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Sample records for bladder cancer detection

  1. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  2. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  3. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  4. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg José

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. Methods A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin, SFN (stratifin, RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6 domain family 1, had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group. A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. Results CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Conclusion Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a panel of

  5. Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Seleim, Manar F; Abdalla, Mohga S; Sharada, Hayat M; Abdel Wahab, Abdel Hady A

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients. Methods The activ...

  6. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negraes, Priscilla D; Favaro, Francine P; Camargo, João Lauro V; Oliveira, Maria Luiza CS; Goldberg, José; Rainho, Cláudia A; Salvadori, Daisy MF

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a

  7. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest ... examining the inside of the bladder with a camera), with biopsy Intravenous pyelogram - IVP Pelvic CT scan ...

  8. Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y. T.; Xie, T. Q.; Du, C. W.; Bastacky, S.; Meyers, S.; Zeidel, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the possibility of enhancing early bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). After the intravesical instillation of a 10% solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid, simultaneous fluorescence imaging (excitation of 380-420 nm, emission of 620-700 nm) and OCT are performed on rat bladders to identify the photochemical and morphological changes associated with uroepithelial tumorigenesis. The preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that both fluorescence and OCT can identify early uroepithelial cancers, and OCT can detect precancerous lesions (e.g., hyperplasia) that fluorescence may miss. This suggests that a cystoscope combining 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and OCT imaging has the potential to enhance the efficiency and sensitivity of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  9. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  10. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Mussi, Thais C.; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  11. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

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    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)], E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org; Mussi, Thais C. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melamed, Jonathan [Dept. of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C. [Dept. of Urology, Div. of Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  12. Comparison of virtual cystoscopy and ultrasonography for bladder cancer detection: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xinhua; Huang Xiaolu; Wu Lianming; Huang Gang; Ping Xiong; Yan Weili

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Bladder cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in patients presenting with haematuria. Early detection is crucial for improving patient prognosis. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the detection validity (sensitivity and specificity) of virtual cystoscopy (VC) and ultrasonography (US). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating diagnosis validity of VC and US between January 1966 and December 2009. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct a summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results: A total of 26 studies that included 3084 patients who fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria were considered for inclusion in the analysis. The pooled sensitivity for bladder cancer detection using CT virtual cystoscopy (CTVC), MR virtual cystoscopy (MRVC) and US was 0.939 (95% CI, 0.919-0.956), 0.908 (95% CI, 0.827-0.959) and 0.779 (95% CI, 0.744-0.812), respectively. The pooled specificity for bladder cancer detection using CTVC, MRVC and US was 0.981 (95% CI, 0.973-0.988), 0.948 (95% CI, 0.884-0.983) and 0.962 (95% CI, 0.953-0.969), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) estimate for CTVC (604.22) were significantly higher than for MRVC (144.35, P < 0.001) and US (72.472, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results showed that both CTVC and MRVC are better imaging methods for diagnosing bladder cancer than US. CTVC has higher diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and DOR) for the detection of bladder cancer than either MRCT or US.

  13. Comparison of virtual cystoscopy and ultrasonography for bladder cancer detection: A meta-analysis

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    Qu Xinhua; Huang Xiaolu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Department of Ultrasonic, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Wu Lianming [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Huang Gang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Ping Xiong, E-mail: pxiong6@126.com [Department of Ultrasonic, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yan Weili, E-mail: wl_yan67@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Background and purpose: Bladder cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in patients presenting with haematuria. Early detection is crucial for improving patient prognosis. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the detection validity (sensitivity and specificity) of virtual cystoscopy (VC) and ultrasonography (US). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating diagnosis validity of VC and US between January 1966 and December 2009. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity and specificity and to construct a summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results: A total of 26 studies that included 3084 patients who fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria were considered for inclusion in the analysis. The pooled sensitivity for bladder cancer detection using CT virtual cystoscopy (CTVC), MR virtual cystoscopy (MRVC) and US was 0.939 (95% CI, 0.919-0.956), 0.908 (95% CI, 0.827-0.959) and 0.779 (95% CI, 0.744-0.812), respectively. The pooled specificity for bladder cancer detection using CTVC, MRVC and US was 0.981 (95% CI, 0.973-0.988), 0.948 (95% CI, 0.884-0.983) and 0.962 (95% CI, 0.953-0.969), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) estimate for CTVC (604.22) were significantly higher than for MRVC (144.35, P < 0.001) and US (72.472, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results showed that both CTVC and MRVC are better imaging methods for diagnosing bladder cancer than US. CTVC has higher diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and DOR) for the detection of bladder cancer than either MRCT or US.

  14. Comparison of post contrast CT urography phases in bladder cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenius, Malin; Dahlman, Par; Lonnemark, Maria; Magnusson, Anders [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Brekkan, Einar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Urology, Uppsala (Sweden); Wernroth, Lisa [Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate which post-contrast phase(s) in a four-phase CT urography protocol is (are) most suitable for bladder cancer detection. The medical records of 106 patients with visible haematuria who underwent a CT urography examination, including unenhanced, enhancement-triggered corticomedullary (CMP), nephrographic (NP) and excretory (EP) phases, were reviewed. The post-contrast phases (n = 318 different phases) were randomized into an evaluation order and blindly reviewed by two uroradiologists. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was 0.95 in CMP, 0.83 in NP and 0.81 in EP. Negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.99 in CMP, 0.96 in NP and 0.95 in EP. The sensitivity was higher in CMP than in both NP (p-value 0.016) and EP (p-value 0.0003). NPV was higher in CMP than in NP (p-value 0.024) and EP (p-value 0.002). In the CT urography protocol with enhancement-triggered scan, sensitivity and NPV were highest in the corticomedullary phase, and this phase should be used for bladder assessment. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of post contrast CT urography phases in bladder cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helenius, Malin; Dahlman, Par; Lonnemark, Maria; Magnusson, Anders; Brekkan, Einar; Wernroth, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which post-contrast phase(s) in a four-phase CT urography protocol is (are) most suitable for bladder cancer detection. The medical records of 106 patients with visible haematuria who underwent a CT urography examination, including unenhanced, enhancement-triggered corticomedullary (CMP), nephrographic (NP) and excretory (EP) phases, were reviewed. The post-contrast phases (n = 318 different phases) were randomized into an evaluation order and blindly reviewed by two uroradiologists. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was 0.95 in CMP, 0.83 in NP and 0.81 in EP. Negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.99 in CMP, 0.96 in NP and 0.95 in EP. The sensitivity was higher in CMP than in both NP (p-value 0.016) and EP (p-value 0.0003). NPV was higher in CMP than in NP (p-value 0.024) and EP (p-value 0.002). In the CT urography protocol with enhancement-triggered scan, sensitivity and NPV were highest in the corticomedullary phase, and this phase should be used for bladder assessment. (orig.)

