3p Clusters Bladder Carcinoma in Situ with Normal Umbrella Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Angela Y.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Domingo-Domenech, Josep; Bonal, Dennis M.; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta; Silva, Jose M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs with critical roles in a large variety of biological processes such as development and tumorigenesis. miRNA expression profiling has been reported to be a powerful tool to classify tissue samples, including cancers, based on their developmental lineage. In this study, we have profiled the expression of miRNAs in bladder carcinoma in situ (CIS) and distinct cell compartments of the normal bladder, namely umbrella and basal-intermediate urothelial cells, as well ...

  8. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  9. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  10. Iatrogenic neonatal bladder perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Trigui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic causes. The present study describes the case of a 3-day-old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary probably to manual decompression of the bladder. The infant underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation.

  11. Use of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation in a rabbit model: biocompatibility, clinical and histological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. A. Domingos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate histological features and biocompatibility of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation using a rabbit model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After a partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2x4 cm was sewn to the bladder with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. The 5-µm preparations obtained from grafted area and normal bladder were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a primary antibody against alpha-actin to assess muscle regeneration. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. Macroscopically, after 90 days, the latex biomembrane was not identifiable and the patch was indistinguishable from normal bladder. A bladder stone was found in one animal (6.6%. On the 90th day, histology revealed continuity of transitional epithelium of host bladder tissue on the patch area. At this time, the muscle layers were well organized in a similar fashion to native bladder muscle layers. The inflammatory process was higher on grafted areas when compared to controls: 15 days - p < 0.0001, 45 days - p < 0.001, and 90 days - p < 0.01. The anti alpha-actin immunoexpression peaked at 45 days, when the graft was observed covered by muscle cells. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane is biocompatible and can be used in models for bladder augmentation in rabbits. It promotes epithelium and muscle regeneration without urinary leakage.

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma forming a perirenal cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, E; Kipar, A; Barber, P J; Freeman, A I

    2008-03-01

    An eight-year-old, neutered male Burmese cat presented with five days vomiting and anorexia. Physical examination, clinical pathology and diagnostic imaging findings suggested a perirenal pseudocyst. After partial resection of the perirenal capsule clinical signs temporarily resolved, but the cat was euthanased 34 days postoperatively as a result of seizures and recurrence of vomiting. Postoperative histopathology showed neoplastic transitional cells within and lining the resected perirenal capsule; a diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma was confirmed post-mortem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this presentation of transitional cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma should be a differential diagnosis for the aetiology of perirenal pseudocyst. PMID:17784930

  13. PKC and neurofibromin in the molecular pathology of urinary bladder carcinoma:the effect of PKC inhibitors on carcinoma cell junctions, movement and death

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, V. (Vesa)

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the role of tumor suppressor neurofibromin and Protein kinase C (PKC) in urinary bladder cancer, and the effect of PKC inhibitors on cancer cell behaviour. Tumor suppressor protein neurofibromin is a product of the NF1 gene, a mutation of which causes the most common hereditary tumor syndrome, type 1 neurofibromatosis. NF1 gene mutations and changes in expression have been demonstrated in malignancies, unrelated to type 1 neurofibromatosis. The best known ...

  14. Silencing B7-H1 enhances the anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer antigen-loaded dendritic cell vaccine in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shuo Wang,1 Yonghua Wang,1 Jing Liu,2 Shixiu Shao,1 Xianjun Li,1 Jiannan Gao,1 Haitao Niu,1 Xinsheng Wang1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether short hairpin RNA (shRNA expressing lentiviral particles targeting B7-H1 infection could result in B7-H1 knockdown on dendritic cells (DCs and to investigate whether B7-H1 silencing could augment the immune function of DCs and further elicit a more potent anti-tumor immune effect against bladder cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs, which were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were infected by a recombinant lentivirus containing shRNA sequence aimed at B7-H1. After that, the infected DCs were pulsed by tumor antigens and used to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes-based anti-tumor effect in vitro. Results: The lentivirus-mediated shRNA delivery method efficiently and effectively silenced B7-H1 in DCs. Furthermore, the B7-H1 silencing enhanced the stimulatory capacity and the secretion of interleukin-12, but down-regulated interleukin-10 secretion. And more importantly, the anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer antigen-loaded DC vaccine in vitro was also potentially augmented. Conclusion: This study suggests that a combination of B7-H1 knockdown and target antigen delivery could augment anti-tumor effects in vitro, which potentially provides a novel strategy in the immunotherapy of bladder cancer. Keywords: B7-H1, bladder cancer, dendritic cell, vaccine, immunotherapy

