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Sample records for bladder cancer diagnosis

  1. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  2. FLUORESCENCE DIAGNOSIS FOR RECURRENT BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Ulyanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of successful use of local fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence imaging during cystoscopy for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer is represented in the article. Histological study of fluorescent foci confirmed tumor growth (urothelial carcinoma in all areas with high levels of diagnostic parameter. In the fluorescent focus with low diagnostic parameter inflammation was detected.

  3. Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-02-01

    At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

  4. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Grace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bladder cancer is the commonest malignancy of the urinary tract. In this review, we look at the latest developments in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the most important tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Various alternatives have been investigated, either to reduce the frequency of cystoscopy, or improve its sensitivity for detection of tumors. These include urine-based markers and point-of-care tests. Narrow-band imaging and photodynamic diagnosis/blue-light cystoscopy have shown promise in improving detection and reducing recurrence of bladder tumors, by improving the completion of bladder resection when compared with standard resection in white light. The majority of patients with a new diagnosis of bladder cancer have non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which requires adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Recent developments in post-resection intravesical regimens are discussed. For patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, both laparoscopic radical cystectomy and robot-assisted radical cystectomy have been shown to reduce peri-operative morbidity, while being oncologically equivalent to open radical cystectomy in the medium term. Bladder-preserving strategies entail resection and chemoradiation, and in selected patients give equivalent results to surgery. The development, advantages, and disadvantages of these newer approaches are also discussed.

  5. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  6. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  7. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer using fluorescence cystoscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draga, R.O.P.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A relative high recurrence rate and the need for repeated treatments make bladder cancer one the most expensive cancers from diagnosis till death of the patient. The TURBT

  8. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  9. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  10. Future strategies in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der; Witjes, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review new modalities in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of superficial and invasive bladder cancer are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Urinary markers still cannot replace cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder cancer. However, DNA micro-array has shown promise for diagnosis.

  11. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer:Initial experience of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe the introduction and evaluate efficacy of photodynamic diagnosis with Hexvix fordetecting tumours and abnormal mucosal lesions during transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Subjects and methods: Prospective study of consecutive eligible patients who underwent TURBT with aidof ...

  12. Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkali, Z.; Chan, T.; Manoharan, M.; Algaba, F.; Busch, C.; Cheng, L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Kriegmair, M.; Montironi, R.; Murphy, W.M.; Sesterhenn, I.A.; Tachibana, M.; Weider, J.

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a

  13. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  14. Age at diagnosis in bladder cancer: does opium addiction play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Dabbagh, Najmeh; Shabani, Azadeh; Tabibi, Ali; Akhavizadegan, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major health problem, especially among men. Opium addiction can be an important risk factor. One important question is whether it can affect the age of onset of bladder cancer .We performed this study to evaluate this question. In a cross-section study, records of patients diagnosed with bladder carcinoma in Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, within 1999-2008 were included. Data were extracted from records regarding age at onset, gender, smoking status, and opioid addiction and analyzed with SPSS 13. Within 10 years, 920 cases were diagnosed with bladder cancer of which 97 percent were transitional cell carcinoma. In 698 cases, opium addiction status was recorded in 21.3% (n=149). Age at diagnosis was 59.7±11.51 (median: 60) among opioid addicts which was significantly lower than non- addicts (63.1±13.65, Median: 65) (POpium addiction can decrease the age of onset of bladder cancer.

  15. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bladder cancer care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria) Painful urination Pelvic pain If you have hematuria, your urine may appear bright red or cola colored. Sometimes, urine may not look any different, ...

  16. Pathological diagnosis of bladder cancer by image analysis of hypericin induced fluorescence cystoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, James C. Y.; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma based on hypericin fluorescence cystoscopy has shown to have a higher degree of sensitivity for the detection of flat bladder carcinoma compared to white light cystoscopy. The potential of the photosensitizer hypericin-induced fluorescence in performing non-invasive optical biopsy to grade bladder cancer in vivo using fluorescence cystoscopic image analysis without surgical resection for tissue biopsy is investigated in this study. The correlation between tissue fluorescence and histopathology of diseased tissue was explored and a diagnostic algorithm based on fluorescence image analysis was developed to classify the bladder cancer without surgical resection for tissue biopsy. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between tissue fluorescence and bladder cancer grade. By combining both the red-to-blue and red-to-green intensity ratios into a 2D scatter plot yields an average sensitivity and specificity of around 70% and 85% respectively for pathological cancer grading of the three different grades of bladder cancer. Therefore, the diagnostic algorithm based on colorimetric intensity ratio analysis of hypericin fluorescence cystoscopic images developed in this preliminary study shows promising potential to optically diagnose and grade bladder cancer in vivo.

  17. Mitomycin C Intravesical Chemotherapy in Conjunction With Synergo® Radiofrequency-Induced Hyperthermia for Treatment of Carcinoma in Situ Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients Unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, With or Without Papillary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-20

    Bladder Cancer; Bladder Neoplasm; Bladder Tumors; Cancer of Bladder; Cancer of the Bladder; Malignant Tumor of Urinary Bladder; Neoplasms, Bladder; Urinary Bladder Cancer; Carcinoma in Situ of Bladder; Papillary Carcinoma of Bladder (Diagnosis); BCG-Unresponsive Bladder Cancer

  18. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  19. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  20. Real time diagnosis of bladder cancer with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

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    Liu, Jen-Jane; Wu, Katherine; Adams, Winifred; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Beck, Andrew H.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2011-02-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging technology for in vivo optical imaging of the urinary tract. Particularly for bladder cancer, real time optical biopsy of suspected lesions will likely lead to improved management of bladder cancer. With pCLE, micron scale resolution is achieved with sterilizable imaging probes (1.4 or 2.6 mm diameter), which are compatible with standard cystoscopes and resectoscopes. Based on our initial experience to date (n = 66 patients), we have demonstrated the safety profile of intravesical fluorescein administration and established objective diagnostic criteria to differentiate between normal, benign, and neoplastic urothelium. Confocal images of normal bladder showed organized layers of umbrella cells, intermediate cells, and lamina propria. Low grade bladder cancer is characterized by densely packed monomorphic cells with central fibrovascular cores, whereas high grade cancer consists of highly disorganized microarchitecture and pleomorphic cells with indistinct cell borders. Currently, we are conducting a diagnostic accuracy study of pCLE for bladder cancer diagnosis. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor are recruited. Patients undergo first white light cystocopy (WLC), followed by pCLE, and finally histologic confirmation of the resected tissues. The diagnostic accuracy is determined both in real time by the operative surgeon and offline after additional image processing. Using histology as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of WLC and WLC + pCLE are calculated. With additional validation, pCLE may prove to be a valuable adjunct to WLC for real time diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  1. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light

  2. Selection of microsatellite markers for bladder cancer diagnosis without the need for corresponding blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tilborg, Angela A G; Kompier, Lucie C; Lurkin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    . Moreover, stutter peaks may complicate the analysis. To use microsatellite markers for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer, we aimed to select markers without stutter peaks and a constant ratio between alleles, thereby avoiding the need for a control DNA sample. We investigated 49 microsatellite markers...... with tri- and tetranucleotide repeats in regions commonly lost in bladder cancer. Based on analysis of 50 blood DNAs the 12 best performing markers were selected with few stutter peaks and a constant ratio between peaks heights. Per marker upper and lower cut off values for allele ratios were determined...

  3. Bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. G.; Durand, D. B.; Adler, H.; Pan, Y. T.

    2006-02-01

    A fluorescence-image-guided OCT (FIG-OCT) system is described, and its ability to enhance the sensitivity and specificity is examined in an animal bladder cancer model. Total 97 specimens were examined by fluorescence imaging, OCT and histological microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of FIG-OCT is 100% and 93% respectively, compared to 79% and 53% for fluorescence imaging, while the OCT examination time has been dramatically decreased by 3~4 times. In combination of endoscopic OCT, FIG-OCT is a promising technique for effective early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  4. Evaluation of the diagnosis on staging of the bladder cancers by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Xu Haiyan; Huan Haiming; Chen Yane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of the staging of the bladder cancers with the contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Methods: After rapid injection of the contrast agent SonoVue through the elbow vein, the staging of images was completed in 18 cases of bladder cancer. Results: The results of contrast-enhanced ultrasound were compared with post-operative pathological analysis, the rate of accuracy of diagnosis on T1, T2, T3 and T4 stage was 100%, 80%, 83% and 100% respectively. The accuracy made by new methods higher than those of other imaging examinations in T1 stage; the other stages were similar to those of other imaging examinations. Conclusion: The evaluation of Contrast-enhanced ultrasound on the staging of the bladder cancer is higher than that of the conventional ultrasound examination, while the observation of blood flow in the tumor can make accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, this method can be complement each other with CT and MRI to improve the rate of accuracy on the staging of bladder cancer. (authors)

  5. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  6. Selection of microsatellite markers for bladder cancer diagnosis without the need for corresponding blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A G van Tilborg

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are used for loss-of-heterozygosity, allelic imbalance and clonality analyses in cancers. Usually, tumor DNA is compared to corresponding normal DNA. However, normal DNA is not always available and can display aberrant allele ratios due to copy number variations in the genome. Moreover, stutter peaks may complicate the analysis. To use microsatellite markers for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer, we aimed to select markers without stutter peaks and a constant ratio between alleles, thereby avoiding the need for a control DNA sample. We investigated 49 microsatellite markers with tri- and tetranucleotide repeats in regions commonly lost in bladder cancer. Based on analysis of 50 blood DNAs the 12 best performing markers were selected with few stutter peaks and a constant ratio between peaks heights. Per marker upper and lower cut off values for allele ratios were determined. LOH of the markers was observed in 59/104 tumor DNAs. We then determined the sensitivity of the marker panel for detection of recurrent bladder cancer by assaying 102 urine samples of these patients. Sensitivity was 63% when patients were stratified for LOH in their primary tumors. We demonstrate that up-front selection of microsatellite markers obliterates the need for a corresponding blood sample. For diagnosis of bladder cancer recurrences in urine this significantly reduces costs. Moreover, this approach facilitates retrospective analysis of archival tumor samples for allelic imbalance.

  7. Social Awareness on Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Bladder Cancer: Importance of Age and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Değer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the recognition level of bladder cancer in the society by conducting a survey with regards to social awareness in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in this study. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted on 100 randomly selected patients who were admitted to our clinic in May 2016 for any complaints. In the survey, the main focus was hematuria which is the first and the most common symptom of bladder cancer and questions and statements on this subject was used. Results: Of 100 patients, 67 (66.7% were male, and 33 (33.3% were female. Thirty six of the patients were younger than 50 (36%, and 64 of them (64% were 50 years and older. Education level of 40 (40% patients was found to be university level, and 60 (60% patients we high school graduates or lower. Twenty seven (27% patients had complains about blood in the urine, while 67 (67% of them had no such complaint. Of 27 patients that had complaint about hematuria, which is the most important symptom of bladder cancer 22 (81% were male and 5 (19% were female. We divided the patients into two groups based on 50 age limit. Group 1 included patients who were below 50, while the group 2 consisted of patients who were 50 years old and above. The rates of immediate consultation were determined to be significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. The rate of consulting urology department in the presence of hematuria, and the rates of considering the risk of bladder cancer as a possible diagnosis were higher in group 2, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference found between the two groups who were separated by age in terms of required diagnostic tests. The patients were divided into two more groups based on their education level. Group 3 included patients of university graduates, and group 4 included patients with high school graduates or lower. The rates of immediate consultation were significantly higher in group 4

  8. Developments in diagnosis and prognosis of superficial bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder encompasses the relatively innocent low risk tumours, but also the potentially lethal high risk tumours. Low risk tumours have a high chance of recurrence, but high risk tumours have both a high risk of recurrence and progression. Progression to muscle-invasive disease

  9. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER ANTIGEN FOR DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER TUMOR;A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH URINARY CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Radkhah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystoscopy and urinary cytology are currently the basis for diagnosis and ‎follow-up of bladder tumors. Research to find a sensitive and specific tumor ‎marker for diagnosis of bladder tumor is actively underway, however, due to low sensitivity ‎and high cost of cytology. This cross-sectional study was performed in 65 patients to evaluate whether urinary bladdercancer (UBC antigen level can predict the presence of active bladder tumor. In patients with ‎inactive tumor, UBC antigen level was determined in addition to standard cystoscopy ‎and cytology for follow-up. Patients with active tumor were ‎subjected to standard treatment and UBC antigen level determination. UBC antigen ‎ levels were measured by ELISA, using monoclonal antibodies ‎specific for UBC antigen. As a control group, UBC antigen level ‎was also determined in 65 persons who had been referred for urinalysis for other reasons. ‎UBC antigen level more than 1 μg/L which was regarded as ‎positive was found in 49.4% of the patients. In control group, 96.9% had UBC antigen < 1μg/L‎. Mean UBC antigen level in patients was ‎3.77 μg/L while it was 0.508 μg/L in controls (P < 0.0001. Sensitivity of ‎UBC antigen was 53.3% and its specificity was 40%. Sensitivity and specificity of urinary cytology was 17.3% and 88.2%, respectively. This difference was statistically ‎significant (P < 0.001. UBC antigen is more sensitive than urinary cytology, although cytology still ‎retains its priority in specificity. It is not yet recommended to replace UBC antigen for ‎cytology due to its low specificity and not favorable sensitivity.

  10. Quantitative diagnosis of bladder cancer by morphometric analysis of HE images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Nebylitsa, Samantha V.; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2015-02-01

    In clinical practice, histopathological analysis of biopsied tissue is the main method for bladder cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The diagnosis is performed by a pathologist based on the morphological features in the image of a hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained tissue sample. This manuscript proposes algorithms to perform morphometric analysis on the HE images, quantify the features in the images, and discriminate bladder cancers with different grades, i.e. high grade and low grade. The nuclei are separated from the background and other types of cells such as red blood cells (RBCs) and immune cells using manual outlining, color deconvolution and image segmentation. A mask of nuclei is generated for each image for quantitative morphometric analysis. The features of the nuclei in the mask image including size, shape, orientation, and their spatial distributions are measured. To quantify local clustering and alignment of nuclei, we propose a 1-nearest-neighbor (1-NN) algorithm which measures nearest neighbor distance and nearest neighbor parallelism. The global distributions of the features are measured using statistics of the proposed parameters. A linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to classify the high grade and low grade bladder cancers. The results show using a particular group of nuclei such as large ones, and combining multiple parameters can achieve better discrimination. This study shows the proposed approach can potentially help expedite pathological diagnosis by triaging potentially suspicious biopsies.

  11. Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

  12. Towards improved bladder cancer diagnosis using fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide. Its high recurrence rate makes bladder cancer one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the western world and the most costly type of cancer over the patient’s lifetime. In the Netherlands, each year 5,400 new patients with

  13. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer: Initial experience of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.O. Osaghae

    Abstract. Objectives: To describe the introduction and evaluate efficacy of photodynamic diagnosis with Hexvix for detectingtumoursandabnormalmucosallesionsduringtransurethral resectionofbladdertumour(TURBT). Subjects and methods: Prospective study of consecutive eligible patients who underwent TURBT with aid.

  14. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care.

  15. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-01-01

    Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care. PMID:26055180

  16. Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Yan, Chunri; Lee, Il-Seok; Piao, Xuan-Mei; Byun, Young Joon; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2016-03-01

    Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort 2 (83 BC patients, 54 nonmalignant hematuric patients, and 61 normal controls) provided urine samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of TopoIIA mRNA in tissues and TopoIIA cell-free DNA in urine samples. The results showed that expression of TopoIIA mRNA in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancer control tissues (pbladder cancer (MIBC) when compared with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity/specificity of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA for diagnosing BC, NMIBC, and MIBC. The areas under the ROC curve for BC, NMIBC, and MIBC were 0.741, 0.701, and 0.838, respectively. In summary, the results of this study provide evidence that cell-free TopoIIA DNA may be a potential biomarker for BC.

  17. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  18. Reduction of recurrence in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer using photodynamic diagnosis and immediate post-TUR-B chemoprophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Malene Bøg

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of recurrence in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer using photodynamic diagnosis and immediate post-TUR-B chemoprophylaxis. Risager, Malene Bøg; Nielsen, Tommy Kjærsgaard; Ebbensgaard, Nanna Andersen; Zieger, Karsten. Department of Urology, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers, Denmark....... Background: Recurrences after non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are common and a major burden for health care systems. Fluorescence-guided resection/ photodynamic diagnosis and immediate post-TUR-B chemoprophylaxis can improve recurrence free survival, but the further outcome and cost......-effectiveness of these interventions are a matter of current debate. This single-institution case-control study investigated these issues under routine conditions. Materials and Methods: Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using intravesical instillation of 85 mg hexaminolevulinate one hour before transurethral resection of bladder tumor...

  19. Classification of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectra from Normal and Malignant bladder tissues using Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network in Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Mascarenhas, Kim Komal; Patil, Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    the classification accuracy of LVQ with other classifiers (eg. SVM and Multi Layer Perceptron) for the same data set. Good agreement has been obtained between LVQ based classification of spectroscopy data and histopathology results which demonstrate the use of LVQ classifier in bladder cancer diagnosis.......In the present work we discuss the potential of recently developed classification algorithm, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), for the analysis of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectra, recorded from normal and malignant bladder tissue samples. The algorithm is prototype based and inherently...

  20. NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER CANCER BY CROSS-POLARIZATION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY: A BLIND STATISTICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Streltsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether cross-polarization (CP optical coherence tomography (OCT could be used to detect early bladder cancer was ascertained; it was compared with traditional OCT within the framework of blind (closed clinical statistical studies. One hundred and sixteen patients with local nonexophytic (flat pathological processes of the bladder were examined; 360 CP OCT images were obtained and analyzed. The study used an OCT 1300-U CP optical coherence tomographer. CP OCT showed a high (94% sensitivity and a high (84% specificity in the identification of suspected nonexophytic areas in the urinary bladder.

  1. The UBCTM test may be useful for diagnosis of recurred urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Jung, Se Il; Hwang, Joon Seong; Gil, Myung Cheol; Yoon, Jin Han; Kim, Duk Kyu

    2001-01-01

    Previously we reported the usefulness of UBC TM test compared to urinary cytology for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder in patients with hematuria. Now we evaluated the usefulness of the UBC TM test for diagnosis of recurred urinary bladder cancer. 146 patients with hematuria were included in our study. UNC TM test (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. 33 patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC concentration was greater than 12 μ g/L. We compared UBC TM level with previous value 6 months later in patients whom diagnosed with TCC. UBC levels were significantly different between group A (95.9±166.4 μ g/L) and group B (19.2±85.6 μ g/L) (p TM test and 100% (97/97) in cytology. UBC TM test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta. T 1 tumors (80 vs 20 %, p TM test showed tendency to be more sensitive as the stage and grade was higher (80% in Ta, 83.3% in T1 and 100% in T2, 80% in Grade I, 85.7% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). We follow-up UBC TM test in 5 patients after 6 months. UBC TM levels and recurrence were correlated in 4 patient (80%). Follow-up levels of UBC TM were increased in two recurred patients and normalized in non-recurred patients. One patient showed increased level of UBC TM test but clinically no evidence of recurrence. Although Also our patients were small, UBC TM test may be useful method for detecting the recurrence of TCC and further follow-up is necessary

  2. Diagnosis of preoperative staging of bladder cancer by CT and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munechika, Hirotsugu; Saito, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Osamu; Tomiie, Fumitaka; Aihara, Toshinori

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and angiography in defining the extent of local invasion was studied retrospectively in 19 patients with surgically proven carcinoma of the bladder. The overall accuracy of CT and angiographic staging in these cases was 54 percent and 47 percent respectively. The diagnosis of carcinoma of the bladder by CT tended to do overstaging rather than understaging. A tangential view of the tumor-bearing area by the selective internal iliac arteriography allows an accurate estimation of the perivesical tumor extension. The topographic diagnosis should be made by CT prior to the angiographic study. (author)

  3. General adherence to guideline recommendations on initial diagnosis of bladder cancer in the United States and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexander; Adejoro, Oluwakayode; Saigal, Christopher; Konety, Badrinath

    2014-08-01

    Because international guidelines recommend best practices regarding staging of incident bladder cancer, we determined the adherence to such recommendations in the United States, performing a large retrospective database analysis. Patients with the diagnosis of urothelial cancer were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database between 1992 and 2007. Staging procedures were identified and analyzed. As reference for published recommendations, we used the American Urological Association (AUA), European Association of Urology (EAU), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Based on these sources, recommended initial staging of bladder cancer was analyzed. Of all 56,130 patients, 6148 (10.9%) had a cytologic examination, 29,677 (52.9%) had a standard urinalysis, 2882 (5.1%) underwent intravenous pyelography (IVP), 6950 (12.4%) underwent retrograde pyelography (RPG), and 8145 (14.5%) had computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI). There was a significant trend over the years to a higher use of cytologic analysis, standard urinalysis, and CT/MRI. We observed a significant trend toward a lower rate of IVP and a stable use of RPG. The limitation of our study is that claims data are designed for payment processing, not quality measurement. Despite published recommendations on the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer, our data show that less than half of the included patients received all the elements thought to be required for an initial diagnosis of bladder cancer as recommended by guidelines. Greater adherence to recommendations may ensure optimal treatment strategies. Appropriate treatment is critical to patient outcomes, because evidence-based therapeutic management can be practiced only if an accurate assessment of the disease takes place at the time of initial diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of clinical staging of bladder cancer by CT and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Isao; Igawa, Mikio; Ohnishi, Yoshio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nihira, Hiromi; Mori, Masaki; Okada, Mitsuo.

    1984-01-01

    The preoperative staging of bladder cancer is of fundamental importance for prognostic evaluation and surgical indication. We studied the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and angiography in defining the extent of local invasion in 16 patients with surgically proven carcinoma of the bladder. The overall accuracy of CT and angiographic staging in these cases was 75 % and 50 % respectively. In low stage, the accuracy was 90 % in CT and 70 % in angiography. In high stage, the accuracy was 50 % in CT and 16.7 % in angiography. Our results seems to indicate lower accuracy in high stage bladder cancer compared with other research. Data from a much larger series are required to ascertain whether the additional information provided by CT and angiography will produce any improvement in patient management. (author)

  5. Characterization and noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer with serum surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoxin; Li, Linfang; Zeng, Qiuyao; Zhang, Yanjiao; Guo, Zhouyi; Liu, Zhiming; Jin, Mei; Su, Chengkang; Lin, Lin; Xu, Junfa; Liu, Songhao

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to characterize and classify serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra between bladder cancer patients and normal volunteers by genetic algorithms (GAs) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA). Two group serum SERS spectra excited with nanoparticles are collected from healthy volunteers (n = 36) and bladder cancer patients (n = 55). Six diagnostic Raman bands in the regions of 481-486, 682-687, 1018-1034, 1313-1323, 1450-1459 and 1582-1587 cm-1 related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids are picked out with the GAs and LDA. By the diagnostic models built with the identified six Raman bands, the improved diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% were acquired for classifying bladder cancer patients from normal serum SERS spectra. The results are superior to the sensitivity of 74.6% and specificity of 97.2% obtained with principal component analysis by the same serum SERS spectra dataset. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed the efficiency of diagnostic algorithm based on GA-LDA technique. This exploratory work demonstrates that the serum SERS associated with GA-LDA technique has enormous potential to characterize and non-invasively detect bladder cancer through peripheral blood.

  6. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  7. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer Atezolizumab Avelumab Bavencio (Avelumab) Cisplatin Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Durvalumab ...

  8. Reducing recurrence in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using photodynamic diagnosis and immediate post-transurethral resection of the bladder chemoprophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Malene Bøg; Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Zieger, Karsten Egbert Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluorescence cystoscopy and immediate post-transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) chemoprophylaxis on the risk of recurrence of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) under routine clinical conditions. Materials...

  9. Accuracy of preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, computed tomography and cystoscopic findings for the diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woranisarakul, Varat; Ramart, Patkawat; Phinthusophon, Kittipong; Chotikawanich, Ekkarin; Prapasrivorakul, Siriluck; Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2014-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, computed tomography (CT) and cystoscopic findings for the diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer. Records of patients with colorectal cancer and a suspicion of bladder invasion, who underwent tumor resection with partial or total cystectomy between 2002 and 2013 at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, were reviewed. Correlations between preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, cystoscopic finding, CT imaging and final pathological reports were analyzed. This study included 90 eligible cases (71% male). The most common site of primary colorectal cancer was the sigmoid colon (44%), followed by the rectum (33%). Final pathological reports showed definite bladder invasion in 53 cases (59%). Significant features for predicting definite tumor invasion were gross hematuria (OR 13.6, sensitivity 39%, specificity 73%), and visible tumor during cystoscopy (OR 5.33, sensitivity 50%, specificity 84%). Predictive signs in CT imaging were gross tumor invasion (OR 7.07, sensitivity 89%, specificity 46%), abnormal enhancing mass at bladder wall (OR 4.09, sensitivity 68%, specificity 66%), irregular bladder mucosa (OR 3.53, sensitivity 70%, specificity 60% ), and loss of perivesical fat plane (OR 3.17, sensitivity 81%, specificity 43%). However, urinary analysis and other urinary tract symptoms were poor predictors of bladder involvement. The present study demonstrated that the most relevant preoperative predictors of definite bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer are gross hematuria, a visible tumor during cystoscopy, and abnormal CT findings.

  10. Radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Iizumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shosei; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper explained the current state of radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer, and discussed the role of radiotherapy in curative treatment and the future development. In the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, it is important to judge the existence of pathological muscular layer invasion based on transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). In surgical results in Japan, the U.S., and Switzerland, 5-year survival rate is about 60 to 70%. Standard treatment for bladder cancer with muscle layer invasion had been surgery, and radiotherapy had been applied to the cases without resistance to surgery. Three combined therapy with TUR-BT and simultaneous chemoradiotherapy is the current standard bladder conserving therapy. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 60%, which is superior to the treatment with irradiation alone. Radiotherapy for kidney cancer is most often used as perioperative treatment for locally advanced cancer or as symptomatic treatment for metastatic lesions. However, due to recent improvement in radiotherapy technology, correspondence to respiratory movement and high dose administration associated with improvement in dose concentration have been realized, and stereotactic irradiation using a high single dose for inoperable disease cases or surgery refusal disease cases has come to be clinically applied. (A.O.)

  11. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. © RSNA, 2012.

  12. Modeling bladder cancer in mice: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Owczarek, Tomasz B.; McKiernan, James M.; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis and treatment of bladder cancer have hardly improved in the last 20 years. Bladder cancer remains a debilitating and often fatal disease, and among the most costly cancers to treat. The generation of informative mouse models has the potential to improve our understanding of bladder cancer progression, as well as impact its diagnosis and treatment. However, relatively few mouse models of bladder cancer have been described and particularly few that develop invasive cancer phenotypes. This review focuses on opportunities for improving the landscape of mouse models of bladder cancer. PMID:25533675

  13. Usefulness of Bladder Tumour Antigen (BTA) and Urinary Bladder Cancer test (UBC) in Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer (TCC) diagnosis and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuvoli, S.; Spanu, A.; Masia, A.; Mulas, A.; Falchi, A.; Solinas, M.E.; Marrosu, A.; Madeddu, G.; Mocci, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated BTA and UBC clinical utility in TCC diagnosis and follow-up. Materials and Methods: We enrolled consecutively 96 untreated TCC, 73 other genitourinary carcinomas (OC), 106 benign genitourinary diseases (BD) and 75 normal controls (C). After trans-urethral resection (TUR), TCC were classified by clinical staging (9 Ta, 27 T1, 32 T2, 20 T3 and 8 T4) and pathological grading (14 G1, 28 G2, 41 G3 and 13 G4). Urine BTA and UBC were assayed by monoclonal antibody methods, IEMA and IRMA, respectively (cut-off:14 U/ml and 8 μg/l, respectively). Results: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 83.6%, 75.1%, 64.6%, 89.% and 72.4%, respectively for BTA and 53.1%, 89.4%, 72.8%, 78% and 75.6%, respectively for UBC. BTA and UBC specificities were determined combining OC and BD data, although UBC reached the highest value in OC (93.15%). Sensitivity and specificity differences between the two markers were significant (p<0.00001). BTA and UBC sensitivity and mean values significantly increased with progressive staging and grading. Moreover, marker levels were significantly higher in TCC compared to OC, BD and C. Seventy-one high stage and/or grade TCC underwent radical cystectomy, while 25 were monitored after TUR (14 cases: group A) or segmental cystectomy (11 cases: group B) for 8-32 months by periodical clinical examination, cystoscopy and urinary BTA and UBC assays. During follow-up, 9 group A cases developed recurrences and 5 were NED. BTA was elevated in 8/9 cases (88.8%) with recurrence, while borderline in the remaining one. UBC was above cut-off in 6/9 cases (66.6%) all with high BTA, while low in the remaining 3, confirming first observation data. Both marker increases preceded by several months the cystoscopic evidence of recurrence. In NED patients, BTA was low in all cases (100%), while UBC was under cut-off in 4/5 cases (80%) and slightly high in the remaining asymptomatic patient. Ten group B patients developed local recurrences

  14. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  15. Asymptomatic Bladder Metastasis from Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cormio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected.

  16. Tumor markers in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Afina S.; Roos, Daphne; Deutekom, Marije; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Kurth, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We systematically reviewed the available evidence, and obtained and compared summary estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of cytology and the urine based markers bladder tumor antigen, BTA stat (Polymedco, Redmond, Washington), BTA TRAK (Polymedco), NMP22 (Matritech, Cambridge,

  17. Stress proteins and cytokines are urinary biomarkers for diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margel, David; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Pesvner-Fischer, Meirav; Baniel, Jack; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Cohen, Irun R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer often involves inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that immune mediators in urine may serve as biomarkers for bladder cancer (BCa). To investigate whether BCa might be marked by urinary levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs; HSP60, HSP70, or HSP90) or cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, tumor growth factor [TGF]-β, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, or IL-13). This was a case-control study with a discovery and validation phase. We examined urine from 106 consecutive patients: healthy controls (n=18); hematuria with no evidence of BCa (n=20); non-muscle-invasive BCa (n=50); and muscle-invasive BCa (n=18). The concentrations of HSPs and cytokines were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the validation phase, independent urine samples from 40 patients were analyzed (controls [n=19] and BCa [n=21]). We used the area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the ability of HSPs and cytokines to mark BCa and applied a multivariate logistic regression to create a formula able to diagnose BCa. The formula was applied to the validation set without recalculation, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Urinary concentrations of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 were significantly elevated in BCa; IL-13 was the most prominent marker (AUC: 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.99). The multivariate regression analysis highlighted HSP60 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.206; 95% CI, 1.041-1.397, p=0.003) and IL-13 (OR: 1.020; 95% CI: 1.007-1.033, p=0.012). The validation assay was performed using HSP60 and IL-13. The overall positive predictive value was 74% (95% CI, 64-84%); and the negative predictive value was 76% (95% CI, 66-86%). Since we examined a small number of patients, the results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort. These results suggest that it might be possible to develop a urinary biomarker for BCa and raise the possibility that expression of

  18. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Alexis; Burzio, Verónica; Landerer, Eduardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Gatica, Sebastian; Ávila, Rodolfo; López, Constanza; Villota, Claudio; de la Fuente, Rodrigo; Echenique, Javiera; Burzio, Luis O; Villegas, Jaime

    2012-12-18

    Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense) in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA) and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs) transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors revealed no expression of these mitochondrial transcripts. This assay

  19. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Alexis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. Methods The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. Results This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors

  20. Value of the dual phase 18F-FDG PET/CT with oral diuretic in the diagnosis of bladder cancer before therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongsheng; Wu Hubing; Wang Qiaoyu; Han Yanjiang; Wang Quanshi

    2014-01-01

    Background: PET with 18 F-FDG has been considered of limited value for the detection of bladder cancer because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of dual phase 18 F-FDG PET/CT with oral diuretic in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: 107 patients with suspected bladder cancer were enrolled in the present study from May, 2003 to May, 2012. Each patient underwent the whole body 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans routinely. After that, all patients received the forced diuresis by orally administration of furosemide (40 mg) and drinking a lot of water. Two hours later, after several times of urination, the patients underwent an additional delayed pelvic PET/CT scans. The intravesical radioactivity was compared between the routine and delayed the scans and the visualization of the tumor was evaluated. The diagnostic efficacy was determined based on the pathological examinations and the clinical following-up. Results: With the forced diuresis, intravesical 18 F-FDG activity decreased significantly in 96.3% of the patients. The lesions on the wall of urinary bladder were visualized clearly in the delayed PET images, which weren't seen in the rout/ne PET images. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 75 patients who all then received the operation. 69 patients were diagnosed pathologically to have the bladder cancer and 6 patients to have benign diseases. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was negative in another 32 patients. Four patients of them were then diagnosed to be bladder cancer. Another 28 patients were clinically followed up more than 6 months and none of them was found to have bladder cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the dual phase PET/CT imaging for diagnosing the bladder cancer were 94.5%(69/73), 82.4%(28/34) and 90.7%(97/107), respectively. Conclusion: The forced diuresis using oral furosemide can significantly reduce the intravesical radioactivity and improve the detectability of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for the bladder cancer

  1. Innovation in Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, H Barton; Lamm, Donald L; Kamat, Ashish M; Keefe, Stephen; Taylor, John A; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder cancer is understudied despite its high prevalence and its remarkable response to immunotherapy. Indeed, funding for studies to explore mechanisms of tumor immunity and novel new therapeutics is disproportionately lower for bladder cancer in comparison with malignancies of the breast, prostate, or lung. However, the recent successes of checkpoint blockade therapy suggest that new therapeutic strategies are on the horizon for bladder cancer. Here, we give a perspective into the evolution of bladder cancer therapy, focusing on strategies to treat high-risk nonmuscle invasive disease, followed by a discussion of recent advances in the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer and their potential applicability to lower stage disease. Finally, we explore immunotherapeutic strategies, which have been demonstrated to be successful in the treatment of other malignancies, for their potential to treat and cure patients with nonmuscle and muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  2. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  3. Superficial Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Schenkman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer treatment remains a challenge despite significant improvements in preventing disease progression and improving survival. Intravesical therapy has been used in the management of superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder (i.e. Ta, T1, and carcinoma in situ with specific objectives which include treating existing or residual tumor, preventing recurrence of tumor, preventing disease progression, and prolonging survival. The initial clinical stage and grade remain the main determinant factors in survival regardless of the treatment. Prostatic urethral mucosal involvement with bladder cancer can be effectively treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG intravesical immunotherapy. Intravesical chemotherapy reduces short-term tumor recurrence by about 20%, and long-term recurrence by about 7%, but has not reduced progression or mortality. Presently, BCG immunotherapy remains the most effective treatment and prophylaxis for TCC (Ta, T1, CIS and reduces tumor recurrence, disease progression, and mortality. Interferons, Keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH, bropirimine and Photofrin-Photodynamic Therapy (PDT are under investigation in the management of TCC and early results are encouraging. This review highlights and summarizes the recent advances in therapy for superficial TCC.

  4. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  5. A Study of Lipid- and Protein- Bound Sialic Acids for the Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer and Their Relationships with the Severity of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Habibi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard for detection of bladder cancer is cystoscopy, which is an invasive and complicated procedure. Our study was conducted to find a tumor marker with high specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 58 bladder cancer patients and 60 healthy control subjects. Levels of lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA, and protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured spectrophotometrically by Aminoff’s method. Results: Mean levels of both markers were found to be significantly higher in the patients than the healthy controls. Positive correlations were observed between serum levels of lipid- (r=0.283, p<0.05 and protein- bound (r=0.56, p<0.05 sialic acids and the grade of malignancy. To differentiate patients with bladder tumors from healthy controls, cut-offpoints were determined for each of the two parameters based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis (LBSA=21.25 mg/dL, PBSA=6.15 mg/dL. The data showed good sensitivities (LBSA=89%, PBSA=79%, specificities (LBSA=70%, PBSA=70% and accuracies (LBSA=83%, PBSA=81% for both markers. Conclusion: Measuring serum LBSA and PBSA by this simple, reproducible, noninvasive, and inexpensive method can accurately discriminate cancer patients from healthy individuals.

  6. Pre-diagnosis quality of life (QoL) in patients with hematuria : Comparison of bladder cancer with other causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens-Laan, C.A.; Kil, P.J.M.; Bosch, J.L.; de Vries, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine quality of life (QoL), health status, sexual function, and anxiety in patients with primary hematuria who later appear to have bladder cancer (BC) and patients with other diagnoses. Methods From July 2007 to July 2010, 598 patients with primary hematuria were enrolled in this

  7. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuge O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Fuge,1 Nikhil Vasdev,1 Paula Allchorne,2 James SA Green2 1Department of Urology, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK; 2Department of Urology, Bartshealth NHS Trust, Whipps Cross Rd, London, UK Abstract: It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest

  8. Current and Emerging Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Parker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common malignancies. Those who have been already diagnosed are at high risk for recurrence, especially if the pathology demonstrates high-grade disease. Diagnosis and surveillance is reliant on invasive evaluation with cystoscopy. Urinary cytology has been used to aid in diagnosis, but its use is limited. Other assays have been developed that may aid in clinical decision making. The ultimate goal will be the development of a highly sensitive and specific urinary marker for bladder cancer. This would provide a noninvasive means of diagnosing the disease and limit the number of unnecessary cystoscopies. This article will review the currently available urinary bladder cancer markers. It will also review new and investigational urinary markers that have shown promise for future clinical use.

  9. Current and Emerging Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Justin; Spiess, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common malignancies. Those who have been already diagnosed are at high risk for recurrence, especially if the pathology demonstrates high-grade disease. Diagnosis and surveillance is reliant on invasive evaluation with cystoscopy. Urinary cytology has been used to aid in diagnosis, but its use is limited. Other assays have been developed that may aid in clinical decision making. The ultimate goal will be the development of a highly sensitive and specific urinary marker for bladder cancer. This would provide a noninvasive means of diagnosing the disease and limit the number of unnecessary cystoscopies. This article will review the currently available urinary bladder cancer markers. It will also review new and investigational urinary markers that have shown promise for future clinical use. PMID:21623456

  10. Biomarkers for bladder cancer management: present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Wang, Li; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; McBride, Russell; Galsky, Matthew D; Zhu, Jun; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, David Y; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive detection of bladder cancer is critical to diagnose this deadly disease at an early stage, estimate prognosis, predict response to treatment, and monitor recurrence. In past years, laboratory diagnosis and surveillance of urinary bladder cancer have improved significantly. Although urine cytology remains the gold standard test, many new urinary biomarkers have been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in genomic studies of bladder cancer have helped to refine our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the biological basis for outcome disparities, and to inform more efficient treatment and surveillance strategies. In this article, the established diagnostic tests, newly identified biomarkers and genomic landscape of bladder cancer will be reviewed. PMID:25374904

  11. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer: treatment guidelines for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Donat, S Machele; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    with the use of Medline; additional cited works not detected on the initial search regarding neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer were reviewed. Evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management...... the published literature on chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. This article reports the development of international guidelines for the treatment of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Bladder preservation is also discussed......, as is chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. The conference panel consisted of 10 medical oncologists and urologists from 3 continents who are experts in this field and who reviewed the English-language literature through October 2004. Relevant English-language literature was identified...

  12. Paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with occult bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nivean, M; Muttuvelu, Danson V; Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report the first case of cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) presenting before bladder cancer diagnosis. A 71-year-old woman with a history of bilateral vision loss underwent subsequent complete ophthalmic examination include a fluorescein angiography, full-field electroretinogram...... (ERG), serology including serum antibodies for CAR, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan. The patient was diagnosed with bladder carcinoma revealed by PET-CT. Timely recognition of this entity may be crucial for an increased patient survival thus adult onset progressive...