  16. Technologic developments in the field of photonics for the detection of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Scott; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-12-01

    Bladder cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in an aging population. Each year, thousands of people, mostly men, are diagnosed with this disease, but many of them present too late to receive optimal treatment. As with all cancers, early diagnosis of bladder cancer significantly improves the efficacy of therapy and increases survival and recurrence-free survival rates. Ongoing research has identified many limitations about the sensitivity of standard diagnostic procedures in detecting early-stage tumors and precancerous changes. The consequences of this are often tumor progression and increased tumor burden, leading to a decrease in patient quality of life and a vast increase in treatment costs. The necessity for improved early detection of bladder cancer has spurred on research into novel methods that use a wide range of biological and photonic phenomena. This review will broadly discuss standard detection methodologies and their major limitations before covering novel photonic techniques for early tumor detection and staging, assessing their diagnostic accuracy for flat and precancerous changes. We will do so in the context of both cystoscopic examination and the screening of voided urine and will also touch on the concept of using photonic technology as a surgical tool for tumor ablation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Detection of Bladder Cancer by Fluorescence Microsatellite Analysis and an Automated Genetic Analyzing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel Halachmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the ability of an automated fluorescent analyzing system to detect microsatellite alterations, in patients with bladder cancer. We investigated 11 with pathology proven bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC for microsatellite alterations in blood, urine, and tumor biopsies. DNA was prepared by standard methods from blood, urine and resected tumor specimens, and was used for microsatellite analysis. After the primers were fluorescent labeled, amplification of the DNA was performed with PCR. The PCR products were placed into the automated genetic analyser (ABI Prism 310, Perkin Elmer, USA and were subjected to fluorescent scanning with argon ion laser beams. The fluorescent signal intensity measured by the genetic analyzer measured the product size in terms of base pairs. We found loss of heterozygocity (LOH or microsatellite alterations (a loss or gain of nucleotides, which alter the original normal locus size in all the patients by using fluorescent microsatellite analysis and an automated analyzing system. In each case the genetic changes found in urine samples were identical to those found in the resected tumor sample. The studies demonstrated the ability to detect bladder tumor non-invasively by fluorescent microsatellite analysis of urine samples. Our study supports the worldwide trend for the search of non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. We have overcome major obstacles that prevented the clinical use of an experimental system. With our new tested system microsatellite analysis can be done cheaper, faster, easier and with higher scientific accuracy.

  18. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products. Previous cancer treatment. Treatment ... instructions to avoid exposure. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables. Choose a diet rich in a ...

  19. Urinary Thromboxane B2 and Thromboxane Receptors in Bladder Cancer: Opportunity for Detection and Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa, Omar; Ciupek, Andrew; Watson, Dennis K.; Halushka, Perry V.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found increased expression of thromboxane synthase (TXAS) and thromboxane receptor (TP) beta isoform in the tissues of patients with bladder cancer. Studies in cell lines and mice have indicated a potential significant role of the thromboxane signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of human bladder cancer. This study was designed to determine if the changes observed in the tissues of patients with bladder cancer were mirrored by changes in the urine of these patients. We foun...

  20. Detecting Metastatic Bladder Cancer Using (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the contribution of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) to detection of metastatic bladder cancer. The present study included 79 patients (69 men and 10 women) undergoing (18)F-FDG-PET/CT upon suspicion of metastatic bladder cancer between July 2007 and April 2013. The mean age was 66.1 years with a standard deviation of 10.7 years (range, 21 to 85 years). Patients were required to fast for 6 hours prior to scanning, and whole-body PET scanning from the skull base to the upper thighs was performed approximately 1 hour after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Whole body CT scanning was performed in the cranio-caudal direction. FDG-PET images were reconstructed using CT data for attenuation correction. Suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions were confirmed by histopathology or clinical follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT were 89%, 78%, 90%, 75%, and 86%, respectively. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT can detect metastases with high sensitivity and positive predictive values in patients with metastatic bladder carcinoma.

  1. Bladder cancer detection using a peptide substrate of the 20S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruba, Natalia; Wysocka, Magdalena; Brzezińska, Magdalena; Dębowski, Dawid; Sieńczyk, Marcin; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Guszcz, Tomasz; Czaplewski, Cezary; Rolka, Krzysztof; Lesner, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The 20S catalytic core of the human 26S proteasome can be secreted from cells, and high levels of extracellular 20S proteasome have been linked to many types of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Several diagnostic approaches have been developed that detect 20S proteasome activity in plasma, but these suffer from problems with efficiency and sensitivity. In this report, we describe the optimization and synthesis of an internally quenched fluorescent substrate of the 20S proteasome, and investigate its use as a potential diagnostic test in bladder cancer. This peptide, 2-aminobenzoic acid (ABZ)-Val-Val-Ser-Tyr-Ala-Met-Gly-Tyr(3-NO2 )-NH2 , is cleaved by the chymotrypsin 20S proteasome subunit and displays an excellent specificity constant value (9.7 × 10(5)  m(-1) ·s(-1) ) and a high kcat (8 s(-1) ). Using this peptide, we identified chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity in the majority of urine samples obtained from patients with bladder cancer, whereas the proteasome activity in urine samples from healthy volunteers was below the detection limit (0.5 pm). These findings were confirmed by an inhibitory study and immunochemistry methods. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  3. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  4. Optical redox ratio and endogenous porphyrins in the detection of urinary bladder cancer: A patient biopsy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Yubo, Ji; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2017-08-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most common cancers in the UK and conventional detection techniques suffer from low sensitivity, low specificity, or both. Recent attempts to address the disparity have led to progress in the field of autofluorescence as a means to diagnose the disease with high efficiency, however there is still a lot not known about autofluorescence profiles in the disease. The multi-functional diagnostic system "LAKK-M" was used to assess autofluorescence profiles of healthy and cancerous bladder tissue to identify novel biomarkers of the disease. Statistically significant differences were observed in the optical redox ratio (a measure of tissue metabolic activity), the amplitude of endogenous porphyrins and the NADH/porphyrin ratio between tissue types. These findings could advance understanding of bladder cancer and aid in the development of new techniques for detection and surveillance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Detection of low frequency FGFR3 mutations in the urine of bladder cancer patients using next-generation deep sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millholl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available John M Millholland, Shuqiang Li, Cecilia A Fernandez, Anthony P ShuberPredictive Biosciences Inc, Lexington, MA, USAAbstract: Biological fluid-based noninvasive biomarker assays for monitoring and diagnosing disease are clinically powerful. A major technical hurdle for developing these assays is the requirement of high analytical sensitivity so that biomarkers present at very low levels can be consistently detected. In the case of biological fluid-based cancer diagnostic assays, sensitivities similar to those of tissue-based assays are difficult to achieve with DNA markers due to the high abundance of normal DNA background present in the sample. Here we describe a new urine-based assay that uses ultradeep sequencing technology to detect single mutant molecules of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 DNA that are indicative of bladder cancer. Detection of FGFR3 mutations in urine would provide clinicians with a noninvasive means of diagnosing early-stage bladder cancer. The single-molecule assay detects FGFR3 mutant DNA when present at as low as 0.02% of total urine DNA and results in 91% concordance with the frequency that FGFR3 mutations are detected in bladder cancer tumors, significantly improving diagnostic performance. To our knowledge, this is the first practical application of next-generation sequencing technology for noninvasive cancer diagnostics.Keywords: FGFR3, mutation, urine, single molecule, sequencing, bladder cancer