  15. A component of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, promotes apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and ninth most common in women. It has a protracted course of progression and is thus an ideal candidate for chemoprevention strategies and trials. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemopreventive/antiproliferative potential of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major phytochemical in green tea) against bladder cancer and its mechanism of action. Using the T24 human bladder cancer cell line, we found that EGCG treatment caused dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation and cell viability, and induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, EGCG inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt activation that, in turn, results in modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to enhanced apoptosis of T24 cells. These findings suggest that EGCG may be an important chemoprevention agent for the management of bladder cancer

  16. [Specific types of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, S; Hartmann, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Gaisa, N T

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer shows rare variants and special subtypes with diverse prognostic importance and therefore may necessitate different therapeutic approaches. For pathologists it is important to histologically diagnose and specify such variants. Nested variants of urothelial carcinoma with inconspicuous, well-formed tumor cell nests present with an aggressive course. The plasmacytoid variant, which morphologically resembles plasma cells is associated with a shorter survival time and a high frequency of peritoneal metastasis. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma with small papillary tumor cell islands within artificial tissue retraction spaces and frequent lymphovascular invasion also has a poor prognosis. Other important rare differential variants listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification are microcystic, lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid, giant cell and undifferentiated urothelial carcinomas. Additionally, there are three special types of bladder cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. These tumors are characterized by pure squamous cell or glandular differentiation and are sometimes less responsive to adjuvant (chemo)therapy. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder mimics the neuroendocrine features of its pulmonary counterpart, shows an aggressive course but is sensitive to (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy. The morphology and histology of the most important variants and special types are discussed in this review. PMID:26782034

  17. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Pengyuan; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Zhang, Jianmin; Luo, Wei; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Sabatini, Linda; Vedell, Peter; Xiong, Donghai; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin; Shen, He; Li, Yinwei; Omilian, Angela R.; Hill, Annette; Head, Karen; Guru, Khurshid; Kunnev, Dimiter; Leach, Robert; Eng, Kevin H.; Darlak, Christopher; Hoeflich, Christopher; Veeranki, Srividya; Glenn, Sean; You, Ming; Pruitt, Steven C.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using complete genome analysis, we sequenced five bladder tumors accrued from patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) and identified a spectrum of genomic aberrations. In three tumors, complex genotype changes were noted. All three had tumor protein p53 mutations and a relatively large number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; average of 11.2 per megabase), structural variants (SVs; average of 46), or both. This group was best characterized by chromothripsis and the presence of subclonal populations of neoplastic cells or intratumoral mutational heterogeneity. Here, we provide evidence that the process of chromothripsis in TCC-UB is mediated by nonhomologous end-joining using kilobase, rather than megabase, fragments of DNA, which we refer to as “stitchers,” to repair this process. We postulate that a potential unifying theme among tumors with the more complex genotype group is a defective replication–licensing complex. A second group (two bladder tumors) had no chromothripsis, and a simpler genotype, WT tumor protein p53, had relatively few SNVs (average of 5.9 per megabase) and only a single SV. There was no evidence of a subclonal population of neoplastic cells. In this group, we used a preclinical model of bladder carcinoma cell lines to study a unique SV (translocation and amplification) of the gene glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl D-aspertate as a potential new therapeutic target in bladder cancer. PMID:24469795

  18. The Molecular Pathogenesis of Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. van Tilborg (Angela)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bladder is a hollow organ in the small pelvis. It stores urine that is produced when the kidneys filter the blood. Four different layers, the epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis, and connective tissue, define the bladder wall. The epithelium consists of 7 to 10 cell layers and res

  19. Isolated Primary Schwannoma of Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Primary schwannoma of urinary bladder is a very rare tumour. It usually occurs in association with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. It arises from Schwann’s cells in the nerve sheath. We report here a very rare case of primary schwannoma of urinary bladder managed by complete transurethral resection. PMID:27437301

  20. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed the...