  13. Selection of microsatellite markers for bladder cancer diagnosis without the need for corresponding blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.G. van Tilborg (Angela); L.C. Kompier (Lucie); I. Lurkin (Irene); R. Poort (Ricardo); S. El Bouazzaoui (Samira); K.A. van der Keur (Kirstin); T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita); L. Dyrskjot (Lars); T.F. Orntoft (Torben); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMicrosatellite markers are used for loss-of-heterozygosity, allelic imbalance and clonality analyses in cancers. Usually, tumor DNA is compared to corresponding normal DNA. However, normal DNA is not always available and can display aberrant allele ratios due to copy number variations in

  14. Computerized tomography of gall bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, F.I.; Karmazanovskij, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have summed up the experience in the use of computerized tomography (CT) in diagnosis of gall bladder cancer. The investigation of 17 patients with cancer of this site showed a high informative value of the method. A retrospective comparative study of the results of CT and surgical interventions was carried out. It has been concluded that CT makes it possible not only to diagnose malignant lesions of the bile ducts but also to assess a possible scope of a forthcoming operation

  15. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  16. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). Participants The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Findings to date Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. Future plans The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding

  17. [Development of noninvasive bladder cancer diagnosis on basis of telomerase and it's subunits hTERT and hTR detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, A I; Grigorieva, Y E; Gordeev, S A; Vinarov, A Z; Potoldykova, N V

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase activity (TA) and expression of genes coding it's subunits (hTERT and hTR) have been examined in tumor tissue and urine sediment samples taken from patients with bladder cancer (BC) using the modified TRAP assay (in the case of telomerase detection) and RT-PCR (in the case of hTERT and hTR expression). Results obtained in this study demonstrate possibility of noninvasive diagnosis of BC with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% in the case of telomerase detection and with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100% in the case of hTERT detection in urine sediment samples.

  18. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Urology and nephrology update: bladder and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, David C; Fox, Cara-Louise

    2014-01-01

    It has been estimated that bladder and kidney cancers would be diagnosed in approximately 140,000 Americans in 2013, with approximately 30,000 dying from these cancers. Urinary tract cancers affect men more commonly than they do women, and the median age at diagnosis is 65 years. Major risk factors for these cancers include tobacco smoking, certain chemical exposures, family history, age, and obesity. Unexplained hematuria in adults should be evaluated to exclude bladder and kidney cancer. Staging of bladder and kidney cancer should be based on the TNM staging system, which, along with tumor grade, provides important treatment and prognostic information. Urothelial cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer; it also can occur in the kidneys or ureters. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Treatment options for bladder cancer vary widely, depending on the grade of the cancer. Early non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer may be removed cystoscopically and/or treated with intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy, whereas patients with muscle-invasive bladder tumors typically require surgery. Management of kidney cancer is almost always surgical, unless the patient is too ill to undergo surgery or chooses palliative care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. High resolution photoacoustic imaging of microvasculature in normal and cancerous bladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the interior bladder tissues. Images of ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI to map three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiating malignant from benign bladder tissues was explored. The reported distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way to that in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

  1. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  2. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA mismatch repair (MMR system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.

  3. Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Recurrence Based on Urinary Levels of EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, TWIST1, VIM, and ZNF154 Hypermethylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Thomas; Borre, Michael; Christiansen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy and as many as 70% of patients experience relapse. Aberrant DNA methylation is present in all bladder tumors and can be detected in urine specimens. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation markers...

  4. Preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer. Accurate staging for bladder preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Norio; Arima, Kiminobu; Kawamura, Juichi; Tochigi, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of bladder preservation by preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) chemotherapy was studied in 111 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer. BOAI was performed by blocking the blood flow of the internal iliac artery and by performing intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin (50 mg/body) and cisplatin (100 mg/body). Before BOAI the clinical diagnosis was T2 in 36, T3a in 29, T3b in 27, T4 in 11 and after BOAI it was T0 in 1, T1 in 27, T2 in 25, T3a in 20, T3b in 20, and T4 in 10. Down staging was observed on diagnostic images in 46.6%. Thirty patients (27.0%) received transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt) and their bladder could be preserved. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 100% in pT0 (n=9), 97.5% in pT1 (n=47), 79.9% in pT2 (n=21), 80.0% in pT3a (n=6), 39.9% in pT3b (n=18) and 51.9% in pT4 cases (n=9). For the bladder preservation, accurate staging diagnosis is required. Since 1992, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in addition to imaging diagnosis for improving the accuracy of staging diagnosis. The accuracies of staging diagnosis with and without endorectal MRI were 62.5% and 44.0%, respectively. BOAI as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the possibility of bladder-preserving therapy in locally invasive bladder cancer. Also, the endorectal MRI can improve the accuracy of staging diagnosis, which is important for the bladder preservation. (author)

  5. Natural biology and management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpato, Kristen R; Tyson, Mark D; Clark, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the natural biology of noninvasive bladder cancer and its management strategies while summarizing the most recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a tendency to recur and progress. Risk stratification has...... helped triage patients but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced endoscopy with photodynamic imaging, narrow band imaging, optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification and disease monitoring. Attempts at better...

  6. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between exposure to selected solvents and the risk of bladder cancer. This study is based on the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) database and comprises 113,343 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer....

  7. Problems in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in a spinal cord injury patient: Report of a case of simultaneous production of granulocyte colony stimulating factor and parathyroid hormone-related protein by squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurpreet

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typical symptoms and signs of a clinical condition may be absent in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. Case presentation A male with paraplegia was passing urine through penile sheath for 35 years, when he developed urinary infections. There was no history of haematuria. Intravenous urography showed bilateral hydronephrosis. The significance of abnormal outline of bladder was not appreciated. As there was large residual urine, he was advised intermittent catheterisation. Serum urea: 3.5 mmol/L; creatinine: 77 umol/L. A year later, serum urea: 36.8 mmol/l; creatinine: 632 umol/l; white cell count: 22.2; neutrophils: 18.88. Ultrasound: bilateral hydronephrosis. Bilateral nephrostomy was performed. Subsequently, blood tests showed: Urea: 14.2 mmol/l; Creatinine: 251 umol/l; Adjusted Calcium: 3.28 mmol/l; Parathyroid hormone: A repeat ultrasound scan demonstrated a tumour arising from right lateral wall; biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. In view of persistently high white cell count and high calcium level, immunohistochemistry for G-CSF and PTHrP was performed. Dense staining of tumour cells for G-CSF and faintly positive staining for C-terminal PTHrP were observed. This patient expired about five months later. Conclusion This case demonstrates how delay in diagnosis of bladder cancer could occur in a SCI patient due to absence of characteristic symptoms and signs.

  8. Clinical usefulness of random biopsies in diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, J D; Palou, J; Esquinas, C; Fernández Gómez, J M; Rodríguez Faba, O

    2017-11-20

    This systematic review of the literature has been focused on determining the clinical usefulness of random bladder biopsies (RB) in the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ. A meta-analysis was performed to establish the clinic and pathological factors associated to positive biopsies. A systematic review was performed using Pubmed/Medline database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty-seven articles were included, recruiting a total of 12,657 patients, 10,975 were submitted to RB. The overall incidence of positive RB was 21.91%. Significant differences were found in the incidence of positive RB when patients were stratified according to urine cytology result, tumor multiplicity, tumor appearance, stage and grade. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the presence of positive cytology, tumor multiplicity, non-papillary appearance tumors, stage T1 and histological grades G2 and G3 represent the risk factors to predict abnormalities in RB. The incidence of positive RB in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer was 21.91%. The maximum usefulness of RB was observed when these are performed in a standardized way. The results of the meta-analysis showed that besides positive cytology and non-papillary appearance tumors, tumor multiplicity and histological grades G2 and G3 represent risk factors associated to positive RB, suggesting that the use of RB might be extensive to the intermediate risk group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide . Taking Aristolochia fangchi , a Chinese herb . Drinking water from a well that has high ... patients may be given chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ...

  10. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-09-27

    To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding author. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  11. Comparison of ultrasound and computed tomography in staging of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Bunzo

    1982-01-01

    Preoperative staging of bladder cancer is very important for decision of treating methods and prognostication. The present author used ultrasound via the abdominal wall in the diagnosis of 83 patients with bladder cancer. I estimated the extent of bladder tumor infiltration by ultrasound via the abdominal wall according to Shiraishi's criteria. Ultrasound scans, pelvic angiograms and CT scans were reviewed to determine their accuracy in staging of bladder tumors. Ultrasound scans were excellent in staging of non-infiltrated bladder tumors, while pelvic angiograms and CT scans were excellent in staging of infiltrated bladder tumors. (author)

  12. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet; Nørgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results......-intended radiation therapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15-21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22-27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10-18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1-5) in 2013. One......-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24-39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16-31) in 2013. CONCLUSION: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database...

  13. Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; MacLeod, Jill; Demers, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare occupational variation of the risk of bladder cancer in the Nordic countries and Canada. Methods: In the Nordic Occupational Cancer study (NOCCA), 73 653 bladder cancer cases were observed during follow-up of 141.6 million person......: Elevated risks of bladder cancer were observed among hairdressers, printers, sales workers, plumbers, painters, miners and laundry workers. Teachers and agricultural workers had reduced risk of bladder cancer in both cohorts. Chimney-sweeps, tobacco workers and waiters had about 1.5-fold risk in the Nordic...... countries; no risk estimates for these categories were given from the CanCHEC cohort. Conclusion: We observed different occupational patterns in risk of bladder cancer in Nordic countries and Canada. The only occupation with similarly increased risk was observed among sales workers. Differences in smoking...

  14. A case-control study on the association between bladder cancer and prior bladder calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-03-15

    Bladder calculus is associated with chronic irritation and inflammation. As there is substantial documentation that inflammation can play a direct role in carcinogenesis, to date the relationship between stone formation and bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between BC and prior bladder calculus using a population-based dataset. This case-control study included 2,086 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BC between 2001 and 2009 and 10,430 randomly selected controls without BC. Conditional logistic regressions were employed to explore the association between BC and having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus. Of the sampled subjects, bladder calculus was found in 71 (3.4%) cases and 105 (1.1%) controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of having been diagnosed with bladder calculus before the index date for cases was 3.42 (95% CI = 2.48-4.72) when compared with controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and renal disease, tobacco use disorder, obesity, alcohol abuse, and schistosomiasis, bladder outlet obstruction, and urinary tract infection. We further analyzed according to sex and found that among males, the OR of having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus for cases was 3.45 (95% CI = 2.39-4.99) that of controls. Among females, the OR was 3.05 (95% CI = 1.53-6.08) that of controls. These results add to the evidence surrounding the conflicting reports regarding the association between BC and prior bladder calculus and highlight a potential target population for bladder cancer screening.

  15. Bladder cancer; Cancer de la Vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointreau, Y. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hpital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, GICC, 37 - Tours (France); CNRS, UMR 6239 -Genetique, Immunotherapie, Chimie et Cancer-, 37 - Tours (France); CHRU de Tours, laboratoire de pharmacologie-toxicologie, 37 - Tours (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France); Klotz, S.; Durdux, C. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France)

    2010-07-01

    Bladder cancer is an urologic common tumor after prostate carcinoma. Radical treatment of localized invasive tumor is based on cystectomy. Surgical mutilation could be important when Bricker's urinary derivation is performed. Moreover, delayed metastasis frequently appeared in spite of radical surgery. Thus, chemoradiotherapy is a valid alternative treatment to cystectomy for selected patients. Cisplatin or derivatives are usually concurrently administered to radiation therapy up to 60 - 65 Gy. Patients undergo control cystoscopy at mid-time of treatment in order to select responders from non responders. For majority of cases, the empty bladder should be entirely treated with added margins (about 20 mm) to build the PTV. Control assessment could be improved by echography, cone beam imaging as well as bladder fiduciaries implantation before treatment. From a case report, this review summarizes the technical aspects of radiation therapy (GTV, CTV and PTV, organs at risk, planning) and main acute and late related toxicities. (authors)

  16. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  17. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  18. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolensky D

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dmitriy Smolensky,1,2 Kusum Rathore,1 Maria Cekanova1,2 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2UT-ORNL Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, signaling pathways, clinical trials

  19. Artificial intelligence and bladder cancer arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P J; Catto, J W F; Abbod, M F; Linkens, D A; Herr, A; Pilarsky, C; Wissmann, C; Stoehr, R; Denzinger, S; Knuechel, R; Hamdy, F C; Hartmann, A

    2007-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is a heterogenous disease whose management is dependent upon the risk of progression to muscle invasion. Although the recurrence rate is high, the majority of tumors are indolent and can be managed by endoscopic means alone. The prognosis of muscle invasion is poor and radical treatment is required if cure is to be obtained. Progression risk in non-invasive tumors is hard to determine at tumor diagnosis using current clinicopathological means. To improve the accuracy of progression prediction various biomarkers have been evaluated. To discover novel biomarkers several authors have used gene expression microarrays. Various statistical methods have been described to interpret array data, but to date no biomarkers have entered clinical practice. Here, we describe a new method of microarray analysis using neurofuzzy modeling (NFM), a form of artificial intelligence, and integrate it with artificial neural networks (ANN) to investigate non-muscle invasive bladder cancer array data (n=66 tumors). We develop a predictive panel of 11 genes, from 2800 expressed genes, that can significantly identify tumor progression (average Logrank p = 0.0288) in the analyzed cancers. In comparison, this panel appears superior to those genes chosen using traditional analyses (average Logrank p = 0.3455) and tumor grade (Logrank, p = 0.2475) in this non-muscle invasive cohort. We then analyze panel members in a new non-muscle invasive bladder cancer cohort (n=199) using immunohistochemistry with six commercially available antibodies. The combination of 6 genes (LIG3, TNFRSF6, KRT18, ICAM1, DSG2 and BRCA2) significantly stratifies tumor progression (Logrank p = 0.0096) in the new cohort. We discuss the benefits of the transparent NFM approach with respect to other reported methods.

  20. Invasive bladder cancer: Our experience with bladder sparing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervek, Jozica; Cufer, Tanja; Zakotnik, Branko; Kragelj, Borut; Borstnar, Simona; Matos, Tadeja; Zumer-Pregelj, Mirjana

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a disease associated with several unresolved therapeutic questions. Radical cystectomy still represents the most frequent treatment approach. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect and feasibility of bladder-sparing treatment by transurethral resection (TUR) and sequential chemoradiotherapy in patients with biopsy-proven invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: After maximal TUR, 105 patients were treated with two to four cycles of methotrexate, cisplatinum, and vinblastine polychemotherapy. In complete responders, the treatment was continued by radiotherapy (50 Gy to the bladder and 40 Gy to the regional lymph nodes), whereas in nonresponders, cystectomy was performed when feasible. Results: Complete response after TUR and chemotherapy was achieved in 52% of patients. After a median follow-up of 42 months, 52 of 75 patients (69%) selected for bladder preservation were without evidence of disease in the bladder. Freedom from local failure in complete responders to chemotherapy was 80% [95% confidence interval (CI), 69-91%) at 4 years. The actuarial survival of the entire group was 58% (95% CI, 47-69%), whereas the survival rate with the bladder intact was 45% (95% CI, 34-56%) at 4 years. Survival was significantly better in patients who responded to chemotherapy (79%) than in nonresponders (35%, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in survival between nonresponders who underwent cystectomy and nonresponders who completed treatment with radiotherapy (approximately 30% at 3 years). Conclusion: The present study confirms that MIBC is a heterogeneous disease, and that in more than half of patients who are affected, a bladder-sparing approach is safe. Our study has also demonstrated that in nonresponders, radical cystectomy as the treatment of choice is questionable

  1. HumanMethylation450K Array–Identified Biomarkers Predict Tumour Recurrence/Progression at Initial Diagnosis of High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark O; Bryan, Richard T; Emes, Richard D; Luscombe, Christopher J; Cheng, KK; Zeegers, Maurice P; James, Nicholas D; Gommersall, Lyndon M; Fryer, Anthony A

    2018-01-01

    Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC) is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. Patients and methods: A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1 year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG) were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Results: Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1 year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease. PMID:29343995

  2. HumanMethylation450K Array-Identified Biomarkers Predict Tumour Recurrence/Progression at Initial Diagnosis of High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark O; Bryan, Richard T; Emes, Richard D; Luscombe, Christopher J; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, Maurice P; James, Nicholas D; Gommersall, Lyndon M; Fryer, Anthony A

    2018-01-01

    High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC) is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1 year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG) were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1 year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease.

  3. HumanMethylation450K Array–Identified Biomarkers Predict Tumour Recurrence/Progression at Initial Diagnosis of High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark O Kitchen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. Patients and methods: A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1 year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Results: Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1 year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease.

  4. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  5. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  6. Integrated irradiation and cystectomy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Planned pre-operative irradiation and cystectomy for selected patients with bladder cancer was initiated approximately 20 years ago by a number of centres on the basis of the disappointing end results of treatment of bladder cancer by either irradiation or surgery and the empirical hope that the combination might lead to better results. This is a brief review of the logical basis for integrated treatment and of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience with such therapy. (author)

  7. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, β-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  8. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden on he...

  9. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  10. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were......-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because...

  11. Updated 2016 EAU Guidelines on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, J.A.; Lebret, T.; Comperat, E.M.; Cowan, N.C.; Santis, M. de; Bruins, H.M.; Hernandez, V.; Espinos, E.L.; Dunn, J.; Rouanne, M.; Neuzillet, Y.; Veskimae, E.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Gakis, G.; Ribal, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Invasive bladder cancer is a frequently occurring disease with a high mortality rate despite optimal treatment. The European Association of Urology (EAU) Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer (MIBC) Guidelines are updated yearly and provides information to optimise diagnosis,

  12. Prediction of Bladder Cancer Recurrences Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta Guerrero, Ekaitz; Garay, Naiara Telleria; Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Vilches, Borja Ayerdi; Iragorri, Eider Egilegor; Castaños, David Lecumberri; de La Hoz Rastrollo, Ana Belén; Peña, Carlos Pertusa

    Even if considerable advances have been made in the field of early diagnosis, there is no simple, cheap and non-invasive method that can be applied to the clinical monitorisation of bladder cancer patients. Moreover, bladder cancer recurrences or the reappearance of the tumour after its surgical resection cannot be predicted in the current clinical setting. In this study, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to assess how different combinations of classical clinical parameters (stage-grade and age) and two urinary markers (growth factor and pro-inflammatory mediator) could predict post surgical recurrences in bladder cancer patients. Different ANN methods, input parameter combinations and recurrence related output variables were used and the resulting positive and negative prediction rates compared. MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) was selected as the most predictive model and urinary markers showed the highest sensitivity, predicting correctly 50% of the patients that would recur in a 2 year follow-up period.

  13. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  14. Epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynder, E.L.; Goldsmith, R.

    1977-09-01

    A case-control study among 574 male and 158 female bladder cancer patients and equal numbers of matched controls was conducted between 1969 and 1974 in 17 hospitals in six United States cities. We determined that cigarette smokers of both sexes were at higher relative risk than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking was responsible for about one-half of male and one-third of female bladder cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer patients with some previous occupational exposure, such as rubber, chemicals, and textiles. A weak association with coffee drinking, which appeared to be independent of smoking, was found for males. Users of artificial sweetners were not over-represented among the cases. The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.

  15. Outcome of urinary bladder recurrence after partial cystectomy for en bloc urinary bladder adherent colorectal cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao Lun; Tsai, Kai Lung; Lin, Shung Eing; Chiang, Po Hui

    2013-05-01

    Around 10 % of colorectal cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis. There are higher incidences for sigmoid and rectal cancer adhered to urinary bladder (UB) rather than other segments of colon cancer. Surgeons often performed partial cystectomy as possible for preservation of patient's life quality. This study investigates prognostic factors in patients who underwent bladder preservation en bloc resection for UB adherent colorectal cancer. From 2000 to 2011, 123 patients with clinically UB involvement colorectal cancer underwent primary colorectal cancer with urinary bladder resection. Seventeen patients were excluded because of the concurrent distant metastasis at diagnosis and another 22 patients were excluded because of total cystectomy with uretero-ileal urinary diversion. Finally, 84 patients with clinical stage IIIC (T4bN0M0, according to AJCC 7th edition) that underwent en bloc colorectal cancer resection with partial cystectomy were enrolled into this study for further analysis. Preoperative colovesical fistula and positive CT result were significantly more in the urinary bladder invasion group (p = 0.043 and 0.010, respectively). Pathological UB invasion is an independent predictor of intravesical recurrence (p = 0.04; HR, 10.71; 95 % CI = 1.12∼102.94) and distant metastasis (p = 0.016; HR, 4.85; 95 % CI = 1.34 ∼ 17.53) in multivariate analysis. For bladder preservation en bloc resection of urinary bladder adherent colorectal cancer, the pathological urinary bladder invasion is significantly associated with more urinary bladder recurrence and distant metastasis. This result helps surgeons make decisions at surgical planning and establish follow-up protocol.

  16. Recurrent urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer in the Nijmegen bladder cancer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Hanum, N.; Grotenhuis, A.J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Aben, K.K.H.; Mysorekar, I.U.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on whether urinary tract infection (UTI) is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Here, the association is investigated using data from one of the largest bladder cancer case-control studies worldwide. METHODS: Information on (i) history and age at onset of

  17. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-01-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author)

  18. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  19. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  20. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  1. [Epidemiological investigation on bladder cancer and occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, K; Ohno, Y; Aoki, K

    1989-12-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Boston, U.S.A., Manchester, U.K., and Nagoya, Japan to assess the associations of occupations with bladder cancer in men. In Nagoya, cancer cases were identified through Nagoya Bladder Cancer Registry, and controls were randomly selected from the general population using electoral registers. Study subjects, all males, analyzed were 430 cases and 397 controls in Boston; 339 and 493 in Manchester, and 220 and 443 in Nagoya, respectively. Occupations significantly related to an increased bladder cancer risk were those manufacturing or handling dyes, leather, paint or organic chemicals in Boston, and leather or medical workers in Manchester. Occupations significantly associated with bladder cancer development were not found in Nagoya. In general, risk related to occupations was relatively higher in the younger age group (less than 65 years old) than in the older age group (greater than or equal to 65 yrs old). Statistically significant differences in bladder cancer risk were not demonstrated between manufacturing workers and service workers.

  2. Progress in Personalizing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer.

  3. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  4. Long non-coding RNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 as a tumor biomarker for the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichun; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Zhang, Daming; Yu, Yongchun; Cai, Licheng; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 as a urine biomarker in urinary bladder cancer patients by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted by the databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, and Web of Science. The quality of eligible studies was scored with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. The bivariate meta-analysis model was used to pool the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic models were employed to check the overall test performance in this meta-analysis. Seven publications involving 678 patients and 563 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.88), specificity was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.94), positive likelihood ratio was 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 3.10-13.62), negative likelihood ratio was 0.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.25), and diagnostic odds ratio was 36 (95% confidence interval: 13-99). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.91). Our results indicated that urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 was a potential diagnostic biomarker with good specificity and sensitivity in urinary bladder cancer. Further prospective studies with larger cohorts are necessary to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 for urinary bladder cancer.

  5. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  6. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  7. CXCL5 is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Qiao, Yan; Liu, Weihua; Wang, Wenying; Shen, Hongliang; Lu, Yi; Hao, Gangyue; Zheng, Jiajia; Tian, Ye

    2016-04-01

    Chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5 (CXCL5) is critical for bladder cancer growth and progression. Our previous study demonstrated that increase of CXCL5 in bladder cancer cell lines had an effect on tumor growth and progression. This study aims to investigate the expression of CXCL5 in tissue and urine of bladder cancer patients, in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, and as a predictive value in diagnosing and evaluating bladder cancer. Urothelial bladder cancer tissues from 255 patients were profiled for CXCL5 alterations by immunohistochemistry. Urine samples collected from patients with bladder cancer and urinary tract infections as well as healthy volunteers were analyzed by ELISA. High expression of CXCL5 in bladder cancer tissue was correlated with TNM stage (P = 0.012), cancer grade (P = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007). CXCL5 alterations were associated with overall survival (P = 0.007), progression free survival (P = 0.004), and recurrence free survival in muscle invasive bladder cancers (P = 0.026). CXCL5 expression in the urine of bladder cancer patients was significantly different from urinary tract infection patients (P = 0.001) and healthy volunteers. However, urine leukocytes may predict CXCL5 levels (β = 0.56, P bladder cancer TNM stage (P = 0.039), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.007), and tumor grade (P = 0.005). The sensitivity and specificity for CXCL5/creatinine in predicting bladder cancer were 80.4 and 61.3 %, respectively. These results suggest increased CXCL5 expression in cancer tissue predicts poor survival in bladder cancer patients. CXCL5 expression in urine is useful in a minimally invasive modality for bladder cancer diagnosis. However, urine leukocytes are significant predictors of CXCL5 levels and may affect its result in bladder cancer diagnosis.

  8. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  9. Urinary ascites secondary to delayed diagnosis of laparoscopic bladder injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mandeel Hazem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of urinary ascites in a young woman secondary to unrecognized bladder injury during gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. Delayed diagnosis occurred due to the absence of expected changes in serum biochemistry, which made the diagnosis of urinoma less likely. High suspicion of bladder injury following laparoscopic surgery should be present in patients with ill-defined symptoms even if no biochemical changes are seen. The case demonstrates important points in relation to the consequences of delayed diagnosis as well as overview on detection and prevention of such injury.

  10. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  11. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Alan; Hopper, Melanie; Murray, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm; Bishop, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C 595 (gG3) which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radio immuno conjugates of the C 595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immuno reactivity using Tc-99 m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun. (author)

  12. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithamparam, S; Ahmad, R; Sabarudin, A; Othman, Z; Ismail, M

    2017-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients. (paper)

  13. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  14. Metabolomics study on the biochemical profiles of odor elements in urine of human with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobu, Kohei; Sun, Changhai; Yoshioka, Saburo; Yokota, Junko; Onogawa, Masahide; Kawada, Chiaki; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Sendo, Toshiaki; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that dogs are capable of identifying cancer in humans by detecting a specific odor: bladder cancer by detecting urine odor and other cancers by detecting exhaled breath odor. However, no odor recognized by dogs that indicates cancer has been identified. In this study, we examined whether bladder cancer could be detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics analysis of urine odor. Nine patients with bladder cancer and 7 healthy controls were recruited as participants. Patients collected urine 3 d before and for 3-7 d after surgery. The concentrated urine odor was analyzed by GC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Results indicated 12 metabolites of urine odor. Score plots of 7 of the preoperative bladder cancer patients were clearly different from those of controls on the PCA map. The distribution of controls was in the negative domain of principal component (PC) 1, whereas the distribution of preoperative patients was in the positive domain of PC1. Bladder cancer was diagnosed in 5 of the 9 patients on the basis of urinary cytology. The findings indicate the potential to screen bladder cancer by analyzing urine odor. Moreover, diagnosis of bladder cancer on the basis of urine odor might have higher sensitivity than screening by urinary cytology.

  15. Spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muslet, Nafie A.; Ali, Essam E.

    2012-03-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Africa. It takes several days to reach a diagnosis using histological examinations of specimens obtained by endoscope, which increases the medical expense. Recently, spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues has received considerable attention as a diagnosis technique due to its sensitivity to biochemical variations in the samples. This study investigated the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze a number of bladder cancer tissues. Twenty-two samples were collected from 11 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer from different hospitals without any pretreatment. From each patient two samples were collected, one normal and another cancerous. FTIR spectrometer was used to differentiate between normal and cancerous bladder tissues via changes in spectra of these samples. The investigations detected obvious changes in the bands of proteins (1650, 1550 cm-1), lipids (2925, 2850 cm-1), and nucleic acid (1080, 1236 cm-1). The results show that FTIR spectroscopy is promising as a rapid, accurate, nondestructive, and easy to use alternative method for identification and diagnosis of bladder cancer tissues.

  16. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful...

  17. Elevated Bladder Cancer Risk in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study has found that drinking water from private wells, particularly dug wells established during the first half of the 20th century, may have contributed to the elevated risk of bladder cancer that has been observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont for over 50 years.

  18. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinikanth Ayyathurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper urinary tract (UUT transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of monitoring the UUT and there is no consensus among them. This article reviews the recommendations on monitoring the UUT in patients with bladder cancer.

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms at Familial Bladder Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ceylan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men in the world, it is the second most seen cancer after lung cancer and the first in urogenital tumours in Turkey. Many molecular epidemiologic studies have been reported to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. In this report, a family with transitional bladder cancer have also MTHFR A1298C heterozygosity which supports the association between MTHFR variants and bladder cancer. This %uFB01nding should be further validated by prospective and larger studies with more diverse ethnic groups.

  20. Urinary tract infection-like symptom is associated with worse bladder cancer outcomes in the Medicare population: Implications for sex disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kyle A; Ham, Sandra; Cohn, Joshua A; Steinberg, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    To determine the time to bladder cancer diagnosis from initial infection-like symptoms and its impact on cancer outcomes. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare, we designed a retrospective cohort study identifying beneficiaries aged ≥ 66 years diagnosed with bladder cancer from 2007 to 2009. Patients were required to have a hematuria or urinary tract infection claim within 1 year of bladder cancer diagnosis (n = 21 216), and have 2 years of prior Medicare data (n = 18 956) without any precedent hematuria, bladder cancer or urinary tract infection claims (n = 12 195). The number of days to bladder cancer diagnosis was measured, as well as the impact of sex and presenting symptom on time to diagnosis, pathology, and oncological outcomes. The mean time to bladder cancer diagnosis was 72.2 days in women versus 58.9 days in men (P urinary tract infection. Cox proportional hazards analysis identified an increased risk of mortality from bladder cancer and all causes in women presenting with urinary tract infection (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.71, and hazard ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.69) compared with women with hematuria. Women have a longer interval from urinary tract infection to diagnosis of bladder cancer. Urinary tract infection presentation can adversely affect time to diagnosis, pathology and survival. Time to diagnosis seems not to be an independent predictor of bladder cancer outcomes. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Emerging Endoscopic and Photodynamic Techniques for Bladder Cancer Detection and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of emerging techniques, namely, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD, narrow band imaging (NBI, Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, virtual cystoscopy, and endoscopic microscopy for its use in the diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer. The technology, clinical evidence and future applications of these approaches are discussed with particular emphasis on PDD and NBI. These approaches show promise to optimise cystoscopy and transurethral resection of bladder tumours.

  2. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... chromosome for three tumors. Single locus alterations were detected in three tumors, while three other tumors revealed changes in two or more loci. In one tumor we found microsatellite instability in all five loci analyzed on chromosome 9. The alterations detected were either minor 2-base pair changes...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  3. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our initial experiences with laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2002 and October 2004, laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed in 6 cases at 3 institutions; 3 cases were urachal adenocarcinomas and the remaining 3 cases were bladder transitional cell carcinomas. All patients were male, with a median age of 55 years (45-72 years. Gross hematuria was the presenting symptom in all patients, and diagnosis was established with trans-urethral resection bladder tumor in 2 patients and by means of cystoscopic biopsy in the remaining 4 patients. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed using the transperitoneal approach under cystoscopic guidance. In each case, the surgical specimen was removed intact entrapped in an impermeable bag. One patient with para-ureteral diverticulum transitional cell carcinoma required concomitant ureteral reimplantation. RESULTS: All six procedures were completed laparoscopically without open conversion. The median operating time was 110 minutes (90-220 with a median estimated blood loss of 70 mL (50-100. Frozen section evaluations of bladder margins were routinely obtained and were negative for cancer in all cases. The median hospital stay was 2.5 days (2-4 and the duration of catheterization was 7 days. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Final histopathology confirmed urachal adenocarcinoma in 3 cases and bladder transitional cell carcinoma in 3 cases. At a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range: 26 to 44 months, there was no evidence of recurrent disease as evidenced by radiologic or cystoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic partial cystectomy in carefully selected patients with urachal and bladder cancer is feasible and safe, offering a promising and minimally invasive alternative for these patients.

  4. Bladder preservation by concurrent chemoradiation for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Applicability in low-income countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khader, J.; Salem, A.; Farah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for patients with muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer; however, is associated with major treatment - related morbidity. Furthermore, a significant proportion of patients are deemed unsuitable for surgery due to inoperability, advanced age, and/or comorbid conditions. As such, several groups have explored effectiveness of less radical therapeutic strategies that aim at bladder preservation. Nonetheless, there is scarcity of reports assessing the applicability of urinary bladder-sparing outside developed countries. Aim: Determine the achievable outcomes for patients with muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer treated via bladder-sparing techniques in a low income country. Materials and methods: Fourteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer (clinical stage; T2-3N0M0) were treated via a bladder-sparing approach at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) between 2005 and 2009. Records were electronically retrieved and retrospectively analyzed and included 11 males and 3 females from 41 to 74 years of age (median age, 61). Initial therapy consisted of trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by induction chemotherapy then irradiation (4500 cGy) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Urological evaluation directed additional therapy in a proportion of patients with irradiation (up to 6400 cGy) in patients who achieved CR. Results: Eleven patients were evaluable for pathological response at time of re-staging; of whom 8 (73%) achieved CR and 3 (27%) achieved partial response (PR). In all but one patient; combined-modality treatment was well tolerated. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 3 - 48 months); 5 of 8 (62.5%) patients with CR were alive. (authors)

  5. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare split-bolus computed tomography urography (CTU), magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and flexible cystoscopy in patients with macroscopic haematuria regarding the diagnosis of bladder tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 150 pat...

  6. [The biochemical carcinogenesis of selected heavy metals in bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Marchewka, Zofia; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer takes the second place in the classification of morbidity of urinary system cancers. Many chemical factors take part in cancerogenesis. It is suggested that exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, nickel and cadmium as well as its metabolites may trigger the bladder cancer through inducing excessive reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress formation which are responsible for DNA damage. In patients with bladder cancer is observed the disorder of processes regulated by p-53, including apoptosis. There are many patients with bladder cancer with confirmed absence of retinoblastoma protein, which is responsible of holding on the process of coming up the cells with mutation into synthesis, where the replication process undergoes. It is mentioned that excessive expression of proto-oncogenes may also cause the bladder cancer. The article concerns biochemical effects of exposure to chosen heavy metals and their potential role in bladder cancer progression.

  7. Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/ Painful Bladder Syndrome in Patients With Overactive Bladder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDiarmid, Scott A; Sand, Peter K

    2007-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis (IC) have similar symptoms, including urinary urgency/frequency and nocturia, making them difficult to differentiate on the basis of clinical presentation alone. Both conditions may represent a clinical manifestation of a hypersensitive bladder and should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with urgency/ frequency. It is especially important that IC be considered in patients with OAB that is refractory to treatment. The proposed diagnostic framework may be useful for differentiating IC from OAB and for facilitating appropriate treatment. PMID:17396167

  8. Outcome of urinary bladder cancer after combined therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, R M; Gales, L N; Trifanescu, O G

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth in women, being an important public health issue. Methods: : Medical files of 155 patients (132M/ 23F) with urinary bladder cancer treated between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range: 19-85 years). Disease free survival (DFS) for patients with complete tumor resection receiving adjuvant treatment and progression free survival (PFS) for patients with post-operative residual disease was estimated. Results: The distribution of the stage disease was: 50 patients (32.2%) stage II, 47 (30.3%) stage III, 58 (37.4%) stage IV. Radical cystectomy was performed in 56 patients (36.1%), while 99 patients (63.9%) underwent repeated transurethral resection of the urinary bladder tumor (TURBT). Postoperative treatment included multimodal therapy in 47 patients (30.3%) (chemotherapy and external beam radiation), external beam radiation alone in 57 patients (36.8%) and chemotherapy alone (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin-MVAC or gemcitabine+platinum) in 51 patients (32.9%). After a median follow-up of 31 months (range: 3-79 months), 51 patients (32.9%) presented local recurrence, 32 patients (21%) distant recurrence (metastases), 10 patients (6.4%) both local and distant recurrence, and 62 patients (40%) were free of disease. The median duration until progression was 27 months. Discussion: Despite the combined therapy approaches, urinary bladder carcinoma remains an aggressive disease, with a high relapse rate. Earlier diagnosis, aggressive radical surgery in intention to cure (cystectomy), and adjuvant multimodal treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) are needed for survival improvement.

  9. Cytotoxic and toxicogenomic effects of silibinin in bladder cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness forpreventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activityof silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder urothelial ...

  10. Cytotoxic and toxicogenomic effects of silibinin in bladder cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness forpreventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activityof silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder urothelial ...

  11. Cytotoxic and toxicogenomic effects of silibinin in bladder cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness for preventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activity of silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder ...

  12. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten; Lebesque, Joos; Lotz, Heidi; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Moonen, Luc; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV(CONV)). During the first treatment week, five daily

  13. Slug contributes to cadherin switch and malignant progression in muscle-invasive bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaijie; Zeng, Jin; Zhou, Jiancheng; Fan, Jinhai; Chen, Yule; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, TingTing; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin

    2013-11-01

    The Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors (i.e., Snail and Slug) predicts the tumor recurrence in superficial bladder cancers, while their roles in the development of muscle-invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in muscle-invasive bladder cancers with poor prognosis have not been investigated. This study evaluates the clinical significance of Slug in aggressive bladder cancer. A pair of sublines (i.e., T24-P and T24-L) from a unique orthotropic metastatic model of bladder cancer was firstly utilized to identify the potential precursors contributing to those aggressive phenotypes. The coexpression of Slug, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in bladder cancer cell lines (i.e., 5637, RT4, 253 J, J82, and T24) and tissues was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry staining analysis. The function of Slug expression on E- to N-cadherin switch, cell invasion, and chemoresistance to proapoptotic treatment was validated by gain-in-function and knockdown strategy in vitro. Slug was identified as one of the novel targets contributed to the aggressive phenotypes of T24-L cells, which showed enhanced cell invasive, metastatic, and chemoresistant potentials in vitro and in vivo as previously described. Up-regulation of Slug was significantly correlated with a higher tumor stage and the E- to N-cadherin switch in bladder cancer cells and tissues, whereas ectopic expression of Slug in bladder cancer 5637 and RT-4 cell lines promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased cell invasiveness and chemoresistance. By contrast, knocking down Slug using siRNA in T24-L cell lines reversed these changes. Slug elevates in invasive or metastatic bladder cancer and plays a critical role in EMT via control of cadherin switch. Slug may be a potential marker or target for improving the diagnosis and treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy. PMID:25929573

  15. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy.

  16. MOLECULAR MARKERS OF BLADDER CANCER: FROM THE PARTICULAR TO THE GENERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zabolotneva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC is the second most common urinary tract malignancy. Early diagnosis of BC generally increases the probability of successful treatment in a patient. The paper considers noninvasive diagnosis methods for BC and gives a database of the known molecular markers of this disease.

  17. General Information about Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide . Taking Aristolochia fangchi , a Chinese herb . Drinking water from a well that has high ... patients may be given chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide . Taking Aristolochia fangchi , a Chinese herb . Drinking water from a well that has high ... patients may be given chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ...

  19. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...... staining on tissue arrays of bladder cancers. The presence and relative amount of ADAM12 in the urine of cancer patients were determined by Western blotting and densitometric measurements, respectively. RESULTS: ADAM12 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer, as determined...

  20. Bladder Cancer Patient Advocacy: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quale, Diane Zipursky; Bangs, Rick; Smith, Monica; Guttman, David; Northam, Tammy; Winterbottom, Andrew; Necchi, Andrea; Fiorini, Edoardo; Demkiw, Stephanie

    2015-10-26

    Over the past 20 years, cancer patient advocacy groups have demonstrated that patient engagement in cancer care is essential to improving patient quality of life and outcomes. Bladder cancer patient advocacy only began 10 years ago in the United States, but is now expanding around the globe with non-profit organizations established in Canada, the United Kingdom and Italy, and efforts underway in Australia. These organizations, at different levels of maturity, are raising awareness of bladder cancer and providing essential information and resources to bladder cancer patients and their families. The patient advocacy organizations are also helping to advance research efforts by funding research proposals and facilitating research collaborations. Strong partnerships between these patient advocates and the bladder cancer medical community are essential to ensuringsustainability for these advocacy organizations, increasing funding to support advances in bladder cancer treatment, and improving patient outcomes.