  6. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%); specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%), 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30) and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81). CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV) disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26). CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests

  7. On the influence of the instillation time on the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence detection of superficial bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichlinski, Patrice; Aymon, Daniela; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Marti, Alexandre; Lange, Norbert; Guillou, Louis; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; van den Bergh, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy is being investigated as a new diagnostic tool for the detection of flat urothelial malignancies in bladder cancers. However, the influence of the bladder instillation time on the performance of this detection modality has not been addressed up to now. We report our initial experience comparing different instillation schedules of HAL cystoscopy in the diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. A total of 718 fluorescent positive (433) and fluorescence negative (285) biopsies have been taken in the bladder of 143 patients using the Storz D-light fluorescence imaging system (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) which allows both white and blue light (380-450 nm) bladder wall inspection. Following hospitalisation, 50 ml of HAL (8mM) phosphate buffer solution was instilled into the bladder of patients during one hour (1 hour protocol involving 57 patients), or during two hours followed by a two hours resting time after removal of the solution (2+2 hours protocol involving 86 patients). Both instillation subgroups were homogeneous in terms of proportion of high risk disease, previous BCG treatment and/or recurrent disease. This study indicates that the instillation duration does not influence the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy in our conditions. Compared to the standard use of ALA, HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy allows a significant reduction of the instillation time (to less than one hour) without prejudicing the efficacy of the method, what represents a real advantage in daily clinical practice.

  8. Emerging Endoscopic and Photodynamic Techniques for Bladder Cancer Detection and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of emerging techniques, namely, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD, narrow band imaging (NBI, Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, virtual cystoscopy, and endoscopic microscopy for its use in the diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer. The technology, clinical evidence and future applications of these approaches are discussed with particular emphasis on PDD and NBI. These approaches show promise to optimise cystoscopy and transurethral resection of bladder tumours.

  9. Detection Of Aneuploidy In Chromosomes 3,7,9 And 17 In Bladder Cancer Patients Using Urovysion Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elsattar, N.A.; Yossef, M.F.; Saleh, S.A.R.; Shahin, R.S.; Ali, H.H.; Kotb, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cystoscopy is considered up till now the gold standard as well as urine cytology for diagnosis and follow up of urinary bladder cancer patients. Cystoscopy is an invasive inconclusive technique while cytology have low sensitivity. Therefore search for a more sensitive, non-invasive highly reliable method is important. Aim of the study: To assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of Urovysion to be used as a non-invasive tool for early detection of bladder cancer patients. Furthermore, to assess its relationship with histopathological stages and grades of the disease. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted on 30 patients with urinary bladder cancer( Group I) which were subdivided according to cancer stages and grades into subgroups and 15 diseased control patients (Group II). One urine sample was taken from each patient for Urovysion assay and another sample taken for urine cytology. Results: Urovysion showed higher positive results in (Group I) than urine cytology. In (Group II) the latter did not miss any negative case while urovysion showed only one false positive case. Moreover, Urovysion results revealed significant association with both bladder cancer histopathological stages and grades while urine cytology showed significant association with tumor grades only. Conclusion: Urovysion; both by itself and in combination with urine cytology; offers a sensitive, reliable and non invasive approach to bladder cancer diagnosis. Urovysion is associated with invasiveness of bladder cancer from stage Tis, T1 to T4 and from grades G1 to G3. Thus, urovysion assay can be used as an important diagnostic and prognostic indicator of this disease

  10. Application of multi-SNP approaches Bayesian LASSO and AUC-RF to detect main effects of inflammatory-gene variants associated with bladder cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina López de Maturana

    Full Text Available The relationship between inflammation and cancer is well established in several tumor types, including bladder cancer. We performed an association study between 886 inflammatory-gene variants and bladder cancer risk in 1,047 cases and 988 controls from the Spanish Bladder Cancer (SBC/EPICURO Study. A preliminary exploration with the widely used univariate logistic regression approach did not identify any significant SNP after correcting for multiple testing. We further applied two more comprehensive methods to capture the complexity of bladder cancer genetic susceptibility: Bayesian Threshold LASSO (BTL, a regularized regression method, and AUC-Random Forest, a machine-learning algorithm. Both approaches explore the joint effect of markers. BTL analysis identified a signature of 37 SNPs in 34 genes showing an association with bladder cancer. AUC-RF detected an optimal predictive subset of 56 SNPs. 13 SNPs were identified by both methods in the total population. Using resources from the Texas Bladder Cancer study we were able to replicate 30% of the SNPs assessed. The associations between inflammatory SNPs and bladder cancer were reexamined among non-smokers to eliminate the effect of tobacco, one of the strongest and most prevalent environmental risk factor for this tumor. A 9 SNP-signature was detected by BTL. Here we report, for the first time, a set of SNP in inflammatory genes jointly associated with bladder cancer risk. These results highlight the importance of the complex structure of genetic susceptibility associated with cancer risk.