  1. Evaluation of time dependence and interindividual differences in benzo[a]pyrene-mediated CYP1A1 induction and genotoxicity in porcine urinary bladder cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plottner, Sabine; Borza, Alexandra; Wolf, Alexander; Bolt, Hermann M; Kuhlmann, Jurgen; Follmann, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke is an established cause of cancer in humans and cigarette smoking is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer development. Aromatic amines are believed responsible for the bladder-specific carcinogenic effect, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also of potential relevance. Urothelial cells contain a number of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, which enable them to convert pro-carcinogens into reactive intermediates. In a preceding study, it was demonstrated using cultured porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) that CYP1A1 mRNA is induced in a potent manner by treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In the present study, the time dependence of these effects was evaluated and whether PUBEC cultures derived from individual donors respond differently to BaP treatment was determined. CYP1A1 induction was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and genotoxic effects were studied using the Comet assay. Incubation of PUBEC with BaP increased CYP1A1 expression and induction of DNA strand breaks in a time-dependent manner. Interindividual differences were found between PUBEC cultures derived from several donor animals with respect to the response to BaP, such that the extent of CYP1A1 induction and magnitude of DNA damage was interrelated. Hence, individual differences in metabolic capacities and responsiveness to xenobiotics of urothelial cells from individual donors may be factors in susceptibility to genotoxic effects induced by PAHs. PMID:18569604

  2. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder : histopathological and biological factors and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.M. Schapers

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of the studies reported in this thesis has been to determine the extent to which the behaviour of TCC can be predicted by histopathological and biological characteristics. The potential additional prognostic value of these factors was evaluated by combining them with oth

  3. Transurethral surgery in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer (T1 and T2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, H; Iversen, H G; Rosenkilde, P; Schrøder, T

    1987-01-01

    of them did not have local disease when treated. Twenty-five % of the total patient population did not within five years get a new tumour. They were cured by the first transurethral resection. 30% of the patients experienced new non-invasive tumour growth that could be managed by repeated resections...... patients at risk of getting a progressive bladder cancer disease. 5-year survival of these patients was about 50%. We conclude that transitional cell bladder tumours of category T1 and some of category T2 are well treated by transurethral resection....

  4. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Soloway, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Upper urinary tract (UUT) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of...

  5. A pure microcytic bladder carcinoma synchronous to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileios Sakalis; Anastasia Gkotsi; Efrosyni Mylonaki; Aphroditi Pantzaki; Vasileios Rombis

    2011-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) or microcytic carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity comprising approximately 0.5% of all bladder tumors. Due to its rarity, no prospective studies evaluating the most effective treatment have been published in the medical literature. Several cases of bladder SCC have been presented so far. We describe our case report and we revise the recent literature. Our patient was diagnosed with pure bladder SCC and prostatic adenocarcinoma. After the initial and co...

  6. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Neuroendocrine Bladder Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Prelaj, Arsela; Rebuzzi, Sara Elena; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Speranza, Iolanda; Corongiu, Emanuele; Borgoni, Giuseppe; Perugia, Giacomo; Liberti, Marcello; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 71 Final Diagnosis: Neuroendocrine cancer bladder Symptoms: Dysuria • haematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer that mainly presents at an advanced stage. As a result of its rarity, it has been described in many case reports and reviews but few retrospective and prospective trials, sho...