  1. Selective bladder preservation with curative intent for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A contemporary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Fumitaka; Kihara, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion, the reference standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, associates with high complication rates and compromises quality of life as a result of long-term effects on urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual function, and changes in body image. As a society ages, the number of elderly patients unfit for radical cystectomy as a result of comorbidity will increase, and thus the demand for bladder-sparing approaches for muscle-invasive bladder cancer will also inevitably increase. Trimodality bladder-sparing approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Σ55-65 Gy) yield overall survival rates comparable with those of radical cystectomy series (50-70% at 5 years), while preserving the native bladder in 40-60% of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, contributing to an improvement in quality of life for such patients. Limitations of the trimodality therapy include muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence in the preserved bladder, which most often arises in the original muscle-invasive bladder cancer site; potential lack of curative intervention for regional lymph nodes; and increased morbidity in the event of salvage radical cystectomy for remaining or recurrent disease as a result of high-dose pelvic irradiation. Consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection followed by induction chemoradiotherapy at lower dose (exempli gratia (e.g.) 40 Gy) is a rational strategy for overcoming such limitations by strengthening locoregional control and reducing radiation dosage. Molecular profiling of the tumor and functional imaging might play important roles in optimal patient selection for bladder preservation. Refinement of radiation techniques, intensified concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy, and novel sensitizers, including molecular targeting agent, are also expected to improve outcomes and consequently provide more muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with favorable

  2. Optical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  3. Quality control and primo-diagnosis of transurethral bladder resections with full-field OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, P.; Ducesne, I.; Anract, J.; Yang, C.; Sibony, M.; Beuvon, F.; Delongchamps, N. B.; Dalimier, E.

    2017-02-01

    Transurethral resections are commonly used for bladder cancer diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Cancer staging relies largely on the analysis of muscle in the resections; however, muscle presence is uncertain at the time of the resection. An extemporaneous quality control tool would be of great use to certify the presence of muscle in the resection, and potentially formulate a primo-diagnosis, in order to ensure optimum patient care. Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a fast and non-destructive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution (1μm in all 3 directions), approaching traditional histological sections. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of FFOCT for the quality control and the primo-diagnosis of transurethral bladder resections. Over 70 transurethral bladder resections were imaged with FFOCT within minutes, shortly after excision, and before histological preparation. Side-by-side comparison with histology allowed to establish reading criteria for the presence of muscle and cancer in particular. Images of 24 specimens were read blindly by three non-pathologists readers: two resident urologists and a junior bio-medical engineer, who were asked to notify the presence of muscle and tumor. Results showed that after appropriate training, 96% accuracy could be obtained on both tumour and muscle detection. FFOCT is a fast and nondestructive imaging technique that provides analysis results concordant with histology. Its implementation as a quality control and primo-diagnosis tool for transurethral bladder resections in the urology suite is feasible and lets envision high value for the patient.

  4. Oncolytic Viruses in the Treatment of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle G. Potts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder carcinoma is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Up to 85% of patients with bladder cancer are diagnosed with a tumor that is limited to the bladder mucosa (Ta, T1, and CIS. These stages are commonly termed as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. Although the treatment of NMIBC has greatly improved in recent years, there is a need for additional therapies when patients fail bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that bladder cancer may be an ideal target for oncolytic viruses engineered to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells leaving normal cells unharmed. In support of this hypothesis, here we review current treatment strategies for bladder cancer and their shortcomings, as well as recent advancements in oncolytic viral therapy demonstrating encouraging safety profiles and antitumor activity.

  5. Clinical characteristics of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury: the experience from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böthig, Ralf; Kurze, Ines; Fiebag, Kai; Kaufmann, Albert; Schöps, Wolfgang; Kadhum, Thura; Zellner, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    Life expectancy for people with spinal cord injury has shown a marked increase due to modern advances in treatment methods and in neuro-urology. However, since life expectancy of people with paralysis increases, the risk of developing of urinary bladder cancer is gaining importance. Single-centre retrospective evaluation of patient data with spinal cord injuries and proven urinary bladder cancer and summary of the literature. Between 1998 and 2014, 24 (3 female, 21 male) out of a total of 6599 patients with spinal cord injury were diagnosed with bladder cancer. The average age at bladder cancer diagnosis was 57.67 years, which is well below the average for bladder cancer cases in the general population (male: 73, female: 77). All but one patient had a latency period between the onset of the spinal paralysis and tumour diagnosis of more than 10 years. The median latency was 29.83 years. The median survival for these patients was 11.5 months. Of the 24 patients, 19 (79%) had muscle invasive bladder cancer at ≥T2 at the time of diagnosis. The type of neurogenic bladder (neurogenic detrusor overactivity or acontractility) and the form of bladder drainage do not appear to influence the risk. Long-term indwelling catheter drainage played only a minor role in the investigated patients. The significantly younger age at onset and the frequency of invasive tumours at diagnosis indicate that spinal cord injury influences bladder cancer risk and prognosis as well. Early detection of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury remains a challenge.

  6. Bladder Cancer in HIV-infected Adults: An Emerging Issue? Case-Reports and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawki, Sylvain; Ploussard, Guillaume; Montlahuc, Claire; Verine, Jérome; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Desgrandchamps, François; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Non-AIDS-related malignancies now represent a frequent cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, it has been rarely reported among HIV-infected patients. We wished to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients. We conducted a single center retrospective study from 1998 to 2013 in a university hospital in Paris. Cases of bladder cancer among HIV-infected patients were identified using the electronic records of the hospital database and of the HIV-infected cohort. Patient characteristics and outcomes were retrieved from patients charts. A systematic review of published cases of bladder cancers in patients with HIV-infection was also performed. During the study period we identified 15 HIV-infected patients (0.2% of the cohort) with a bladder cancer. Patients were mostly men (73%) and smokers (67%), with a median age of 56 years at cancer diagnosis. Bladder cancer was diagnosed a median of 14 years after HIV-infection. Most patients were on ART (86%) with median current and nadir CD4 cell counts of 506 and 195 cells/mm3, respectively. Haematuria (73%) was the most frequent presenting symptom and HPV-associated lesions were seen in 6/10 (60%) patients. Histopathology showed transitional cell carcinoma in 80% and a high proportion of tumors with muscle invasion (47%) and high histologic grade (73%). One-year survival rate was 74.6%. The systematic review identified 13 additional cases of urothelial bladder cancers which shared similar features. Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but may occur in relatively young patients with a low nadir CD4 cell count, have aggressive pathological features and can be fatal.

  7. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiajia [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Xi [Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjiebjmu@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  8. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy

  9. Cancer-testis antigen expression in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradet, Yves; Picard, V; Bergeron, A; LaRue, H

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the potential of cCancer-t/Testis antigens (CTAs) as targets for immunotherapy of bladder cancer, we evaluated the expression of 9 CTA genes or families of genes in normal urothelia, bladder tumours and bladder cancer human bladder tissuescell lines. As expression of most CTAs is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms, we also evaluated the effect of the DNA methylase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-DC), and/or theand histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A (TSA) on their expression in bladder cancer cell lines. Expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1, MAGE-A, MAGE-C1, BAGE, HOM-TES-85, SCP-1, SSX-1, SSX-2 and SSX-4 was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting on 10 normal urothelia, 23 24 superficial and 223 invasive tumours and on 10 cell lines treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-DC) and/or Trichostatin A (TSA). Expression of all CTA genes could be observed in at least 1 tumour except for HOM-TES-85 for which mRNA was never detected. MAGE-A, BAGE and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 mRNAs were the most frequently detected, respectively in 5677%, 212% and 89% of superficial and in 6461%, 4139% and 276% of invasive tumours. With the exception of MAGE-A, CTA transcripts were rarely detected in the cell lines. However, expression of all CTA genes, except SCP-1, could be induced at various levels by the drugs and 5-AZA-DC was a much more potent inducer than TSA. These data suggest that immunotherapy of bladder cancer could target CTAs, especially those expressed at higher frequency such as MAGE-A, BAGE and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1. Moreover, their induction by chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-AZA-DC, provides a potential pretreatment aimed at inducing the immunogenicity of the tumours.

  10. Can we improve transurethral resection of the bladder tumour for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Esmee Iml; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The recurrence rate in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is high, and the quality of transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) tumour influences recurrence risk. We review new methods that aim to improve the effectiveness of TURB, and highlight studies of the past

  11. G-protein-coupled receptor 137 accelerates proliferation of urinary bladder cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiheng; Bi, Wenhuan; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Wenbo; Xia, Shujie; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a worldwide concern because of its level of incidence and recurrence. To search an effective therapeutic strategy for urinary bladder cancer, it is important to identify proteins involved in tumorigenesis that could serve as potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) constitute a large protein family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate signal transduction pathways and cellular responses inside the cell. GPR137 is a newly discovered human gene encoding orphan GPRs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of GPR137 in urinary bladder cancer. The effect of GPR137 on cell growth was examined via an RNA interference (RNAi) lentivirus system in two human urinary bladder cancer cell lines BT5637 and T24. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi could specifically suppressed GPR137 expression in vitro, resulting in alleviated cell viability and impaired colony formation, as well as blocks G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results suggested GPR137 as an essential player in urinary bladder cancer cell growth, and it may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Perioperative management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is a challenge. Despite current guidelines, the treatment is suboptimal as illustrated by the high risk of recurrence and progression. Transurethral resection plays a pivotal role in the management of bladder cancer, but the

  13. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... scan and endometrial pipelle sampling. Where bladder pathology was detected, urine cytology was done before referral to the urologist. Results: In all, 753 women were referred. There were 17 cases of endometrial cancer detected. Three cases of bladder tumor (malignant transitional cell cancer) were ...

  14. DWI as an Imaging Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Waseda, Yuma; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    OBJECTIVE. DWI has been increasingly applied in the management of bladder cancer. In this article, we discuss the role of DWI as an imaging biomarker for bladder cancer. CONCLUSION. The DWI signal is derived from the motion of water molecules, which represents the physiologic characteristics of the

  15. The efficacy of Apaziquone in the treatment of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caramés Masana, Francisco; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer is nowadays a common tumor. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has still chances of recurrence and progression in spite of surgery and adjuvant treatments. New therapies are being developed to reduce these percentages with less adverse effects - Apaziquone (EO9) is an example.

  16. Gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment guidelines 2008: Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Uganda most cancers to the exception of bladder and penis are increasing in incidence. The incidence of cancer of stomach is 5.6/100,000 from 0.8/100,000 in the 1960s a seven fold increase.The purpose of this guideline document is to highlight the salient points in gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment in the ...

  17. miR-1182 inhibits growth and mediates the chemosensitivity of bladder cancer by targeting hTERT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Dai, Wenbin; Song, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis and proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. In this study, we report that miR-1182 is deregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. To characterize the role of miR-1182 in bladder cancer cells, we performed functional assays. The overexpression of miR-1182 significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. Moreover, its up-regulation induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and mediated chemosensitivity to cisplatin in bladder cancer. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay and a rescue experiment indicated that miR-1182 directly targets hTERT by binding its 3′UTR. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that miR-1182 acts as a tumor suppressor and may be a potential biomarker for bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  18. miR-1182 inhibits growth and mediates the chemosensitivity of bladder cancer by targeting hTERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun [Department of Urology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 221 Yan An Road(w), Shanghai 200040 (China); Dai, Wenbin, E-mail: daiwenbin271@163.com [Department of Urology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 221 Yan An Road(w), Shanghai 200040 (China); Song, Jianming [School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, No.3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland 97239-3098, OR (United States)

    2016-02-05

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis and proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. In this study, we report that miR-1182 is deregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. To characterize the role of miR-1182 in bladder cancer cells, we performed functional assays. The overexpression of miR-1182 significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. Moreover, its up-regulation induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and mediated chemosensitivity to cisplatin in bladder cancer. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay and a rescue experiment indicated that miR-1182 directly targets hTERT by binding its 3′UTR. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that miR-1182 acts as a tumor suppressor and may be a potential biomarker for bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Evaluation of Urinary Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 as Tumor Marker Versus Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen in Bilharzial and Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.A.; El-Kabany, H.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) were determined as potential marker for early detection of bladder tumors in patients with high risk (Bilharzial-patients), monitoring and follow up bladder cancer patients. The objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of markers for bilharzial and cancer lesions. The levels of two parameters were determined pre and post operation. A total of 110 individuals, 20 healthy, 20 bilharzial patients and 70 bladder cancer patients with confirmed diagnosis were investigated. Urine samples were assayed for NMP-22 and TPS test kits. Some bladder cancer patients were selected to follow up. NMP-22 showed highly significant increase (P,0.001) more than TPS (P<0.01) in bladder cancer patients when compared with bilharzial and control group. Overall sensitivity is 7.8% for TPS and 98.5% for NMP-22

  20. A 3-plex methylation assay combined with the FGFR3 mutation assay sensitively detects recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandimalla, Raju; Masius, Roy; Beukers, Willemien

    2013-01-01

    is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a urine assay for the diagnosis of recurrences in patients with a previous primary NMIBC G1/G2 by using cystoscopy as the reference standard. Experimental Design: We selected eight CpG islands (CGI) methylated in bladder cancer from our earlier genome-wide study......Purpose: DNA methylation is associated with bladder cancer and these modifications could serve as useful biomarkers. FGFR3 mutations are present in 60% to 70% of non–muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Low-grade bladder cancer recurs in more than 50% of patients. The aim of this study......, and nonmalignant urines (n = 130). Results: The 3-plex assay identified recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine with a sensitivity of 74% in the validation set. In combination with the FGFR3 mutation assay, a sensitivity of 79% was reached (specificity of 77%). Sensitivity of FGFR3 and cytology was 52% and 57...

  1. Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy: BCG and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Askeland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has become the predominant conservative treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Its mechanism of action continues to be defined but has been shown to involve a T helper type 1 (Th1 immunomodulatory response. While BCG treatment is the current standard of care, a significant proportion of patients fails or do not tolerate treatment. Therefore, many efforts have been made to identify other intravesical and immunomodulating therapeutics to use alone or in conjunction with BCG. This paper reviews the progress of basic science and clinical experience with several immunotherapeutic agents including IFN-α, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-10.

  2. Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Weldon, L; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1977-09-17

    A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%.

  3. Use of thiazolidinediones and risk of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazelier, Marloes T; de Vries, Frank; Vestergaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with bladder cancer in observational studies. Diabetes mellitus itself has also been linked with bladder cancer. The objective was to estimate the risk of bladder cancer for diabetic patients using......) of bladder cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Time-dependent adjustments were made for age, comorbidity, and drug use. Four different treatment stages were defined: current use of either a biguanide or a sulfonylureum (stage 1), current use of a biguanide and a sulfonylureum...... at the same time (stage 2), current use of TZDs (stage 3) and current use of insulin (stage 4). RESULTS: Compared with non-diabetic controls, patients using antidiabetic medication experienced a 1.3-fold increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted HR 1.3 [95%CI 1.2-1.4]). No major differences were observed...

  4. Systematic review of bladder cancer outcomes in patients with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rove, K O; Husmann, D A; Wilcox, D T; Vricella, G J; Higuchi, T T

    2017-10-01

    In patients with congenital bladder anomalies, bladder augmentation is used as a last resort to reduce intravesical pressure, but concerns about malignant transformation in augmented patients were first raised in the 1980s. The best evidence to date indicates that augmentation does not appear to increase the risk of bladder cancer in spina bifida patients. To date, oncologic outcomes from patients with spina bifida with and without augmentation have only been available in small case reports. To systematically evaluate factors in myelomeningocele patients with bladder cancer, including bladder augmentation, that contribute to overall survival (OS). A systematic review using PubMed was conducted by cross referencing terms 'myelomeningocele,' 'cystoplasty,' 'bladder cancer' and respective synonyms according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Inclusion criteria were studies with patients with an underlying diagnosis of myelomeningocele and bladder cancer with data on age, stage, and mortality status. Studies were excluded for spinal cord injury, history of tuberculosis or schistosomiasis, or prior ureterosigmoidostomy. Fifty-two patients were identified from 28 studies with a median age at bladder cancer diagnosis of 41 years (range 13-73); 37 (71%) presented with stage III or IV bladder cancer. Overall survival at 1 year and 2 years was 48.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall survival was different between those with and without augmentation (P = 0.009) by log-rank analysis. No between-group differences in OS were seen based on age, management with indwelling catheter, diversion with ileal conduit or being on a surveillance program. Only stage remained a significant predictor of OS on multivariate analysis (HR 2.011, 95% CI 1.063-3.804, P = 0.032). Secondary analysis was performed after removing patients with gastric augmentation (n = 8), and no difference in OS was seen between patients with (n = 8

  5. Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y. T.; Xie, T. Q.; Du, C. W.; Bastacky, S.; Meyers, S.; Zeidel, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the possibility of enhancing early bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). After the intravesical instillation of a 10% solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid, simultaneous fluorescence imaging (excitation of 380-420 nm, emission of 620-700 nm) and OCT are performed on rat bladders to identify the photochemical and morphological changes associated with uroepithelial tumorigenesis. The preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that both fluorescence and OCT can identify early uroepithelial cancers, and OCT can detect precancerous lesions (e.g., hyperplasia) that fluorescence may miss. This suggests that a cystoscope combining 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and OCT imaging has the potential to enhance the efficiency and sensitivity of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  6. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    : The correlation between the relative bladder volume (RBV, defined as repeat scan volume/planning scan volume) and the margins required to account for internal motion was first studied using a series of 20 bladder cancer patients with weekly repeat CT scanning during treatment. Both conformal RT (CRT) and IGRT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... these patients were given fluid intake restrictions on alternating weeks during treatment. RESULTS: IGRT gave the strongest correlation between the RBV and margin size (R(2)=0.75; p10mm were required in only 1% of the situations when the RBV1, whereas isotropic margins >10...

  7. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Perkins

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C595 (IgG3 which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radioimmunoconjugates of the C595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immunoreactivity using Tc-99m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun.A administração de anticorpos conjugados para o tratamento do câncer está agora provando ser de valor clínico. Nós estamos atualmente realizando um programa de estudos clínicos usando o anticorpo monoclonal C595 (IgG3 que reage com a glicoproteína MUC1 que está aberrantemente expressa numa alta proporção de tumores de bexiga. Tem sido produzidos radioimunoconjugados do anticorpo C595, com alta eficiência de radiomarcação e a imunoreatividade, usando-se o Tc-99m e In-111, para o diagnóstico por imagem e estagiamento de doenças. Tem sido produzidos, também, radionuclídeos citotóxicos (Cu-67 e Re-188 para o tratamento de cânceres superficiais de bexiga. A fase terapêutica I/II já se iniciou, envolvendo a administração intravesical do anticorpo diretamente na bexiga.

  8. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, Astrid N.; Leer, Jan-Willem H.; Collins, C. David; Wondergem, Jan; Hermans, Jo; Timothy, Adrian

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The policy of the Radiotherapy Department of St. Thomas' Hospital in London for patients with invasive bladder cancer, used to be treatment with hypofractionated radiotherapy. The advantages of this fractionation scheme included reduction of the number of treatment sessions and better use of limited resources. Our results after hypofractionation were compared to series with more conventional radiotherapy. Material and methods: Between 1975 and 1985, 123 patients with a T2-T3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated by a radical course of hypofractionated radiotherapy. Local control, survival and morbidity rates were analysed retrospectively. Results: The actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years were 31 and 29%, respectively. The actuarial cancer-specific 5- and 10-year survival rates were 48 and 39%, respectively. Acute side effects were observed in 87% of patients. The actuarial overall and severe late complication rates at 5 years were 33 and 9%, respectively. The local control, survival and early side effect rates we found, were in the same range as those reported in literature. Late radiation side effects however, were more common after hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy schedules. Conclusions: We conclude that the potential advantage of a reduced number of treatment sessions may be lost in the long term, because of the higher incidence of late morbidity after hypofractionated radiotherapy. Hypofractionation however, remains a valuable technique for palliation and deserves further investigation for radical treatment where access to equipment is difficult or resources are limited

  10. Efficient intravesical therapy of bladder cancer with cationic doxorubicin nanoassemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xun; Zhang, Peilan; Luo, Li; Cheng, Hao; Li, Yunzu; Du, Ting; Zou, Bingwen; Gou, Maling

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have promising applications in drug delivery for cancer therapy. Herein, we prepared cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane/methoxypoly (ethyleneglycol) (DPP) nanoparticles to deliver doxorubicin (Dox) for intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. The DPP micelles have a mean dynamic diameter of 18.65 nm and a mean zeta potential of +19.6 mV. The DPP micelles could prolong the residence of Dox in the bladder, enhance the penetration of Dox into the bladder wall, and improve cellular uptake of Dox. The encapsulation by DPP micelles significantly improved the anticancer effect of Dox against orthotopic bladder cancer in vivo. This work described a Dox-loaded DPP nanoparticle with potential applications in intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. PMID:27660445

  11. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-01-01

    Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects...... light illumination (PDD mode) and white light illumination used for bladder tumour diagnosis and surgery suffers some inherent disadvantages, i.e., photo bleaching in white light that impairs the possibility for PDD as white light usually is used before the blue light for PDD. Based on spectroscopic...... of bladder tumours in the OPD and to improve PDD in the OR. © 2013 SPIE....

  12. [The role of telomerase activity in non-invasive diagnostics of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Alyaev, J G; Potoldykova, N V; Polyakovsky, K A; Vinarov, A Z; Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potentials of determining the telomerase activity (TA) in the cellular material of the urine for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Evaluation of TA was performed in the urine of 48 patients with bladder cancer (study group) before and after transurethral resection of the bladder wall (n=38), an open resection of the bladder (n=4), and cystectomy (n=6). TA was also evaluated in 48 tumor tissue samples obtained from these patients during removal of the bladder tumor. Each sample of the tumor tissue was separated into two parts, one of which was subjected to histological examination, and the latter was used to determine the telomerase activity. In all cases, the diagnosis of bladder cancer was confirmed morphologically. Determination of TA in the samples was performed by the modified TRAP-method (telomerase repeat amplification protocol), RT-PCR, PCR, and electrophoresis. As a control, cell material of the urine and tissue in 12 patients with chronic cystitis was investigated. TA before surgery was found in 45 (93.75%) of 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with suspected bladder cancer. BC was histologically verified in all patients in this group. In the postoperative period, TA was not observed in the 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with BC. In the control group of patients with histologically verified cystitis, weak TA was determined only in one sample of cellular material of the urine. The analysis indicates statistically significant predominance of patients with bladder cancer in case of TA in the urine (P=0.001). TA was detected in all samples of tumor tissue. We also analyzed the dependence of TA levels in urine and tissue on the degree of BC differentiation. In patients with highly differentiated BC, mean AT in the cellular materials of the urine was 0,61% (n=15), in patients with moderately differentiated BC - 0.95% (n=23), in patients with low-grade bladder cancer - 1.33% (n=10

  13. Overactive bladder, differential diagnosis, and clinical utility of fesoterodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndaele J-J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques WyndaeleDepartment of Urology, Antwerp University, Antwerp, BelgiumAbstract: Overactive bladder is a symptom syndrome with urgency, frequency and, in many cases, nocturia. Urge incontinence is not present in all. There is no direct correlation with detrusor overactivity, an objective finding during urodynamic testing where involuntary contractions can be noticed. In the pathophysiology, much more attention has been given to the afferent/sensory arm of the micturition reflex in the last decade. Anatomical and infectious causes have to be diagnosed or ruled out. Diagnosis of overactive bladder is made mostly by history-taking, but other tests can be necessary in specific patients. Treatment consists of behavioral measures, a good explanation of the condition, training, and pelvic floor physiotherapy. Drugs are often used. Until recently, antimuscarinic drugs have been the mainstay of pharmacological therapy. Fesoterodine is a newer antimuscarinic agent which is more pharmacodynamically stable then tolterodine. Fesoterodine has been extensively researched using different dosages and compared with placebo and tolterodine, in different age groups, and under different conditions. Fesoterodine is superior to placebo and to tolterodine in the short term and long term. Its safety is very acceptable.Keywords: overactive bladder, fesoterodine, incontinence, urgency, lower urinary tract

  14. PET/CT in kidney and bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochev, P.; Klisarova, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: FDG PET/CT has traditionally been considered a method of limited use in tumors of the kidneys and excretory system. Major shortcoming of the method in kidney cancer is considered variable fixation and a more general lack of significant therapeutic alternatives that require early diagnosis of recurrence after nephrectomy. In the context of the modern methods of systemic anticancer therapy in kidney cancer, marking a significant success in terms of time to progression, the need of more detailed selection of the patients and the search methods for the early diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic response arises. While CT remains the primary method for the diagnosis of parenchymal metastases (lung, liver), the use of FDG PET/CT has a significant advantage in detecting of nodal metastasis, locoregional recurrence and bone metastasis. Interesting direction in the use of PET/CT remains the monitoring of therapeutic response to systemic therapy of metastatic kidney cancer. Unlike kidney cancer in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCC), the application of FDG PET/CT is non- systematic and based on the specific clinical indications. As the main indicator can be observed the distant staging in locally advanced tumors and recurrences in restading after cystectomy. Besides the general advantages of PET/CT in terms of nodal and peritoneal involvement it should be noted that the role of the PET/CT in TCC is discussible. Application of FDG PET / CT in kidney cancer and TCC at this stage can not be considered as established, but while in TCCs, the method has sporadically application, mostly for specific clinical questions, the application in kidney cancer is significantly more systemic and in the context of systemic anti-tumor therapy allows early diagnosis and therapeutic approach modulation

  15. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  16. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  17. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  18. Hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy in combined modality treatment for bladder preservation in elderly patients with invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne; Souhami, Luis; Cury, Fabio L; Faria, Sergio L; Duclos, Marie; Sturgeon, Jeremy; Kassouf, Wassim

    2014-02-01

    To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid cystectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  20. Telomerase activity, cytokeratin 20 and cytokeratin 19 in urine cells of bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsi, Mohamed I; Youssef, Amany I; Hassouna, Mohamed E E; El-Sedafi, Amal S; Ghazal, Abeer A; Zaher, Ebtessam R

    2006-03-01

    This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only K19 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCC. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20. K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. Haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, representing the highest sensitivity and specificity

  1. Telomerase Activity, Cytokeratin 20 and Cytokeratin 19 in Urine Cells of Bladder Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsi, M.I.; Youssef, A.I.; El-Sedafi, A.S.; Ghazal, A.A.; Zaher, E.R.; Hassouna, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the Study: This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. Patients and Methods: The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. Results: For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only KI9 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCe. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K 19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20 . o Conclusion: K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K 19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry ([HC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K 19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder

  2. Angiogenesis in Schistosoma haematobium-associated urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematei, Anderson; Fernandes, Rúben; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    2017-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic flatworm that infects more than 100 million people, mostly in the developing world, is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, and is associated with a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. During infection, eggs are deposited in the bladder causing an intense inflammatory reaction. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones and is recognized as a key event in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis and spread of malignant lesions. A growing amount of evidence points to angiogenesis playing a key role in schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Thus, identifying biomarkers of this process plays an important role in the study of cancer. Here, we review recent findings on the role of angiogenesis in bladder cancer and the growth factors that induce and assist in their development, particularly SCC of the bladder associated to urogenital schistosomiasis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical utility of urinary soluble Fas in screening for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anupam Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Dhramveer; Dalela, Divakar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder remains a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Soluble Fas (sFas), a cell-surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is frequently expressed in urinary bladder carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the urinary sFas for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder. We examined urinary sFas concentration in 74 controls and 117 cases of TCC, both primary and recurrent disease, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared it with urinary cytology. Urinary sFas concentration was found to be significantly higher in the patient as compared to control group (P bladder cancer in comparison with cytology. Out of 15 node positive bladder cancer cases, 13 had high urinary sFas levels, whereas 12 were urinary cytology positive for malignancy. Urinary sFas can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC of urinary bladder, both for primary and recurrent disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Berbel, O; Alonso-López, J; Garcia, J; Ortega, J A

    2013-10-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, review the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987-2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been "Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs" and "Bladder cancer". Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2-5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favour BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Cases of a Borderline Pathology That Can Mimic Bladder Cancer: Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Selçuk İşoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disease characterised by accumulation of a fibrillar protein called amyloid in the extracellular space. The kidneys, ureters and the bladder can be affected in the urinary tract. However, primary amyloidosis of bladder is a rare entity. Macroscopic hematuria could be the first and only symptom of primary amyloidosis of the bladder; therefore, it has similar findings with urinary tract malignancies. Histopathological evaluation is mandatory for the diagnosis. Follow-up should always include cystoscopic evaluation as recurrence is expected in the natural course.

  6. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer invading urinary bladder treated with preoperative mFOLFOX6 and urinary bladder conserving surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Katayama, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 69-year-old man visited our hospital because of melena and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor at sigmoid colon, and by abdominal CT, we detected a sigmoid colon cancer invading the urinary bladder with a single liver metastasis. The patient required sigmoidectomy with partial hepatectomy and total urinary bladder resection. Preoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was initiated as a part of multidisciplinary therapy. After the 6th course was completed, CT revealed a reduction in the primary tumor's size and the disappearance of liver metastasis. After the 8th course was completed, we performed urinary bladder conserving sigmoidectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tub1, pSS, ly0, v0, pN0, and pStage II. Down-sizing chemotherapy might improve the quality of life(QOL)of colon cancer patients with extensive invasion of the urinary bladder.

  7. Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia for Bladder Cancer: A Preclinical Dosimetry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea D.; Etienne, Wiguins; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; McNerny, Katie L.; Mashal, Alireza; Nouls, John; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Beyer, Wayne F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes a preclinical investigation of the feasibility of thermotherapy treatment of bladder cancer with Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), performed by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Materials and Methods The bladders of twenty-five female rats were instilled with magnetite-based nanoparticles, and hyperthermia was induced using a novel small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder, CO). We aimed to increase the bladder lumen temperature to 42°C in <10 min and maintain that temperature for 60 min. Temperatures were measured within the bladder lumen and throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec, Canada). An MRI analysis was used to confirm the effectiveness of the catheterization method to deliver and maintain various nanoparticle volumes within the bladder. Thermal dosimetry measurements recorded the temperature rise of rat tissues for a variety of nanoparticle exposure conditions. Results Thermal dosimetry data demonstrated our ability to raise and control the temperature of rat bladder lumen ≥1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C with minimal heating of surrounding normal tissues. MRI scans confirmed the homogenous nanoparticle distribution throughout the bladder. Conclusion These data demonstrate that our MFH system with magnetite-based nanoparticles provide well-localized heating of rat bladder lumen with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues. PMID:24050253

  8. Effectiveness of transurethral resection under the control of photodynamic diagnosis and intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette–Guérin in case of poorly differentiated non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rolevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC is characterized by a high rate of recurrence, progression, and mortality associated with this disease. Organ-preserving treatment by transurethral resection and immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is an initial approach to therapy in these patients. However, the efficacy of such therapy is limited. This justifies the use of other methods of treatment, such as TUR under the control of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions in patients with high-grade NMIBC.Materials and methods. We have retrospectively analyzed results of follow-up of patients with primary or recurrent high-grade transitional cell NMIBC, treatment by TUR in conjunction with BCG or without it N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre in the period from 2004 to 2013. In total, the study included 113 patients (27 women and 86 men, in the median age of 72 years. We have evaluated 5-year recurrence- and progression-free survival, analyzed an influence of prognostic factors and methods of treatment on the risk of recurrence and progression with Cox model and Kaplan–Meier method.Results. With a median of follow up of 59 (12–116 months the rates of 5-year recurrence- and progression-free survival were respectively 42.5 and 71.6 %. Statistically significant association with the risk of recurrence was observed in multivariate Cox regression analysis for recurrent tumors (hazard ratio (HR 2.73; 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.61–4.62 and immunotherapy with BCG (HR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.31–0.99. BCG significantly increased recurrence-free survival in patients with both primary tumors, and with recurrent ones. Significant factors in the multivariate analysis with regard to the risk of progression were suspicion for muscle-invasive tumors according to the cystoscopic picture (HR 3.36; 95 % CI 1.09–10.4, abnormal tumor-free bladder mucosa

  9. Optical coherence tomography in diagnostics of precancer and cancer of human bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaynova, Elena V.; Streltsova, Olga S.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Donchenko, Ekaterina V.

    2004-07-01

    Our goal was statistical assessment of the in vivo cystoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) ability to detect neoplasia in human urinary bladder. We analyzed major reasons of false positive and false negative image recognition results. Optical coherence tomography was performed to image the bladder during cystoscopy. The study enrolled 63 patients with suspicion for bladder cancer and scheduled for cystoscopy. The diagnosis was established by histopathology examination of a biopsy. Each biopsy site was examined by OCT. Benign conditions were diagnosed for 31 patients, and dysplasia or carcinoma were diagnosed for 32 patients. Six physicians blinded to all clinical data participated in the dichotomy recognition (malignant or benign) of the OCT images. 98% sensitivity and 72% specificity for the OCT recognition of dysplastic/malignant versus benign/reactive conditions of the bladder are demonstrated. Total error rate was 14.8%. The interobserver agreement multi-rater kappa coefficient is 0.80. The superficial and invasive bladder cancer and high-grade dysplasia were recognized with minimum error rate ranging from 0 to 3.3%. High sensitivity and good specificity of the OCT method in the diagnostics of bladder neoplasia makes OCT a promising complementary cystoscopic technique for non-invasive evaluation of zones suspicious for high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  10. Bladder cancer survivals in New South Wales, Australia: why do women have poorer survival than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Elizabeth; Roder, David; Luke, Colin; Bishop, James

    2009-08-01

    To investigate factors that most influenced survival from bladder cancer in New South Wales, Australia (NSW) and to consider the impact of changes in coding practices on the reporting the of bladder cancer outcomes. All NSW cases of bladder cancer diagnosed between 1980 and 2003 were followed to the end of 2004 (17 923 cases). Survival analysis was undertaken using Kaplan-Meier unadjusted disease-specific survival and adjusted disease-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. This analysis was unique in that it modelled the effect of sex, age, country of birth, socio-economic status (SES), histological type, extent of disease and period of diagnosis on survival from bladder cancer in NSW. After adjusting for sex, age, extent of disease, SES, period of diagnosis and histological type, the likelihood of death was 11% (95% confidence interval, CI 5-18%) higher in females than in males, with case fatality most influenced by age at diagnosis, extent of disease, and histological type. When the analysis was repeated for cases with a method 6 (i.e. coding undertaken in the registry after examination of the pathology report, which would enhance accuracy), the likelihood of death was 13% (95% CI 5-21%) higher in females than in males. The NSW analysis controls for variability in coding, extent of disease at diagnosis and histological type of cancer. The analysis shows significantly lower survival from bladder cancer in NSW women compared with men, with no improvement in survival from 1980 to 2003. Possible reasons for the lower survivals in women, the lack of improvement in survival and coding differences in jurisdictions are discussed.

  11. Feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in vitro after 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis in the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; van Moorselaar, R. J. A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, A.,; Stone, N.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has become popular in bladder cancer detection. Several studies have however shown an increased false positive biopsies rate under PDD guidance compared to conventional cystoscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that utilizes molecular specific, inelastic scattering of light photons to interrogate biological tissues, which can successfully differentiate epithelial neoplasia from normal tissue and inflammations in vitro. This investigation was performed to show the feasibility of NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro on biopsies obtained under guidance of 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence imaging. Raman spectra of a PPIX solution was measured to obtain a characteristic signature for the photosensitzer without contributions from tissue constituents. Biopsies were obtained from patients with known bladder cancer instilled with 50ml, 5mg 5-ALA two hours prior to trans-urethral resection of tumor (TURT). Additional biopsies were obtained at a fluorescent and non-fluorescent area, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Each biopsy was thawed before measurements (10sec integration time) with a confocal Raman system (Renishaw Gloucestershire, UK). The 830 nm excitation (300mW) source is focused on the tissue by a 20X ultra-long-working-distance objective. Differences in fluorescence background between the two groups were removed by means of a special developed fluorescence subtraction algorithm. Raman spectra from ALA biopsies showed different fluorescence background which can be effectively removed by a fluorescence subtraction algorithm. This investigation shows that the interaction of the ALA induced PPIX with Raman spectroscopy in bladder samples. Combination of these techniques in-vivo may lead to a viable method of optical biopsies in bladder cancer detection.

  12. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  13. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  14. Genomic Alterations in Liquid Biopsies from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen; Christensen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Background: At least half of the patients diagnosed with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) experience recurrence and approximately 15% will develop progression to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Biomarkers for disease surveillance are urgently needed. Objective: Development......-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer; t test for ddPCR data. Results and limitations: We developed from one to six personalised assays per patient. Patients with progressive disease showed significantly higher levels of tumour DNA in plasma and urine before disease progression, compared with patients with recurrent....... Patient summary: Tumour DNA can be detected in blood and urine in early and advanced stages of bladder cancer. Measurement of these highly tumour-specific biomarkers may represent a novel diagnostic tool to indicate the presence of residual disease or to discover aggressive forms of bladder cancer early...

  15. Use of thiazolidinediones and risk of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazelier, Marloes T; de Vries, Frank; Vestergaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with bladder cancer in observational studies. Diabetes mellitus itself has also been linked with bladder cancer. The objective was to estimate the risk of bladder cancer for diabetic patients using...... at the same time (stage 2), current use of TZDs (stage 3) and current use of insulin (stage 4). RESULTS: Compared with non-diabetic controls, patients using antidiabetic medication experienced a 1.3-fold increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted HR 1.3 [95%CI 1.2-1.4]). No major differences were observed...... thialozidinediones (TZDs) compared with patients in other treatment stages of the disease. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study (1996-2007) in the Danish National Health Registers. Oral antidiabetic drug users (n=179,056) were matched 1:3 by sex and year of birth to non-users. Hazard ratios (HRs...

  16. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M.R.; Lin, E.N.J.T. van; Vight, L.P. van der; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Visser, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was

  17. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Rathee, Satyapal; Ghosh, Sunita; Ko, Lawrence; Murray, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (± standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm 3 (SD, 29.71 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm 3 (SD, 21.64 cm 3 ). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm 3 (SD, 36.51 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm 3 (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm 3 (SD, 3.97 cm 3 ). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

  18. Bladder preservation for locally advanced bladder cancer by transurethral resection, systemic chemotherapy and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Masahito; Satoh, Mototaka; Tujimoto, Yuichi; Takada, Tuyoshi; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-three out of 31 patients with clinical T2-4a N0 M0 bladder cancer and given a trial of trimodality therapy including transurethral resection (TUR), systemic chemotherapy and radiation between 1991 and 2002 completed this therapy. The other 8 dropped out because of insufficient clinical effect. Local bladder recurrence was seen in 3 patients and the bladder preservation rate was 64.5%. Nineteen of the 23 patients showed a complete histological response on a subsequent TUR specimen, the other 4 were not examined for histological response. Thirteen of the 19 patients showed a complete histological response after maximal TUR and systemic chemotherapy, while 6 did after TUR, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Bladder cancer was T2 in, 15, T3 in 1, and T4a in 3 patients. The CR rate for T2 cancer was significantly higher than that for T3-4a cancer. The 5-year disease-specific survival of the 23 patients treated with preservation therapy was 67.1%. Some of the patients with locally advanced bladder cancer may benefit from this preservation therapy. (author)

  19. Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Michael A; White, Martha; Natarajan, Loki; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality. We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview. Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adj ], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HR adj , 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HR adj , 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality. Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Bladder cancer mortality after spinal cord injury over 4 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Laura S; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Lloyd, L Keith

    2015-06-01

    We estimate bladder cancer mortality in people with spinal cord injury compared to the general population. Data and statistics were retrieved from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center and the National Center for Health Statistics. The mortality experience of the 45,486 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model System or Shriners Hospital was compared to the general population using a standardized mortality ratio. The standardized mortality ratio data were further stratified by age, gender, race, time since injury and injury severity. Our study included 566,532 person-years of followup between 1960 and 2009, identified 10,575 deaths and categorized 99 deaths from bladder cancer. The expected number of deaths from bladder cancer would have been 14.8 if patients with spinal cord injury had the same bladder cancer mortality as the general population. Thus, the standardized mortality ratio is 6.7 (95% CI 5.4-8.1). Increased mortality risk from bladder cancer was observed for various ages, races and genders, as well as for those injured for 10 or more years and with motor complete injuries. Bladder cancer mortality was not significantly increased for ventilator users, those with motor incomplete injuries or those injured less than 10 years. Individuals with a spinal cord injury can potentially live healthier and longer by reducing the incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. Study findings highlight the need to identify at risk groups and contributing factors for bladder cancer death, leading to the development of prevention, screening and management strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the urinary bladder in a patient with bladder cancer previously treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakura, Satoe; Morikawa, Teppei; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the urinary bladder. A 68-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Pathological diagnosis was high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion. The patient received six treatments with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Seven months after surgery, follow-up cystoscopy showed three elevated lesions in the urinary bladder, two of which were identified histologically as recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination of the lesion at the anterior wall revealed diffuse infiltration of medium to large histiocytoid cells in the lamina propria, many of which had distorted nuclei and nuclear grooves. Dense eosinophilic infiltration was also observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were diffusely positive for S-100 and CD1a, but negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and melanosome-associated antigen recognized by HMB-45. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, we diagnosed the lesion as LCH of the urinary bladder. There was no evidence of recurrence of either bladder cancer or LCH after an 18-month follow-up. To avoid misdiagnosis, urologists and pathologists should be aware that LCH may develop in the urinary bladder after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  3. [Multicenter case-control study of the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi-Shan; He, Hui-Chan; Cai, Chao; Chen, Jia-Hong; Han, Zhao-Dong; Qin, Guo-Qiang; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Zhong, Wei-de

    2011-09-13

    To explore the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China. A multicenter case-control study was conducted from September 2005 to June 2008. A total of 432 bladder cancer patients, matched with 392 control cases, received a questionnaire including the type of exposure (active vs. passive smoking), the age of beginning and/or quitting smoking, smoking amount and time and depth of smoke inhalation. Both active smoking and passive smoking increased the incidence of bladder cancer (P Smoke amount and time were significantly correlated with bladder cancer risk (P smoking did not affect the bladder cancer risk (P > 0.05). Inhaling smoke into mouth or throat was also a risk factor for bladder cancer (P smoking and bladder cancer. Active and passive smoking, smoke amount and time, and the depth of smoke inhalation are risk factors for bladder cancer. The best way of preventing bladder cancer is never smoking.