  11. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N

    2007-02-01

    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  12. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  13. Identification of microRNAs in blood and urine as tumour markers for the detection of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Angelika; Jung, Monika; Rabenhorst, Silke; Kilic, Ergin; Jung, Klaus; Weikert, Steffen

    2013-10-01

    Since differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found to be highly associated with several types of cancer, the goal of the present study was to identify an miRNA fingerprint as a non‑invasive diagnostic tool to detect urinary bladder cancer using the easily accessible samples of whole blood and urine. Blood and urine samples from 4 controls and from patients suffering from superficial and invasive bladder cancer were analyzed using miRNA microarray consisting of 754 human miRNAs from the Sanger database v14. Using RT‑qPCR technique, 6 of the differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in the controls (20 blood, 19 urine samples) and patients with superficial (18 blood, 16 urine samples) or invasive (20 blood and urine samples each) tumours. Three blood miRNAs (miR‑26b‑5p, miR‑144‑5p, miR‑374‑5p) were found to be significantly upregulated in invasive bladder tumour patients (Pbladder tumours with 94% specificity and 65% sensitivity. The urine miR‑1255b‑5p reached 68% specificity and 85% sensitivity in the diagnosis of invasive tumours. This pilot study represents the first characterization of an miRNA profile for urinary bladder tumours in whole blood samples. In addition, it was shown that invasive bladder tumours could be identified by differentially expressed urine miRNAs. Further studies are needed to test the clinical usefulness for bladder cancer detection and surveillance.

  14. Preliminary Results of a Multicentre Study of the UBC Rapid Test for Detection of Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Arndt, Christian; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Lux, Oliver; Otto, Thomas; Ruttloff, Jürgen; Gerullis, Holger

    2015-05-01

    UBC Rapid is a test detecting fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. These are cytokeratins frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. We present the first results of a multi-centre study using UBC Rapid in patients with bladder cancer and healthy controls. Clinical urine samples from 92 patients with tumors of the urinary bladder (45 low-grade and 47 high-grade tumors) and from 33 healthy controls were used. Urine samples were analyzed by the UBC Rapid point-of-care (POC) system and evaluated both visually and quantitatively using a concile Omega 100 POC reader. For visual evaluation, different thresholds of band intensity for considering a test as positive were applied. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated by contingency analyses. We found that pathological concentrations by UBC Rapid are detectable in urine of patients with bladder cancer. The calculated diagnostic sensitivity of UBC Rapid in urine was 68.1% for high-grade, but only 46.2% for low-grade tumors. The specificity was 90.9%. The area under the curve (AUC) after receiver-operated curve (ROC) analysis was 0.733. Pathological levels of UBC Rapid in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (pbladder cancer and controls. Further studies with a greater number of patients will show how valuable these results are. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual cystoscopy, computed tomography urography and optical cystoscopy for the detection and follow-up for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Muñoz, D; Quintana Martínez, I; Fernández Militino, A; Sánchez Zalabardo, D; Sarria Octavio de Toledo, L; Cozcolluela Cabrejas, R

    To evaluate the utility of virtual cystoscopy (VC) performed with CT urography in patients being studied under gross hematuria or patients being followed-up after a previous bladder cancer and compare the results with those obtained with gold standard technique (optical cystoscopy). Retrospective study of 117 patients who were referred for VC by the Urology Department between May 2014 and May 2015. Those patients presented with gross hematuria or they were previously treated patients from bladder cancer being followed up. These patients were evaluated with MDCT and virtual cystoscopy after distending the bladder with air. The results were compared with those obtained with optical cystoscopy which was performed no more than a week after. The global sensitivity and specificity of VC were 81,8 and 92,1%. Aditional findings detected in CT urography were an aortic dissection, urinary lithiasis and colonic metastasis. VC seems an useful technique in the diagnosis and follow-up for bladder cancer with a good correlation with OC. The main limitations are the impossibility of biopsy during the procedure and the detection of erythematous lesions. Collateral findings can be detected performed with CT urography although the high radiation exposure does not recommend their combined use. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  17. IL-8 as a urinary biomarker for the detection of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquidi Virginia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current urine-based assays for bladder cancer (BCa diagnosis lack accuracy, so the search for improved biomarkers continues. Through genomic and proteomic profiling of urine, we have identified a panel of biomarkers associated with the presence of BCa. In this study, we evaluated the utility of three of these biomarkers, interleukin 8 (IL-8, Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and Syndecan in the diagnosis of BCa through urinalysis. Methods Voided urines from 127 subjects, cancer subjects (n = 64, non-cancer subjects (n = 63 were analyzed. The protein concentrations of IL-8, MMP-9, and Syndecan were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Data were also compared to a commercial ELISA-based BCa detection assay (BTA-Trak© and urinary cytology. We used the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic (AUROC to compare the performance of each biomarker. Results Urinary protein concentrations of IL-8, MMP-9 and BTA were significantly elevated in BCa subjects. Of the experimental markers compared to BTA-Trak©, IL-8 was the most prominent marker (AUC; 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.86. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only IL-8 (OR; 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.97, p = 0.002 was an independent factor for the detection of BCa. Conclusions These results suggest that the measurement of IL-8 in voided urinary samples may have utility for urine-based detection of BCa. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger, prospective cohort.

  18. Detection of penile metastasis from bladder cancer using F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A 74 year old man who had experienced priapism for 2 months after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer visited our hospital, and underwent metastatic work up {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography(PET/CT)showed diffuse hypermetabolic activity along the penis shaft, which was confirmed as a penile metastasis.

  19. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. © RSNA, 2012.

  20. Molecular biology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Doyle, William; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2015-04-01

    Classic as well as more recent large-scale genomic analyses have uncovered multiple genes and pathways important for bladder cancer development. Genes involved in cell-cycle control, chromatin regulation, and receptor tyrosine and PI3 kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways are commonly mutated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Expression-based analyses have identified distinct types of bladder cancer that are similar to subsets of breast cancer, and have prognostic and therapeutic significance. These observations are leading to novel therapeutic approaches in bladder cancer, providing optimism for therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  2. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  3. Efficacy of voided urinary cytology and ultrasonography compared to cystoscopy in the detection of urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Voided urinary cytology can be omitted as a screening test. Ultrasonography can be recommended as the initial imaging investigation for detection of bladder carcinoma in patients presenting with hematuria and for follow up of bladder carcinoma patients.