  7. Detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities (chr. 1 and 18) before and after photodynamic therapy of human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Kleinschmidt, Klaus; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1997-12-01

    The application of nonradioactive in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific probes for cytogenetic analysis has increased significantly in recent years. In the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT) the hypothesis is that after PDT the remaining viable malignant cells are potentially metastatic cells. Therefore, we performed in vitro experiments on human bladder carcinoma cells to evaluate numerical chromosomal abnormalities before and after PDT. The possible genotoxic effect of PDT with porphycene (AamTPPn) appears to be small based on criteria such as numerical chromosomal abnormalities for chromosome 1 and 18.

  8. Chemoimmunotherapy of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdill, B J; Lamm, D L; Livingston, R B

    1981-11-01

    The lethality of invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) has prompted a search for effective, minimally toxic, adjuvant therapy. Such agents were evaluated in a murine bladder cancer (MBT2) model which parallels the clinical disease. One hundred C3H/He mice were inoculated i.d. with 2.5 x 10(4) viable MBT2 tumor cells and randomized to receive either normal saline (control), cis-Platinum (CPT), cyclophosphamide (CY), methotrexate (MTX), BCG, (CY + MTX), or (CY + MTX + BCG). Chemotherapy was given intraperitoneally weekly starting on day 7 after inoculation. Immunotherapy was given intralesionally on days 1 and 10 only. All mice were treated for 5 weeks followed by 5 weeks of observation. At 5 weeks, tumors of mice receiving cyclophosphamide alone or either of the combinations of therapy were smaller (P less than 0.01) than tumors of controls or other single agents alone. Each regimen increased survival, but only the combination regimen increase survival significantly (P less than 0.01). In the doses and schedule used in this model. Combination chemotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy significantly delay tumor growth and increase duration of survival (P less than 0.01) when compared with controls or single agent groups. PMID:7298287

  9. Cigarette side-stream smoke lung and bladder carcinogenesis: inducing mutagenic acrolein-DNA adducts, inhibiting DNA repair and enhancing anchorage-independent-growth cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Chin, Chiu; Huang, William; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Rom, William N; Chen, Lung-Chi; Tang, Moon-shong

    2015-10-20

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with 20-30% of cigarette-smoke related diseases, including cancer. Majority of SHS (>80%) originates from side-stream smoke (SSS). Compared to mainstream smoke, SSS contains more tumorigenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and acrolein (Acr). We assessed SSS-induced benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)- and cyclic propano-deoxyguanosine (PdG) adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung, heart, liver, and bladder-mucosa from mice exposed to SSS for 16 weeks. In SSS exposed mice, Acr-dG adducts were the major type of PdG adducts formed in BAL (p < 0.001), lung (p < 0.05), and bladder mucosa (p < 0.001), with no significant accumulation of Acr-dG adducts in heart or liver. SSS exposure did not enhance BPDE-DNA adduct formation in any of these tissues. SSS exposure reduced nucleotide excision repair (p < 0.01) and base excision repair (p < 0.001) in lung tissue. The levels of DNA repair proteins, XPC and hOGG1, in lung tissues of exposed mice were significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) lower than the levels in lung tissues of control mice. We found that Acr can transform human bronchial epithelial and urothelial cells in vitro. We propose that induction of mutagenic Acr-DNA adducts, inhibition of DNA repair, and induction of cell transformation are three mechanisms by which SHS induces lung and bladder cancers. PMID:26431382

  10. Bitter triggers acetylcholine release from polymodal urethral chemosensory cells and bladder reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    Deckmann, Klaus; Filipski, Katharina; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Fronius, Martin; Althaus, Mike; Rafiq, Amir; Papadakis, Tamara; Renno, Liane; Jurastow, Innokentij; Wessels, Lars; Wolff, Miriam; Schütz, Burkhard; Weihe, Eberhard; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of a previously unidentified cholinergic, polymodal chemosensory cell in the mammalian urethra, the potential portal of entry for bacteria and harmful substances into the urogenital system. These cells exhibit structural markers of respiratory chemosensory cells (“brush cells”). They use the classical taste transduction cascade to detect potential hazardous compounds (bitter, umami, uropathogenic bacteria) and release acetylcholine in response. They lie next to sensory ...