  4. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Egypt: Are There Gender Differences in Its Histopathological Presentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorina Kyritsi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated gender differences in the histopathologic presentation of bladder cancer cases in Egypt, where both urothelial cell carcinoma (UC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC types are highly prevalent. We used logistic regression to estimate the unadjusted (OR and adjusted odds ratio (AOR and 95% confidence interval (CI of the associations between gender and different histopathologic and sociodemographic parameters of 2,186 confirmed cases of primary bladder cancer (1,775 males and 411 females; 784 SCC and 1,402 UC. There were no statistically significant gender differences in tumor grade, stage, mucosal ulcer, or inflammatory cystitis, regardless of the cancer type, but men were less likely than women to have undergone cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Having Schistosoma haematobium (SH ova in the bladder tissue was significantly associated with male gender in the fully adjusted model of either SCC (AOR (95% CI = 2.12 (1.15–3.89 or UC cases (3.78 (1.89–7.55. Compared to females, male cases were significantly older at time of diagnosis and smokers. In Egypt, regardless of the type of bladder cancer (SCC or UC, male more than female cases had evidence of SH infection, but not other histopathologic differences, in bladder tissue specimens.

  6. Pattern of Bladder Cancer at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is endemic to Zambia and is associated with changes in the patterns of both AIDS and non- AIDS defining cancers. Bladder cancer is one malignancy that has been noted to increase in the era of HIV/ AIDS epidemic. This study sought to describe the pattern of cancer of the ...

  7. [Diagnosis of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmeja, Z; Kruk-Zagajewska, A

    1995-01-01

    The basic methods of larynx cancer diagnosis were presented. It included subjective and objective examination, and laboratory examination. The importance of detailed history of cases determined by the tumor localization was underlined. Indirect and direct laryngoscopy have not lost it importance despite the development of modern methods of larynx cancer diagnosis. Microlaryngoscopy provides the most valuable information about the localization and advancement of neoplasmatic change. Its also allows for precise taking of specimen for histopathological examination. Radiological method in larynx cancer diagnosis were also taken into consideration particularly laryngotomography which allows for evaluation of subglottic region, ventrical and recesus piriformis. The histological examination remains a decisive factor in the surgery of larynx cancer. Great diagnostic possibilities of neck lymphatic system and larynx are being provided by the ultrasonographic examinations, computer tomography and magnetic tomography of nuclear resonance which allow for detailed evaluation of neoplasm extend and appearance of recurrence and metastases. The greatest responsibility in diagnosis of larynx cancer is put on a doctor who first advised the patient.

  8. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Mussi, Thais C.; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  9. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)], E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org; Mussi, Thais C. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melamed, Jonathan [Dept. of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C. [Dept. of Urology, Div. of Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  10. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, Marcia R; Wu, Xue-Ru; Saban, Ricardo; Towner, Rheal; Smith, Nataliya; Abbott, Andrew; Neeman, Michal; Davis, Carole A; Simpson, Cindy; Maier, Julie; Mémet, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ) exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ), we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and function (LVF) during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5) suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic flow within the tumoral area. In addition, NIRF

  11. Delayed Diagnosis of Iatrogenic Bladder Perforation in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette S. Birs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic bladder injuries have been reported in the neonate during umbilical artery/vein catheterization, voiding cystourethrogram, urinary catheterizations, and overwhelming hypoxic conditions. Patients with iatrogenic bladder perforations can present with acute abdomen indicating urinary peritonitis, septic-uremic shock, or subtle symptoms like abdominal distension, pain, hematuria, uremia, electrolyte imbalances, and/or difficulty urinating. The following neonatal case report of perforated bladder includes a review of the signs, symptoms, diagnostic tools, and management of bladder injury in neonates.

  12. The economics of bladder cancer: costs and considerations of caring for this disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Robert S; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Holmäng, Sten; Lee, Richard; Kim, Simon P; Stenzl, Arnulf; Lotan, Yair

    2014-08-01

    Due to high recurrence rates, intensive surveillance strategies, and expensive treatment costs, the management of bladder cancer contributes significantly to medical costs. To provide a concise evaluation of contemporary cost-related challenges in the care of patients with bladder cancer. An emphasis is placed on the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer and therapy considerations for both non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and more advanced disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Medline (1966 to February 2011). Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms for search criteria included "bladder cancer, neoplasms" OR "carcinoma, transitional cell" AND all cost-related MeSH search terms. Studies evaluating the costs associated with of various diagnostic or treatment approaches were reviewed. Routine use of perioperative chemotherapy following complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor has been estimated to provide a cost savings. Routine office-based fulguration of small low-grade recurrences could decrease costs. Another potential important target for decreasing variation and cost lies in risk-modified surveillance strategies after initial bladder tumor removal to reduce the cost associated with frequent cystoscopic and radiographic procedures. Optimizing postoperative care after radical cystectomy has the potential to decrease length of stay and perioperative morbidity with substantial decreases in perioperative care expenses. The gemcitabine-cisplatin regimen has been estimated to result in a modest increase in cost effectiveness over methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. Additional costs of therapies need to be balanced with effectiveness, and there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding optimal surveillance and treatment of both early and advanced bladder cancer. Regardless of disease severity, improvements in the efficiency of bladder cancer care to limit unnecessary interventions and optimize effective

  13. Detection of bladder cancer using proteomic profiling of urine sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Majewski

    Full Text Available We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer, and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer. Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival.

  14. Diagnostic value of [18F] FDG-PET and PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huojun; Xing, Wei; Kang, Qinqin; Chen, Chao; Wang, Linhui; Lu, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    An early diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer is crucial for early treatment and management. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer with meta-analysis. The PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for the eligible studies published up to June 01, 2014. The sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer were pooled along with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer in meta-analysis were as follows: a pooled sensitivity, 0.82 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.88); a pooled specificity, 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.95); positive likelihood ratio, 6.80 (95 % CI, 4.31 to 10.74); negative likelihood ratio, 0.27 (95 % CI, 0.19 to 0.36); and diagnostic odds ratio, 25.18 (95 % CI, 17.58 to 70.4). The results indicate that 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT are relatively high sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer.

  15. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Marcel R; van Lin, Emile N J Th; van der Vight, Lisette P; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Visser, Andries G

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 SD = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations.

  16. Recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fifth most common neoplasm in industrialized countries. Due to frequent recurrences of the superficial form of this disease, bladder cancer ranks as one of the most common cancers. Despite the description of a large number of tumor markers for bladder cancers, none have indi...

  17. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  18. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBazzaz Pishtewan H

    2009-01-01

    The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations. (author)

  19. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bazzaz Pishtewan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations.

  20. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  1. Radio-chemo-therapy with 5FU and cisplatin for bladder cancer after TUR-bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchardt, U.; Birkenhake, S.; Leykam, S.; Martus, P.; Sauer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine toxicity and efficacy of radio-chemo-therapy (RCT) with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer. Endpoints are initial response, cystectomy-rates and overall-survival. Materials and Methods: From 11/93 to 1/95 13 patients suffering from bladder cancer were first treated with TUR-bladder (TURB). Patient characteristics were as follows: Within 6 weeks after operation the pelvis was irradiated with 54.0 Gy (median) in conventional fractionation (10 MV photons 4-field-box). The bladder was boosted up to 59.4 Gy (median) in isocentric rotation technique. 7 patients were treated with 45 Gy paraaortal. During the first and 5th treatment week chemotherapy (CT) was simultaneously given: 800 mg/m 2* d CISPLATIN as bolus-infusion 30 min prior to RT. 2 months later a further TURB was performed for restaging. Cystectomy was recommended, if invasive cancer was found at this time. Acute hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity was recorded according to the WHO-criteria. Results: At least 81% (e.g. 75% of 2nd course) of CT was applied in 10/13 patients. Median doses were 3500 mg/m 2 5FU and 200 mg/m 2 CISPLATIN. Acute toxicity to bladder and bowel reached grade 2 WHO only. Hematotoxicity (median values) and results ar shown in the following table. Conclusion: Concomitant RCT with 5FU and CISPLATIN seems to be a promising modality for organ-preserving therapy of bladder cancer. Preliminary results show sufficient effect and acceptable toxicity. Since patient number is still low, further investigation is recommended

  2. The role of oxidative stress in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawicka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The review of the knowledge concerning the impact of oxidative and nitrosative stress on signaling pathways and transcription factors involved in the formation of bladder cancer was prepared. In the industrialized countries, bladder cancer is the fourth most frequently occurring malignant tumors. Recent studies indicate the involvement of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the formation and development of this disease. Red-ox disorders are characteristic for both, the initiation and progression of bladder cancer. There are observed changes in the activity of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor NF-kB; transcription factors: AP-1, Nrf2 and STAT3 and hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1α. In addition, studies indicate a role for oxidative stress in the regulation of MAPK cascade and its involvement in carcinogenesis consisting bladder. Examples of kinases belonging to the MAPK family are ERK kinases, which expression is proportional to the severity and malignant of bladder cancer. Nitric oxide also plays an important role in tumor biology. Overproduction of NO can both inhibit and promote tumor growth, depending on its concentration, duration of action and tumor microenvironment. Numerous studies show that the bladder cancer is characterized by an intensified production of NO. Reactive forms of nitrogen, similar to oxygen free radicals, could cause oxidative and nitrosative damage to DNA and have capacity to post-translational modification of proteins. In contrast to the ROS, which overproduction result from exposure to carcinogenic xenobiotic, nitrogen oxide in high level is produced during inflammation. Sustained iNOS activity therefore plays an important role in carcinogenesis associated with the inflammatory response, characteristic also for bladder cancer.

  3. PET/CT in renal, bladder and testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Physician, Chief; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in uro-oncology as well. In both bladder and renal cancer there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with only limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced in these malignancies. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder and testicular cancer. PMID:26099672

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  5. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2-3N0M0, were included in the study. lntra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2-3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. (author)

  6. Evaluating Variations of Bladder Volume Using an Ultrasound Scanner in Rectal Cancer Patients during Chemoradiation: Is Protocol-Based Full Bladder Maintenance Using a Bladder Scanner Useful to Maintain the Bladder Volume?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong In Yoon

    Full Text Available The maintenance of full bladder is important to reduce radiation-induced toxicities and maintain the therapeutic consistency in locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of protocol-based full bladder maintenance by assessing bladder volume variation using an ultrasound bladder scanner to maintain bladder volume.From March 2011 to May 2011, twenty consecutive rectal cancer patients receiving external beam RT participated in this prospective study. Protocol-based full bladder maintenance consisted of education, training and continuous biofeedback by measuring bladder volume. Bladder volume was measured by bladder scan immediately before simulation CT scan and before each treatment three times weekly during the RT period. The relative bladder volume change was calculated. Intra-patient bladder volume variations were quantified using interquartile range (IQR of relative bladder volume change in each patient. We compared intra-patient bladder volume variations obtained (n=20 with data from our previous study patients (n=20 performing self-controlled maintenance without protocol.Bladder volumes measured by bladder scan highly correlated with those on simulation CT scan (R=0.87, p<0.001. Patients from this study showed lower median IQR of relative bladder volume change compared to patients of self-controlled maintenance from our previous study, although it was not statistically significant (median 32.56% vs. 42.19%, p=0.058. Upon logistic regression, the IQR of relative bladder volume change was significantly related to protocol-based maintenance [relative risk 1.045, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.004-1.087, p=0.033]. Protocol-based maintenance included significantly more patients with an IQR of relative bladder volume change less than 37% than self-controlled maintenance (p=0.025.Our findings show that bladder volume could be maintained more consistently during

  7. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in childhood: radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, L.; Mansilla, F.; Mansilla, M.D.; Marin, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in an 11-year-old boy. The rarity of these tumors during childhood is pointed out. The radiological and ultrasonographic findings are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed with respect to other bladder tumors occurring in childhood. (Author) 11 refs

  8. Histopathological characterization of a syngeneic orthotopic murine bladder cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher C. Chade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We developed and characterized by histopathology and immunohistochemistry a syngeneic murine bladder tumor model derived from the MB49 tumor cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bladder tumor implantation was achieved by intravesical instillation of 5 x 10(5 MB49 tumor cells in C57BL/6 mice. A chemical lesion of the bladder was performed in order to promote intravesical tumor implantation. The bladder wall lesion was accomplished by transurethral instillation of silver nitrate (AgNO3. After 15 days, the animals were sacrificed, examined macroscopically for intravesical tumor and bladder weight. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed using cytokeratin 7 (CK7, carcinoembrionic antigen (Dako-CEA, p53 and c-erbB2 oncoprotein (Her2/neu. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 30 animals (96.7% developed intravesical tumors in a 15-day period. Macroscopically, the mean bladder weight was 0.196g (0.069-0.538g, 10 to 15 times the normal bladder weight. The immunohistochemical analysis showed significant membrane expression of CEA and CK7: a similar finding for human urothelial cancer. We also characterized absence of expression of p53 and anti-Her2/neu in the murine model. CONCLUSIONS: High tumor take rates were achieved by using the chemical induction of the bladder tumor. Although electric cauterization is widely described in the literature for syngeneic orthotopic animal models, the technique described in this study represents an alternative for intravesical bladder tumor implantation. Moreover, the histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis of the murine bladder tumor model derived from the MB49 cell line showed a resemblance to human infiltrating urothelial carcinoma, allowing clinical inference from experimental immunotherapy testing.

  9. 15 Pattern of bladder cancer at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is endemic to Zambia and is associated with changes in the patterns of both AIDS and non- AIDS defining cancers. Bladder cancer is one malignancy that has been noted to increase in the era of HIV/ AIDS epidemic. This study sought to describe the pattern of ...

  10. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, J.; Luengo-Fernandez, R.; Sullivan, R.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 120000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of

  11. Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Noninvasive Papillary Bladder Cancer at Initial Presentation Based on Quantitative Gene Expression Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhahn, M.; Mitra, A.P.; Williams, Johan

    2010-01-01

    % specificity. Since this is a small retrospective study using medium-throughput profiling, larger confirmatory studies are needed. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling across relevant cancer pathways appears to be a promising approach for Ta bladder tumor outcome prediction at initial diagnosis......Background: Currently, tumor grade is the best predictor of outcome at first presentation of noninvasive papillary (Ta) bladder cancer. However, reliable predictors of Ta tumor recurrence and progression for individual patients, which could optimize treatment and follow-up schedules based...... on specific tumor biology, are yet to be identified. Objective: To identify genes predictive for recurrence and progression in Ta bladder cancer at first presentation using a quantitative, pathway-specific approach. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective study of patients with Ta G2/3 bladder tumors...

  12. Results of radiotherapy on ureteric obstruction in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens De Lichtenberg, Mette; Miskowiak, J; Rolff, H

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on ureteric obstruction due to muscle-invasive bladder cancer.......To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on ureteric obstruction due to muscle-invasive bladder cancer....

  13. Microwave regional coagulation and intracavitary whole bladder mucosal irradiation therapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Hideki

    1993-01-01

    A survey was performed on 115 cases of superficial and 55 cases of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Microwave regional coagulation (MRC) and intracavitary whole bladder mucosal irradiation (IWI) therapies were evaluated. Comparing the MRC group (performed using only MRC, n=15) with the transurethral resection (TUR) group (n=13) for superficial, initial and solitary tumors, the recurrence rate of grade 1 patients of the MRC group was lower than that of the TUR group. The recurrence rate (total number of recurrences X 100/total months of follow up) for superficial, recurrent and multiple tumors (n=25) was 14.6 before IWI and 1.47 after IWI. The total group (those undergoing total cystectomy) and MRC and/or IWI therapies for invasive tumors were compared. The 5-year survival rates were 69.0% for the MRC and/or IWI group (n=29) and 50.8% for the total group (n=13), although these differences were not statistically significant. In the MRC and/or IWI group, 17 (81.0%) of the 21 living patients have retained functioning bladders without disease, at an average follow up of 50 months. Of the 11 patients who died of cancer in the total and MRC and/or IWI groups, 8 were grade 3. Prognosis of the grade 3 patients was poor despite treatment. These results demonstrate that MRC and IWI are efficient therapies for invasive bladder cancer from the viewpoint of bladder preservation, as well as for superficial bladder cancer. (author)

  14. Adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer using deformable image registration of empty and full bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Caine, H.; Hunt, P.

    2015-01-01

    A common objective of various adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies for bladder cancer is to reduce irradiation of normal tissue, thereby reduce the risk of radiation induced toxicity, and maintain or improve the target coverage. Bladder radiotherapy, typically involves generous margins (up to 20...... bladder cancer patients and a total of 100 fractions. It was found that the smaller a-PTV, a-PTV4 and a-PTV3, were appropriate in 87% of the fractions, while a-PTV2 and a-PTV1 were required in 12% of the fractions respectively. The use of the a-PTVs reduced the PTV volume by 32% (28-36%) as compared...... to conv-PTV. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that the use of a-PTVs could result in substantial decrease in the course averaged planning target volume. This reduction in the PTV is likely to decrease the radiation related toxicity and benefit bladder cancer patients. Currently...

  15. Variations in the spatial distribution of gall bladder cancer: a call for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of gall bladder cancers in this part of the world is high and the spatial variation in occurrence of gall bladder cancers can be identified by using geographical information system. Materials and Methods: Data set containing the address information of gall bladder cancer patients from the District of ...

  16. Cancer diagnosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, A.J.; Smith, H.S.; Sartorius, O.W.; Snow, L.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Peralta Cancer Research Institute has organized the Breast Diagnostic Center (BDC) to make available to women information about the breast, and to conduct clinical research to improve methods for early diagnosis and treatment of breast disease. Women entering the center are educated about the anatomy and physiology of the breast, signs of both benign and malignant disease, and factors that influence the risk of developing cancer. The BDC program proposes to demonstrate that the combined use of various diagnostic modalities, when each modality is used at maximum potential, can detect cancers at an earlier stage. Emphasis is placed on the physical examination, using nipple aspiration cytology, contrast ductography, fine-needle aspirations, and mammography. With the financial participation of the Clorox Company, it is shown that the concept of the BDC is economically sound and fills a need in the community

  17. Intra-fractional bladder motion and margins in adaptive radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Caroline; Vestergaard, Anne; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and to estimate population-based and patient-specific intra-fractional margins, also relevant for a future re-optimisation strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine patients treated in a clinical phase II ART trial of daily plan selection for bladder cancer were included. In the library plans, 5 mm isotropic margins......BACKGROUND: The bladder is a tumour site well suited for adaptive radiotherapy (ART) due to large inter-fractional changes, but it also displays considerable intra-fractional motion. The aim of this study was to assess target coverage with a clinically applied method for plan selection ART...... were added to account for intra-fractional changes. Pre-treatment and weekly repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series were acquired in which a full three-dimensional (3D) volume was scanned every second min for 10 min (a total of 366 scans in 61 series). Initially, the bladder clinical target...

  18. Trimodality therapy in bladder cancer: Who, what and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Christopher; Apolo, Andrea B.; Agarwal, Piyush K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Radical cystectomy is a standard treatment for non-metastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Treatment with trimodality therapy consisting of maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation has emerged as a method to preserve the native bladder in highly motivated patients. A number of factors can impact the likelihood of long term bladder preservation after trimodality therapy, and therefore should be taken into account when selecting patients. New radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided radiation therapy may decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy in this setting, but remain an area of active study. Novel chemotherapy regimens may improve response rates and minimize toxicity. PMID:25882559

  19. Contemporary management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Era, Marc A; Cheng, Liang; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    The current standard treatment for muscle-invasive nonmetastatic bladder cancer is neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy. However, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not widely accepted even with level 1 evidence. Adjuvant chemotherapy should be discussed if patients have not received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and have high-risk pathologic features. Although not considered standard of care, bladder-sparing therapy can be considered for highly selected patients and for those medically unfit for surgery. Even though there are no level 1 data, the treatment outcomes for highly select patients given bladder-sparing therapy appear promising, with many patients retaining a functional bladder. Personalized chemotherapy is currently being actively pursued to target the underlying molecular changes and tailor to individual needs. PMID:22845409

  20. Health-related quality of life after bladder preservation therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Miura, Noriyoshi; Numata, Kousaku; Shirato, Akitomi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru; Kataoka, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (QOL) of bladder cancer patients following bladder preservation therapy (BPT). Eighty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer had been treated between January 1992 and July 2005 at our institutions with BPT consisting of transurethral resection, intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Among them, 48 were alive and free from recurrence at the time of survey and were asked to participate. A total of 168 patients who had been treated for superficial bladder cancer in the same period were used as a control group. Three questionnaires, namely the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the SF-36, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) were used. Thirty-three patients in the BPT group (68.8%) and 128 patients in the control group (76.2%) answered the QOL survey. There was no significant difference in age, gender and other clinical factors among these two groups. No significant difference was found between the groups according to IPSS. The QOL score of BPT was lower than that of the control group in the SF-36, but there was no significant difference without body pain (P=0.047). There was a tendency toward a diminished physical functioning (P=0.053) and role-physical (P=0.064) in BPT. The EPIC scores for urinary function, especially storage and voiding symptoms, and bowel function were significantly lower in the BPT group. At multivariable analysis, body pain and bowel function were associated with the type of treatment. Although some of the QOL outcome parameters after BPT were found to be lower than the control group, these differences were not significant. Overall, patients retaining their bladder had an acceptable health related QOL. (author)

  1. Bladder Cancer, Version 5.2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Philippe E; Agarwal, Neeraj; Bangs, Rick; Boorjian, Stephen A; Buyyounouski, Mark K; Clark, Peter E; Downs, Tracy M; Efstathiou, Jason A; Flaig, Thomas W; Friedlander, Terence; Greenberg, Richard E; Guru, Khurshid A; Hahn, Noah; Herr, Harry W; Hoimes, Christopher; Inman, Brant A; Jimbo, Masahito; Kader, A Karim; Lele, Subodh M; Meeks, Joshua J; Michalski, Jeff; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Pagliaro, Lance C; Pal, Sumanta K; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Pohar, Kamal S; Porter, Michael P; Preston, Mark A; Sexton, Wade J; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene O; Sonpavde, Guru; Tward, Jonathan; Wile, Geoffrey; Dwyer, Mary A; Gurski, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Bladder Cancer focuses on systemic therapy for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer, as substantial revisions were made in the 2017 updates, such as new recommendations for nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. The complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer addresses additional aspects of the management of bladder cancer, including non-muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer and nonurothelial histologies, as well as staging, evaluation, and follow-up. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  2. Endometriose Simulando Neoplasia Vesical Endometriosis Simulating Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tobias-Machado

    2000-04-01

    . Methods: retrospective analysis of urinary endometriosis slides of the Department of Pathology files was made. Medical charts and follow-up were reviewed in detail and interviews were performed during or after treatment. Results: we describe four cases with cyclic disuria, abdominal mass, pelvic pain and imaging diagnosis of bladder tumor. Pathological specimens were obtained by endoscopic resection (3 cases and laparoscopic biopsy (1 case. Therapeutic options were exclusive medical treatment or surgical removal with transurethral resection or partial cystectomy supplemented with adjuvant medication. Conclusions: we review the clinical and therapeutic aspects of urinary tract endometriosis stressing that this is an important differential diagnosis of bladder cancer in reproductive women.

  3. 1 The effectiveness of ultrasound in the diagnosis of bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predictive value, and the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasound in detection of bladder tumour were 83%, 93%, 89% and 89%, respectively. In conclusion, ultrasound is an effective method for evaluating patients presenting with haematuria or suspected to have bladder tumours. It is cheap, available, affordable and ...

  4. Cathepsin-D And Tnf-α in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 of them are operable cases and 31 are non-operable ones, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and cytosolic Cathepsin-D were estimated. Though both potential markers were elevated in bladder cancer patients, neither Cathepsin-D nor TNF-α showed associations of prognostic value since there were no positive correlations with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzia ova or lymph node involvement.

  5. Dendritic cells in blood and urine samples from bladder cancer patients undergoing BCG immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Rossi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Immunotherapy with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor represents a highly effective primary treatment for intermediate and high-risk superficial bladder cancer. The effectiveness of this therapy has been documented, but its mechanism of action is not clear yet. In the present study, we investigated the changes of dendritic cells (DC numbers in peripheral blood and urine of patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing BCG intravescical therapy Material and method: We have enumerated plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs in the peripheral blood and in the urine of patients with bladder cancer in order to clarify the role of these cells in the evolution of the disease and the effect of therapy. DCs in blood and urine samples were assessed using the single-platform TruCOUNT assay with monoclonal antibodies. The study population included 37 healthy donors and 13 patients with diagnosis of primitive superficial bladder cancer. Results: At the time of diagnosis a reduction of blood DCs was found in patients as opposed to healthy donors, while DCs were not found in the urine in the same way as in healthy subjects. Six of these patients were followed before and after weekly and monthly instillations of BCG. In the peripheral blood, we observed an immunological recovery of DCs from the third weekly instillation up to the sixth. In the urine of patients, we didn’t find mDCs or pDCs at T0, but we found a statistically significant change from the third instillation up to the sixth. On the contrary, we didn’t find mDCs in urine during monthly instillation. Conclusions: DC Count could be used in the monitoring of patients undergoing BCG therapy. Immunological restoration of mDC numbers in peripheral blood and the efflux in urine could be important for confirming the effectiveness of BCG instillation.

  6. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, A.; Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A.; Bankart, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) and in differentiating organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ-confined (≥T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ confined (≥T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  7. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, A., E-mail: arajesh27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Bankart, M.J.G. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) and in differentiating organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ-confined ({>=}T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ confined ({>=}T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  8. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 FNx01 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  9. Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPARγ in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thiazolidinedione (TZD therapy in type II diabetic patients has proven useful in the lowering of blood glucose levels. However, recent investigations have shown that there may be potential health concerns associated, including the risk of developing bladder cancer as well as complications in the cardiovasculature. TZDs are ligands for the nuclear receptor PPARγ, and activation causes lipid uptake and insulin sensitization, both of which are critical processes for diabetic patients whose bodies are unable to utilize insulin effectively. Several studies have shown that PPARγ/TZDs decrease IGF-1 levels and, thus, reduce cancer growth in carcinomas such as the pancreas, colon, liver, and prostate. However, other studies have shed light on the potential of the receptor as a biomarker for uroepithelial carcinomas, particularly due to its stimulatory effect on migration of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, PPARγ may provide the tumor-promoting microenvironment by de novo synthesis of nutrients that are needed for bladder cancer development. In this review, we closely examine the TZD class of drugs and their effects on PPARγ in patient studies along with additional molecular factors that are positive modulators, such as protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, which may have considerable implications for bladder cancer therapy.

  10. Review: Application of Nanoparticles in Urothelial Cancer of the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chieh-Hsiao; Chan, Tzu-Min; Wu, Yi-Jhen; Chen, Jia-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy of the urinary tract, which generally develops in the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder. The specific course of treatment depends on the stage of bladder cancer; however, therapeutic strategies typically involve intravesical drug delivery to reduce toxicity and increase therapeutic effects. Recently, metallic, polymeric, lipid, and protein nanoparticles have been introduced to aid in the treatment of bladder cancer. Nanoparticles are also commonly ...

  11. Pathway analysis of bladder cancer genome-wide association study identifies novel pathways involved in bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Scheet, Paul A; Huang, Maosheng; Chang, David W; Dinney, Colin P; Silverman, Debra T; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are designed to identify individual regions associated with cancer risk, but only explain a small fraction of the inherited variability. Alternative approach analyzing genetic variants within biological pathways has been proposed to discover networks of susceptibility genes with additional effects. The gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) may complement and expand traditional GWAS analysis to identify novel genes and pathways associated with bladder cancer risk. We selected three GSEA methods: Gen-Gen, Aligator, and the SNP Ratio Test to evaluate cellular signaling pathways involved in bladder cancer susceptibility in a Texas GWAS population. The candidate genetic polymorphisms from the significant pathway selected by GSEA were validated in an independent NCI GWAS. We identified 18 novel pathways ( P CACNA1S, COL4A2, SRC , and CACNA1C were associated with bladder cancer risk. Two CCNE1 variants, rs8102137 and rs997669, from cell cycle pathways showed the strongest associations; the CCNE1 signal at 19q12 has already been reported in previous GWAS. These findings offer additional etiologic insights highlighting the specific genes and pathways associated with bladder cancer development. GSEA may be a complementary tool to GWAS to identify additional loci of cancer susceptibility.

  12. Classification of Bladder Cancer Patients via Penalized Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi Shahraki, Hadi; Bemani, Peyman; Jalali, Maryam

    2017-05-01

    Objectives: In order to identify genes with the greatest contribution to bladder cancer, we proposed a sparse model making the best discrimination from other patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 22 genes with a key role in most cancers were considered in 21 bladder cancer patients and 14 participants of the same age (± 3 years) without bladder cancer in Shiraz city, Southern Iran. Real time-PCR was carried out using SYBR Green and for each of the 22 target genes 2-Δct as a quantitative index of gene expression was reported. We determined the most affective genes for the discriminant vector by applying penalized linear discriminant analysis using LASSO penalties. All the analyses were performed using SPSS version 18 and the penalized LDA package in R.3.1.3 software. Results: Using penalized linear discriminant analysis led to elimination of 13 less important genes. Considering the simultaneous effects of 22 genes with important influence on many cancers, it was found that TGFβ, IL12A, Her2, MDM2, CTLA-4 and IL-23 genes had the greatest contribution in classifying bladder cancer patients with the penalized linear discriminant vector. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve revealed that the proposed vector had good performance with minimal (only 3) mis- classification. The area under the curve (AUC) of our proposed test was 96% (95% CI: 83%- 100%) and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 90.5%, 85.7%, 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The penalized discriminant method can be considered as appropriate for classifying bladder cancer cases and searching for important biomarkers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Automatic staging of bladder cancer on CT urography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sankeerth S.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Cha, Kenny H.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Alva, Ajjai; Paramagul, Chintana; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Correct staging of bladder cancer is crucial for the decision of neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment and minimizing the risk of under- or over-treatment. Subjectivity and variability of clinicians in utilizing available diagnostic information may lead to inaccuracy in staging bladder cancer. An objective decision support system that merges the information in a predictive model based on statistical outcomes of previous cases and machine learning may assist clinicians in making more accurate and consistent staging assessments. In this study, we developed a preliminary method to stage bladder cancer. With IRB approval, 42 bladder cancer cases with CTU scans were collected from patient files. The cases were classified into two classes based on pathological stage T2, which is the decision threshold for neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (i.e. for stage >=T2) clinically. There were 21 cancers below stage T2 and 21 cancers at stage T2 or above. All 42 lesions were automatically segmented using our auto-initialized cascaded level sets (AI-CALS) method. Morphological features were extracted, which were selected and merged by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. A leave-one-case-out resampling scheme was used to train and test the classifier using the 42 lesions. The classification accuracy was quantified using the area under the ROC curve (Az). The average training Az was 0.97 and the test Az was 0.85. The classifier consistently selected the lesion volume, a gray level feature and a contrast feature. This predictive model shows promise for assisting in assessing the bladder cancer stage.

  14. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin and Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad H.A. Razack

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract, and overall it is among the top 10 cancers in men. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is the most common type, with the majority being superficial disease, i.e. the tumour has not gone beyond the lamina propria. The main problem with superficial TCC is the high recurrence rate. Various forms of treatment methods have been attempted to reduce the recurrence rate, with intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG being the most successful to date. In fact, intravesical BCG is one of the most successful forms of immunotherapy in the treatment of any form of cancer. This article is a general review of BCG in bladder cancer with an emphasis on the indication and mechanism of action in reducing recurrence and progression.

  15. Delay in diagnosis of cancer as a patient safety issue - a root cause analysis based on a representative case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known in the literature that imaging has almost no value for diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. However, wide gap exists between knowledge on diagnosis of bladder cancer and actual clinical practice. Case presentation Delay in diagnosis of bladder cancer in a male person with tetraplegia occurred because of reliance on negative flexible cystoscopy and single biopsy, negative ultrasound examination of urinary bladder, and computerised tomography of pelvis. Difficulties in scheduling cystoscopy also contributed to a delay of nearly ten months between the onset of haematuria and establishing a histological diagnosis of vesical malignancy in this patient. The time interval between transurethral resection and cystectomy was 42 days. This delay was mainly due to scheduling of surgery. Conclusion We learn from this case that doctors should be aware of the limitations of negative flexible cystoscopy and single biopsy, cytology of urine, ultrasound examination of urinary bladder, and computed tomography of pelvis for diagnosis of bladder cancer in spinal cord injury patients. Random bladder biopsies must be considered under general anaesthesia when there is high suspicion of bladder cancer. Spinal cord injury patients with lesions above T-6 may develop autonomic dysreflexia; therefore, one should be extremely well prepared to prevent or manage autonomic dysreflexia when performing cystoscopy and bladder biopsy. Spinal cord injury patients, who pass blood in urine, should be accorded top priority in scheduling of investigations and surgical procedures.

  16. Effect of pelvic radiotherapy for prostrate cancer on bowel, bladder and sexual functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif-ur-Rahman; Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of pelvic radiotherapy for prostate cancer on sexual, bowel and urinary functions. Study Design: a prospective cohort study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore from July 1998 to January 2000. Patients and Method: This study included 52 patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer who were given external beam pelvic radiotherapy. The effects of pelvic radiotherapy on their sexual, bowel and bladder functions were calculated at 6, 12 and 18 months and mean composite scores for each entity were examined. Results: Decrease in sexual function (up to 35%) was most significant observation followed by bowel dysfunction (10-12%). Bladder function deranged early during radiotherapy but there was no remarkable bladder dysfunction, overall a good proportion of patients (70 - 72%) felt satisfied with their treatment by external beam radiotherapy. By lapse of time there was gradual worsening of erectile function especially after a couple of months of pelvic radiotherapy, while bowel and bladder functions improved 8-12 months post radiotherapy. Conclusion: Proper counselling of patients regarding potential side effects of pelvic radiotherapy can make them understand the outcome of treatment. (author)

  17. Computer-assisted bladder cancer grading: α-shapes for color space decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, M. K. K.; Parwani, Anil V.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    According to American Cancer Society, around 74,000 new cases of bladder cancer are expected during 2015 in the US. To facilitate the bladder cancer diagnosis, we present an automatic method to differentiate carcinoma in situ (CIS) from normal/reactive cases that will work on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained images of bladder. The method automatically determines the color deconvolution matrix by utilizing the α-shapes of the color distribution in the RGB color space. Then, variations in the boundary of transitional epithelium are quantified, and sizes of nuclei in the transitional epithelium are measured. We also approximate the "nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio" by computing the ratio of the average shortest distance between transitional epithelium and nuclei to average nuclei size. Nuclei homogeneity is measured by computing the kurtosis of the nuclei size histogram. The results show that 30 out of 34 (88.2%) images were correctly classified by the proposed method, indicating that these novel features are viable markers to differentiate CIS from normal/reactive bladder.

  18. Urinary Cell-Free DNA Quantification as Non-Invasive Biomarker in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisuda, Antonin; Pazourkova, Eva; Soukup, Viktor; Horinek, Ales; Hrbáček, Jan; Capoun, Otakar; Svobodova, Iveta; Pospisilova, Sarka; Korabecna, Marie; Mares, Jaroslav; Hanuš, Tomáš; Babjuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of urinary cell-free DNA (ucfDNA) belongs to potential bladder cancer markers, but the reported results are inconsistent due to the use of various non-standardised methodologies. The aim of the study was to standardise the methodology for ucfDNA quantification as a potential non-invasive tumour biomarker. In total, 66 patients and 34 controls were enrolled into the study. Volumes of each urine portion (V) were recorded and ucfDNA concentrations (c) were measured using real-time PCR. Total amounts (TA) of ucfDNA were calculated and compared between patients and controls. Diagnostic accuracy of the TA of ucfDNA was determined. The calculation of TA of ucfDNA in the second urine portion was the most appropriate approach to ucfDNA quantification, as there was logarithmic dependence between the volume and the concentration of a urine portion (p = 0.0001). Using this methodology, we were able to discriminate between bladder cancer patients and subjects without bladder tumours (p = 0.0002) with area under the ROC curve of 0.725. Positive and negative predictive value of the test was 90 and 45%, respectively. Quantification of ucf DNA according to our modified method could provide a potential non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis of patients with bladder cancer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Bladder Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  20. Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-02-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in 1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

  1. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Duppen, Joop C.; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to ∼0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall

  2. Comparison of virtual cystoscopy and ultrasonography for bladder cancer detection: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xinhua; Huang Xiaolu; Wu Lianming; Huang Gang; Ping Xiong; Yan Weili

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Bladder cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in patients presenting with haematuria. Early detection is crucial for improving patient prognosis. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the detection validity (sensitivity and specificity) of virtual cystoscopy (VC) and ultrasonography (US). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating diagnosis validity of VC and US between January 1966 and December 2009. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct a summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results: A total of 26 studies that included 3084 patients who fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria were considered for inclusion in the analysis. The pooled sensitivity for bladder cancer detection using CT virtual cystoscopy (CTVC), MR virtual cystoscopy (MRVC) and US was 0.939 (95% CI, 0.919-0.956), 0.908 (95% CI, 0.827-0.959) and 0.779 (95% CI, 0.744-0.812), respectively. The pooled specificity for bladder cancer detection using CTVC, MRVC and US was 0.981 (95% CI, 0.973-0.988), 0.948 (95% CI, 0.884-0.983) and 0.962 (95% CI, 0.953-0.969), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) estimate for CTVC (604.22) were significantly higher than for MRVC (144.35, P < 0.001) and US (72.472, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results showed that both CTVC and MRVC are better imaging methods for diagnosing bladder cancer than US. CTVC has higher diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and DOR) for the detection of bladder cancer than either MRCT or US.

  3. Comparison of virtual cystoscopy and ultrasonography for bladder cancer detection: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Xinhua; Huang Xiaolu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Department of Ultrasonic, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Wu Lianming [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Huang Gang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Ping Xiong, E-mail: pxiong6@126.com [Department of Ultrasonic, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yan Weili, E-mail: wl_yan67@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Background and purpose: Bladder cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in patients presenting with haematuria. Early detection is crucial for improving patient prognosis. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the detection validity (sensitivity and specificity) of virtual cystoscopy (VC) and ultrasonography (US). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating diagnosis validity of VC and US between January 1966 and December 2009. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct a summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results: A total of 26 studies that included 3084 patients who fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria were considered for inclusion in the analysis. The pooled sensitivity for bladder cancer detection using CT virtual cystoscopy (CTVC), MR virtual cystoscopy (MRVC) and US was 0.939 (95% CI, 0.919-0.956), 0.908 (95% CI, 0.827-0.959) and 0.779 (95% CI, 0.744-0.812), respectively. The pooled specificity for bladder cancer detection using CTVC, MRVC and US was 0.981 (95% CI, 0.973-0.988), 0.948 (95% CI, 0.884-0.983) and 0.962 (95% CI, 0.953-0.969), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) estimate for CTVC (604.22) were significantly higher than for MRVC (144.35, P < 0.001) and US (72.472, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results showed that both CTVC and MRVC are better imaging methods for diagnosing bladder cancer than US. CTVC has higher diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and DOR) for the detection of bladder cancer than either MRCT or US.