  4. New genetic variants of LATS1 detected in urinary bladder and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeldin, Mona K; Shawer, Heba; Mostafa, Ahmed; Kassem, Neemat M; Amleh, Asma; Siam, Rania

    2014-01-01

    LATS1, the large tumor suppressor 1 gene, encodes for a serine/threonine kinase protein and is implicated in cell cycle progression. LATS1 is down-regulated in various human cancers, such as breast cancer, and astrocytoma. Point mutations in LATS1 were reported in human sarcomas. Additionally, loss of heterozygosity of LATS1 chromosomal region predisposes to breast, ovarian, and cervical tumors. In the current study, we investigated LATS1 genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 28 Egyptian patients with either urinary bladder or colon cancers. The LATS1 gene was amplified and sequenced and the expression of LATS1 at the RNA level was assessed in 12 urinary bladder cancer samples. We report, the identification of a total of 29 variants including previously identified SNPs within LATS1 coding and non-coding sequences. A total of 18 variants were novel. Majority of the novel variants, 13, were mapped to intronic sequences and un-translated regions of the gene. Four of the five novel variants located in the coding region of the gene, represented missense mutations within the serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain. Interestingly, LATS1 RNA steady state levels was lost in urinary bladder cancerous tissue harboring four specific SNPs (16045 + 41736 + 34614 + 56177) positioned in the 5'UTR, intron 6, and two silent mutations within exon 4 and exon 8, respectively. This study identifies novel single-base-sequence alterations in the LATS1 gene. These newly identified variants could potentially be used as novel diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer.

  5. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  6. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a modified microelectromechanical systems mirror for detection of bladder cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Xie, Huikai; Fedder, Gary K.; Pan, Yingtian

    2003-11-01

    Experimental results of a modified micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror for substantial enhancement of the transverse laser scanning performance of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) are presented. Image distortion due to buckling of MEMS mirror in our previous designs was analyzed and found to be attributed to excessive internal stress of the transverse bimorph meshes. The modified MEMS mirror completely eliminates bimorph stress and the resultant buckling effect, which increases the wobbling-free angular optical actuation to greater than 37°, exceeding the transverse laser scanning requirements for EOCT and confocal endoscopy. The new optical coherence tomography (OCT) endoscope allows for two-dimensional cross-sectional imaging that covers an area of 4.2 mm × 2.8 mm (limited by scope size) and at roughly 5 frames/s instead of the previous area size of 2.9 mm × 2.8 mm and is highly suitable for noninvasive and high-resolution imaging diagnosis of epithelial lesions in vivo. EOCT images of normal rat bladders and rat bladder cancers are compared with the same cross sections acquired with conventional bench-top OCT. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of EOCT for in vivo imaging diagnosis and precise guidance for excisional biopsy of early bladder cancers.

  7. Distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes in bladder cancer from different Chinese sub-populations and its implication in cancer detection using voided urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Joanna HM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the incidence is particularly high in southwestern Taiwan. Previous studies have identified several tumor-related genes that are hypermethylated in bladder cancer; however the DNA methylation profile of bladder cancer in Taiwan is not fully understood. Methods In this study, we compared the DNA methylation profile of multiple tumor suppressor genes (APC, DAPK, E-cadherin, hMLH1, IRF8, p14, p15, RASSF1A, SFRP1 and SOCS-1 in bladder cancer patients from different Chinese sub-populations including Taiwan (104 cases, Hong Kong (82 cases and China (24 cases by MSP. Two normal human urothelium were also included as control. To investigate the diagnostic potential of using DNA methylation in non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, degree of methylation of DAPK, IRF8, p14, RASSF1A and SFRP1 was also accessed by quantitative MSP in urine samples from thirty bladder cancer patients and nineteen non-cancer controls. Results There were distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes among the different sub-populations. Further, samples from Taiwan and China demonstrated a bimodal distribution suggesting that CpG island methylator phentotype (CIMP is presented in bladder cancer. Moreover, the number of methylated genes in samples from Taiwan and Hong Kong were significantly correlated with histological grade (P SFRP1, IRF8, APC and RASSF1A were significantly associated with increased tumor grade, stage. Methylation of RASSF1A was associated with tumor recurrence. Patients with methylation of APC or RASSF1A were also significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival. For methylation detection in voided urine samples of cancer patients, the sensitivity and specificity of using any of the methylated genes (IRF8, p14 or sFRP1 by qMSP was 86.7% and 94.7%. Conclusions Our results indicate that there are distinct methylation epigenotypes among different Chinese sub

  8. Evaluation of an Epigenetic Profile for the Detection of Bladder Cancer in Patients with Hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Kim E M; Van Neste, Leander; Lurkin, Irene; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Many patients enter the care cycle with gross or microscopic hematuria and undergo cystoscopy to rule out bladder cancer. Sensitivity of this invasive examination is limited, leaving many patients at risk for undetected cancer. To improve current clinical practice more sensitive and noninvasive screening methods should be applied. A total of 154 urine samples were collected from patients with hematuria, including 80 without and 74 with bladder cancer. DNA from cells in the urine was epigenetically profiled using 2 independent assays. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction was performed on TWIST1. SNaPshot™ methylation analysis was done for different loci of OTX1 and ONECUT2. Additionally all samples were analyzed for mutation status of TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), PIK3CA, FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3), HRAS, KRAS and NRAS. The combination of TWIST1, ONECUT2 (2 loci) and OTX1 resulted in the best overall performing panel. Logistic regression analysis on these methylation markers, mutation status of FGFR3, TERT and HRAS, and patient age resulted in an accurate model with 97% sensitivity, 83% specificity and an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.98). Internal validation led to an optimism corrected AUC of 0.92. With an estimated bladder cancer prevalence of 5% to 10% in a hematuria cohort the assay resulted in a 99.6% to 99.9% negative predictive value. Epigenetic profiling using TWIST1, ONECUT2 and OTX1 results in a high sensitivity and specificity. Accurate risk prediction might result in less extensive and invasive examination of patients at low risk, thereby reducing unnecessary patient burden and health care costs. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  10. A 3-plex methylation assay combined with the FGFR3 mutation assay sensitively detects recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandimalla, Raju; Masius, Roy; Beukers, Willemien