  11. Expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and Wheat Germ Agglutinin Receptor in Human Bladder Carcinoma%膀胱癌增殖细胞核抗原与麦胚凝集素受体的相关关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士文; 葛根; 金伯涛

    2001-01-01

    [Purpose]To probe the relation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) receptors expressed in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).[Methods]PCNA and WGA receptors were detected by immunohistochemical method (ABC method) in 63 specimens of TCC.[Results]We found that the distributions of PCNA and WGA receptors were increased with increase of histopathological grade in TCC (P<0.01).There was a higher expression in invasive tumors than that in superficial tumors (P<0.005),and there was a positive relation between PCNA and WGA receptors also.[Conclusion]It is shown that PCNA and WGA can be used as tumor markers for bladder cancer.%[目的 ]探讨增殖细胞核抗原 (proliferating cell nuclear antigen,PCNA)和麦胚凝集素 (wheat germ agglutinin,WGA)在膀胱移行细胞癌 (TCC)中表达的相关关系。 [方法 ]采用免疫组织化学 ABC法对 63例 TCC标本进行 PCNA和 WGA受体检测。 [结果 ]PCNA与 WGA的强阳性表达随着肿瘤的病理分级升高而增高;浸润性肿瘤中的 WGA受体的强阳性表达显著高于浅表性肿瘤 (P<0.05); PCNA与 WGA受体表达一致性良好,呈显著性相关 (P<0.005)。 [结论 ]我们认为 PCNA和 WGA受体均可作为 TCC的肿瘤标记物,证明了 TCC细胞的增殖活性增强将改变其细胞膜的抗原性。

  12. Renal Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney with Synchronous Ipsilateral Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis

    OpenAIRE

    Bekir Suha Parlaktas; Nihat Uluocak; Dogan Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with flank pain and gross macroscopic hematuria. Radiologic examination revealed a solid mass in the left kidney and additionally another mass in the ureteropelvic junction of the same kidney with severe hydronephrosis. Left nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff removel was performed, and histopathological evolution showed a Fuhrman grade 3 clear cell type RCC with low-grade TCC of the pelvis.

  13. Renal Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney with Synchronous Ipsilateral Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with flank pain and gross macroscopic hematuria. Radiologic examination revealed a solid mass in the left kidney and additionally another mass in the ureteropelvic junction of the same kidney with severe hydronephrosis. Left nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff removel was performed, and histopathological evolution showed a Fuhrman grade 3 clear cell type RCC with low-grade TCC of the pelvis.

  14. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, Oliver; Vasdev, Nikhil; Allchorne, Paula; Green, James Sa

    2015-01-01

    It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest benefit in metastatic disease, although the role in superficial bladder cancer remains unclear. PMID:26000263

  15. Tasquinimod modulates tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and improves the antitumor immune response to PD-L1 blockade in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhlé, Jessica; Pierron, Valérie; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Plas, Pascale; Thiongane, Amath; Meyer-Losic, Florence; Schmidlin, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The infiltration of myeloid cells helps tumors to overcome immune surveillance and imparts resistance to cancer immunotherapy. Thus, strategies to modulate the effects of these immune cells may offer a potential therapeutic benefit. We report here that tasquinimod, a novel immunotherapy which targets S100A9 signaling, reduces the immunosuppressive properties of myeloid cells in preclinical models of bladder cancer (BCa). As single anticancer agent, tasquinimod treatment was effective in preventing early stage tumor growth, but did not achieve a clear antitumor effect in advanced tumors. Investigations of this response revealed that tasquinimod induces an increase in the expression of a negative regulator of T cell activation, Programmed-death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). This markedly weakens its antitumor immunity, yet provokes an “inflamed” milieu rendering tumors more prone to T cell-mediated immune attack by PD-L1 blockade. Interestingly, the combination of tasquinimod with an Anti-PD-L1 antibody enhanced the antitumor immune response in bladder tumors. This combination synergistically modulated tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, thereby strongly affecting proliferation and activation of effector T cells. Together, our data provide insight into the rational combination of therapies that activate both innate and adaptive immune system, such as the association of S100A9-targeting agents with immune checkpoints inhibitors, to improve the response to cancer immunotherapeutic agents in BCa.