  4. Evaluation of multidetector computed tomography urography and ultrasonography for diagnosing bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, M.K.; Cowan, N.C.; Rivers-Bowerman, M.D.; Turney, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography urography (CTU) and ultrasonography (US) for diagnosing bladder cancer. Materials and methods: A consecutive series of 143 patients over 40-years of age, presenting with macroscopic haematuria and without urinary tract infection underwent same-day CTU, US, and flexible cystoscopy. CTU and US were independently rated on a five-point scale for the presence of bladder cancer without knowledge of the reference standard of flexible or rigid cystoscopy and/or biopsy results. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and likelihood ratios. Results: For CTU, a rating of 5 (definitely tumour) was highly specific for bladder cancer (96.5%, 95%CI: 91.3-99%), effectively confirming diagnosis (positive likelihood ratio 25.6, 95%CI: 9.7-67.4). For US, specificity was also high (94.7%, 95%CI: 88.9-98%) with a positive likelihood ratio of 13.1 (95%CI: 5.8-29.6). Sensitivity at this rating was substantially higher for CTU (89.7%, 95%CI: 72.7-97.8%) than US (69%, 95%CI: 49.2-84.7%). Standardized partial area (A z ) under the ROC curve between 95-100% specificity, representing the average sensitivity in this range, was significantly greater (0.88 versus 0.61, p < 0.05) for CTU than US. Conclusion: The specificities of CTU and US for the diagnosis of bladder cancer were similar, but CTU was more sensitive. Although the sensitivity of CTU was not high enough to replace flexible cystoscopy in the diagnostic pathway, the high specificity enables direct referral to rigid cystoscopy, bypassing flexible cystoscopy and expediting diagnosis and treatment in those patients testing positive

  5. Evaluation of multidetector computed tomography urography and ultrasonography for diagnosing bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, M.K. [Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Cowan, N.C. [Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nigel.cowan@nds.ox.ac.uk; Rivers-Bowerman, M.D.; Turney, B.W. [Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography urography (CTU) and ultrasonography (US) for diagnosing bladder cancer. Materials and methods: A consecutive series of 143 patients over 40-years of age, presenting with macroscopic haematuria and without urinary tract infection underwent same-day CTU, US, and flexible cystoscopy. CTU and US were independently rated on a five-point scale for the presence of bladder cancer without knowledge of the reference standard of flexible or rigid cystoscopy and/or biopsy results. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and likelihood ratios. Results: For CTU, a rating of 5 (definitely tumour) was highly specific for bladder cancer (96.5%, 95%CI: 91.3-99%), effectively confirming diagnosis (positive likelihood ratio 25.6, 95%CI: 9.7-67.4). For US, specificity was also high (94.7%, 95%CI: 88.9-98%) with a positive likelihood ratio of 13.1 (95%CI: 5.8-29.6). Sensitivity at this rating was substantially higher for CTU (89.7%, 95%CI: 72.7-97.8%) than US (69%, 95%CI: 49.2-84.7%). Standardized partial area (A{sub z}) under the ROC curve between 95-100% specificity, representing the average sensitivity in this range, was significantly greater (0.88 versus 0.61, p < 0.05) for CTU than US. Conclusion: The specificities of CTU and US for the diagnosis of bladder cancer were similar, but CTU was more sensitive. Although the sensitivity of CTU was not high enough to replace flexible cystoscopy in the diagnostic pathway, the high specificity enables direct referral to rigid cystoscopy, bypassing flexible cystoscopy and expediting diagnosis and treatment in those patients testing positive.

  6. Sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum of the colon with involvement of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yasumichi; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Shozo; Yoshikawa, Akemi; Tsukioka, Yuji; Fukushima, Wataru; Hirosawa, Hisashi; Izumi, Ryohei; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-13

    Colon cancer can arise from the mucosa in a colonic diverticulum. Although colon diverticulum is a common disease, few cases have been previously reported on colon cancer associated with a diverticulum. We report a rare case of sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder, which presented characteristic radiographic images. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for macroscopic hematuria. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sigmoid colon tumor that protruded into the urinary bladder lumen. The radiographs showed a tumor with a characteristic dumbbell-shaped appearance. Colonoscopy showed a type 1 cancer and multiple diverticula in the sigmoid colon. A diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer with involvement of the urinary bladder was made based on the pathological findings of the biopsied specimens. We performed sigmoidectomy and total resection of the urinary bladder with colostomy and urinary tract diversion. Histopathological findings showed the presence of a colovesical fistula due to extramurally growing colon cancer. Around the colon cancer, the normal colon mucosa was depressed sharply with lack of the muscular layer, suggesting that the colon cancer was arising from a colon diverticulum. The present case is the first report of sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder. Due to an accurate preoperative radiological diagnosis, we were able to successfully perform a curative resection for sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder.

  7. On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhijia; Chen, Bai; Ren, Hugang; Pan, Yingtian

    2009-09-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the cellular details of bladder epithelium embedded in speckle noise can be uncovered with time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (TL-uOCT) by proper time-lapse frame averaging that takes advantage of cellular micromotion in fresh biological tissue ex vivo. Here, spectral-domain 3-D TL-uOCT is reported to further improve the image fidelity, and new experimental evidence is presented to differentiate normal and cancerous nuclei of rodent bladder epithelia. Results of animal cancer study reveal that despite a slight overestimation (e.g., cancerous (e.g., high-grade DN''~13 μm) urothelia, which may potentially be very useful for enhancing the diagnosis of nonpapillary bladder cancer. More animal study is being conducted to examine the utility to differentiate hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ.

  8. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten; Lebesque, Joos; Lotz, Heidi; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Moonen, Luc; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV CONV ). During the first treatment week, five daily computed tomography (CT) scans were made immediately before or after treatment. In the second week, a volume was constructed encompassing the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the planning scan and the five CT scans (GTV ART ). The GTV ART was expanded with a 1 cm margin for the construction of a PTV ART . Starting in the third week, patients were treated to PTV ART . Repeat CT scans were used to evaluate treatment accuracy. Results: On 5 of 91 repeat CT scans (5%), the GTV was not adequately covered by the PTV ART . On treatment planning, there was only one scan in which the GTV was not adequately covered by the 95% isodose. On average, the treatment volumes were reduced by 40% when comparing PTV ART with PTV CONV (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The adaptive strategy for bladder cancer is an effective way to deal with treatment errors caused by variations in bladder tumor position and leads to a substantial reduction in treatment volumes

  9. The granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor surface modified MB49 bladder cancer stem cells vaccine against metastatic bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tong Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The MB49 bladder cancer cell vaccine was effective against bladder cancer in the mice model in previous studies. However, part of the tumors regrew as the vaccine could not eliminate the cancer stem cells (CSCs. MB49 bladder cancer stem cells (MCSCs were isolated by a combination of the limited dilution method and the serum free culture medium method. MCSCs possessed higher expression of CD133, CD44, OCT4, NANOG, and ABCG2, the ability of differentiation, higher proliferative abilities, lower susceptibility to chemotherapy, greater migration in vitro, and stronger tumorigenic abilities in vivo. Then streptavidin–mouse granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor (SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine was prepared. SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine extended the survival of the mice and inhibited the growth of tumor in protective, therapeutic, memorial and specific immune response experiments. The level of immunoglobulin G and the ratio of dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were highest in the experimental group when compared to those in other four control groups, as well as for the cytotoxicity assay. We demonstrated that SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine induces an antitumor immune response to metastatic bladder cancer.

  10. Role of hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Grabe, Magnus; Haug, Erik Skaaheim

    2012-01-01

    Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is an optical imaging agent used with fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) for the detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Guidelines from the European Association of Urology (EAU) and a recent, more detailed European expert consensus statement agree that HAL-FC ...

  11. Mycobacterium bovis endophthalmitis from BCG immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbrandy, S. J. F.; Schreuders, L. C.; de Smet, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report a patient who developed BCG endophthalmitis after BCG immunotherapy for bladder cancer. Comparison of this case with 2 other reported cases reveals a similar pattern of elderly, debilitated and immunocompromised patients with poor response to systemic antituberculous therapy in

  12. Epidemiology and risk factors of urothelial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, M.; Catto, J.W.; Dalbagni, G.; Grossman, H.B.; Herr, H.; Karakiewicz, P.; Kassouf, W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; La Vecchia, C.; Shariat, S.; Lotan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is a disease of significant morbidity and mortality. It is important to understand the risk factors of this disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of UBC and to review and interpret the current evidence on and impact of the

  13. Impact of Methadone on Cisplatin Treatment of Bladder Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Marta; Schultze-Seemann, Susanne; Kuckuck, Irina; Katzenwadel, Arndt; Wolf, Philipp

    2018-03-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for advanced bladder cancer. Since many tumor cells show inherent or acquired cisplatin resistance, research is needed to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Since the analgesic methadone is discussed as being a sensitizer for chemotherapy, we tested its effects on the cisplatin treatment of bladder cancer cells. T24 and HT-1376 bladder cancer cells were incubated with cisplatin in combination with methadone. Cytotoxicity was examined using the WST-1 viability assay and induction of apoptosis was analyzed via phase-contrast microscopy, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis. Methadone was shown to enhance the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin on T24 cells based on the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, HT-1376 cells were identified as non-responders to methadone. Methadone could act as a chemosensitizer in the future treatment of advanced bladder cancer. Further research is needed to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Urethral metastasis from a presumed primary malignant melanoma presenting as postmenopausal bleeding. Proc R Soc Med 1975;68:227-8. 10. Saad A, Hanbury DC, McNicholas TA, Boustead GB,. Morgan S, Woodman AC. A study comparing various non-invasive methods of detecting bladder cancer in.

  15. Baicalein and U0126 suppress bladder cancer proliferation via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RT-PCR) and western blot. Results: Baicalein and U0126 suppressed bladder cancer cell T24 proliferation by blocking cell cycle in G0~G1 phase. TUNEL and Annexin V/PI detection showed both baicalein and U0126 induced T24 cell ...

  16. Occupation and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of bladder cancer incidence according to occupational categories in the Nordic countries. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 15 million individuals older than 30 years who participated in one or more population censuses in 1960......% CI 1.33 to 1.53), hairdressers (1.28; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.40), seamen (1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.30), printers (1.21; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.30), and plumbers (1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.30). A significantly decreased risk of bladder cancer was observed among gardeners (0.78, 0.75 to 0.80), forestry workers (0.......74; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.78), and farmers (0.70; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The SIR of bladder cancer was overall similar across the Nordic countries. The study suggests that occupation is evidently associated with bladder cancer risk....

  17. Bladder cancer: Analysis of the 2004 WHO classification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Bladder cancer (BCA) is aworldwide disease and shows a wide range of geographical variation. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of schistosomal and non-schistosomal associated BCA as well as compare our findings with the 2004 WHO consensus classification of urothelial neoplasms and ...

  18. Radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer: treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der

    2006-01-01

    The exact value of radiotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive       bladder cancer is difficult to establish, as most studies exploring this       issue are retrospective with different procedures for selecting patients       for treatment, as well as varying treatment strategies. An estimate...

  19. Bladder cancer in Kano - A histopathological review | Ochicha | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant tumours of the bladder have been observed to be quite common in Kano but there has been no formal study. This four-year (1998 - 2001) retrospective review sought to document the pattern of these neoplasms. Vesical malignancies constituted 6.4% of all cancers in Kano with squamous (53%) and transitional ...

  20. A review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Numerous molecular markers for bladder cancer have been identified and investigated with various laboratory techniques. Molecular markers are isolated from tissue, serum and urine. They fall into proteomic, genetic and epigenetic categories. Some of molecular markers show promising results in terms of ...

  1. A review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer | Miakhil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim:This studyprovides an up-to-date review of the frequently studied and most important biomarkers that have shown consistent relevance in relation to bladder cancer. Methods: The key words were searched on the PubMed, Google scholar and NHS library search engines. Results: More than twenty biomarkers as per ...

  2. Diagnostic value of urinary CK-20 RNA and VEGF in bladder cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic value of urinary cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) RNA and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in comparison with urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer. This study included 80 patients with bladder cancer, 20 patients with bilharzial bladder lesions and 20 ...

  3. The Relationship between Bladder Cancer and Epigenetic Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Özen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers of urinary system and approximately 70% of the cases are low grade and non-muscle invasive. Because of the histological indicator inadequacy of heterogeneous tumors like bladder cancer, researchers tend to look into genetic and molecular markers. Furthermore, role of epigenetic changes in cancer biology to be more distinctive than other cellular changes was shown. Epigenetic changes include 3 main titles; DNA methylation, micro RNA regulation and histone modification. In the literature, many epigenetic changes were found to be associated with early detection of the disease, progression, patient prognosis, tumor recurrence, early relapse, higher pathologic stage, disease-specific survival. With the understanding of epigenetic changes better patient outcomes will be achieved in the future.

  4. Current practice in the management of superficial bladder cancer in the Netherlands and Belgian Flanders: a survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, J.A.; Melissen, D.O.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because there is no national guideline for the diagnosis, therapy and follow up of (superficial) bladder cancer in the Netherlands and Belgium, the actual patient management may differ between urologists. The purpose of this study is to get insight in the current way urologists diagnose,

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Health Professional Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  6. National Comprehensive Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anal Carcinoma B-Cell Lymphomas Basal Cell Skin Cancer Bladder Cancer Bone Cancer Breast Cancer Central Nervous System Cancers ... Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis Cervical Cancer Screening Colorectal Cancer Screening Genetic/Familial ...

  7. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Albert Institute for Bladder Cancer Research Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaig, Thomas W; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Ingersoll, Molly A; Barton Grossman, H; Mendelsohn, Cathy; DeGraff, David; Liao, Joseph C; Taylor, John A

    2017-07-27

    The Third Annual Albert Institute Bladder Symposium was held on September 8-10th, 2016, in Denver Colorado. Participants discussed several critical topics in the field of bladder cancer: 1) Best practices for tissue analysis and use to optimize correlative studies, 2) Modeling bladder cancer to facilitate understanding and innovation, 3) Targeted therapies for bladder cancer, 4) Tumor phylogeny in bladder cancer, 5) New Innovations in bladder cancer diagnostics. Our understanding of and approach to treating urothelial carcinoma is undergoing rapid advancement. Preclinical models of bladder cancer have been leveraged to increase our basic and mechanistic understanding of the disease. With the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma, the treatment approach for these patients has quickly changed. In this light, molecularly-defined subtypes of bladder cancer and appropriate pre-clinical models are now essential to the further advancement and appropriate application of these therapeutic improvements. The optimal collection and processing of clinical urothelial carcinoma tissues samples will also be critical in the development of predictive biomarkers for therapeutic selection. Technological advances in other areas including optimal imaging technologies and micro/nanotechnologies are being applied to bladder cancer, especially in the localized setting, and hold the potential for translational impact in the treatment of bladder cancer patients. Taken together, advances in several basic science and clinical areas are now converging in bladder cancer. These developments hold the promise of shaping and improving the clinical care of those with the disease.

  8. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  9. Tobacco use, occupation, coffee, various nutrients, and bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Cook, G M; Esteve, J; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1980-04-01

    In a Canadian population-based case-control study of 480 males and 152 female case-control pairs, the relative risk for development of bladder cancer for ever used versus never used cigarettes was 3.9 for males and 2.4 for females, with a dose-response relationship in both sexes. A reduced risk was associated with the use of filter cigarettes compared to nonfilter cigarettes. After control for cigarette usage, a significant risk was noted for male pipe smokers. For male ex-smokers the risk after 15 years of no smoking was less than one-half that of current male smokers. Bladder cancer risk was found for workers in the chemical, rubber, photographic, petroleum, medical, and food processing industries among males and for workers occupationally exposed to dust or fumes among both sexes. Bladder cancer risk was elevated for males consuming all types of coffee, regular coffee, and instant coffee and for females consuming instant coffee, but no dose-response relationship was found. Risk was found for males consuming water from nonpublic supples but not for females. No risk was observed in males or females consuming nitrate-containing foods, beverages other than coffee, or fiddlehead greens. Hair dye usage in females and phenacetin usage in males and females carried no risk. Divergent findings by area for aspirin suggested that an overall association was not causal. Reevaluation of the data on artificial sweeteners confirmed a significant bladder cancer risk in males and a dose-response relationship. The cumulated population attributable risk for bladder cancer was 90% for males from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and exposure to nonpublic water supplies and 29% for females from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and instant coffee consumption.

  10. Quality of life in urinary bladder and prostate cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Stefanie, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis was to describe the evolution of Health-Related Quality of Life in Spanish patients with urologic tumours; and to the examine clinical and treatment-related factors associated with changes in Health-Related Quality of Life during the first year of treatment. The EMPARO project is an observational, multicenter, prospective study on patients diagnosed with bladder cancer (n=326) and prostate cancer (n=472). Consecutive patients were enrolled in 7 Spanish hos...

  11. The efficacy of Apaziquone in the treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramés Masana, Francisco; de Reijke, Theo M

    2017-11-01

    Bladder cancer is nowadays a common tumor. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has still chances of recurrence and progression in spite of surgery and adjuvant treatments. New therapies are being developed to reduce these percentages with less adverse effects - Apaziquone (EO9) is an example. Areas covered: A literature search has been performed using Pubmed, UpToDate and Google verified information (mainly from Food and Drug Administration and Spectrum Pharmaceutics websites). We have included data from the most representative clinical trials and reviews published. Expert opinion: Apaziquone is considered a promising chemical agent if applied intravesically due mainly to its pharmacodynamics and safety profile. There is evidence for this with respect to adjuvant chemo ablative therapy and as a post-transurethral resection of bladder (TURB) single-dose regimen. As a result, new clinical phase III trials are needed both to evaluate its efficacy as an adjuvant therapy in the spectrum from intermediate- to high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and to select the most appropriate candidates and treatment schedule. As a conclusion, Apaziquone is a good candidate to become a better alternative as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of NMIBC in the near future.

  12. Identification of Apo-A1 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shixin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC is the fourth most frequent neoplasia in men, clinically characterized by high recurrent rates and poor prognosis. Availability of urinary tumor biomarkers represents a convenient alternative for early detection and disease surveillance because of its direct contact with the tumor and sample accessibility. Results We tested urine samples from healthy volunteers and patients with low malignant or aggressive BTCC to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BTCC by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS and bioinformatics analysis. We observed increased expression of five proteins, including fibrinogen (Fb, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1, clusterin (CLU and haptoglobin (Hp, which were increased in urine samples of patients with low malignant or aggressive bladder cancer. Further analysis of urine samples of aggressive BTCC showed significant increase in Apo-A1 expression compared to low malignant BTCC. Apo-A1 level was measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was suggested to provide diagnostic utility to distinguish patients with bladder cancer from controls at 18.22 ng/ml, and distinguish patients with low malignant BTCC from patients with aggressive BTCC in two-tie grading system at 29.86 ng/ml respectively. Further validation assay showed that Apo-A1 could be used as a biomarker to diagnosis BTCC with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.6% and 85.7% respectively, and classify BTCC in two-tie grading system with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.7% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest Apo-A1 could be a potential biomarker related with early diagnosis and classification in two-tie grading system for bladder cancer.

  13. Multiplex PCR and Next Generation Sequencing for the Non-Invasive Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G Ward

    Full Text Available Highly sensitive and specific urine-based tests to detect either primary or recurrent bladder cancer have proved elusive to date. Our ever increasing knowledge of the genomic aberrations in bladder cancer should enable the development of such tests based on urinary DNA.DNA was extracted from urine cell pellets and PCR used to amplify the regions of the TERT promoter and coding regions of FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, HRAS, KDM6A and RXRA which are frequently mutated in bladder cancer. The PCR products were barcoded, pooled and paired-end 2 x 250 bp sequencing performed on an Illumina MiSeq. Urinary DNA was analysed from 20 non-cancer controls, 120 primary bladder cancer patients (41 pTa, 40 pT1, 39 pT2+ and 91 bladder cancer patients post-TURBT (89 cancer-free.Despite the small quantities of DNA extracted from some urine cell pellets, 96% of the samples yielded mean read depths >500. Analysing only previously reported point mutations, TERT mutations were found in 55% of patients with bladder cancer (independent of stage, FGFR3 mutations in 30% of patients with bladder cancer, PIK3CA in 14% and TP53 mutations in 12% of patients with bladder cancer. Overall, these previously reported bladder cancer mutations were detected in 86 out of 122 bladder cancer patients (70% sensitivity and in only 3 out of 109 patients with no detectable bladder cancer (97% specificity.This simple, cost-effective approach could be used for the non-invasive surveillance of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers harbouring these mutations. The method has a low DNA input requirement and can detect low levels of mutant DNA in a large excess of normal DNA. These genes represent a minimal biomarker panel to which extra markers could be added to develop a highly sensitive diagnostic test for bladder cancer.

  14. Detection Of Aneuploidy In Chromosomes 3,7,9 And 17 In Bladder Cancer Patients Using Urovysion Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elsattar, N.A.; Yossef, M.F.; Saleh, S.A.R.; Shahin, R.S.; Ali, H.H.; Kotb, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cystoscopy is considered up till now the gold standard as well as urine cytology for diagnosis and follow up of urinary bladder cancer patients. Cystoscopy is an invasive inconclusive technique while cytology have low sensitivity. Therefore search for a more sensitive, non-invasive highly reliable method is important. Aim of the study: To assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of Urovysion to be used as a non-invasive tool for early detection of bladder cancer patients. Furthermore, to assess its relationship with histopathological stages and grades of the disease. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted on 30 patients with urinary bladder cancer( Group I) which were subdivided according to cancer stages and grades into subgroups and 15 diseased control patients (Group II). One urine sample was taken from each patient for Urovysion assay and another sample taken for urine cytology. Results: Urovysion showed higher positive results in (Group I) than urine cytology. In (Group II) the latter did not miss any negative case while urovysion showed only one false positive case. Moreover, Urovysion results revealed significant association with both bladder cancer histopathological stages and grades while urine cytology showed significant association with tumor grades only. Conclusion: Urovysion; both by itself and in combination with urine cytology; offers a sensitive, reliable and non invasive approach to bladder cancer diagnosis. Urovysion is associated with invasiveness of bladder cancer from stage Tis, T1 to T4 and from grades G1 to G3. Thus, urovysion assay can be used as an important diagnostic and prognostic indicator of this disease

  15. Novel multisensor probe for monitoring bladder temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: technical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordeiro, Ernesto R.; Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional

  16. Supplementary Material for: Promoter hypermethylation of HS3ST2, SEPTIN9 and SLIT2 combined with FGFR3 mutations as a sensitive/specific urinary assay for diagnosis and surveillance in patients with low or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a high incidence form of bladder cancer (BCa), where genetic and epigenetic alterations occur frequently. We assessed the performance of associating a FGFR3 mutation assay and a DNA methylation analysis to improve bladder cancer detection and to predict disease recurrence of NMIBC patients. Methods We used allele specific PCR to determine the FGFR3 mutation status for R248C, S249C, G372C, and Y375C. We preselected 18 candidate genes reported in the literature as being hypermethylated in cancer and measured their methylation levels by quantitative multiplex-methylation specific PCR. We selected HS3ST2, SLIT2 and SEPTIN9 as the most discriminative between control and NMIBC patients and we assayed these markers on urine DNA from a diagnostic study consisting of 167 NMIBC and 105 controls and a follow-up study consisting of 158 NMIBC at diagnosis time’s and 425 at follow-up time. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of each assay alone and in combination. Results For Diagnosis: Using a logistic regression analysis with a model consisting of the 3 markers’ methylation values, FGFR3 status, age and known smoker status at the diagnosis time we obtained sensitivity/specificity of 97.6 %/84.8 % and an optimism-corrected AUC of 0.96. With an estimated BCa prevalence of 12.1 % in a hematuria cohort, this corresponds to a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.6 %. For Follow-up: Using a logistic regression with FGFR3 mutation and the CMI at two time points (beginning of the follow-up and current time point), we got sensitivity/specificity/NPV of 90.3 %/65.1 %/97.0 % and a corrected AUC of 0.84. We also tested a thresholding algorithm with FGFR3 mutation and the two time points as described above, obtaining sensitivity/specificity/NPV values of, respectively, 94.5 %/75.9 %/98.5 % and an AUC of 0.82. Conclusions We showed that combined analysis of FGFR3 mutation and DNA

  17. Promoter hypermethylation of HS3ST2, SEPTIN9 and SLIT2 combined with FGFR3 mutations as a sensitive/specific urinary assay for diagnosis and surveillance in patients with low or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-02

    Background: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a high incidence form of bladder cancer (BCa), where genetic and epigenetic alterations occur frequently. We assessed the performance of associating a FGFR3 mutation assay and a DNA methylation analysis to improve bladder cancer detection and to predict disease recurrence of NMIBC patients. Methods: We used allele specific PCR to determine the FGFR3 mutation status for R248C, S249C, G372C, and Y375C. We preselected 18 candidate genes reported in the literature as being hypermethylated in cancer and measured their methylation levels by quantitative multiplex-methylation specific PCR. We selected HS3ST2, SLIT2 and SEPTIN9 as the most discriminative between control and NMIBC patients and we assayed these markers on urine DNA from a diagnostic study consisting of 167 NMIBC and 105 controls and a follow-up study consisting of 158 NMIBC at diagnosis time\\'s and 425 at follow-up time. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of each assay alone and in combination. Results: For Diagnosis: Using a logistic regression analysis with a model consisting of the 3 markers\\' methylation values, FGFR3 status, age and known smoker status at the diagnosis time we obtained sensitivity/specificity of 97.6 %/84.8 % and an optimism-corrected AUC of 0.96. With an estimated BCa prevalence of 12.1 % in a hematuria cohort, this corresponds to a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.6 %. For Follow-up: Using a logistic regression with FGFR3 mutation and the CMI at two time points (beginning of the follow-up and current time point), we got sensitivity/specificity/NPV of 90.3 %/65.1 %/97.0 % and a corrected AUC of 0.84. We also tested a thresholding algorithm with FGFR3 mutation and the two time points as described above, obtaining sensitivity/specificity/NPV values of, respectively, 94.5 %/75.9 %/98.5 % and an AUC of 0.82. Conclusions: We showed that combined analysis of FGFR3 mutation and DNA methylation markers

  18. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cigarette smoking prior to first cancer and risk of second smoking-associated cancers among survivors of bladder, kidney, head and neck, and stage I lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S; Gibson, Todd; Sampson, Joshua; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Beane Freeman, Laura; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Caporaso, Neil; Curtis, Rochelle E; Elena, Joanne; Freedman, Neal D; Robien, Kim; Black, Amanda; Morton, Lindsay M

    2014-12-10

    Data on smoking and second cancer risk among cancer survivors are limited. We assessed associations between smoking before first cancer diagnosis and risk of second primary smoking-associated cancers among survivors of lung (stage I), bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers. Data were pooled from 2,552 patients with stage I lung cancer, 6,386 with bladder cancer, 3,179 with kidney cancer, and 2,967 with head/neck cancer from five cohort studies. We assessed the association between prediagnostic smoking and second smoking-associated cancer risk with proportional hazards regression, and compared these estimates to those for first smoking-associated cancers in all cohort participants. Compared with never smoking, current smoking of ≥ 20 cigarettes per day was associated with increased second smoking-associated cancer risk among survivors of stage I lung (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; 95% CI, 0.92 to 11.6), bladder (HR = 3.67; 95% CI, 2.25 to 5.99), head/neck (HR = 4.45; 95% CI, 2.56 to 7.73), and kidney cancers (HR = 5.33; 95% CI, 2.55 to 11.1). These estimates were similar to those for first smoking-associated cancer among all cohort participants (HR = 5.41; 95% CI, 5.23 to 5.61). The 5-year cumulative incidence of second smoking-associated cancers ranged from 3% to 8% in this group of cancer survivors. Understanding risk factors for second cancers among cancer survivors is crucial. Our data indicate that cigarette smoking before first cancer diagnosis increases second cancer risk among cancer survivors, and elevated cancer risk in these survivors is likely due to increased smoking prevalence. The high 5-year cumulative risks of smoking-associated cancers among current smoking survivors of stage I lung, bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers highlight the importance of smoking cessation in patients with cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Assessing Symptom Burden in Bladder Cancer: An Overview of Bladder Cancer Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Bernard J; Metcalfe, Michael J; Wood, Erika L; Shah, Jay B

    2016-07-27

    Background: A key component to monitoring and investigating patient QOL is through patient reported health related quality of life (HRQOL) outcome measures. Many instruments have been used to assess HRQOL in bladder cancer and each instrument varies in its development, validation, the context of its usage in the literature and its applicability to certain disease states. Objective: In this review, we sought to summarize how clinicians and researchers should most appropriately utilize the available HRQOL instruments for bladder cancer. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of each instrument used in bladder cancer, paying particular attention to the outcomes assessed. We used these outcomes to group the available instruments into categories best reflecting their optimal usage by stage of disease. Results: We found 5 instruments specific to bladder cancer, of which 3 are validated. Only one of the instruments (the EORTC-QLQ-NMIBC24) was involved in a randomized, prospective validation study. The most heavily used instruments are the EORTC-QLQ-BLM30 for muscle-invasive disease and the FACT-Bl which is used across all disease states. Of the 5 available instruments, 4 are automatically administered with general instruments, while the BCI lacks modularity, and requires co-administration with a generalized instrument. Conclusion: There are multiple strong instruments for use in gauging HRQOL in bladder cancer patients. We have divided these instruments into three categories which optimize their usage: instruments for use following NMIBC treatments (EORTC-QLQ-NMIBC24), instruments for use following radical cystectomy (FACT-Bl-Cys and EORTC-QLQ-BLM30) and more inclusive instruments not limited by treatment modality (BCI and FACT-Bl).

  1. The state and potential of social media in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveridge, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Social media sites and services have become intimately woven into our interpersonal communications and have begun to stake a visible place in healthcare. Disease-specific Twitter hashtags, online patient groups and participation by patients, practitioners and advocacy groups are emblematic of this new paradigm. A literature review and summary of resources and publications on bladder cancer and social media. A majority of Western patients have access to and use the Internet for health information. Urologists and oncologists have used bladder-cancer-specific messaging at international meetings infrequently as compared to prostate and other non-urologic cancers. An active community does participate in online discussion, with differences between medical practitioners and patients/advocates. Advice is given with the aim of unifying this discussion.

  2. Urethral Triplication Without Bladder Duplication: Endourologic Diagnosis and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ruben; Burgos, Laura; Angulo, Jose Maria

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Urethral triplication is a rare congenital anomaly of the lower urinary system, with urethra ending in glans. At the beginning of toilet training, urine output was observed along the rectum. Rigid cystoscopy shows a perineal urethra starting in the posterior urethra. Subsequently, flexible cystoscopy showed entry of epispadic urethra in the bladder immediately superior to the bladder neck. It was running parallel to primary urethra. Then, we observed two most frequent types of urethral duplication in the sagittal plane in a single patient. PMID:29675475

  3. Technologic developments in the field of photonics for the detection of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Scott; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-12-01

    Bladder cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in an aging population. Each year, thousands of people, mostly men, are diagnosed with this disease, but many of them present too late to receive optimal treatment. As with all cancers, early diagnosis of bladder cancer significantly improves the efficacy of therapy and increases survival and recurrence-free survival rates. Ongoing research has identified many limitations about the sensitivity of standard diagnostic procedures in detecting early-stage tumors and precancerous changes. The consequences of this are often tumor progression and increased tumor burden, leading to a decrease in patient quality of life and a vast increase in treatment costs. The necessity for improved early detection of bladder cancer has spurred on research into novel methods that use a wide range of biological and photonic phenomena. This review will broadly discuss standard detection methodologies and their major limitations before covering novel photonic techniques for early tumor detection and staging, assessing their diagnostic accuracy for flat and precancerous changes. We will do so in the context of both cystoscopic examination and the screening of voided urine and will also touch on the concept of using photonic technology as a surgical tool for tumor ablation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  5. A population-based study of the use and outcome of radical radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, Charles R.R.; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Groome, Patti A.; Schulze, Karleen; Mackillop, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to describe the use and outcome of radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer in the province of Ontario, Canada, between 1982 and 1994. Methods: Electronic records of invasive bladder cancer (ICD code 188) from the Ontario Cancer Registry were linked to surgical records from all Ontario hospitals and radiotherapy (RT) records from all Ontario cancer centers. We identified cases receiving radical RT by selecting RT records containing 'bladder' or 'pelvis' anatomic region codes and a radical or curative intent code (or dose > 39.5 Gy if intent missing). We identified cases receiving salvage total cystectomy by selecting total cystectomy procedure codes occurring at any time beyond 4 months from the start of radical RT. We used life table methods to compute the following: the time from diagnosis to radical RT, the time from radical RT to salvage cystectomy, overall and cause-specific survival from radical radiotherapy to death, and overall and cause-specific survival from salvage cystectomy to death. We modeled the factors associated with time to death, time to cystectomy conditional on survival, and time to cystectomy or death, whichever came first, using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: From the 20,906 new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed in Ontario from 1982 to 1994, we identified 1,372 cases treated by radical radiotherapy (78% male, 22% female; mean age 69.8 years). The median interval to start of radical RT from diagnosis was 13.4 weeks. Ninety-three percent of patients were treated on high-energy linacs, and the most common dose/fractionation scheme was 60 Gy/30 (31% of cases). Five-year survival rates were as follows: bladder cancer cause-specific, 41%; overall, 28%; cystectomy-free, 25%; bladder cancer cause-specific following salvage cystectomy, 36%; overall following salvage cystectomy, 28%. Factors associated with a higher risk of death and a poorer cystectomy-free survival were histology (squamous or

  6. Definitions, End Points, and Clinical Trial Designs for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Recommendations From the International Bladder Cancer Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamat, A.M.; Sylvester, R.J.; Bohle, A.; Palou, J.; Lamm, D.L.; Brausi, M.; Soloway, M.; Persad, R.; Buckley, R.; Colombel, M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide recommendations on appropriate clinical trial designs in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) based on current literature and expert consensus of the International Bladder Cancer Group. METHODS: We reviewed published trials, guidelines, meta-analyses, and reviews and

  7. 1 The effectiveness of ultrasound in the diagnosis of bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluating patients presenting with haematuria or suspected to have bladder tumours. It is cheap, ... world, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the commonest, while in developing countries squamous cell ..... Fenlon, H., Bell, T., Ahari, H. & Hussain, S. (1997) Virtual cystoscopy: early clinical experience. Radiology 250 ...

  8. PKC α regulates netrin-1/UNC5B-mediated survival pathway in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiao; Kong, Chui-ze; Gong, Da-xin; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Yu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5B play important roles in angiogenesis, embryonic development, cancer and inflammation. However, their expression patttern and biological roles in bladder cancer have not been well characterized. The present study aims to investigating the clinical significance of PKC α, netrin-1 and UNC5B in bladder cancer as well as their association with malignant biological behavior of cancer cells. Netrin-1 and UNC5B expression was examined in 120 bladder cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry and in 40 fresh cancer tissues by western blot. Immunofluorescence was performed in cancer cell lines. PKC α agonist PMA and PKC siRNA was employed in bladder cancer cells. CCK-8, wound healing assays and flow cytometry analysis were used to examine cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle, respectively. Netrin-1 expression was positively correlated with histological grade, T stage, metastasis and poor prognosis in bladder cancer tissues. Immunofluorescence showed elevated netrin-1 and decreased UNC5B expression in bladder cancer cells compared with normal bladder cell line. Furthermore, cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression were promoted with PMA treatment while inhibited by calphostin C. In addition, PMA treatment could induce while calphostin C reduce netrin-1 expression in bladder cancer cells. The present study identified netrin-1/UNC5B, which could be regulated by PKC signaling, was important mediators of bladder cancer progression

  9. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a modified microelectromechanical systems mirror for detection of bladder cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Xie, Huikai; Fedder, Gary K.; Pan, Yingtian

    2003-11-01

    Experimental results of a modified micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror for substantial enhancement of the transverse laser scanning performance of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) are presented. Image distortion due to buckling of MEMS mirror in our previous designs was analyzed and found to be attributed to excessive internal stress of the transverse bimorph meshes. The modified MEMS mirror completely eliminates bimorph stress and the resultant buckling effect, which increases the wobbling-free angular optical actuation to greater than 37°, exceeding the transverse laser scanning requirements for EOCT and confocal endoscopy. The new optical coherence tomography (OCT) endoscope allows for two-dimensional cross-sectional imaging that covers an area of 4.2 mm × 2.8 mm (limited by scope size) and at roughly 5 frames/s instead of the previous area size of 2.9 mm × 2.8 mm and is highly suitable for noninvasive and high-resolution imaging diagnosis of epithelial lesions in vivo. EOCT images of normal rat bladders and rat bladder cancers are compared with the same cross sections acquired with conventional bench-top OCT. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of EOCT for in vivo imaging diagnosis and precise guidance for excisional biopsy of early bladder cancers.

  10. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy of bladder cancer with alasens (results of multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Filonenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of multicenter prospective trial for efficacy of combined modality treatment: transurethral resection (TUR + photodynamic therapy (PDT with alasens for bladder cancer are represented in the article. Trials were organized by Research Institute of Organic Intermediates and Dyes and conducted according to clinical protocol approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, at the sites of leading Russian cancer clinical centers. The trial included 45 subjects with verified diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients underwent TUR of bladder with simultaneous PDT as anti-relapse treatment. Alasens was administered to patients as intravesicular instillation of 3% solution in volume of 50 ml with 1.5–2h exposure (prior to TUR. TUR was performed after instillation. PDT session was conducted immediately after the completion of TUR on a single occasion by means of combined local irradiation on tumor bed with diffuse irradiation on whole urinary bladder mucosa (light dose of local irradiation – 100 J/cm2, diffuse irradiation – 20 J/cm2. Good tolerance of the treatment was noticed, there were no complications. Among 45 patients included in the trial, 35 (78% completed 12 month protocol follow-up without relapse. The recurrence of bladder tumor was registered in 10 (22% cases 6–12 months after TUR+PDT including 3 patients with recurrence 6 months after treatment, 3–9 months and 4–12 months. These patients underwent repeated TUR, whereafter their follow-up in the settings of the clinical trial was disposed. Thus, PDT with alasens after TUR allowed to decrease the recurrence rate of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer for 1st year after treatment to 22% versus 40–80% for TUR as monotherapy according to literature data. The obtained results were comparable by efficiency with TUR combined with methods of adjuvant treatment for bladder tumors (the recurrence rates for 1-year follow-up after TUR+chemotherapy – 36–44%, after TUR

  11. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lisa P; Savoly, Diana; Sidi, Abraham A; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  12. Initial conservative treatment for grade 3 Ta-1 superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Kondo, Hideaki; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2006-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the therapeutic outcomes of our series of 7 Ta and 62 T1 bladder cancers with grade 3 (G3) malignancy in 61 men and 8 women having a mean age of 66.2 years. Following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), 35 and 6 patients received intravesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and anthracycline-derivants, respectively, whereas 15 received no adjuvant therapy. Five and 2 patients received systemic and local chemotherapy with irradiation, respectively, and six underwent radical cystectomy for invasive potential. The 5-year non-recurrence, progression-free, and overall (cancer-specific) survival rates were 66, 82%, and 76 (88)%, respectively, after a median follow-up of 52 months. The 5-year non-recurrence rates were 24% in non-adjuvant, 85% in BCG, 0% in anthracycline-derivants, 65% in systemic and local chemoradiation therapy, and 68% in cystectomy. The 5-year progression-free and overall (cancer-specific) survival rates of the patients treated with BCG instillation were 91% and 94 (100)%. There were no significant differences in the 5-year non-recurrence and progression-free rates between 12 patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 23 patients without CIS. Complete TUR of all visible tumors and a reliable histopathological diagnosis of appropriate specimens bearing the muscle layer are mandatory for assessment of recurrence. G3 Ta-1 bladder cancers and CIS showed a high risk of recurrence, and required aggressive treatment. Since BCG therapy following TURBT significantly reduced the risk of recurrence and progression, adjuvant BCG therapy is considered to be the most promising initial conservative treatment for G3 Ta-1 bladder cancers. (author)

  13. mTOR inhibitors in urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Leite, R; Arantes-Rodrigues, R; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, P A; Santos, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the great scientific advances that have been made in cancer treatment, there is still much to do, particularly with regard to urinary bladder cancer. Some of the drugs used in urinary bladder cancer treatment have been in use for more than 30 years and show reduced effectiveness and high recurrence rates. There have been several attempts to find new and more effective drugs, to be used alone or in combination with the drugs already in use, in order to overcome this situation.The biologically important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is altered in cancer and mTOR inhibitors have raised many expectations as potentially important anticancer drugs. In this article, the authors will review the mTOR pathway and present their experiences of the use of some mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, in isolation and in conjunction with non-mTOR inhibitors cisplatin and gemcitabine, on urinary bladder tumour cell lines. The non-muscle-invasive cell line, 5637, is the only one that exhibits a small alteration in the mTOR and AKT phosphorylation after rapalogs exposure. Also, there was a small inhibition of cell proliferation. With gemcitabine plus everolimus or temsirolimus, the results were encouraging as a more effective response was noticed with both combinations, especially in the 5637 and T24 cell lines. Cisplatin associated with everolimus or temsirolimus also gave promising results, as an antiproliferative effect was observed when the drugs were associated, in particular on the 5637 and HT1376 cell lines. Everolimus or temsirolimus in conjunction with gemcitabine or cisplatin could have an important role to play in urinary bladder cancer treatment, depending on the tumour grading.