    2013-01-01

    is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a urine assay for the diagnosis of recurrences in patients with a previous primary NMIBC G1/G2 by using cystoscopy as the reference standard. Experimental Design: We selected eight CpG islands (CGI) methylated in bladder cancer from our earlier genome-wide study......Purpose: DNA methylation is associated with bladder cancer and these modifications could serve as useful biomarkers. FGFR3 mutations are present in 60% to 70% of non–muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Low-grade bladder cancer recurs in more than 50% of patients. The aim of this study......, and nonmalignant urines (n = 130). Results: The 3-plex assay identified recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine with a sensitivity of 74% in the validation set. In combination with the FGFR3 mutation assay, a sensitivity of 79% was reached (specificity of 77%). Sensitivity of FGFR3 and cytology was 52% and 57...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  12. Biomarkers for bladder cancer management: present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Wang, Li; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; McBride, Russell; Galsky, Matthew D; Zhu, Jun; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, David Y; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive detection of bladder cancer is critical to diagnose this deadly disease at an early stage, estimate prognosis, predict response to treatment, and monitor recurrence. In past years, laboratory diagnosis and surveillance of urinary bladder cancer have improved significantly. Although urine cytology remains the gold standard test, many new urinary biomarkers have been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in genomic studies of bladder cancer have helped to refine our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the biological basis for outcome disparities, and to inform more efficient treatment and surveillance strategies. In this article, the established diagnostic tests, newly identified biomarkers and genomic landscape of bladder cancer will be reviewed. PMID:25374904

  13. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  14. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  15. FLUORESCENCE DIAGNOSIS FOR RECURRENT BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Ulyanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of successful use of local fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence imaging during cystoscopy for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer is represented in the article. Histological study of fluorescent foci confirmed tumor growth (urothelial carcinoma in all areas with high levels of diagnostic parameter. In the fluorescent focus with low diagnostic parameter inflammation was detected.

  16. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  18. Molecular markers in disease detection and follow-up of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Moritz; Walz, Simon; Stühler, Viktoria; Aufderklamm, Stefan; Rausch, Steffen; Bedke, Jens; Stenzl, Arnulf; Todenhöfer, Tilman

    2018-05-01

    Diagnosis and surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is mainly based on endoscopic bladder evaluation and urine cytology. Several assays for determining additional molecular markers (urine-, tissue- or blood-based) have been developed in recent years but have not been included in clinical guidelines so far. Areas covered: This review gives an update on different molecular markers in the urine and evaluates their role in patients with NMIBC in disease detection and surveillance. Moreover, the potential of recent approaches such as DNA methylation assays, multi-panel RNA gene expression assays and cell-free DNA analysis is assessed. Expert commentary: Most studies on various molecular urine markers have mainly focused on a potential replacement of cystoscopy. New developments in high throughput technologies and urine markers may offer further advantages as they may represent a non-invasive approach for molecular characterization of the disease. This opens new options for individualized surveillance strategies and may help to choose the best therapeutic option. The implementation of these technologies in well-designed clinical trials is essential to further promote the use of urine diagnostics in the management of patients with NMIBC.

  19. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  20. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  1. Radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Iizumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shosei; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper explained the current state of radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer, and discussed the role of radiotherapy in curative treatment and the future development. In the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, it is important to judge the existence of pathological muscular layer invasion based on transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). In surgical results in Japan, the U.S., and Switzerland, 5-year survival rate is about 60 to 70%. Standard treatment for bladder cancer with muscle layer invasion had been surgery, and radiotherapy had been applied to the cases without resistance to surgery. Three combined therapy with TUR-BT and simultaneous chemoradiotherapy is the current standard bladder conserving therapy. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 60%, which is superior to the treatment with irradiation alone. Radiotherapy for kidney cancer is most often used as perioperative treatment for locally advanced cancer or as symptomatic treatment for metastatic lesions. However, due to recent improvement in radiotherapy technology, correspondence to respiratory movement and high dose administration associated with improvement in dose concentration have been realized, and stereotactic irradiation using a high single dose for inoperable disease cases or surgery refusal disease cases has come to be clinically applied. (A.O.)

  2. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, N; Mathew, B B; Jatawa, S K; Tiwari, A

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.

  3. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA mismatch repair (MMR system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.

  4. Clinical value of whole body fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection of metastatic bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongyi; Pan, Lingling; Cheng, Jingyi; Hu, Silong; Xu, Junyan; Ye, Dingwei; Zhang, Yingjian

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the value of whole-body fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for the detection of metastatic bladder cancer. From December 2006 to August 2010, 60 bladder cancer patients (median age 60.5 years old, range 32-96) underwent whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The diagnostic accuracy was assessed by performing both organ-based and patient-based analyses. Identified lesions were further studied by biopsy or clinically followed for at least 6 months. One hundred and thirty-four suspicious lesions were identified. Among them, 4 primary cancers (2 pancreatic cancers, 1 colonic and 1 nasopharyngeal cancer) were incidentally detected, and the patients could be treated on time. For the remaining 130 lesions, positron emission tomography/computed tomography detected 118 true positive lesions (sensitivity = 95.9%). On the patient-based analysis, the overall sensitivity and specificity resulted to be 87.1% and 89.7%, respectively. There was no difference of sensitivity and specificity in patients with or without adjuvant treatment in terms of detection of metastatic sites by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Compared with conventional imaging modality, positron emission tomography/computed tomography correctly changed the management in 15 patients (25.0%). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography has excellent sensitivity and specificity in the detection of metastatic bladder cancer and it provides additional diagnostic information compared to standard imaging techniques. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Clinical value of whole body fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection of metastatic bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhongyi; Pan Lingling; Cheng Jingyi; Hu Silong; Xu Junyan; Zhang Yingjian; Ye Dingwei

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of whole-body fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for the detection of metastatic bladder cancer. From December 2006 to August 2010, 60 bladder cancer patients (median age 60.5 years old, range 32-96) underwent whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The diagnostic accuracy was assessed by performing both organ-based and patient-based analyses. Identified lesions were further studied by biopsy or clinically followed for at least 6 months. One hundred and thirty-four suspicious lesions were identified. Among them, 4 primary cancers (2 pancreatic cancers, 1 colonic and 1 nasopharyngeal cancer) were incidentally detected, and the patients could be treated on time. For the remaining 130 lesions, positron emission tomography/computed tomography detected 118 true positive lesions (sensitivity=95.9%). On the patient-based analysis, the overall sensitivity and specificity resulted to be 87.1% and 89.7%, respectively. There was no difference of sensitivity and specificity in patients with or without adjuvant treatment in terms of detection of metastatic sites by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Compared with conventional imaging modality, positron emission tomography/computed tomography correctly changed the management in 15 patients (25.0%). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography has excellent sensitivity and specificity in the detection of metastatic bladder cancer and it provides additional diagnostic information compared to standard imaging techniques. (author)

  6. Combination of panoramic and fluorescence endoscopic images to obtain tumor spatial distribution information useful for bladder cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, S.; Hernández Mier, Y.; Blondel, W. C. P. M.; Daul, C.; Wolf, D.; Bourg-Heckly, G.