  16. Effects of dendritic cell vaccines on hematogenous micrometastasis of bladder cancer carrying for PBL-SCID mice%树突状细胞疫苗对人化荷人膀胱癌SCID鼠循环微转移转归的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Zhenguo Mi; Zhibin Li; Xiniing Yang; Jianwu Liu; Jiwen Song; Huiqing Chen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of dendritic cells loaded with whole tumor antigen on hematogenous micrometasta-sis of bladder cancer model in hu-PBL-SCID mice. Methods: T24-3 cell subset was selected from human bladder transitional cell carcinoma T24 cell line by Boyden chamber system. The SCID mice intraperitoneally injected with 4×107 hu-PBL and subcutaneously injected with 3 × 106 T24-3 cells were named hu-PBL-T24-3-SCID model. Human IgG level in the blood plasma of mice was detected by ELISA, and human CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T cells in blood and spleen cells of mice were detected by FCM analysis for human immune reconstruction study. Human CK20 mRNA expression in mice peripheral blood was de-tected by RT-PCR to investigate metastasis of tumor cells. The PBMCs were isolated from human peripheral blood, and were induced into DCs by co-culture with rhGM-CSF and rhlL-4 in vitro. The DC vaccines were produced by co-culturing with whole tumor antigen which was purified through freezing and melting T24-3 cell subset. After T24-3 cells injected into SCID mice for 5 weeks, the mice were treated with DC vaccines. Results: All mice were initially treated at 5th week. The expression of CK20 mRNA in peripheral blood of DC vaccines treated mice was the lowest. There was 2 mice showing CK20 mRNA expression and 3 mice with metastasis tumor in PBS group. MMP-7 mRNA expression in tumor tissues of DC vaccines treated mice was statistically lower than that of PBS group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: DC vaccines have a good effect on hu-PBL-SCID mice bladder cancer model by reducing hematogenous micrometastasis.

  17. Triple cancer: chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bladder and prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendra, Smeeta; Sharma, Rashi; Sahoo, Manas Kumar

    2015-08-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) is a common lymphoproliferative disorder with an increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms of epithelial and mesenchymal origin. The decreased immunity and B-cell dysfunction in CLL probably accounts for this emergence of second malignancies. We report a case of synchronous bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma with CLL. A 74-year-old male who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia 2 years before, presented with recurrent urinary tract infection. Peripheral blood smear revealed leukocytosis with absolute lymphocytosis (absolute lymphocyte count: 37870 cells/mm³). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed 75% abnormal lymphoid cells which were positive for CD 19, CD5, CD23, CD22, CD200, CD20 (moderate) with lambda light chain restriction and negative for CD3, CD10, FMC7, CD38, CD138, IgM, CD103, CD123. F Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed increased metabolic activity of the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder extending to the left UV junction, adjacent part of trigone and bladder neck region along with multiple heterogeneous enhancing areas with increased FDG avidity within the prostate. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumour by cystoscopy was performed. Histopathology showed high grade, muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma. Due to presence of uptake in the prostate, transurethral resection of the prostate was done and histopathology revealed adenocarcinoma of prostate (prostate specific antigen- positive), Gleason grade III+III and Gleason score 6. A high index of suspicion is required to detect synchronous and metachronous malignancies. Ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and PET/CT are often essential for detection and an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26277675

  18. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the urothelial cells of naturally occurring urinary bladder tumors in cattle and water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E and late (L protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. CONCLUSION: This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo.

  19. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuge O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Fuge,1 Nikhil Vasdev,1 Paula Allchorne,2 James SA Green2 1Department of Urology, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK; 2Department of Urology, Bartshealth NHS Trust, Whipps Cross Rd, London, UK Abstract: It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest

  20. A Human Breast Cell Model of Preinvasive to Invasive Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D; Jensen, Roy A; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing

    2008-01-01

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from preinvasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur “spontaneously” in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted basement membrane cultures. These cells remained noninvasive;...