  14. Growth inhibitory effects of quercetin on bladder cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Feugang, Jean Magloire; Konarski, Patricia; Wang, Jian; Lu, Jianzhong; Fu, Shengjun; Ma, Baoliang; Tian, Binqiang; Zou, Changping; Wang, Zhingping

    2006-09-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid found in many fruits and vegetables, belongs to an extensive class of polyphenolic compounds. Previous studies reported that quercetin inhibits the proliferation of various cancer cells and tumor growth in animal models. We investigated the growth inhibition and colony formation of quercetin on three bladder cancer cells (EJ, J82 and T24). The expression of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes such as P53, Survivin, PTEN, as well as the methylation status of these genes was also evaluated. We observed that quercetin induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Quercetin (100 micromolars) significantly inhibited EJ, T24 and J82 cell growth accompanied by an increase in the G0/G1 phase. In all cell lines, quercetin decreased the expression of mutant P53 and Survivin proteins. However, there was no change in the level of PTEN protein. Moreover, the DNA methylation levels of the estrogen receptor (Er-beta), P16INK4a and RASSF1A were strongly decreased (from 35 to 70%) in the quercetin-treated group compared to the control. In conclusion, our study suggested that quercetin inhibits growth, colony formation and hypermethylation of bladder cancer cell lines. Quercetin-induced apoptosis might be associated with a decrease in mutant P53 and Survivin proteins.

  15. Long noncoding RNA in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S; Böttcher, René; Croce, Carlo M; Jenster, Guido; Visakorpi, Tapio; Calin, George A

    2014-06-01

    Genomic regions without protein-coding potential give rise to millions of protein-noncoding RNA transcripts (noncoding RNA) that participate in virtually all cellular processes. Research over the last 10 yr has accumulated evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in human urologic cancers. To review current progress in the biology and implication of lncRNAs associated with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. The PubMed database was searched for articles in the English language with combinations of the Medical Subject Headings terms long non coding RNA, long noncoding RNA, long untranslated RNA, cancer, neoplasms, prostate, bladder, and kidney. We summarise existing knowledge on the systematics, biology, and function of lncRNAs, particularly these involved in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. We also discuss the possible utilisation of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in urologic malignancies and portray the major challenges and future perspectives of ongoing lncRNA research. LncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Alterations in the function of lncRNAs promote tumour formation, progression, and metastasis of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. LncRNAs can be used as noninvasive tumour markers in urologic malignancies. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs perform their function in the normal and malignant cell will lead to a better understanding of tumour biology and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of urologic cancers. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for the detection and treatment of urologic cancers. We conclude that lncRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers in prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer. LncRNAs hold promise as future therapeutic targets, but more research is needed to gain a better

  16. [Treatment of infiltrating nonmetastatic bladder cancers in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintens, H; Guy, L; Mazerolles, C; Théodore, C; Amsellem, D; Roupret, M; Wallerand, H; Roy, C; Saint, F; Bernardini, S; Lebret, T; Soulié, M; Pfister, C

    2009-11-01

    Total cystectomy is the reference treatment for infiltrating nonmetastatic bladder cancers. With the progress in anesthesia and postoperative intensive care, this treatment can be applied to a population of elderly subjects provided there is a strict oncological and geriatric evaluation of the patient. Recent series reporting total cystectomies in subjects over 75 years of age report comparable morbidity and mortality rates to the general population. Strategies to preserve the vesical reservoir can be indicated in selected cases. Their objectives are to guarantee local control and follow-up identical to radical cystectomy, while preserving a functional bladder and good quality of life. The strategies including transurethral resection with radiochemotherapy are analyzed. Thus, with multidisciplinary consensus and adapted management, elderly patients with significant comorbidities should not be automatically excluded from access to effective treatment of these cancers. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. High-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: definition and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porten, Sima P; Cooperberg, Matthew R

    2012-09-01

    Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer represents a large majority of patients diagnosed with this disease. Precise definition and risk stratification are paramount in this group as high-risk patients have higher rates of progression and mortality and may benefit from early identification and aggressive treatment. The mainstay definitions of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are based on grade and stage. Recently, efforts have been made to incorporate other clinical variables into multivariate risk assessment tools and nomograms to predict disease behavior and guide management. Variant histology and molecular biomarkers are being explored as tools to refine risk stratification; however, results are still preliminary and need validation. Future research should concentrate on ways to better risk-stratify patients and identify early those that are most likely to recur and progress quickly. Topics of focus should be on better multivariate risk assessment tools and nomograms providing continuous scales and incorporating molecular markers with validation in large multi-institutional cohorts.

  18. Update on the management of invasive bladder cancer 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goethuys H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hans Goethuys,1 Hein Van Poppel1,21Department of Urology, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Belgium; 2Department of Urology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a deadly disease for which a number of new approaches have become available to improve prognosis. A recent review emphasized the importance of timely indication of surgery and highlighted current views regarding the adequate extent of the surgery and the importance of lymph node dissection. Furthermore, treatment using neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy has become more prominent, while cystectomy and diversion should be conducted only in experienced centers. Optimal methods of urinary diversion and the use of robot-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy require further study.Keywords: bladder cancer, surgery, chemotherapy, urinary diversion

  19. Micropapillary bladder cancer: current treatment patterns and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Daniel L; Flaig, Thomas W; Hansel, Donna E; Milowsky, Matthew I; Grubb, Robert L; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Koppie, Theresa M; McConkey, David J; Dinney, Colin P; Hoffman, Vanessa A; Droller, Michael J; Messing, Edward; Kamat, Ashish M

    2014-08-01

    No guidelines exist for the management of micropapillary bladder cancer (MPBC) and most reports of this variant of urothelial carcinoma are case series comprising small numbers of patients. We sought to determine current practice patterns for MPBC using a survey sent to the Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO) and to present those results in the setting of a comprehensive review of the existing literature. A survey developed by the Translational Science Working Group of the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network-sponsored Think Tank meeting was distributed to members of the SUO. The results from 118 respondents were analyzed and presented with a literature review. Most survey respondents were urologists, with 80% considering bladder cancer their primary area of interest. Although 78% of the respondents reported a dedicated genitourinary pathologist at their institution, there were discrepant opinions on how a pathologic diagnosis of MPBC is determined as well as variability on the proportion of MPBC that is clinically significant. Among them, 78% treat MPBC differently than conventional urothelial carcinoma, with 81% reporting that they would treat cT1 MPBC with upfront radical cystectomy. However, the respondents had split opinions regarding the sensitivity of MPBC to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which affected utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive disease. The management of MPBC is diverse among members of the SUO. Although most favors early cystectomy for cT1 MPBC, there is no consensus on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive MPBC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aota, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiko

    1999-01-01

    A total of 83 patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (T1, n=5; T2, n=28; T3a, n=21; T3b, n=21; T4, n=8) were treated with intra-arterial (i.a.) cisplatin and adriamycin (or epirubicin) chemotherapy. In 51 of the 83 cases, we combined this treatment with radiotherapy. The pathological complete response (CR) rate was 68% for all patients, 84% for i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and only 41% for i.a. chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rate was 57% for all patients, 71% for i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and only 44% for i.a. chemotherapy. The 5-year survival as a function of the clinical stage was 82% for T1+T2, 66% for T3a, 28% for T3b, 25% for T4 (T1+T2 vs. T3b: p<0.001, T1+T2 vs. T4: p<0.0001, T3a vs. T3b: p<0.0263, T3a vs. T4: p<0.0214, T3b vs. T4: p<0.029). In 46% of all patients, we succeeded in preserving the bladder; especially noteworthy, is that in 65% of the patients undergoing i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy, we succeeded in preserving the bladder. These results demonstrate that i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy is a useful method for locally advanced bladder cancer which may make preservation of the bladder function feasible. (author)

  1. Bladder Metastasis of non-Small Cell Lung Cancer : an Unusual Cause of Hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, O. Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Yildirim, M. Erol; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 2% of bladder malignancies are metastatic. The lung cancer makes metastasis sporadically to the bladder. A-69-year-old female patient presented with a history of pain in kidneys, vomiting and hematuria. Cystoscopic examination of the patient revealed small bladder capacity and solitary

  2. BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to

  3. Evaluation of delivered dose for a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy for bladder cancer radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutkenhaus, Lotte J.; Visser, Jorrit; de Jong, Rianne; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    To account for variable bladder size during bladder cancer radiotherapy, a daily plan selection strategy was implemented. The aim of this study was to calculate the actually delivered dose using an adaptive strategy, compared to a non-adaptive approach. Ten patients were treated to the bladder and

  4. 3D vision on robot assisted brachytherapy catheter implantation in bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, G.A.H.J.; Steen-Banasik, E. van der; Wieringa F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Using strict criteria, solitary muscle invasive bladder cancer can be managed favorably in a bladder sparing manner with brachytherapy. Hollow catheters for afterloading radiotherapy are placed in the bladder wall. Until now, this is performed by open surgery. We replaced open surgery by laparoscopy

  5. On the influence of the instillation time on the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence detection of superficial bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichlinski, Patrice; Aymon, Daniela; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Marti, Alexandre; Lange, Norbert; Guillou, Louis; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; van den Bergh, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy is being investigated as a new diagnostic tool for the detection of flat urothelial malignancies in bladder cancers. However, the influence of the bladder instillation time on the performance of this detection modality has not been addressed up to now. We report our initial experience comparing different instillation schedules of HAL cystoscopy in the diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. A total of 718 fluorescent positive (433) and fluorescence negative (285) biopsies have been taken in the bladder of 143 patients using the Storz D-light fluorescence imaging system (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) which allows both white and blue light (380-450 nm) bladder wall inspection. Following hospitalisation, 50 ml of HAL (8mM) phosphate buffer solution was instilled into the bladder of patients during one hour (1 hour protocol involving 57 patients), or during two hours followed by a two hours resting time after removal of the solution (2+2 hours protocol involving 86 patients). Both instillation subgroups were homogeneous in terms of proportion of high risk disease, previous BCG treatment and/or recurrent disease. This study indicates that the instillation duration does not influence the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy in our conditions. Compared to the standard use of ALA, HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy allows a significant reduction of the instillation time (to less than one hour) without prejudicing the efficacy of the method, what represents a real advantage in daily clinical practice.

  6. Family history of cancer and the risk of bladder cancer: A case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Montella, Maurizio; Libra, Massimo; Facchini, Gaetano; Ferraroni, Monica; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2017-06-01

    A family history of bladder cancer has been associated with the risk of bladder cancer, but quantification of the excess risk in different populations is still a relevant issue. Further, the role of a family history of other cancers on the risk of bladder cancer remains unclear. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study, including 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated through unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for sex, age, study center, year of interview and further for education, smoking and sibling's number. The OR for family history of bladder cancer was 2.13 (95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) 1.02-4.49) from the model with partial adjustment, and 1.99 (95%CI 0.91-4.32) after additional adjustment for smoking and siblings' number, based on 23 cases (3.3%) and 11 controls (1.7%) with a family history of bladder cancer. The fully adjusted OR was 3.77 when the relative was diagnosed at age below 65years. Smokers with a family history of bladder cancer had a four-fold increased risk compared to non-smokers without a family history. Bladder cancer risk was significantly increased among subjects with a family history of hemolymphopoietic cancers (OR=2.97, 95%CI 1.35-6.55). Family history of cancer at other sites showed no significant association with bladder cancer risk. This study confirms an approximately two-fold increased risk of bladder cancer for family history of bladder cancer, and indicates a possible familial clustering of bladder cancer with cancers of the hemolymphopoietic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Coping With a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Coping with breast cancer A breast cancer diagnosis can cause a wide range of ... as normal a routine as possible. Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting ...

  8. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  9. Managing Patients with Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Old Disease, New Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Uno Malmström

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prof Per-Uno Malmström opened this symposium on non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC by describing the medical and economic burden caused by the increasing incidence of bladder cancer and the lack of new therapeutic options available to address the challenges of the management of NMIBC. Prof Marko Babjuk followed with a presentation that demonstrated that risk stratification using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC and Spanish Urological Club for Oncological Treatment (CUETO risk scores remains a useful tool for determining the best individual treatment options for patients. The next presentation, given by Dr Carsten Ohlmann, described the use of mitomycin C (MMC for low and intermediate-risk patients as per the European Association of Urology (EAU guidelines. However, despite a favourable safety profile, single case reports of severe adverse events following treatment with MMC should not be dismissed. MMC should therefore be given with care, with an emphasis on performing high quality transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB. Prof Bernard Malavaud then presented details of newer diagnostic methods, such as photodynamic diagnosis (PDD and narrow band imaging (NBI, which offer better optical tumour recognition for the surgeon than the old standard of white light cystoscopy. The uptake of PDD and NBI in the future will facilitate an increase in the quality of TURB. Finally, Prof Ashish Kamat explained that recurrence of bladder cancer after bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG treatment (‘BCG failure’ needs to be more clearly defined and stratified. He stated that optimal recognition of timing with relation to BCG immunotherapy is critical to determine the next steps. For example, in the past, patients with late recurrence who may have benefitted from challenge with BCG may have been overlooked.

  10. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Ashish M.; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B.; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety o...

  11. Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer by irradiated tumor vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.L.; Riggs, D.R.; DeHaven, J.I.; Bryner, R.W. (West Virginia Univ. School of Medicine, Morgantown (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This investigation explored the efficacy of irradiated autologous mouse bladder tumor (Ir-MBT2) as an active specific immunotherapeutic agent and as adjuvant therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against a subcutaneously transplanted murine bladder tumor. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in groups receiving BCG (27%, p less than 0.005) or Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.025), compared to control (93%). Survival was significantly improved in groups treated with BCG (100%, p less than 0.005), 10(5) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.01), or 10(7) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (47%, p less than 0.025) compared with control (13%). Surprisingly, Ir-MBT2 consistently reduced the efficacy of BCG alone. Ir-MBT2 alone (10(7)) appeared to enhance tumor growth. Autologous irradiated bladder tumor vaccine, alone or in combination with BCG, displayed no immunotherapeutic advantage. The use of irradiated tumor cell vaccine for bladder cancer therapy may reduce the results achievable with BCG alone.

  12. Fluorescence cystoscopy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rusakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge of treating non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is multifocal tumors. Current methods of diagnosis are failed to detect all superficial flat tumor lesions in bladder mucosa. The use of fluorescence imaging with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA allows to improve the sensibility of routine cystoscopy, but low specificity decreases its diagnostic accuracy. The method of fluorescence imaging combined with local fluorescence spectroscopy developed in P.A. Herzen MCRI has been shown to increase the specificity from 71% to 84%. Thus, local fluorescence spectroscopy in visible fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin allows to perform guided biopsy and decrease the rate of diagnostic mistakes. 

  13. Five misconceptions in cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William

    2009-01-01

    Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial. PMID:19520027

  14. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  15. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%); specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%), 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30) and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81). CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV) disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26). CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests

  16. Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristides, M.; Maase, Hans von der; Roberts, T.

    2005-01-01

    Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer Conventional treatment for advanced bladder cancer is methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin plus cisplatin (MVAC), with a median survival of 1 year but significant toxicity. The newer...... combination of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) has demonstrated comparable survival and an improved toxicity profile (Von der Maase et al. 2000). At present, the importance to patients of the toxicity of chemotherapy has not been widely studied. An earlier study in bladder cancer indicated that toxicity...... was an important determinant of treatment preference (Davey et al. 2000). A study of preferences for advanced bladder cancer therapy in the UK was proposed....

  17. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is up-regulated in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongxue [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Department of Urology, Hospital of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Urumqi 830002 (China); Li, Xuechao; Song, Yarong; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Yajun [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Xing, Yifei, E-mail: yifei_xing@163.com [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-11-13

    Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a member of long non-coding RNAs and has been reported to be dysregulated in several human cancers. However, the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer remains unclear. This present study aimed to investigate whether and how ANRIL involved in bladder cancer. Our results showed up-regulation of ANRIL in bladder cancer tissues versus the corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues. To explore the specific mechanisms, ANRIL was silenced by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA transfection in human bladder cancer T24 and EJ cells. Knockdown of ANRIL repressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expressions of Bax, cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Smac and cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. However, no change of cleaved caspase-8 level was observed. Furthermore, in vivo experiment confirmed that knockdown of ANRIL inhibited tumorigenic ability of EJ cells in nude mice. Meanwhile, in accordance with in vitro study, knockdown of ANRIL inhibited expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-9, but did not affect cleaved caspase-8 level. In conclusion, we first report that ANRIL possibly serves as an oncogene in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • We first report the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer. • ANRIL is obviously up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. • ANRIL regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and cell apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway.

  18. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is up-regulated in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hongxue; Li, Xuechao; Song, Yarong; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Yajun; Xing, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a member of long non-coding RNAs and has been reported to be dysregulated in several human cancers. However, the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer remains unclear. This present study aimed to investigate whether and how ANRIL involved in bladder cancer. Our results showed up-regulation of ANRIL in bladder cancer tissues versus the corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues. To explore the specific mechanisms, ANRIL was silenced by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA transfection in human bladder cancer T24 and EJ cells. Knockdown of ANRIL repressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expressions of Bax, cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Smac and cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. However, no change of cleaved caspase-8 level was observed. Furthermore, in vivo experiment confirmed that knockdown of ANRIL inhibited tumorigenic ability of EJ cells in nude mice. Meanwhile, in accordance with in vitro study, knockdown of ANRIL inhibited expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-9, but did not affect cleaved caspase-8 level. In conclusion, we first report that ANRIL possibly serves as an oncogene in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • We first report the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer. • ANRIL is obviously up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. • ANRIL regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and cell apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway.

  19. Understanding the gender disparity in bladder cancer risk: The impact of sex hormones and liver on bladder susceptibility to carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that bladder cancer (BC) incidence is approximately 4-fold higher in men than in women in the US, and a similar disparity also exists in other countries. The reason for this phenomenon is not known, which impedes progress in BC prevention. However, BC incidence is also significantly higher in male animals than in their female counterparts after treatment with aromatic amines, which are principal human bladder carcinogens. These animal studies and related studies in the ...

  20. [Benzidine dyes and risk of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O

    1989-12-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benzidine and that the azo linkage of benzidine dyes is reduced by Escherichia coli and soil bacteria. These experimental findings were reported previously. In this report, we outline an approach to these studies. Many of the dyes used to color paper, textiles, lipstick, bait used by fishermen, as well as hair dyes, and dyes used in research, for pharmaceutical products, and by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents, have been shown to be potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. We review the literature on these dyes.

  1. Inhibition of long non-coding RNA UCA1 by CRISPR/Cas9 attenuated malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shuai; Hua, Ling; Liu, Yun-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Min; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-02-07

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a novel and effective genome editing technique, but its application is not widely expanded to manipulate long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression. The lncRNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) is upregulated in bladder cancer and promotes the progression of bladder cancer. Here, we design gRNAs specific to UCA1 and construct CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting UCA1. Single CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1 can effectively inhibit UCA1 expression when transfected into 5637 and T24 bladder cancer cells, while the combined transfection of the two most effective CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1s can generate more satisfied inhibitory effect. CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1s attenuate UCA1 expression via targeted genome-specific DNA cleavage, resulting in the significant inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms associated with the inhibitory effect of CRISPR/Cas9-UCA1 on malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer are attributed to the induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, a substantial increase of apoptosis, and an enhanced activity of MMPs. Additionally, urinary UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic marker for bladder cancer as revealed by a meta-analysis. Collectively, our data suggest that CRISPR/Cas9 technique can be used to down-modulate lncRNA expression, and urinary UCA1 may be used as a non-invasive marker for diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  2. Oncoprotein DEK as a tissue and urinary biomarker for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Antara; Adelson, Martin E; Mogilevkin, Yakov; Mordechai, Eli; Sidi, Abraham A; Trama, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the United States of America with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential for removing the tumor with preservation of the bladder, avoiding metastasis and hence improving prognosis and long-term survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of DEK protein in voided urine of bladder cancer patients as a urine-based bladder cancer diagnostic test. We examined the expression of DEK protein by western blot in 38 paired transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine was analyzed by western blot in 42 urine samples collected from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals. The DEK protein is expressed in 33 of 38 bladder tumor tissues with no expression in adjacent normal tissue. Based on our sample size, DEK protein is expressed in 100% of tumors of low malignant potential, 92% of tumors of low grade and in 71% of tumors of high grade. Next, we analyzed 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals for DEK protein expression by western blot analysis. We are the first to show that the DEK protein is present in the urine of bladder cancer patients. Approximately 84% of TCC patient urine specimens were positive for urine DEK. Based on our pilot study of 38 bladder tumor tissue and 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals; DEK protein is expressed in bladder tumor tissue and voided urine of bladder cancer patients. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine is potentially a suitable biomarker for bladder cancer and that the screening for the presence of DEK protein in urine can be explored as a noninvasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer

  3. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao; Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide . Taking Aristolochia fangchi , a Chinese herb . Drinking water from a well that has high ... patients may be given chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ...

  5. [DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN PELVIC INJURIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, A I; Voytenko, A N; Bondarenko, A V; Muzalevskaya, N I; Kruglykhin, I V

    2015-01-01

    Case records of 1994 patients with injuries of the pelvic ring were analyzed. The article presents the results of examination and treatment of patients with urinary tract dysfunction. A frequent complications of pelvic fractures include overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) (18.9%). Many factors play a role in the development of this syndrome, in particular damage to the pelvic diaphragm and the development of pelvic hematoma. OAB is more common in unstable pelvic fractures (24.8%). Surgical stabilization of the pelvic ring injuries and the use of M-cholinoblockers and a1-blockers lead to a reduction of OAB.

  6. Does phosphorylation of cofilin affect the progression of human bladder cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Lee, Chang-Kwon; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Song, Ki Hak

    2013-01-01

    We determined the differently expressed protein profiles and their functions in bladder cancer tissues with the aim of identifying possible target proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms for taking part in their progression. We examined the expression of proteins by proteomic analysis and western blot in normal urothelium, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs), and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). The function of cofilin was analyzed using T24 human bladder cancer cells. The expression levels of 12 proteins were altered between bladder cancers and normal bladder tissues. Of these proteins, 14-3-3σ was upregulated in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with controls. On the other hand, myosin regulatory light chain 2, galectin-1, lipid-binding AI, annexin V, transthyretin, CARD-inhibitor of NF-κB-activating ligand, and actin prepeptide were downregulated in cancer samples. Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, was prominent in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with normal bladder tissues. Furthermore, we confirmed that cofilin phosphorylation was more prominent in MIBCs than in NMIBCs using immunoblotting and immunohistochemcal analyses. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased the phosphorylation of cofilin and elevated the migration in T24 cells. Knockdown of cofilin expression with small interfering RNA attenuated the T24 cell migration in response to EGF. These results demonstrate that the increased expression and phosphorylation of cofilin might play a role in the occurrence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. We suspected that changes in cofilin expression may participate in the progression of the bladder cancer

  7. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  8. Long-term survival of bladder preservation therapy with radiation and chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Sumio; Takase, Kazunori; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Mitsunobu; Yao, Masahiro; Hosaka, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    The prognoses and prognostic factors of the 54 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer who underwent bladder preservation therapy at Yokohama City University Hospital between 1977 and 1995 were analyzed statistically. The therapeutic modalities of bladder preservation were mainly radiation or chemotherapy. The prognosis for the patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy was worse than that for the patients who underwent total cystectomy. The prognostic factors of these patients were size and grade of tumor, presence of hydronephrosis and performance status (PS) of the patients by univariate analysis. Tumor grade was the most predictable prognostic factor using multivariate analysis. Only 17 patients survived more than 5 years after treatment; 78% of the survivors had good PS (0 or 1). Five of them died of cancer and two patients were alive with cancer. All of them had G3 tumors. These results suggest that patients with locally invasive G2 tumor could be candiates for bladder preservation therapy and patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy should be evaluated at 10 years post-therapy. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the NMP22 BladderChek test for detecting bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijie; Que, Hongliang; Suo, Chuanjian; Han, Zhijian; Tao, Jun; Huang, Zhengkai; Ju, Xiaobin; Tan, Ruoyun; Gu, Min

    2017-11-21

    We examined the usefulness of the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) BladderChek test for detecting bladder cancer. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. The diagnostic accuracy of the NMP22 BladderChek test was evaluated via pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under curve (AUC). Inter-study heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression and subgroup analyses. We included 23 studies in the systematic review and 19 in the quantitative meta-analysis. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 56% (52-59%) and 88% (87-89%), respectively; pooled PLR and NLR were 4.36 (3.02-6.29) and 0.51 (0.40-0.66), respectively; DOR was 9.29 (5.55-15.55) with an AUC of 0.8295. The mean sensitivity for Ta, T1, ≥ T2, Tis, G1, G2, and G3 disease was 13.68%, 29.49%, 74.03%, 34.62%, 44.16%, 56.25%, and 67.34%, respectively. The NMP22 BladderChek test shows good discrimination ability for detecting bladder cancer and a high-specificity algorithm that can be used for early detection to rule out patients with higher bladder cancer risk. It also has better potential for screening higher-grade and higher-stage tumors, and better diagnostic performance in Asians.

  10. The role of STAG2 in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Lanni; Ohm, Joyce; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Stromal Antigen 2 (STAG2) is one of four components of the cohesin complex and predominantly functions in sister chromatid cohesion and segregation. STAG2 is the most frequently mutated cohesin subunit and was recently identified as a gene that is commonly altered in bladder cancer. The significance of these mutations remains controversial. Some studies associate loss of STAG2 expression with low stage and low grade bladder tumors, as well as with improved clinical outcomes. In other cases, STAG2 inactivation has been shown to be a predictor of worse outcome for these patients. The role of STAG2 in aneuploidy also remains controversial. Loss of STAG2 is associated with significant changes in chromosome number in certain cell lines, while in others, aneuploidy is not induced or results remain inconclusive. At this time, little is known about the influence of STAG2 on cellular migration, invasion, proliferation, and cell death, and such studies are required to determine the role of STAG2 in bladder cancer and other malignancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring treatment response and metastatic relapse in advanced bladder cancer by liquid biopsy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Christensen, Emil; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma and urine to detect metastatic relapse after cystectomy and measure treatment efficacy. We exome sequenced tumour and germline DNA from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and monitored ctDNA in 370 liquid biopsies throughout the disease courses by 84......DNA detection in plasma and diagnosis of relapse was 101 d after cystectomy (range 0-932 d). Early detection of metastatic relapse and treatment response using liquid biopsies represents a novel, highly sensitive tool for monitoring patients, supporting clinicians, and guiding treatment decisions. PATIENT...

  12. [Long holder: hidden forked thorn wound level in patients with diagnosis of overactive bladder. Pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Chavarria, Primo Roberto; Rodríguez Colorado, Esther Silvia; Escobar del Barco, Laura; Guzmán Rodríguez, Raymundo

    2007-10-01

    Anatomical alterations in bony structures, as the sacrum, can be related with defects in nervous supply to pelvic viscera and low urinary tract. To relate location of damages at spina bifida occult with diagnosis of overactive bladder. Cross sectional study between December 2005 and March 2006 in 31 patients with diagnose of overactive bladder. All of them with complete medical history, uroneurologic physical exam, multichannel urodynamic study, urethrocystoscopy, urine culture, bladder voiding, life quality questionnaire, and antero subsequent, sacred lateral and lumbar column x-ray. Statistical analysis was done through distribution frequencies graphics and averages comparison. Age average was 47 years, 20 to 69 years; gestations average was four and childbirth average was three by patient. Highest percentage of dysraphia was located between S2 to S5 in 29 patients (94%), and between L5 to S5 in 2 patients (6%). Other findings were: scoliosis in 20 patients (64.5%), asymmetry of hip in 9 patients (29%), and lordosis in 7 patients (22.5%); spondilolistesis, lumbarization of S1 and sacralization of L5 were found each one in a patient (22.5%). In 94% of patients, presence of spina bifida occult between S2 to S4 correlates with the diagnosis of overactive bladder. Another type of alteration, as lordosis and scoliosis, are findings in a high percentage of patients and can be related to symptoms of overactive bladder.

  13. The diagnosis and detection of urogenital cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Previously, histologic precision in the diagnosis of urologic cancers had, for some time, remained stable. More recently, variations in classifications of testis tumors, prostate cancer, and to some degree, bladder tumors, have been introduced. Most systems have in concurrence a desire or an attempt to infer better prognostic assessment in the overall results to treatment. With the advent of additional biological markers or direct enzymatic measurements, e.g., in prostate cancer, further improvements in identifying at risk populations, responses to treatment, and possible indications for variations in treatment, have ensued. These developments alone unquestionably mark the greatest area of change in the recent decade. The extent of disease assessment prior to definitive therapy, whether by arteriography, ultrasound, CAT scanning, or an occasional lymphangiography, has also influenced or modified treatment decisions. For continuing care and follow-up, several of these noninvasive techniques are now becoming included in the more standard approaches. Noninvasive techniques have been introduced for the therapy of renal tumors such as inducing infarction of the primary tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonic techniques have been particularly useful in assessing the size of pelvic tumors and response to treatment, even in detection of unexpected multiple primaries or metastatic extensions. Overall, the precision in urologic cancer, both for diagnostic and detection purposes, has been increased with these introductions

  14. Protoporphyrin IX induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid in bladder cancer cells in voided urine can be extracorporeally quantified using a spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Anai, Satoshi; Onishi, Sayuri; Masaomi, Kuwada; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Makito; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer by spectrophotometric analysis of voided urine samples after extracorporeal treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Sixty-one patients with bladder cancer, confirmed histologically after the transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, were recruited as the bladder cancer group, and 50 outpatients without history of urothelial carcinoma or cancer-related findings were recruited as the control group. Half of the voided urine sample was incubated with ALA (ALA-treated sample), and the rest was incubated without treatment (ALA-untreated sample). For detecting cellular protoporphyrin IX levels, intensity of the samples at the excitation wavelength of 405 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer. The difference between the intensity of the ALA-treated and ALA-untreated samples at 635 nm was calculated. The differences in the bladder cancer group were significantly greater than those in the control group (p spectrophotometer in patients with bladder cancer. Therefore, this cancer detection system has a potential for clinical use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining Priorities to Improve Patient Experience in Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tullika; Connors, Jill Nault; Ladd, Ilene G; Bogaczyk, Tyler L; Larson, Sharon L

    2018-01-20

    Although approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive (NMIBC) at diagnosis, most research tends to focus on invasive disease (e.g., experiences related to radical cystectomy and urinary diversion). There is a lack of studies on quality of life, and especially qualitative research, in bladder cancer generally. As a result, relatively little is known about the experiences and needs of NMIBC patients. To understand patient experience, define care priorities, and identify targets for care improvement in NMIBC across the cancer continuum. Through focus groups, patients treated for NMIBC (stage influences on decision-making, and role of social support. Patients with NMIBC desired timely access to care and honest and caring provider communication. They described urinary function and emotional quality of life changes resulting from diagnosis and treatment. Avoiding cystectomy and being alive for family were the major decision influencers. In this qualitative study, we identified access to care, provider characteristics and communication, quality of life, values/influences on decision-making, and social support as priority areas to improve patient experience in NMIBC. Care redesign efforts should focus on improving access, enhancing provider communication, reducing side effects, and supporting caregiver roles.

  16. Identification of gene expression signature modulated by nicotinamide in a mouse bladder cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder cancer is often a result of exposure to chemical carcinogens such as cigarette smoking. Because of histological similarity, chemically-induced rodent cancer model was largely used for human bladder cancer studies. Previous investigations have suggested that nicotinamide, water-soluble vitamin B3, may play a key role in cancer prevention through its activities in cellular repair. However, to date, evidence towards identifying the genetic alterations of nicotinamide in cancer prevention has not been provided. Here, we search for the molecular signatures of cancer prevention by nicotinamide using a N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl-nitrosamine (BBN-induced urinary bladder cancer model in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Via microarray gene expression profiling of 20 mice and 233 human bladder samples, we performed various statistical analyses and immunohistochemical staining for validation. The expression patterns of 893 genes associated with nicotinamide activity in cancer prevention were identified by microarray data analysis. Gene network analyses of these 893 genes revealed that the Myc and its associated genes may be the most important regulator of bladder cancer prevention, and the gene expression signature correlated well with protein expression data. Comparison of gene expression between human and mouse revealed that BBN-induced mouse bladder cancers exhibited gene expression profiles that were more similar to those of invasive human bladder cancers than to those of non-invasive human bladder cancers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that nicotinamide plays an important role as a chemo-preventive and therapeutic agent in bladder cancer through the regulation of the Myc oncogenic signature. Nicotinamide may represent a promising therapeutic modality in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  17. AUA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno, Philip M; Burks, David Allen; Clemens, J Quentin; Dmochowski, Roger R; Erickson, Deborah; Fitzgerald, Mary Pat; Forrest, John B; Gordon, Barbara; Gray, Mikel; Mayer, Robert Dale; Newman, Diane; Nyberg, Leroy; Payne, Christopher K; Wesselmann, Ursula; Faraday, Martha M

    2011-06-01

    To provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. A systematic review of the literature using the MEDLINE® database (search dates 1/1/83-7/22/09) was conducted to identify peer reviewed publications relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Insufficient evidence-based data were retrieved regarding diagnosis and, therefore, this portion of the Guideline is based on Clinical Principles and Expert Opinion statements. The review yielded an evidence base of 86 treatment articles after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. These publications were used to create the majority of the treatment portion of the Guideline. When sufficient evidence existed, the body of evidence for a particular treatment was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate) or C (low). Additional treatment information is provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinion when insufficient evidence existed. See text and algorithm for definitions, and detailed diagnostic management, and treatment frameworks. The evidence-based guideline statements are provided for diagnosis and overall management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome as well as for various treatments. The panel identified first through sixth line treatments as well as developed guideline statements on treatments that should not be offered. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is best identified and managed through use of a logical algorithm such as is presented in this Guideline. In the algorithm the panel identifies an overall management strategy for the interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patient. Diagnosis and treatment methodologies can be expected to change as the evidence base grows in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS gene activation in human bladder cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Jagiello, A; Jalmuzna, P

    2000-08-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in most developed countries. In this work, 19 bladder cancer specimens, along with their infiltrations of the urinary bladder wall from the same patients, were examined for the presence of H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS activation using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The H-RAS activation was found in 15 (about 84%) of the 19 bladder cancers studied. The same results were obtained in the infiltrating urinary bladder wall samples. N-RAS gene mutations were observed in all cases (except 1) in which H-RAS gene mutations were detected. The results suggest a strong relationship between H-RAS and N-RAS gene activation in bladder cancer. Changes in the K-RAS gene in bladder cancers seem to be a rare event; this is in agreement with findings of other authors. We found activation of the gene in one specimen of bladder cancer and its infiltration of the urinary bladder wall in the same patient.

  19. Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JB; Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Borden, EC

    2006-01-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent malignancies, and is characterised by frequent tumour recurrences and localised inflammation, which may promote tissue invasion and metastasis. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in normal bladder urothelium with that in tumours...... at different stages of progression. The innate immune response gene, interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa (ISG15, GIP2), was highly expressed at all stages of bladder cancer as compared to normal urothelium. Western blotting revealed a tumour-associated expression of ISG15 protein. ISG15 exhibited a stage...... component of bladder cancer-associated gene expression....

  20. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  1. Update on the Pathology and Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is characterized by bladder discomfort, urinary frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain. The etiology and pathogenesis of this condition is still unknown and remains diagnosed by exclusion. The histologic findings are also neither specific for diagnosis nor correlated with symptoms. However, the definition and diagnostic criteria for the condition was established in the last decade. In this paper, we review the changes in the definition, terminology, and diagnostic scheme of IC/BPS, and summarize the histologic findings. We also briefly discuss some new pathologic suggestions and new urinary markers, focusing on the most promising ones. PMID:27032552

  2. An unusual case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy, in a renal transplant recipient. METHOD: A retrospective review of this clinical case and the associated literature were performed. CONCLUSION: This unusual case highlights two very rare entities. Bladder exstrophy has an incidence of 1 in 50,000 newborns, whereas urachal cancer accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumours.

  3. An unusual case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2009-03-18

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy, in a renal transplant recipient. METHOD: A retrospective review of this clinical case and the associated literature were performed. CONCLUSION: This unusual case highlights two very rare entities. Bladder exstrophy has an incidence of 1 in 50,000 newborns, whereas urachal cancer accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumours.

  4. At cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Hans Christian Düring; Andersen, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Challenges exist in identifying, recruiting and motivating sedentary patients with cancer to initiate physical activity towards recommended levels. We hypothesise that the onset period of adjuvant chemotherapy can be 'the open window of opportunity' to identify and motivate sedentary patients...... with breast and colon cancers, at risk for developing coronary heart disease, to initiate and sustain lifestyle changes....

  5. Quantification of Circulating Free DNA as a Diagnostic Marker in Gall Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Swati; Tewari, Shikha; Husain, Nuzhat; Agarwal, Akash; Pandey, Anshuman; Singhal, Ashish; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2017-01-01

    Gall bladder Carcinoma (GBC) is the fifth most common cancer of the digestive tract and frequently diagnosed in late stage of disease. Estimation of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in serum has been applied as a "liquid biopsy" in several deep seated malignancies. Its value in diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma has not been studied. The present study was designed to assess the role of cfDNA in the diagnosis of GBC and correlate levels with the TNM stage. Serum was collected from 34 patients with GBC and 39 age and sex matched controls including 22 cholecystitis and 17 healthy individuals. Serum cfDNA levels were measured through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) by amplification of β-globin gene. Performance of the assay was calculated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The cfDNA level was significantly lower in healthy controls and cholecystitis (89.32 ± 59.76 ng/ml, 174.21 ± 99.93 ng/ml) compared to GBC (1245.91 ± 892.46 ng/ml, p = <0.001). The cfDNA level was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node involvement and jaundice (0.002, 0.027, and 0.041, respectively). Area under curve of ROC analysis for cancer group versus healthy and cholecystitis group was 1.00 and 0.983 with sensitivity of 100 %, 88.24 % and specificity of 100 % respectively. Quantitative analysis of cfDNA may distinguish cholecystitis and gall bladder carcinoma and may serve as new diagnostic, noninvasive marker adjunct to imaging for the diagnosis of GBC.

  6. Study of false positives in 5-ALA induced photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draga, Ronald O. P.; Grimbergen, Matthijs C. M.; Kok, Esther T.; Jonges, Trudy G. N.; Bosch, J. L. H. R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a technique that enhances the detection of tumors during cystoscopy using a photosensitizer which accumulates primarily in cancerous cells and will fluoresce when illuminated by violetblue light. A disadvantage of PDD is the relatively low specificity. In this retrospective study we aimed to identify predictors for false positive findings in PDD. Factors such as gender, age, recent transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT), previous intravesical therapy (IVT) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were examined for association with the false positive rates in a multivariate analysis. Data of 366 procedures and 200 patients were collected. Patients were instilled with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) intravesically and 1253 biopsies were taken from tumors and suspicious lesions. Female gender and TURBT are independent predictors of false positives in PDD. However, previous intravesical therapy with Bacille Calmette-Guérin is also an important predictor of false positives. The false positive rate decreases during the first 9-12 weeks after the latest TURBT and the latest intravesical chemotherapy. Although shortly after IVT and TURBT false positives increase, PDD improves the diagnostic sensitivity and results in more adequate treatment strategies in a significant number of patients.