    2007-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread. Moreover, carcinoma in situ can be difficult to diagnose as it may be difficult to see, and become invasive in 50 % of case. Non invasive diagnosis methods like photodynamic or autofluorescence endoscopy allow enhancing sensitivity and specificity. Besides, bladder tumors can be multifocal. Multifocality increases the probability of recurrence and infiltration into bladder muscle. Analysis of spatial distribution of tumors could be used to improve diagnosis. We explore the feasibility to combine fluorescence and spatial information on phantoms. We developed a system allowing the acquisition of consecutive images under white light or UV excitation alternatively and automatically along the video sequence. We also developed an automatic image processing algorithm to build a partial panoramic image from a cystoscopic sequence of images. Fluorescence information is extracted from wavelength bandpass filtered images and superimposed over the cartography. Then, spatial distribution measures of fluorescent spots can be computed. This cartography can be positioned on a 3D generic shape of bladder by selecting some reference points. Our first results on phantoms show that it is possible to obtain cartography with fluorescent spots and extract quantitative information of their spatial distribution on a "wide" field of view basis.

  7. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  8. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid...... filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance...... degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane...

  9. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Erik Hansen,1–3 Heidi Larsson,4 Mette Nørgaard,4 Peter Thind,3,5 Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen1–3 1Department of Urology, Hospital of West Jutland-Holstebro, Holstebro, 2Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3The Danish Bladder Cancer Database Group, 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 5Department of Urology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC in Denmark. Study population: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables: In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47% patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC and 512 (53% were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC. A total of 300 (31% patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50% received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21. One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%. One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18. Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5 in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39 and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31 in 2013. Conclusion: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and

  10. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet; Nørgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results......-intended radiation therapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15-21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22-27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10-18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1-5) in 2013. One......-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24-39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16-31) in 2013. CONCLUSION: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database...

  11. Diagnostic value of urinary CK-20 RNA and VEGF in bladder cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic value of urinary cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) RNA and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in comparison with urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer. This study included 80 patients with bladder cancer, 20 patients with bilharzial bladder lesions and 20 ...

  12. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  13. Advances in immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyu; Chen Lijun

    2009-01-01

    The conventional treatments for bladder cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are highly invasive and bring about lots of side effects. Immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. This review presents the research advances in immunotherapy of bladder cancer. (authors)

  14. Applications of Nanotechnology in Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wei Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapies can prevent superficial bladder cancer from developing into muscle-invasive stage or more severe stages which require radical cystectomy and negatively affect life quality. In terms of therapeutic approaches against superficial bladder cancer, intravesical (regional therapy has several advantages over oral (systemic therapy. Though urologists can directly deliver drugs to bladder lesions by intravesical instillation after transurethral resection, the efficacy of conventional drug delivery is usually low due to the bladder permeability barrier and bladder periodical discharge. Nanoparticles have been well developed as pharmaceutical carriers. By their versatile properties, nanoparticles can greatly improve the interactions between urothelium and drugs and also enhance the penetration of drugs into urothelium with lesions, which dramatically improves therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the advances of nanotechnology in bladder cancer therapy by different types of nanoparticles with different encapsulating materials.

  15. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis of bladder cancer reveals an additive diagnostic value of FGFR3 mutations and hypermethylation events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, Reza R; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Steven, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The bladder cancer genome harbors numerous oncogenic mutations and aberrantly methylated gene promoters. The aim of our study was to generate a profile of these alterations and investigate their use as biomarkers in urine sediments for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer. We systematically sc...... noninvasive, DNA-based detection of bladder cancer....

  17. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  18. Diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging for detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer: prospective evaluation of a novel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Brusabhanu; Dogra, Prem Nath [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Urology, New Delhi (India); Naswa, Niraj [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); New Delhi (India)

    2013-03-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used with limited success in the past in primary diagnosis and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer, mainly because of the pharmacokinetics of renal excretion of {sup 18}F-FDG. In the present prospective study, we have evaluated the potential application of diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in improving detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder tumours. Twenty-five patients suspected of having primary carcinoma of the urinary bladder were evaluated prospectively for diagnosis and staging. All of these 25 patients underwent conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen/pelvis and whole-body diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. In addition, pelvic PET/CT images were obtained using the special technique of forced diuresis using intravenous furosemide (20-40 mg). Of the 25 patients, 10 underwent radical cystectomy and 15 underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). Results of CECT and diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were compared considering histopathology as a reference standard. Of the 25 patients, CECT detected a primary tumour in 23 (sensitivity 92 %), while {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 24 patients (sensitivity 96 %). Mean size and maximum standardized uptake value of the bladder tumours were 3.33 cm (range 1.6-6.2) and 5.3 (range 1.3-11.7), respectively. Of the 25 patients, only 10 patients underwent radical cystectomy based on disease status on TURBT. Among those ten patients, nine had locoregional metastases. Among the nine patients who had positive lymph nodes for metastasis on histopathology, CECT and PET/CT scan had a sensitivity of 44 and 78 %, respectively. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was found to be superior to CECT in the detection of the primary tumour and locoregional staging (p < 0.05). Diuretic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is highly sensitive and specific and plays an important role in improving