  7. The Relationship between Food Intake and Bladder Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide and the third most common cancer among Iranian males. Despite the relative high incidence of bladder cancer in Iran, no study has examined the relationship between dietary factors and bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship. Methods: The present case-control study was carried out on fifty-five patients with bladder cancer and including 110 cancer-free patients as controls. Dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. To investigate the relationship between food items and bladder cancer, the subjects were classified according to the tertile of food items. The odds ratio was calculated for each tertile and the first tertile was considered as the reference group. Results: Our findings revealed that among food groups, animal fat (OR=19.76, fat (OR=12.92, junk foods (OR=8.1, organ meat (OR=5.47, processed meat (OR=5.34 and sweets (OR=3.62 were involved in the development of bladder cancer. In bladder carcinogenesis, an inverse association was recorded between consumption of low fat dairy products (OR=0.31, yoghurt (OR =0.14, fish (OR = 0.13, specific fruits (OR=0.13 and the development of bladder cancer. Conclusion: Animal products and sources of saturated fat are associated with an increased in risk of bladder cancer. The protective effect of olive oil, specific fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy fermented was observed to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

  8. Intravesical chemotherapy in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima P Porten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC is characterized by a tendency for recurrence and capacity for progression. Intravesical instillation therapy has been employed in various clinical settings, which are summarized within this review. Several chemotherapeutic agents have shown clinical efficacy in reducing recurrence rates in the post-transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT setting, including mitomycin C (MMC, doxorubicin, and epirubicin. Mounting evidence also supports the use of intravesical MMC following nephroureterectomy to reduce later urothelial bladder recurrence. In the adjuvant setting, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is an established first-line agent in the management of carcinoma in situ (CIS and high-grade non muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC. Among high and intermediate-risk patients (based on tumor grade, size, and focality improvements in disease-free intervals have been seen with adjunctive administration of MMC prior to scheduled BCG dosing. Following failure of first-line intravesical therapy, gemcitabine and valrubicin have demonstrated modest activity, though valrubicin remains the only agent currently Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved for the treatment of BCG-refractory CIS. Techniques to optimize intravesical chemotherapy delivery have also been explored including pharmacokinetic methods such as urinary alkalization and voluntary dehydration. Chemohyperthermia and electromotive instillation have been associated with improved freedom from recurrence intervals but may be associated with increased urinary toxicity. Improvements in therapeutic selection may be heralded by novel opportunities for genomic profiling and refinements in clinical risk stratification.

  9. Interferon alfa in the treatment paradigm for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamm, D.; Brausi, M.; O'Donnell, M.A.; Witjes, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this article, we review the various options for and the potential role of interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: PubMed was searched for journal articles on IFN-alpha use in treating bladder cancer. The references listed in

  10. Low ANXA10 expression is associated with disease aggressiveness in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, P P; Mansilla, F; Brems Eskildsen, A-S

    2011-01-01

    Markers for outcome prediction in bladder cancer are urgently needed. We have previously identified a molecular signature for predicting progression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. ANXA10 was one of the markers included in the signature and we now validated the prognostic relevance of ANXA...

  11. A new generation of optical diagnostics for bladder cancer: technology, diagnostic accuracy, and future applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Daniël M.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: New developments in optical diagnostics have a potential for less invasive and improved detection of bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the technology and diagnostic yield of recently developed optical diagnostics for bladder cancer and to outline their potential future

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF INTERSPECIES CONCORDANCE OF MECHANISMS OF ARSENIC INDUCED BLADDER CANCER BY GENE EXPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that induces urinary bladder cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed for arsenic-induced cancer. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) does not induce tumors in adult rodents, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), a major metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder c...

  13. Designing the selenium and bladder cancer trial (SELEBLAT, a phase lll randomized chemoprevention study with selenium on recurrence of bladder cancer in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Maria E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2% and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%. Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported that selenium concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer. This suggests that selenium may also be suitable for chemoprevention of recurrence. Method The SELEBLAT study opened in September 2009 and is still recruiting all patients with non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder on TURB operation in 15 Belgian hospitals. Recruitment progress can be monitored live at http://www.seleblat.org. Patients are randomly assigned to selenium yeast (200 μg/day supplementation for 3 years or matching placebo, in addition to standard care. The objective is to determine the effect of selenium on the recurrence of bladder cancer. Randomization is stratified by treatment centre. A computerized algorithm randomly assigns the patients to a treatment arm. All study personnel and participants are blinded to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. Design The SELEnium and BLAdder cancer Trial (SELEBLAT is a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, academic, double-blind superior trial. Discussion This is the first report on a selenium randomized trial in bladder cancer patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00729287

  14. MIM, a Potential Metastasis Suppressor Gene in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a modified version of the mRNA differential display technique, five human bladder cancer cell lines from low grade to metastatic were analyzed to identify differences in gene expression. A 316-bp cDNA (C11300 was isolated that was not expressed in the metastatic cell line TccSuP. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was identical to KIAA 0429, has a 5.3-kb transcript that mapped to 8824.1. The protein is predicted to be 356 amino acids in size and has an actin-binding WH2 domain. Northern blot revealed expression in multiple normal tissues, but none in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (SKBR3 or in metastatic prostatic cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3. We have named this gene Missing in Metastasis (MIM and our data suggest that it may be involved in cytoskeletal organization.

  15. LncRNA-SNHG16 predicts poor prognosis and promotes tumor proliferation through epigenetically silencing p21 in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianxiang; Xu, Jing; Yue, Dong

    2018-02-01

    More and more evidences have ensured the crucial functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in multiple tumors. It has been discovered that lncRNA-SNHG16 is involved in many tumors. Even so, it is still necessary to study SNHG16 comprehensively in bladder cancer. In terms of our study, the level of SNHG16 both in the tumor tissues and cell lines was measured and the relationship among SNHG16, clinicopathological traits and prognosis was explored. Interference assays were applied to determine the biological functions of SNHG16. It was discovered that the level of SNHG16 was evidently enhanced both in tissues and cell lines of bladder cancer. Patients with highly expressed SNHG16 suffered from poor overall survival. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis implied that highly expressed SNHG16 could be used as an independent prognostic marker. It could be known from functional assays that silenced SNHG16 impaired cell proliferation, owing to the effects of SNHG16 on cell cycle and apoptosis. Finally, mechanism experiments revealed that SNHG16 could epigenetically silence the expression of p21. The facts above pointed out that lncRNA-SNHG16 might be quite vital for the diagnosis and development of bladder cancer, and could even become an important therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  16. Prognosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: difference between primary and progressive tumours and implications for therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Hollander, M.P.; Rhijn, B.W. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in prognosis between progressive and primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1986 to 2000, 74 patients with progressive muscle-invasive bladder cancer were identified. Eighty-nine patients with primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer

  17. Constitutional and occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Garcia, J; Berbel, O; Ortega, J A

    2013-09-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC) is the fourth most common type of cancer in males from Western countries, with primary prevention an important healthcare challenge. We review the associated constitutional and occupational risk factors (RF), with greater or lesser scientific evidence, in the aetiology of BC. Literature review of the last 25 years of the constitutional and occupational RF associated with BC, conducted on MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Risk factors/Genetic factors/Genetic polymorphisms/Epidemiology/Occupational factors and Bladder cancer. The main RF were a) age and gender (diagnosed at age 65 and over, with a 4:1 ratio of males to females); b) race, ethnicity and geographic location (predominantly in Caucasians and in Southern European countries); c) genetic (N-acetyltransferase-2 and glutathione s-transferase M1 gene mutations, which significantly increase the risk for BC); d) occupational, which represent 5%-10% of BC RF; and f) occupations with high BC risk, such as aluminium production, the manufacture of dyes, paints and colourings, the rubber industry and the extraction and industrial use of fossil fuels. BC is the end result of the variable combination of constitutional and environmental RF, the majority of which are unknown. The most significant constitutional RF are related to age, gender, race, ethnicity geographic location and genetic polymorphisms. The main occupational RF are those related to aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  19. Identification of microRNAs in blood and urine as tumour markers for the detection of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Angelika; Jung, Monika; Rabenhorst, Silke; Kilic, Ergin; Jung, Klaus; Weikert, Steffen

    2013-10-01

    Since differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found to be highly associated with several types of cancer, the goal of the present study was to identify an miRNA fingerprint as a non‑invasive diagnostic tool to detect urinary bladder cancer using the easily accessible samples of whole blood and urine. Blood and urine samples from 4 controls and from patients suffering from superficial and invasive bladder cancer were analyzed using miRNA microarray consisting of 754 human miRNAs from the Sanger database v14. Using RT‑qPCR technique, 6 of the differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in the controls (20 blood, 19 urine samples) and patients with superficial (18 blood, 16 urine samples) or invasive (20 blood and urine samples each) tumours. Three blood miRNAs (miR‑26b‑5p, miR‑144‑5p, miR‑374‑5p) were found to be significantly upregulated in invasive bladder tumour patients (Pbladder tumours with 94% specificity and 65% sensitivity. The urine miR‑1255b‑5p reached 68% specificity and 85% sensitivity in the diagnosis of invasive tumours. This pilot study represents the first characterization of an miRNA profile for urinary bladder tumours in whole blood samples. In addition, it was shown that invasive bladder tumours could be identified by differentially expressed urine miRNAs. Further studies are needed to test the clinical usefulness for bladder cancer detection and surveillance.

  20. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  1. OK-432 Suppresses Proliferation and Metastasis by Tumor Associated Macrophages in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan-Feng; Tang, Kun; Guan, Wei; Yang, Tao; Xu, Hua; Zhuang, Qian-Yuan; Ye, Zhang-Qun

    2015-01-01

    OK-432, a Streptococcus-derived anticancer immunotherapeutic agent, has been applied in clinic for many years and achieved great progress in various cancers. In the present study, we investigated its anticancer effect on bladder cancer through tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). MTS assay validated OK-432 could inhibit proliferation in both T24 and EJ bladder cell lines. OK-432 also induced apoptosis of bladder cancer cells in vitro. Consequently, we demonstrated that OK-432 could suppress the bladder cancer cells migration and invasion by altering the EMT-related factors. Furthermore, using SD rat model, we revealed that OK-432 inhibited tumor growth, suppressed PCNA expression and inhibited metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that OK-432 inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis through inducing macrophages to secret cytokines in bladder cancer.

  2. The progress in diagnostic imaging for staging of bladder and prostate cancer. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization transfer contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Kiminobu; Hayashi, Norio; Yanagawa, Makoto; Kawamura, Juichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Takeda, Kan [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    1999-08-01

    We retrospectively studied the staging accuracy of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with transrectal ultrasound examination (TRUS) for 71 localized bladder cancers and 19 localized prostate cancers (PC) radically resected. The accuracy of clinical staging for bladder cancer in endorectal MRI and TRUS was 85.9% and 69.2%, respectively. The presence or absence of the continuity of submucosal enhancement on T2-weighted MRI images could be useful for the staging of bladder cancer. The accuracy of the seminal vesicular invasion for prostate cancer in endorectal MRI and TRUS was 95% and 63%, respectively. To determine whether magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) provides additional information in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) were calculated in 22 patients with PC, 5 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 4 controls. The mean MTR in the peripheral zone of the normal prostate (8.0%{+-}3.4 [standard deviation]) showed a statistically significant decrease relative to that in the inner zone of the normal prostate (27.4%{+-}3.4, p<0.01), BPH (25.5%{+-}3.7, p<0.01), pre-treatment PC (30.6%{+-}5.9, p<0.01), and PC after hormonal therapy (20.3%{+-}6.3, p<0.01). The mean MTR in pre-treatment PC was significantly higher than that in BPH, or in PC after hormonal therapy (p<0.01). MTC was considered to be useful for conspicuity of prostate cancer lesion. (author)

  3. A study of image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer based on lipiodol injection in the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Elstroem, Ulrik Vindelev; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Oerding Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. We have tested a procedure of focal injection of the contrast medium Lipiodol as a fiducial marker for image-guided boost of the tumor in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility and the safety of the method as well as the inter- and intra-fraction shift of the bladder tumor. Materials and methods. Five patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer were included in the study. Lipiodol was injected during flexible cystoscopy into the submucosa of the bladder wall at the periphery of the tumor or the post resection tumor-bed. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired daily throughout the course of RT. Results. Lipiodol demarcation of the bladder tumor was feasible and safe with only a minimum of side effects related to the procedure. The Lipiodol spots were visible on CT and CBCT scans for the duration of the RT course. More than half of all the treatment fractions required a geometric shift of 5 mm or more to match on the Lipiodol spots. The mean intra-fraction shift (3D) of the tumor was 3 mm, largest in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Lipiodol can be injected into the bladder mucosa and subsequently visualized on CT and CBCT as a fiducial marker. The relatively large inter-fraction shifts in the positions of Lipiodol spots compared to the intra-fraction movement indicates that image-guided RT based on radio-opaque markers is important for RT of the bladder cancer tumor.

  4. Classification of bladder cancer cell lines using Raman spectroscopy: a comparison of excitation wavelength, sample substrate and statistical algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Adams, Aine; O'Dea, Shirley; Domijan, Katarina; Cullen, Ivor; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Raman microspectroscopy can be applied to the urinary bladder for highly accurate classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. This technique can be applied in vitro to bladder epithelial cells obtained from urine cytology or in vivo as an optical biopsy" to provide results in real-time with higher sensitivity and specificity than current clinical methods. However, there exists a high degree of variability across experimental parameters which need to be standardised before this technique can be utilized in an everyday clinical environment. In this study, we investigate different laser wavelengths (473 nm and 532 nm), sample substrates (glass, fused silica and calcium fluoride) and multivariate statistical methods in order to gain insight into how these various experimental parameters impact on the sensitivity and specificity of Raman cytology.

  5. Bladder-like graphical representation of p53 gene alterations in some human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, N.L.; Dorrah, M.; LI, C.

    2005-01-01

    the p53 tumor suppressor gene is mutated in about half of all human cancer cells. These mutations are not only important in tumor progression but apparently also in the response of some tumors to chemotherapy and radiation treatment, thus to clinical outcome. Recent studies have shown that cells carrying p53 mutations are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapy than cells with functional p53. More than 15000 tumors with Tp53 mutations were published, leadingto the description of more than 1500 different Tp53 mutants (at the site http:// p53. curie.fr). To exploit this huge bulk of data, specific analytic tools were highly warranted. Also, new computational techniques for rapid determination of such information and comparative studies of different mutations are required. In the present study, a mathematical method for the IARC library p53 mutation database comparing p53 mutations occurring in four different cancers was described. The sizes of the four cancers in the database were bladder (860), liver (786), brain (1170) and skin (38) cancers, for a total of 2854 of p53 mutations. The study was carried out on exons 4-8 of p53 for the four cancers under investigation. From this study, it can be quantitatively obtained some information for each characteristic sequence. The data showed that exon 8 was the most mutant exon in skin cancer and exon 7 was the lowest one. In hepatocellular carcinoma, exon 4 was the most mutant exon and exon 7 was the lowest mutant exon. Brain cancer showed high mutation in exon 8 and low mutation at exon 6. Finally, bladder mutation was mostly mutated at exon 6 comparing to the least value of exon 7. It is expected that this study of p53 mutation may provide useful information for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer

  6. Synergy of Histone-Deacetylase Inhibitor AR-42 with Cisplatin in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David R; Zhang, Hanwei; Peek, Elizabeth; Wang, Song; Du, Lin; Li, Gang; Chin, Arnold I

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin based chemotherapy regimens form the basis of systemic bladder cancer treatment, although they show limited response rates and efficacy. Recent molecular analysis of bladder cancer revealed a high incidence of mutations in chromatin regulatory genes, suggesting a therapeutic avenue for histone deacetylase inhibitors. We investigated the ability of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 to synergize with cisplatin in preclinical models of bladder cancer. We assessed the ability of the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 with and without cisplatin to destroy bladder cancer cells by survival and apoptosis assays in vitro, and by growth and differentiation in an in vivo xenograft model. We also assessed the response to the bladder cancer stem cell population by examining the effect of AR-42 on the CD44(+)CD49f(+) population with and without cisplatin. Synergy was calculated using combination indexes. The AR-42 and cisplatin combination synergistically destroyed bladder cancer cells via apoptosis and it influenced tumor growth and differentiation in vivo. When tested in the CD44(+)CD49f(+) bladder cancer stem cell population, AR-42 showed greater efficacy with and without cisplatin. AR-42 may be an attractive novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with activity against bladder cancer. Its efficacy in bladder cancer stem cells and synergy with cisplatin warrant further clinical investigation. Our in vitro and animal model studies provide preclinical evidence that AR-42 may be administered in conjunction with cisplatin based chemotherapy to improve the treatment of bladder cancer in patients. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Endoscopic gold fiducial marker placement into the bladder wall to optimize radiotherapy targeting for bladder-preserving management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: feasibility and initial outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice M Garcia

    Full Text Available Bladder radiotherapy is a management option for carefully selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, the inability to visualize the tumor site during treatment and normal bladder movement limits targeting accuracy and increases collateral radiation. A means to accurately and reliably target the bladder during radiotherapy is needed.Eighteen consecutive patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T1-T4 elected bladder-preserving treatment with maximal transurethral resection (TUR, radiation and concurrent chemotherapy. All underwent endoscopic placement of 24-K gold fiducial markers modified with micro-tines (70 [2.9×0.9 mm.]; 19 [2.1×0.7 mm. into healthy submucosa 5-10 mm. from the resection margin, using custom-made coaxial needles. Marker migration was assessed for with intra-op bladder-filling cystogram and measurement of distance between markers. Set-up error and marker retention through completion of radiotherapy was confirmed by on-table portal imaging.Between 1/2007 and 7/2012, a total of 89 markers (3-5 per tumor site were placed into 18 patients of mean age 73.6 years. Two patients elected cystectomy before starting treatment; 16/18 completed chemo-radiotherapy. All (100% markers were visible with all on-table (portal, cone-beam CT, fluoroscopy, plain-film, and CT-scan imaging. In two patients, 1 of 4 markers placed at the tumor site fell-out (voided during the second half of radiotherapy. All other markers (80/82, 98% were present through the end of radio-therapy. No intraoperative (e.g. uncontrolled bleeding, collateral injury or post-operative complications (e.g. stone formation, urinary tract infection, post-TUR hematuria >48 hours occurred. Use of micro-tined fiducial tumor-site markers afforded a 2 to 6-fold reduction in bladder-area targeted with high-dose radiation.Placement of the micro-tined fiducial markers into the bladder was feasible and associated with excellent retention-rate and no complications

  9. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  10. Understanding the gender disparity in bladder cancer risk: the impact of sex hormones and liver on bladder susceptibility to carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that bladder cancer (BC) incidence is approximately four-fold higher in men than in women in the United States, and a similar disparity also exists in other countries. The reason for this phenomenon is not known, which impedes progress in BC prevention. However, BC incidence is also significantly higher in male animals than in their female counterparts after treatment with aromatic amines, which are principal human bladder carcinogens. These animal studies and related studies in the context of available human data provide significant insight into what may drive the excessive BC risk in men, which is the focus of this article. The carcinogenicity and biotransformation of bladder carcinogens as well as the impact of sex hormones on these processes are discussed, highlighting the novel concept that the gender disparity in BC risk may result primarily from the interplay of androgen, estrogen, and liver, with the liver functioning via its metabolic enzymes as the main decider of bladder exposure to carcinogens in the urine and the male and female hormones exerting opposing effects on carcinogenesis in the bladder and likely also on liver enzymes handling bladder carcinogens. The findings may facilitate further investigation into the mechanism of gender disparity in BC risk and may also have important implications for BC prevention.

  11. The Immediate Results of Surgical Treatment of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei L. Charyshkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate results of the use of ureterointestinal anastomosis according to the Bricker technique at radical cystectomy (RC for bladder cancer (BC. Materials and Results: The study included 96 patients (11.5% women and 88.5% men with bladder cancer (BC, aged from 31 to 74 years (mean age 63.8±7.2, who underwent RC in the Lipetsk Regional Oncology Center, in the period from 2005 to 2014. Among the early postoperative complications, we identified dynamic ileus (16.7%, inflammatory complications of the surgical wound (12.5%, acute pyelonephritis (10.4%, and failure of ureterointestinal anastomosis (4.2%. The frequency of postoperative acute pyelonephritis corresponded to the findings of other authors. Two (2.1% patients died from early postoperative complications because of concomitant diseases (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction; thus, postoperative mortality in the early postoperative period was 4.2%. Chronic pyelonephritis with chronic renal failure detected in 15(15.6% patients after one year after surgery was the most frequent late postoperative complication. The stricture of ureterointestinal anastomosis in 9(9.4% patients has been eliminated through relaparotomy and resection of anastomosis. The development of urolithiasis in 12(12.5% patients after one year after surgery has required the implementation of contact lithotripsy and litholytic therapy.

  12. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozono, Seiichiro; Kim, Sung-Chul; Takashima, Kenji [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)] [and others

    1999-02-01

    The present investigation was conducted to examine the effects of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for patients with invasive bladder cancer. A total of 37 patients were treated with IAC at Nara Medical University and its affiliated hospitals between January, 1993 and August, 1997. There were 27 patients in the poor risk group. The remaining 10 patients underwent anti-tumor IAC. Thirty of the 37 patients received chemotherapeutic agents via a reservoir, and the remaining 7 patients received a one-shot injection of agents followed by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). In the reservoir group, there were 18 patients who received IAC in combination with radiation therapy. As a result, reduction of tumor size was noted in 53%, and the 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 54% in all cases. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rate between the radiation-treated group and the group without radiation. The adverse events included anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal symptoms, but none of them were severe. The results of the present study indicate that IAC is useful in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer for poor risk patients. (author)

  13. Paradox of life among survivors of bladder cancer and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To interpret the meanings attributed to the experience of bladder cancer among survivors in therapeutic follow-up. METHOD: Qualitative methodological approach, based on medical anthropology and narrative methodology. After approval by the research ethics committee of a public university hospital, data were collected from January 2014 to February 2015, by means of recorded semi-structured interviews, direct observation and field journal entries on daily immersion with a group of six men and six women, aged between 57 and 82 years, in therapeutic follow-up. Narratives were analyzed by means of inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The meanings revealed difficulties with the processes of disease and treatment, such as breakdown of normal life, uncertainty about the future due to possible recurrence of the disease, difficulty with continuity of care and emotional control, relating it to conflicting ways of understanding the present life. Thus, the meaning of this narrative synthesis is paradox. CONCLUSION: Interpretation of the meaning of experience with bladder cancer among patients provides nurses with a comprehensive view of care, which encompasses biological, psychological and social dimensions, and thereby systematizes humanized care.

  14. Radiotherapy treatment results of bladder cancer: study of 458 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vara Santos, J.; Torre Tomas, A. de la; Romero Fernandez, J.; Regueiro Otero, C.; Clavo Varas, B.; Magallan Sebastian, R.; Valcarcel Sancho, F.; Polo Tolosana, E.; Aragon de la Cruz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1964 to 1990, 458 patients diagnosed of bladder cancer have been treated with radical radiotherapy in our department. The 5-years and 10-years actuarial survival rates were 37% and 27% respectively. The 5-years and 10-years actuarial local control rates, evaluated in 404 patients, were 41% and 38%. In regard to survival, T stage (p=0.013), advanced intravesical extension or multicentrity (p>0.0001), and squamous differentiation (p<0.0001), reached statistical significance as adverse prognostic factors. In 248 patients, with invasive transitional carcinoma, radical radiotherapy alone was used. In this group of patients, T stage (p=0.006) and advanced intravesical extension or multicentrity (p=0.0002) were adverse prognostic factors for survival. Our results suggest that radical radiotherapy must be considered and alternative to surgery in management of bladder cancer. On the basis of prognostic factors evidenced in this series a subgroup of patients with low probability of survival when treated with exclusive radiotherapy are defined. This patients must be included in clinical research protocols. (Author) 44 refs

  15. [High oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Sinyakova, L A; Gundorova, L V; Kosov, V A; Kosova, I V; Pogodina, I E; Kolbasov, D N

    2017-07-01

    To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV. Tumor tissue was sampled for PCR virus detection. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the components of lymphocyte-plasmocyte and leukocyte infiltrates and cytopathic changes in tumor tissue. There were positive correlations between cytopathic cell changes (koylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions, as manifestations of HPV) and the level of antiviral antibodies, the presence of viruses in the tumor, as well as with the components of the lymphoid-plasmocyte infiltrate. Negative correlations were found between the presence of papillomatosis and the above changes. Human papillomavirus is believed to be a trigger for the initiation of a tumor in young patients with a latent infection (CMV and EBV, HSV, HPV). Cytopathic changes (kylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions) were associated with the activity and morphological features of herpes-viral infections. Their degree varied depending on the stage of the process, but not on the anaplasia degree. Papillomatosis is associated with a more favorable course of the tumor process.

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalu S.L. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in urinary bladder cancer and its association with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and high risk human papilloma virus (HPV types 16 and 18. Materials and Methods : Thirty cases of urothelial carcinoma were analyzed. EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 expressions in the tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. For HPV, DNA from tissue samples was extracted and detection of HPV was done by PCR technique. Furthermore, evaluation of different intracellular molecules associated with EGFR signaling pathways was performed by the western blot method using lysates from various cells and tissues. Results : In this study, the frequencies of immunopositivity for EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 were 23%, 60%, 47%, and 80%, respectively. No cases were positive for HPV-18, whereas HPV-16 was detected in 10% cases. Overall, expression of EGFR did not show any statistically significant association with the studied parameters. However, among male patients, a significant association was found only between EGFR and HER2. Conclusions : Overexpression of EGFR and/or HER2, two important members of the same family of growth factor receptors, was observed in a considerable proportion of cases. Precise knowledge in this subject would be helpful to formulate a rational treatment strategy in patients with urinary bladder cancer.

  17. Genetic Alterations in the Molecular Subtypes of Bladder Cancer: Illustration in the Cancer Genome Atlas Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woonyoung; Ochoa, Andrea; McConkey, David J; Aine, Mattias; Höglund, Mattias; Kim, William Y; Real, Francisco X; Kiltie, Anne E; Milsom, Ian; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Lerner, Seth P

    2017-09-01

    Recent whole genome mRNA expression profiling studies revealed that bladder cancers can be grouped into molecular subtypes, some of which share clinical properties and gene expression patterns with the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer and the molecular subtypes found in other solid tumors. The molecular subtypes in other solid tumors are enriched with specific mutations and copy number aberrations that are thought to underlie their distinct progression patterns, and biological and clinical properties. The availability of comprehensive genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other large projects made it possible to correlate the presence of DNA alterations with tumor molecular subtype membership. Our overall goal was to determine whether specific DNA mutations and/or copy number variations are enriched in specific molecular subtypes. We used the complete TCGA RNA-seq dataset and three different published classifiers developed by our groups to assign TCGA's bladder cancers to molecular subtypes, and examined the prevalence of the most common DNA alterations within them. We interpreted the results against the background of what was known from the published literature about the prevalence of these alterations in nonmuscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancers. The results confirmed that alterations involving RB1 and NFE2L2 were enriched in basal cancers, whereas alterations involving FGFR3 and KDM6A were enriched in luminal tumors. The results further reinforce the conclusion that the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer are distinct disease entities with specific genetic alterations. Our observation showed that some of subtype-enriched mutations and copy number aberrations are clinically actionable, which has direct implications for the clinical management of patients with bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photochemical internalization in bladder cancer - development of an orthotopic in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gederaas, Odrun A; Johnsson, Anders; Berg, Kristian; Manandhar, Rojlina; Shrestha, Chetana; Skåre, Daniel; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Høgset, Anders; Hjelde, Astrid

    2017-11-08

    The possibility of using photochemical internalization (PCI) to enhance the effects of the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is investigated, together with photophysical determination and outlines of a possible treatment for intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. In vitro experiments indicated that the employment of PCI technology using the novel photosensitizer TPCS 2a ® can enhance the cytotoxic effect of bleomycin in bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, experiments in an orthotopic in vivo bladder cancer model show an effective reduction in both the necrotic area and the bladder weight after TPCS 2a based photodynamic therapy (PDT). The tumor selectivity and PDT effects may be sufficient to destroy tumors without damaging the detrusor muscle layer. Our results present a possible new treatment strategy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, with the intravesical instillation of the photosensitizer and bleomycin followed by illumination through an optic fiber by using a catheter.

  19. [Concomitant oncopathological changes in the prostate of urinary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystoprostateectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komyakov, B K; Sergeev, A V; Fadeev, V A; Ismailov, K I; Ulyanov, A Yu; Shmelev, A Yu; Onoshko, M V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence of spreading bladder transitional cell carcinoma and primary adenocarcinoma to the prostate in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. From 1995 to 2016, 283 men underwent radical cystectomy with removal of the bladder, perivesical tissue, prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. Prostate sparing cystectomy was performed in 45 (13.7%) patients. The whole prostate and the apex of the prostate were preserved in 21 (6.4%) and 24 (7.3%) patients, respectively. The spread of transitional cell cancer of the bladder to the prostate occurred in 50 (15.2%) patients. Twelve (3.6%) patients were found to have primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed in 4 (33.3%) patients. We believe that the high oncological risk of prostate sparing cystectomy, despite some functional advantages, dictates the need for complete removal of the prostate in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  20. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Results Sirolimus inhibits the growth of bladder carcinoma cells and decreases their viability. Significant correlations were found between cell proliferation and sirolimus concentration (r = 0.830; p Conclusion Sirolimus has an anti-proliferation effect on the T24 bladder carcinoma cell line. The information from our results is useful for a better understanding sirolimus's anti-proliferative activity in the T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  1. Cigarette Smoking, N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylation Status, and Bladder Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcus, P.M.; Hayes, R.B.; Vineis, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco use is an established cause of bladder cancer. The ability to detoxify aromatic amines, which are present in tobacco and are potent bladder carcinogens, is compromised in persons with the N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation polymorphism. The relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder...... cancer risk therefore has been hypothesized to be stronger among slow acetylators. The few studies to formally explore such a possibility have produced inconsistent results, however. To assess this potential gene-environment interaction in as many bladder cancer studies as possible and to summarize...... results, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 16 bladder cancer studies conducted in the general population (n = 1999 cases), Most had been conducted in European countries. Because control subjects were unavailable for a number of these studies, we used a case-series design, which can be used...

  2. [Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents: a diagnosis to bear in mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eduardo; Alarcón Caba, Martín; Toselli, Luzia; Moldes, Juan; Ormaechea, María; de Badiola, Francisco; Christiansen, Silvia

    2009-02-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder has a high incidence in adults, but it is uncommon in children and adolescents. Hematuria is the most common symptom of presentation and vesical ecography the preferred diagnostic method. The diagnosis and treatment is performed with cystoscopy and endoscopic resection. We describe two patients: an 18 years old male, who presented with a pediculated tumor on the posterior bladder wall and a 15 years old female with a 1 cm long tumor on the posterior wall too; both were removed under endoscopic control. In both patients superficial transitional cell carcinoma was the final diagnosis and are disease free 3 and 5 years later. A review of the available literature was performed to clarify if this type of tumors must be considered malignant and try to define how long and by which way these patients must be controlled.

  3. Improving fluorescence diagnosis of cancer by SLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Angelika; Dolp, Frank; Kinzler, Ingrid; Hauser, Carmen; Scalfi-Happ, Claudia

    2006-02-01

    Although during the last years, significant progress was made in cancer diagnosis, using either intrinsic or specially designed fluorophores, still problems exist, due to difficulties in spectral separation of highly overlapping probes or in lack of specificity. Many of the problems could be circumvented by focusing on time-resolved methods. In combination with spectral resolved detection (spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging, SLIM) highly sophisticated fluorescence lifetime imaging can be performed which might improve specificity of cell diagnosis. To record lifetime images (τ-mapping) with spectral resolution a setup was realized consisting of a laser scanning microscope equipped with a 16 channel array for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and a spectrograph in front of the array. A Ti:Saphir laser can be used for excitation or alternatively ps diode lasers. With this system the time- and spectral-resolved fluorescence characteristics of different fluorophores were investigated in solution and in cell culture. As an example, not only the mitochondria staining dye rhodamine 123 could be easily distinguished from DAPI, which intercalates into nucleic acids, but also different binding sites of DAPI. This was proved by the appearance of different lifetime components within different spectral channels. Another example is Photofrin, a photosensitizer which is approved for bladder cancer and for palliative lung and esophageal cancer in 20 countries, including the United States, Canada and many European countries. Photofrin is a complex mixture of different monomeric and aggregated porphyrins. The phototoxic efficiency during photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be correlated with the relative amounts of monomers and aggregates. With SLIM different lifetimes could be attributed to various, spectrally highly overlapping compounds. In addition, a detailed analysis of the autofluorescence by SLIM could explain changes of mitochondrial metabolism during

  4. Patient resources available to bladder cancer patients: a pilot study of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl T; Mei, Minghua; Ashley, Jan; Breslow, Gene; O'Donnell, Michael; Gilbert, Scott; Lemmy, Simon; Saxton, Claire; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Latini, David M

    2012-01-01

    To survey thought leaders attending an annual bladder cancer conference about resources available to survivors at, primarily, large academic centers treating a high volume of patients. Bladder cancer is a disease with high treatment burden. Support groups and survivorship programs are effective at managing physical and psychosocial impairments experienced by patients. The Institute of Medicine recommends increased resources for cancer survivorship, but no description of current resources exists for bladder cancer patients. Preceding the 4th annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank meeting in August 2009, we carried out an Internet-based survey of registrants that queried respondents about institutional resources and support systems devoted to bladder cancer survivors. Data were collected using SurveyMonkey.com, and descriptive statistics were computed. A total of 43 eligible respondents included urologists (77%), medical oncologists (16%), and other physicians or health professionals (7%). Physician respondents represented 22 academic centers and 2 private groups. Although 63% of respondent institutions had a National Cancer Institute designation, only 33% had an active bladder cancer support group. Survivorship clinics were available in 29% of institutions, and peer support networks, community resources for education, and patient navigation were available in 58%, 13%, and 25% of respondent institutions, respectively. Resources for bladder cancer survivors vary widely and are lacking at several academic centers with high-volume bladder cancer populations. Bladder cancer providers are often unaware of available institutional resources for patients. Urologists need to advocate for additional survivor resources and partner with other disciplines to provide appropriate care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deregulation of HOX B13 expression in urinary bladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, L; Cantile, M; Scognamiglio, G; Perdonà, S; La Mantia, E; Cerrone, M; Gigantino, V; Cillo, C; Caraglia, M; Pignata, S; Facchini, G; Botti, G; Chieffi, S; Chieffi, P; Franco, R

    2013-02-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy in industrialized countries. More than 90% of bladder cancer originates in the transitional cells. Bladder transitional cancer prognosis is, according to the most recent definition related to the level of tumor infiltration, characterized by two main phenotypes, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (NMIBC) and Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (MIBC). The genetic profile and the clinical course of the two subtypes are completely different, however among NMIBC the prognosis is not completely predictable, since 20% of the cases experience a relapse, even in the form of MIBC. It has recently been reported that the chromosomal region 12q13-15, containing crucial cancer genes such as MDM2, CDK4, GLI and an entire cluster of HOX genes, is amplified in bladder cancer. HOX genes codify for transcriptionl factor, involved in embryonal development and cancer progression, with main nuclear expression. Particularly it was also described the strong involvement of HOX B13 in several tumors of urogenital system. In this study we have been investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX B13 expression in bladder cancer evolution and progression, evaluating its ability to discriminate between NMIBC and MBCI phenotypes. Cytoplasmic HOX B13 delocalization significantly relates with muscle invasion (p 0.004). In addition in the series of NMIBC nuclear HOX B13 expression loss is significantly associated to shorter disease free survival (p-value=0.038) defining a potential prognostic role. Overexpression of HOX B13 in more aggressive phenotype is also demonstrate at gene level by quantitative RT-PCR. The de-regulation and delocalization of HOX B13 in urinary bladder cancer supports again the important role of HOX genes in tumor evolution and represents a starting point to establish an integrated analysis, in which HOX genes represent important prognostic and predictive markers for bladder

  6. Virtual cystoscopy, computed tomography urography and optical cystoscopy for the detection and follow-up for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Muñoz, D; Quintana Martínez, I; Fernández Militino, A; Sánchez Zalabardo, D; Sarria Octavio de Toledo, L; Cozcolluela Cabrejas, R

    To evaluate the utility of virtual cystoscopy (VC) performed with CT urography in patients being studied under gross hematuria or patients being followed-up after a previous bladder cancer and compare the results with those obtained with gold standard technique (optical cystoscopy). Retrospective study of 117 patients who were referred for VC by the Urology Department between May 2014 and May 2015. Those patients presented with gross hematuria or they were previously treated patients from bladder cancer being followed up. These patients were evaluated with MDCT and virtual cystoscopy after distending the bladder with air. The results were compared with those obtained with optical cystoscopy which was performed no more than a week after. The global sensitivity and specificity of VC were 81,8 and 92,1%. Aditional findings detected in CT urography were an aortic dissection, urinary lithiasis and colonic metastasis. VC seems an useful technique in the diagnosis and follow-up for bladder cancer with a good correlation with OC. The main limitations are the impossibility of biopsy during the procedure and the detection of erythematous lesions. Collateral findings can be detected performed with CT urography although the high radiation exposure does not recommend their combined use. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of three-dimensional volumetric ultrasonography in patients with bladder cancer and its mimickers: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sujin; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Various diseases of the urinary bladder can be demonstrated as being polypoid, a nodular bladder mass or as focal bladder wall thickening. This includes malignant or benign neoplasms, urinary stones, or other inflammatory bladder conditions. In daily practice many of these bladder diseases are easily confused with bladder cancer. On the other hand, ultrasonography (US) is safe and can be easily applied as a screening modality or an initial evaluating tool for urinary bladder disease. Furthermore, additional three-dimensional (3D) volumetric techniques can support more delicate delineation of these lesions. This study presents a 3D volumetric US for bladder lesions, and demonstrates various pathological conditions of the urinary bladder ranging from bladder cancer to other benign lesions.

  8. Opa interacting protein 5 acts as an oncogene in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuefeng; Hou, Jianquan; Ping, Jigen; Wen, Duangai; He, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To explore the biological functions and mechanism of Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) in bladder cancer (BC). We investigated the expression of OIP5 in BC through immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and its correlation with clinicopathologic features of BC patients. Moreover, knockdown of OIP5 was performed in BC cell lines and colony formation capacity, cell growth curve, cell cycle phase and cell apoptosis assay was applied for investigating the roles of OIP5 in BC. Moreover, the expression of OIP5 was validated through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The diagnosis value of OIP5 was accessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in TCGA database. The expression of OIP5 in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues and bladder mucosa tissues with chronic cystitis. Higher protein expression level of OIP5 predicted shorter survival time in patients with BC, which was significantly correlated with larger tumor size, high-grade tumor and advanced T classification. The expression of OIP5 was considerably decreased after lentivirus infection both at mRNA and protein levels. Functional assay displayed that silencing of OIP5 inhibited colony formation capacity and cell growth in BC cell lines. Cell cycle assays indicated that suppressed OIP5 disturbed the balance of the cell cycle in BC cell lines, which increased the cell population of the G1 phase and decreased the cell population of the S phase. Furthermore, knockdown of OIP5 expression enhanced cell apoptosis process. The expression of OIP5 was significantly up-regulated in BC compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues based on TCGA database. OIP5 had the potential diagnostic value for BC. Our work demonstrated that OIP5 might function as an oncogene to promote colony formation capacity and cell growth, arrest cell cycle and suppress cell apoptosis in bladder cancer.

  9. Lab on a chip for multiplexed immunoassays to detect bladder cancer using multifunctional dielectrophoretic manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Ting-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Ho; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Ju, Jing-Wei; Huang, Yao-Wei; Van Nhan, Vo

    2015-07-21

    A multiplexed immunosensor has been developed for the detection of specific biomarkers Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and Lactate Dehydrogenase B (LDH-B) present in different grades of bladder cancer cell lysates. In order to immobilize nanoprobes with different antibodies on a single chip we employed three-step programmable dielectrophoretic manipulations for focusing, guiding and trapping to enhance the fluorescent response and reduce the interference between the two antibody arrays. The chip consisted of a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for sensing and a middle fish bone shaped gold electrode for focusing and guiding. Using ITO electrodes for the sensing area can effectively eliminate the background noise of fluorescence response as compared to metal electrodes. It was also observed that the three step manipulation increased fluorescence response after immunosensing by about 4.6 times as compared to utilizing DEP for just trapping the nanoprobes. Two different-grade bladder cancer cell lysates (grade I: RT4 and grade III: T24) were individually analyzed for detecting the protein expression levels of Gal-1 and LDH-B. The fluorescence intensity observed for Gal-1 is higher than that of LDH-B in the T24 cell lysate; however the response observed in RT4 is higher for LDH-B as compared to Gal-1. Thus we can effectively identify the different grades of bladder cancer cells. In addition, the platform for DEP manipulation developed in this study can enable real time detection of multiple analytes on a single chip and provide more practical benefits for clinical diagnosis.

  10. Clinical and pathological implications of miRNA in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braicu C

    2015-01-01

    important practical applications, taking into account that they modulate essential biological processes such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is a mechanism relevant in bladder cancer. miRNAs collected from biological specimens can furnish valuable evidence with regard to bladder cancer oncogenesis, as they also have been linked to clinical outcomes in urothelial carcinoma. Therefore, a single miRNA or a signature of multiple miRNAs may improve risk stratification of patients and may supplement the histological diagnosis of urological tumors, particularly for bladder cancer.Keywords: bladder cancer, miRNA, prognostic, diagnostic

  11. The value of computed tomography in the management of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karrer, P.; Zingg, E.; Vock, P.; Fischedick, A.; Haertel, M.; Fuchs, W.A.; Bern Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In 77 patients suffering from bladder cancer histopathological staging and CT-staging are compared. The invasion of bladder and lymph nodes by the tumor is confirmed by histological examination. The CT-results correspond with the pathological findings in 78% for the primary tumor and in 89% for the glands. CT is valuable help to establish the extent and staging of bladder tumors. (orig.) [de

  12. An Epigenomic Approach to Improving Response to Neoadjuvant Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylinas, Evanguelos; Hassler, Melanie R; Zhuang, Dazhong; Krzywinski, Martin; Erdem, Zeynep; Robinson, Brian D; Elemento, Olivier; Clozel, Thomas; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2016-09-02

    Bladder cancer is among the five most common cancers diagnosed in the Western world and causes significant mortality and morbidity rates in affected patients. Therapeutic options to treat the disease in advanced muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) include cystectomy and chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is effective in MIBC; however, it has not been widely adopted by the community. One reason is that many patients do not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and no biomarker currently exists to identify these patients. It is also not clear whether a strategy to sensitize chemoresistant patients may exist. We sought to identify cisplatin-resistance patterns in preclinical models of bladder cancer, and test whether treatment with the epigenetic modifier decitabine is able to sensitize cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cell lines. Using a screening approach in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cell lines, we identified dysregulated genes by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and DNA methylation assays. DNA methylation analysis of tumors from 18 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used to confirm in vitro results. Cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells were treated with decitabine to investigate epigenetic sensitization of resistant cell lines. Our results show that HOXA9 promoter methylation status is associated with response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in bladder cancer cell lines and in metastatic bladder cancer. Bladder cancer cells resistant to cisplatin chemotherapy can be sensitized to cisplatin by the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine. Our data suggest that HOXA9 promoter methylation could serve as potential predictive biomarker and decitabine might sensitize resistant tumors in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  13. The Use of Polymer Chitosan in Intravesical Treatment of Urinary Bladder Cancer and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Erman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent diseases of the urinary bladder are bacterial infections and bladder cancers. For both diseases, very high recurrence rates are characteristic: 50–80% for bladder cancer and more than 50% for bladder infections, causing loss of millions of dollars per year for medical treatment and sick leave. Despite years of searching for better treatment, the prevalence of bladder infections and bladder cancer remains unchanged and is even increasing in recent years. Very encouraging results in treatment of both diseases recently culminated from studies combining biopolymer chitosan with immunotherapy, and chitosan with antibiotics for treatment of bladder cancer and cystitis, respectably. In both pathways of research, the discoveries involving chitosan reached a successful long-lasting cure. The property of chitosan that boosted the effectivity of illness-specific drugs is its ability to enhance the accessibility of these drugs to the very sources of both pathologies that individual treatments without chitosan failed to achieve. Chitosan can thus be recognised as a very promising co-player in treatment of bladder cancer and bacterial cystitis.

  14. Curcumin inhibits bladder cancer progression via regulation of β-catenin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yunpeng; Jia, Zhuomin; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Chaofei; Yao, Yuanxin

    2017-07-01

    Bladder cancer has a considerable morbidity and mortality impact with particularly poor prognosis. Curcumin has been recently noticed as a polyphenolic compound separated from turmeric to regulate tumor progression. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells is not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effect of curcumin on the bladder cancer as well as possible mechanisms of curcumin. The expression of β-catenin was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis in a series of bladder cancer tissues. In addition, bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin on cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The migration and invasion capacity of T24 and 5637 cells were measured by transwell assay. The effects of curcumin on expression levels of β-catenin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker were determined by western blotting. The β-catenin expression was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer tissues when compared with corresponding peri-tumor tissues. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells, and curcumin reduced the migration and invasive ability of T24 and 5637 cells via regulating β-catenin expression and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Curcumin may be a new drug for bladder cancer.

  15. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  16. Collecting and Studying Blood and Tissue Samples From Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Prostate or Bladder/Urothelial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Healthy Control; Localized Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  17. Kaempferol Modulates DNA Methylation and Downregulates DNMT3B in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Qiu; Jun Lin; Yichen Zhu; Jian Zhang; Liping Zeng; Ming Su; Ye Tian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genomic DNA methylation plays an important role in both the occurrence and development of bladder cancer. Kaempferol (Kae), a natural flavonoid that is present in many fruits and vegetables, exhibits potent anti-cancer effects in bladder cancer. Similar to other flavonoids, Kae possesses a flavan nucleus in its structure. This structure was reported to inhibit DNA methylation by suppressing DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). However, whether Kae can inhibit DNA methylation remains un...

  18. Can urologists introduce the concept of “oligometastasis” for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a so...

  19. Animal model of naturally occurring bladder cancer: Characterization of four new canine transitional cell carcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Development and further characterization of animal models for human cancers is important for the improvement of cancer detection and therapy. Canine bladder cancer closely resembles human bladder cancer in many aspects. In this study, we isolated and characterized four primary transitional cell carcinoma (K9TCC) cell lines to be used for future in vitro validation of novel therapeutic agents for bladder cancer. Methods Four K9TCC cell lines were established from naturally-occurring...

  20. Use of Aleuria alantia Lectin Affinity Chromatography to Enrich Candidate Biomarkers from the Urine of Patients with Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Ambrose

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing a urine test to detect bladder tumours with high sensitivity and specificity is a key goal in bladder cancer research. We hypothesised that bladder cancer-specific glycoproteins might fulfill this role. Lectin-ELISAs were used to study the binding of 25 lectins to 10 bladder cell lines and serum and urine from bladder cancer patients and non-cancer controls. Selected lectins were then used to enrich glycoproteins from the urine of bladder cancer patients and control subjects for analysis by shotgun proteomics. None of the lectins showed a strong preference for bladder cancer cell lines over normal urothlelial cell lines or for urinary glycans from bladder cancer patients over those from non-cancer controls. However, several lectins showed a strong preference for bladder cell line glycans over serum glycans and are potentially useful for enriching glycoproteins originating from the urothelium in urine. Aleuria alantia lectin affinity chromatography and shotgun proteomics identified mucin-1 and golgi apparatus protein 1 as proteins warranting further investigation as urinary biomarkers for low-grade bladder cancer. Glycosylation changes in bladder cancer are not reliably detected by measuring lectin binding to unfractionated proteomes, but it is possible that more specific reagents and/or a focus on individual proteins may produce clinically useful biomarkers.

  1. Results of chemoradiotherapyfor muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gumenetskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of chemoradiotherapy (CRT in 108 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer in whom surgery was contraindicated. The efficacies and toxicities of three variants of CRT were evaluated. Group 1 (neoadjuvant chemotherapy: 2–3 cycles of cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy followed by a continuous course of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. Group 2: concurrent CRT – cisplatin i.v., 70–100 mg/m 2 during the first and last weeks of continuous-course EBRT. Group 3: sequential neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 2–3 cycles and concurrent CRT. The comparative analysis of long-term outcomes following CRT indicated an improvement in survival rates in group 3 in which the 5-and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were 42,3 ± 8,8 % and 31,3 ± 9,4 %, respectively, compared with 28,6 ± 9,7 % and 28,6 ± 9,7 % in group 1, and 29,5 ± 8,5 % and 14,8 ± 7,4 % in group 2, respectively (р=0,093. Acute toxicity (GU Grade 1 or 2 arose more often from concurrent radiation and chemotherapy: in 40,0 % and 40,5 % of cases in groups 2 and 3, respectively, whereas in group 1 it occurred in 25,9 % of cases (р<0,2. Late radiation toxicity (GU Grade 2 occurred more often in the concurrent CRT groups: 11,4 % and 11,9 % versus 3,2 % in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group; Grade 3 was noted in 5,7 % and 2,4 % of patients in groups 2 and 3, respectively. The results indicated that chemoradiotherapy including neoadjuvant and concomitant chemotherapy improved the outcomes in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer in whom surgery was contraindicated. There was an acceptable rate of clinically significant complications.

  2. Inflammatory biomarkers and bladder cancer prognosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Lecomte, Alexandra; Rava, Marta; Real, Francisco X; Hartmann, Arndt; Allory, Yves; Malats, Núria

    2014-12-01

    Host immune response has an impact on tumour development and progression. There is interest in the use of inflammatory biomarkers (InfBMs) in cancer care. Although several studies assessing the potential prognostic value of InfBMs in cancer have been published in the past decades, they have had no impact on the management of patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC). To review and summarise the scientific literature on the prognostic value of tumour, serum, urine, and germline DNA InfBMs on UBC. A systematic review of the literature was performed searching the Medline and Embase databases for original articles published between January 1975 and November 2013. The main inclusion criterion was the provision of a survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier and/or Cox) according to the Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies guidelines for the assessment of prognostic markers. We focused on markers assessed at least twice in the literature. Findings are reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Overall, 34 publications, mostly retrospective, fulfilled the main inclusion criterion. Main limitations of these studies were missing relevant information about design or analysis and heterogeneous methodology used. Inflammatory cells, costimulatory molecules in tumour cells, and serum cytokines showed prognostic significance, mainly in univariable analyses. High C-reactive protein values were consistently reported as an independent prognostic factor for mortality in invasive UBC. There is a dearth of studies on InfBMs in UBC compared with other tumour types. Evidence suggests that InfBMs may have an impact on the management of patients with UBC. Currently, methodological drawbacks of the studies limit the translational potential of results. In this review, we analysed studies evaluating the impact of inflammatory response on bladder cancer progression. Despite methodological limitations, some inflammatory

  3. Sexual function following radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, F.A.; Howard, G.C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: The effect of radical radiotherapy (RT) for bladder cancer on sexual function has not been previously investigated. The current study was designed as a pilot to assess sexual function in males pre- and post-radiotherapy. Materials and methods: An anonymous questionnaire was devised to examine the following sexual domains: libido, frequency of sexual function, erectile capacity, orgasm and ejaculation in the 6 months prior to radiotherapy and following treatment. Serum testosterone, FSH and LH were measured in 10 patients. Results: Eighteen patients completed the questionnaire from 10 to 56 months following irradiation, 13 of whom were able to achieve an erection prior to RT. Over half of these patients noted a decline in the quality of erections after RT, with a similar proportion noting decreased libido and frequency of sexual activity. Three patients lost the ability to have any erections whatsoever. Of the 10 patients retaining erectile capacity, three noted reduced frequency of early morning erections suggesting a physical aetiology, five had decreased frequency of ejaculation and four had reduced intensity of orgasms. Seventy-one percent (12/17) felt their sex life was worse following RT but only 56% (9/16) were concerned about the deterioration. Testosterone levels were normal in all but one patient. Conclusions: Radical RT to the bladder can cause a decrease in sexual function in males. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Primary cT2 bladder cancer. A good candidate for radiotherapy combined with cisplatin for bladder preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takahiko; Nishijima, Jun; Miyachika, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Sakano, Shigeru; Matsuyama, Hideyasu

    2011-01-01

    Bladder preservation therapy (BPT) has been attempted for patients with localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, the indication for BPT has not yet been established. To identify patients who are good candidates for BPT, we evaluated our long-term experience with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for bladder preservation. Between 1994 and 2009, 82 patients with bladder cancer (clinical stage T2-N0M0) without concurrent upper urinary tract urothelial cancer were treated with CRT. Before CRT, the patients had a biopsy or resection of the tumor by transurethral resection (TUR). The response to CRT was evaluated by TUR, urine cytology and computed tomography. Thirty-two cases (39.0%) had a pathological complete response (pCR) that was defined as no microscopic residual tumor in the bladder. After TUR, 69 cases (84.0%) achieved local control of the cancer, which was considered as a clinical complete response (cCR). There was no significant association between achievement of pCR and examined parameters. The long-term results of CRT were evaluated in cCR cases. The median follow-up was 42.8 months (range, 4.1-155.1). The 5-year overall survival rate was 77.7% and 5-year progression-free survival rate was 64.5%. Clinical T stage and type of tumor (primary or recurrence) were predictive factors for overall survival as well as progression-free survival. In addition, primary cT2 cases had significantly better prognosis than cT3-4 and recurrent cases in overall survival and progression-free survival (P=0.008 and P=0.046, respectively). Cases with a primary cT2 tumor could be good candidates for BPT with radiation combined with cisplatin. (author)

  5. Intra-diverticular bladder cancer: CT imaging features and their association with clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Pier Luigi; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Karlo, Christoph A.; Lakhman, Yulia; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Sala, Evis; Bochner, Bernard H.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    Objectives evaluate if CT features of intra-diverticular bladder cancer can predict clinical outcome. Methods retrospective study of 34 patients with intra-diverticular bladder cancer. Two radiologists independently evaluated all CT exams. Results CT tumor length and width were significantly associated with survival for both readers (HRs 1.31–1.62, ppathology stage and survival (HR 2.10; p=0.21). Conclusions In patients with intra-diverticular bladder cancer, the tumor length and width measured on the pre-treatment CT predicted survival. PMID:25457532

  6. Investigations on the value of sonographic and radiographic diagnosis of Gall-Bladder diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.

    1981-01-01

    The pathologico-sonographical findings of 267 patients were put into contrast with the corresponding radiographic findings and/or the surgically confirmed final diagnosis. In 147 patients the diagnosis was not verified surgically. In 86 patients the sonographic and radiographic findings were compared with the surgically confirmed final diagnosis. The rate of correspondence of ultrasound findings and surgically confirmed final diagnoses was 93.1%. Of these, 10.5% of the cases showed partial correspondence. The radiographic findings were verified in 87.2% by the surgically confirmed final diagnosis. Of these, 52.3% were negative cholecystograms. The comparison of sonographic and radiographic findings with the surgically confirmed final diagnosis led to the result that with respect to the assessment of the gall bladder, ultrasound diagnostics provides more information than contrast media examinations. Because of the high degree of accuracy, because of the possibility to establish more differentiated findings and because of the total absence of any risks, it is recommended to apply ultrasound in the first examination when there is the suspicion of a gall-bladder disease. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Role of urothelial cells in BCG immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, R. F. M.; Kurth, K.-H.; Schamhart, D. H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer, both to reduce the recurrence rate of bladder tumour and to diminish the risk of progression. Since its first therapeutic application in 1976, major research efforts have been

  8. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; von der Maase, Hans; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors.METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups of patients...

  9. A prospective study to assess the bladder distension effects on dosimetry in intracavitary brachytherapy of cervical cancer via computed tomography-assisted techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.-M.; Huang, H.-Y.; Huang, E.-Y.; Wang, C.-J.; Ko, S.-F.; Lin Hao; Song, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is as important as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the radical radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer. The degree of urinary bladder distension during ICBT may affect the dose distribution in the bladder and rectum, to which an overdose may increase the chance of developing treatment-related complications. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess and quantify the impact of bladder distension on dosimetry in ICBT in patients with cervical cancer. Patients and methods: We recruited 20 patients with cervical cancer during a 12-month period. Inclusion criteria included pathological diagnosis of cervical cancer with IA to IIIB stages, and intact uterus. Patients were evaluated for brachytherapy after EBRT, and eligible individuals (cervical os could be identified clearly) were invited enter to this protocol to receive ICBT. In the first brachytherapy, bladder preparation (evacuation and distension by a Foley catheter) and CT scan were performed soon after the insertion of CT-compatible applicators. Then the bladder wall doses [median dose, maximum dose and dose-volume histograms (DVH)] were calculated via the PLATO computer planning system (Nucletron PLATO-RTS version 2.0). The individual data regarding doses and DVH were collected and compared. Bladder distension may shift the applicator position, and posterior displacement of the applicator system may increase the dose to the rectal wall, so this effect was also evaluated. Results: All the continuous variables of these 20 patients followed a normal distribution. By paired t-test and multiple linear regression analysis, we found that bladder distension statistically significantly decreased the median bladder wall dose with an average reduction of 48% of the dose of an empty bladder (P<0.001), and the maximum dose did not change; on the other hand, the bladder distension did not have any adverse effects on the rectal wall doses. Conclusions

  10. The impact of bladder preparation protocols on post treatment toxicity in radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yat Man Tsang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The empty bladder preparation approach has non-inferior acute and intermediate post RT GI and GU toxicities in patients treated for localised prostate cancer with advanced radiotherapy techniques compared to the full bladder preparation.

  11. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W.; Medical University Vienna; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A.; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P.; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  12. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    2013-07-15

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  13. Loss of intercellular adhesion leads to differential accumulation of hypericin in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, S. Sasidharan; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Chin, William W. L.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Olivo, Malini C. D.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) exploits the photoactive nature of certain compounds, namely photosensitizers, in order to enhance the visual demarcation between normal and neoplastic tissue. Hypericin is one such potent photosensitizer that preferentially accumulate in neoplastic tissue, and fluoresce in the visible spectrum when illuminated with light of an appropriate wavelength. In our study, we investigated the role of E-cadherin in the selective permeation of hypericin in bladder cancer tissues. Clinical studies were done on a series of 43 histologically graded bladder cancer biopsy specimens, obtained from 28 patients who received intravesical instillations with 8μM hypericin solution for at least 2 hours. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of E-cadherin, in the cryosectioned tissues. Hypericin uptake was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining showed a clear expression of E-cadherin along the urothelial lining of the normal and pre-malignant tissues. Partial expression of these cell adhesion molecules were still observed in malignant tissues, however there was a loss of expression to variable extends along the urothelium. Thus, loss of intercellular adhesion can be associated with enhanced hypericin permeation through paracellular diffusion.

  14. Biomarkers in Urachal Cancer and Adenocarcinomas in the Bladder: A Comprehensive Review Supplemented by Own Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Reis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal cancer (UrC is a rare but aggressive cancer. Due to overlapping histomorphology, discrimination of urachal from primary bladder adenocarcinomas (PBAC and adenocarcinomas secondarily involving the bladder (particularly colorectal adenocarcinomas, CRC can be challenging. Therefore, we aimed to give an overview of helpful (immunohistochemical biomarkers and clinicopathological factors in addition to survival analyses and included institutional data from 12 urachal adenocarcinomas. A PubMed search yielded 319 suitable studies since 1930 in the English literature with 1984 cases of UrC including 1834 adenocarcinomas (92% and 150 nonadenocarcinomas (8%. UrC was more common in men (63%, showed a median age at diagnosis of 50.8 years and a median tumor size of 6.0 cm. No associations were noted for overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS and clinicopathological factors beside a favorable PFS in male patients (p=0.047. The immunohistochemical markers found to be potentially helpful in the differential diagnostic situation are AMACR and CK34βE12 (UrC versus CRC and PBAC, CK7, β-Catenin and CD15 (UrC and PBAC versus CRC, and CEA and GATA3 (UrC and CRC versus PBAC. Serum markers like CEA, CA19-9 and CA125 might additionally be useful in the follow-up and monitoring of UrC.

  15. Combination of panoramic and fluorescence endoscopic images to obtain tumor spatial distribution information useful for bladder cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, S.; Hernández Mier, Y.; Blondel, W. C. P. M.; Daul, C.; Wolf, D.; Bourg-Heckly, G.

    2007-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread. Moreover, carcinoma in situ can be difficult to diagnose as it may be difficult to see, and become invasive in 50 % of case. Non invasive diagnosis methods like photodynamic or autofluorescence endoscopy allow enhancing sensitivity and specificity. Besides, bladder tumors can be multifocal. Multifocality increases the probability of recurrence and infiltration into bladder muscle. Analysis of spatial distribution of tumors could be used to improve diagnosis. We explore the feasibility to combine fluorescence and spatial information on phantoms. We developed a system allowing the acquisition of consecutive images under white light or UV excitation alternatively and automatically along the video sequence. We also developed an automatic image processing algorithm to build a partial panoramic image from a cystoscopic sequence of images. Fluorescence information is extracted from wavelength bandpass filtered images and superimposed over the cartography. Then, spatial distribution measures of fluorescent spots can be computed. This cartography can be positioned on a 3D generic shape of bladder by selecting some reference points. Our first results on phantoms show that it is possible to obtain cartography with fluorescent spots and extract quantitative information of their spatial distribution on a "wide" field of view basis.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Bladder Cancer in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirk Jeffrey T

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although cigarette smoking is a principal risk factor for bladder cancer in both men and women, few studies have statistically evaluated whether gender modifies the effect of smoking on bladder cancer risk. We initiated the present case-control study at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York, U.S., to provide further data on this important issue. We observed similar risk estimates for men and women with comparable smoking exposures, but did not observe a statistically significant interaction between gender and lifetime smoking exposure. We conclude that cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer in both sexes, but that gender does not modify the effect of smoking on bladder cancer risk.

  17. A late presentation of isolated lymph node tuberculosis postintravesical BCG therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a novel case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasleem, Ali Moostapha; Varga, Branislav; Mahmalji, Wasim; Madaan, Sanjeev

    2014-05-02

    Intravesical BCG immunotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. We recount the case of an 82-year-old British man who completed a course of BCG immunotherapy in 2011 for superficial bladder cancer, and presented in January 2013 with a loss of appetite, loss of weight and severe back pain. CT scanning, followed by MRI displayed a 5.7 cm × 5 cm conglomerated necrotic, haemorrhagic mass of lymph nodes in the para-aortic region. A CT-guided biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation, focal fibrosis and acid-fast bacilli consistent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). The patient was treated with combination antituberculous medication, and is recovering. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of lymph node TB secondary to intravesical BCG immunotherapy. We suggest that in patients treated with postintravesical BCG with enlarged lymph nodes, a diagnosis of secondary TB should be considered.

  18. Clinical diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, H P

    1975-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm in women, and 6% will develop it during their normal life expectancy. There is a group who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. The recent improvement in cure rates seems to be jue chiefly to earlier diagnosis rather than to improved methods of therapy. The physician, by careful periodic breast examinations and by the judicious use of diagnostic aids such as mammography and thermography, especially in the high risk group, has a golden opportunity to pick up cancer in a localized stage where the prognosis for cure with appropriate therapy is excellent. A tentative diagnosis of breast cancer (Table XI) can be made with a fair degree of accuracy by taking a careful history, utilizing and combining available statistics about the frequency, median age, characteristic symptom complexes of the common breast lesions and factors related to a high mammary carcinoma risk, and by a systematic and thorough breast examination supplemented with diagnostic aids when appropriate. However, biopsy and histologic examination is mandatory in all patients with a) true, three dimentional, dominant lumps even if diagnostic aids are negative except for cysts which can be safely aspirated under controlled conditions; b) suspicious lesions found by diagnostic aids even though there are no clinical findings; c) serous, serosanguineous, bloody, or watery nipple discharge; and d) other signs of cancer, i.e. eczema of the nipple, axillary adenopathy, etc., in order to determine with absolute accuracy whether the lesion is benign or malignant.

  19. Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Bladder Pain Syndrome. Spanish Urological Association Consensus Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M; Adot, J M; Arlandis, S; Peri, L; Prieto, L; Salinas, J; Cozar, J M

    2015-10-01

    Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis (BPS/IC) and other bladder pathologies share common manifestations, such as the presence of mictional symptoms and a negative impact on the patient's quality of life. To be properly diagnosed and clinically managed, it is important to distinguish between its clinical modalities and diagnostic criteria for adequate exclusion. The purpose of this study was to standardize criteria for making decisions in BPS management, for its diagnosis, initial treatment and follow-up. A nominal group methodology was employed, using scientific evidence on BPS taken from a systematic (non-exhaustive) literature review for developing recommendations along with specialist expert opinions. The diagnosis of BPS should be made based on the patient's clinical history, with emphasis on pain and mictional symptoms as well as excluding other pathologies with similar symptomatology. BPS treatment should be directed towards restoring normal bladder function, preventing symptom relapse and improving patients' quality of life. It is therefore advisable to start with conservative treatment and to adopt less conservative treatments as the level of clinical severity increases. It is also recommended to abandon ineffective treatments and reconsider other therapeutic options. Quickly identifying the pathology is important when trying to positively influence morbidity and care quality for these patients. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Finite element based bladder modeling for image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Remeijer, Peter; Lotz, Heidi T.; Bel, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A biomechanical model was constructed to give insight into pelvic organ motion as a result of bladder filling changes. Methods: The authors used finite element (FE) modeling to simulate bladder wall deformation caused by urine inflow. For ten volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic

  1. Kaempferol suppresses bladder cancer tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qiang; Song, Wenbin; Xu, Defeng; Ma, Yanmin; Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, which is an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation and an inducer of cell apoptosis have been shown in various cancers, including lung, pancreatic, and ovarian, but its effect has never been studied in bladder cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of kaempferol on bladder cancer using multiple in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies. The MTT assay results on various bladder cancer cell lines showed that kaempferol enhanced bladder cancer cell cytotoxicity. In contrast, when analyzed by the flow cytometric analysis, DNA ladder experiment, and TUNEL assay, kaempferol significantly was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These in vitro results were confirmed in in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenografted mouse models. Consistent with the in vitro results, we found that treating mice with kaempferol significant suppression in tumor growth compared to the control group mice. Tumor tissue staining results showed decreased expressions of the growth related markers, yet increased expressions in apoptosis markers in the kaempferol treated group mice tissues compared to the control group mice. In addition, our in vitro and in vivo data showed kaempferol can also inhibit bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Further mechanism dissection studies showed that significant down-regulation of the c-Met/p38 signaling pathway is responsible for the kaempferol mediated cell proliferation inhibition. All these findings suggest kaempferol might be an effective and novel chemotherapeutic drug to apply for the future therapeutic agent to combat bladder cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The quality of life after radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.J.; Jenkins, B.J.; Fowler, C.G.; Hope-Stone, H.F.; Blandy, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of life in 72 patients who had shown a complete response to radiotherapy, using a modified bladder symptom score and the Nottingham health profile, was compared with the quality of life in a similar control group matched for age and sex. There was no significant difference in either group. The records of 69 patients who had undergone post-radiation salvage cystectomy were reviewed, looking specifically at surgical complications. There were 3 post-operative deaths (5%), 3 pulmonary emboli and 3 fistulae - with some overlap of complications. Five patients who underwent cystectomy for intractable symptoms in the apparent absence of recurrent tumour were found to have residual cancer in the excised specimens. (Author)

  3. Bladder filling variations during concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients: early experience of bladder volume assessment using ultrasound scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jee Suk; Yoon, Hong In; Cha, Hye Jung; Chang, Yoon Sun; Cho, Yeo Na; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    To describe the early experience of analyzing variations and time trends in bladder volume of the rectal cancer patients who received bladder ultrasound scan. We identified 20 consecutive rectal cancer patients who received whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and bladder ultrasound scan between February and April 2012. Before simulation and during the entire course of treatment, patients were scanned with portable automated ultrasonic bladder scanner, 5 times consecutively, and the median value was reported. Then a radiation oncologist contoured the bladder inner wall shown on simulation computed tomography (CT) and calculated its volume. Before simulation, the median bladder volume measured using simulation CT and bladder ultrasound scan was 427 mL (range, 74 to 1,172 mL) and 417 mL (range, 147 to 1,245 mL), respectively. There was strong linear correlation (R = 0.93, p < 0.001) between the two results. During the course of treatment, there were wide variations in the bladder volume and every time, measurements were below the baseline with statistical significance (12/16). At 6 weeks after RT, the median volume was reduced by 59.3% to 175 mL. Compared to the baseline, bladder volume was reduced by 38% or 161 mL on average every week for 6 weeks. To our knowledge, this study is the first to prove that there are bladder volume variations and a reduction in bladder volume in rectal cancer patients. Moreover, our results will serve as the basis for implementation of bladder training to patients receiving RT with full bladder.

  4. Finasteride Reduces Risk of Bladder Cancer in a Large Prospective Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Edwin E; Grill, Sonja; Svatek, Robert S; Kaushik, Dharam; Thompson, Ian M; Ankerst, Donna P; Liss, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The androgen receptor has been implicated in the development and progression of bladder cancer (BCa), largely based on studies of animal models. We investigated whether finasteride was associated with a reduced incidence of BCa as observed by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian cancer screening trial. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to determine the association of finasteride use with time to diagnosis of BCa, controlling for age and tobacco use. Of the 72,370 male participants who met inclusion criteria, 6069 (8.4%) had reported the use of finasteride. BCa was diagnosed in 1.07% (65 of 6069) of those who reported finasteride compared with 1.46% (966 of 66,301) of those who reported no use during the trial. In a multiple Cox regression analysis, self-reported use of finasteride was associated with a decreased risk of development of BCa (hazard ratio: 0.634; 95% confidence interval, 0.493-0.816; p=0.0004), controlling for age and smoking. Limitations of this study include that it is observational and not randomized, that many of the confounding variables for BCa, such as alcohol use, were not available for use in the analysis, and that finasteride use was by annual self-report, which is subject to missing values and error. Finasteride is a common medication used to reduce the size of the prostate and to promote hair growth by manipulating testosterone in men. Men are more likely than women to develop bladder cancer (BCa), but our study noted that men using finasteride were less likely to have a BCa diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  6. Websites on Bladder Cancer: an Appropriate Source of Patient Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Johannes; Paffenholz, Pia; Bolenz, Christian; von Brandenstein, Melanie; Cebulla, Angelika; Haferkamp, Axel; Kuru, Timur; Lee, Cheryl T; Pfister, David; Tsaur, Igor; Borgmann, Hendrik; Heidenreich, Axel

    2018-01-08

    A growing number of patients search for health information online. An early investigation of websites about bladder cancer (BCa) revealed mostly incomplete and particularly inaccurate information. We analyzed the quality, readability, and popularity of the most frequented websites on BCa. An Internet search on www.google.com was performed for the term "bladder cancer." After selecting the most frequented websites for patient information, HONcode quality certification, Alexa popularity rank, and readability scores (according to US grade levels) were investigated. A 36-point checklist was used to assess the content according to the EAU guidelines on BCa, which was categorized into seven topics. The popularity of the 49 websites analyzed was average, with a median Alexa popularity rank of 41,698 (interquartile range [IQR] 7-4,671,246). The readability was rated difficult with 11 years of school education needed to understand the information. Thirteen (27%) websites were HONcode certified. Out of 343 topics (seven EAU guideline topics each on 49 websites), 79% were mentioned on the websites. Of these, 10% contained incorrect information, mostly outdated or biased, and 34% contained incomplete information. Publically provided websites mentioned more topics per website (median [IQR] 7 [5.5-7] vs. 5.5 [3.3-7]; p = 0.022) and showed less incorrect information (median [IQR] 0 [0-1] vs. 1 [0-1]; p = 0.039) than physician-provided websites. Our study revealed mostly correct but partially incomplete information on BCa websites for patients. Physicians and public organizations should strive to keep their website information up-to-date and unbiased to optimize patients' health literacy.

  7. The Patient Burden of Bladder Outlet Obstruction after Prostate Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Daniel; Jarosek, Stephanie; Virnig, Beth A; Chu, Haitao; Elliott, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Bladder outlet obstruction after prostate cancer therapy imposes a significant burden on health and quality of life in men. Our objective was to describe the burden of bladder outlet obstruction after prostate cancer therapy by detailing the type of procedures performed and how often those procedures were repeated in men with recurrent bladder outlet obstruction. Using SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare linked data from 1992 to 2007 with followup through 2009 we identified 12,676 men who underwent at least 1 bladder outlet obstruction procedure after prostate cancer therapy, including external beam radiotherapy in 3,994, brachytherapy in 1,485, brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy in 1,847, radical prostatectomy in 4,736, radical prostatectomy plus external beam radiotherapy in 369 and cryotherapy in 245. Histogram, incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models with repeat events analysis were done to describe the burden of repeat bladder outlet obstruction treatments stratified by prostate cancer therapy type. We describe the type of bladder outlet obstruction surgery grouped by level of invasiveness. At a median followup of 8.8 years 44.6% of men underwent 2 or more bladder outlet obstruction procedures. Compared to men who underwent radical prostatectomy those treated with brachytherapy and brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy were at increased adjusted risk for repeat bladder outlet obstruction treatment (HR 1.2 and 1.32, respectively, each p outlet obstruction after prostate cancer therapy undergo more than 1 procedure. Furthermore men with bladder outlet obstruction after radiotherapy undergo more invasive endoscopic therapies and are at higher risk for multiple treatments than men with bladder outlet obstruction after radical prostatectomy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  9. Risk factors for bladder cancer in a cohort exposed to aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, P.A.; Ringen, K.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Altekruse, E.B.; Gullen, W.H.; Tillett, S.; Allsbrook, W.C. Jr.; Crosby, J.H.; Witherington, R.; Stringer, W.

    1986-11-01

    Occupational and nonoccupational risk factors for bladder cancer were analyzed in a cohort of 1385 workers with known exposure to a potent bladder carcinogen, beta-naphthylamine. Bladder cancer was approximately seven times (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9, 12.4) more likely in exposed rather than nonexposed individuals, yet, otherwise, the groups were generally similar in other exogenous or hereditary risk factors. A total of 13 cases of bladder cancer were identified. After the first year of a screening program involving 380 members of the cohort, 9 of the 13 cases of bladder cancer and 36 persons with atypical bladder cytology, histology, or pathology were compared with 335 noncases for distributions of different variables. Occupational variables were significant in a multivariate model that controlled for age, cigarette smoking history, and source of drinking water. The estimated odds ratio for the association for bladder cancer and the duration of employment, when controlling of these other variables, is 4.3 (95% CI = 1.8, 10.3). In addition to the occupational factors, age was significant in the multivariate analysis. Other potential risk factors, such as consumption of coffee or artificial sweeteners, use of phenacetin, or decreased use of vitamin A were not found to be significantly different in cases and noncases.

  10. Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.

  11. Improving Access to Adjuvant Intravesical Therapy for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer in a Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Dorothy R

    2015-01-01

    Relative to the high incidence of bladder cancer in Connecticut, an analysis of practice patterns in treatment of early stage bladder cancer was undertaken in a 275-bed community hospital, to determine if the practice patterns mirrored National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. A nurse-led performance improvement project followed. Subsequently change in bladder cancer recurrence rates related to change in practice patterns was assessed.

  12. CT diagnosis of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Hiroshi; Hachisuka, Kitao; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    1986-01-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of the depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis of rectal cancer were studied using the findings of computed tomography (CT). Of one hundred and four cases operated on for rectal cancer over a period of 32 months, thirty five cases were examined by CT with the use of olive oil enema and contrast enhancement using a 60 % Conray drip infusion with reference to the histological findings. For direct invasion into the wall, the diagnoses by CT were coincident with microscopic findings in 75 % of cancers of the rectosigmoid, in 75 % of the upper rectum and in 84 % of the lower rectum. Of all cases, 28 (80 %) were diagnosed correctly. As to local lymph node metastasis, 74 % of all diagnoses by CT corresponded with the histological diagnosis. Moreover, seventeen cases were evaluated for lateral lymph node metastasis, and the diagnostic accuracy by CT was 88 %. In conclusion, preoperative CT evaluation of the extension into the rectal wall and lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer was considesed useful. (author)

  13. Occupation, smoking, opium, and bladder cancer: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ghadimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, control group included patients who referred to a specialized clinic in the same city and hospitals where patients had been registered. Data were entered into SPSS software. Odds ratios (OR were calculated for occupational variables and other characteristics. Then, using logistic regression, the association between cancer and drugs was studied while smoking was controlled. Results: Cigarette smoking, even after quitting, was also associated with bladder cancer (OR = 2.549. Considering the classification of occupations, the OR of working in metal industry in patients was 10.629. Multivariate analysis showed that use of the drug by itself can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. Drug abuse together with the control of smoking increased the risk of bladder cancer by 4.959. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, contact with metal industries such as welding, and working with tin was found as a risk factor for bladder cancer. In addition, cigarette smoking and opium abuse individually were associated with bladder cancer.

  14. Chemoradiation May Help Some Patients with Bladder Cancer Avoid Radical Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers in the United Kingdom have found that adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy as a treatment for bladder cancer may reduce the risk of a recurrence more than radiation alone, without causing a substantial increase in side effects.

  15. Current strategies for first and second line intravesical therapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricksen, K.; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is a common malignancy, usually treated by transurethral resection and adjuvant intravesical instillations of chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Appropriate adjuvant treatment can be selected based on several prognostic factors that determine risk for

  16. A retrospective study on finding correlation of pioglitazone and incidences of bladder cancer in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This retrospective cohort study analyzed the clinical data of cancer patients conducted in a cancer hospital, Chennai to assess the correlation (if any between use of antidiabetic agents including pioglitazone and the incidence of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Totally, 5079 cancer patients′ with and without diabetes were included and analyzed in this retrospective study. Results: A total of 1077 patient data were screened out of a total of 5079. A total of 20 patients were found to have bladder cancer. Out of 1077 patients, 31 were pioglitazone users on the drug for not less than 2 years. The remaining 1046 were on other drugs other than pioglitazone. It is observed that 1 out of 31 developed bladder cancer in the pioglitazone group 19 out of 1046 developed bladder cancer in the nonpioglitazone group. The result of the analysis indicates that there is no significant (P = 0.918 association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer. Conclusion: In this retrospective study, the number of diabetic patients on pioglitazone with bladder cancer was fewer than the diabetic patients on other medications with the disease. Further, no link could be established between any specific drug use and bladder cancer. Least number of patients with bladder cancer was on pioglitazone, suggesting that pioglitazone alone cannot be considered a cause for increased incidence of bladder cancer in diabetic patients.

  17. Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Seleim, Manar F; Abdalla, Mohga S; Sharada, Hayat M; Abdel Wahab, Abdel Hady A

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients. Methods The activ...

  18. Should patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergo more-extensive pelvic lymph node dissection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steven, Kenneth Eric

    2008-01-01

    This Practice Point commentary discusses the paper by Dhar and colleagues, which compared outcomes between two cohorts of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received either 'limited' pelvic lymph node dissection (LND) or 'extended' pelvic LND at clinics in the US or Switzerland...... as an essential component of radical cystectomy and applied to all patients undergoing radical surgery for bladder cancer Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  19. LINE-1 hypomethylation is associated with bladder cancer risk among non-smoking Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Haley L.; Tao, Li; Yuan, Jian-Min; Marsit, Carmen J.; Houseman, E. Andres; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Nelson, Heather H.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced levels of global DNA methylation, assessed in peripheral blood, have been associated with bladder cancer risk in European and American populations. Similar data are lacking in Asian populations where genetic differences, lifestyle factors, and different environmental exposures may affect DNA methylation and its risk relationship with bladder cancer. The association between global DNA methylation measured at long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1) repeat regions through bisulfite py...

  20. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.