  19. Diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer: prospective evaluation of a novel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Brusabhanu; Dogra, Prem Nath; Naswa, Niraj; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used with limited success in the past in primary diagnosis and locoregional staging of urinary bladder cancer, mainly because of the pharmacokinetics of renal excretion of 18 F-FDG. In the present prospective study, we have evaluated the potential application of diuretic 18 F-FDG PET/CT in improving detection and locoregional staging of urinary bladder tumours. Twenty-five patients suspected of having primary carcinoma of the urinary bladder were evaluated prospectively for diagnosis and staging. All of these 25 patients underwent conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen/pelvis and whole-body diuretic 18 F-FDG PET/CT. In addition, pelvic PET/CT images were obtained using the special technique of forced diuresis using intravenous furosemide (20-40 mg). Of the 25 patients, 10 underwent radical cystectomy and 15 underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). Results of CECT and diuretic 18 F-FDG PET/CT were compared considering histopathology as a reference standard. Of the 25 patients, CECT detected a primary tumour in 23 (sensitivity 92 %), while 18 F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 24 patients (sensitivity 96 %). Mean size and maximum standardized uptake value of the bladder tumours were 3.33 cm (range 1.6-6.2) and 5.3 (range 1.3-11.7), respectively. Of the 25 patients, only 10 patients underwent radical cystectomy based on disease status on TURBT. Among those ten patients, nine had locoregional metastases. Among the nine patients who had positive lymph nodes for metastasis on histopathology, CECT and PET/CT scan had a sensitivity of 44 and 78 %, respectively. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was found to be superior to CECT in the detection of the primary tumour and locoregional staging (p 18 F-FDG PET/CT is highly sensitive and specific and plays an important role in improving detection of the primary tumour and locoregional staging of

  20. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  1. Integrated irradiation and cystectomy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Planned pre-operative irradiation and cystectomy for selected patients with bladder cancer was initiated approximately 20 years ago by a number of centres on the basis of the disappointing end results of treatment of bladder cancer by either irradiation or surgery and the empirical hope that the combination might lead to better results. This is a brief review of the logical basis for integrated treatment and of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience with such therapy. (author)

  2. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden...

  3. No influence of smoking status on the performance of urine markers for the detection of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Susanne; Hennenlotter, J; Rausch, S; Docktor, K; Neumann, E; da Costa, I A; Bedke, J; Stenzl, A; Todenhöfer, T

    2018-04-19

    The performance of urinary markers for detecting bladder cancer (BC) is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of smoking habits on the performance of four commonly used urine markers. Urine samples of 723 patients with suspected BC were analysed using urine cytology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunocytology (uCyt+ test), and quantitative nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) immunoassay. The smoking habits of all patients were recorded and a cystoscopy performed within 2 weeks after urinary marker testing. Rates of false negative and false positive results were compared between non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers by contingency analyses. We included 723 patients in this study, 431 (59.6%) of which were non-smokers, 215 former smokers (29.7%), and 77 (10.7%) current smokers. 148 patients (20.5%) had a tumour at the time of urinary marker testing. Respective rates of false positive test results among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 16.3, 19.1, and 11.5% (p = 0.81) for urine cytology; 36.8, 42.0, and 32.7% for the uCyt+ test (p = 0.88); 18.0, 19.1, and 13.5% for FISH (p = 0.66); and 69.5, 71.6, and 71.2% for NMP22 (p = 0.67). Respective rates of false negatives among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 31.4, 15.1, and 28.0% for cytology (p = 0.34); 21.4, 22.6, and 16.0% for uCyt+ test (p = 0.67); 24.3, 13.2, and 28.0% for FISH (p = 0.88); and 10.0, 18.9, and 8.0% for NMP22 (p = 0.80). Our results strongly suggest that smoking habits do not affect performance characteristics of urinary markers in the diagnostics of BC.

  4. Deep Sequencing of Urinary RNAs for Bladder Cancer Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Mach, Kathleen E; Sinha, Rahul; Wu, Fan; Trivedi, Dharati R; Altobelli, Emanuela; Jensen, Kristin C; Sahoo, Debashis; Lu, Ying; Liao, Joseph C

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The majority of bladder cancer patients present with localized disease and are managed by transurethral resection. However, the high rate of recurrence necessitates lifetime cystoscopic surveillance. Developing a sensitive and specific urine-based test would significantly improve bladder cancer screening, detection, and surveillance. Experimental Design: RNA-seq was used for biomarker discovery to directly assess the gene expression profile of exfoliated urothelial cells in urine derived from bladder cancer patients ( n = 13) and controls ( n = 10). Eight bladder cancer specific and 3 reference genes identified by RNA-seq were quantitated by qPCR in a training cohort of 102 urine samples. A diagnostic model based on the training cohort was constructed using multiple logistic regression. The model was further validated in an independent cohort of 101 urines. Results: A total of 418 genes were found to be differentially expressed between bladder cancer and controls. Validation of a subset of these genes was used to construct an equation for computing a probability of bladder cancer score (P BC ) based on expression of three markers ( ROBO1, WNT5A , and CDC42BPB ). Setting P BC = 0.45 as the cutoff for a positive test, urine testing using the three-marker panel had overall 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity in the training cohort. The accuracy of the three-marker panel in the independent validation cohort yielded an AUC of 0.87 and overall 83% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Conclusions: Urine-based molecular diagnostics using this three-marker signature could provide a valuable adjunct to cystoscopy and may lead to a reduction of unnecessary procedures for bladder cancer diagnosis. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3700-10. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, Marcia R; Wu, Xue-Ru; Saban, Ricardo; Towner, Rheal; Smith, Nataliya; Abbott, Andrew; Neeman, Michal; Davis, Carole A; Simpson, Cindy; Maier, Julie; Mémet, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ) exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ), we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and function (LVF) during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5) suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic flow within the tumoral area. In addition, NIRF

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  7. Epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynder, E.L.; Goldsmith, R.

    1977-09-01

    A case-control study among 574 male and 158 female bladder cancer patients and equal numbers of matched controls was conducted between 1969 and 1974 in 17 hospitals in six United States cities. We determined that cigarette smokers of both sexes were at higher relative risk than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking was responsible for about one-half of male and one-third of female bladder cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer patients with some previous occupational exposure, such as rubber, chemicals, and textiles. A weak association with coffee drinking, which appeared to be independent of smoking, was found for males. Users of artificial sweetners were not over-represented among the cases. The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.

  8. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is the focus of this summary. Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in ...

  9. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lisa P; Savoly, Diana; Sidi, Abraham A; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  10. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  11. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth; Larsen, Louise K; Guldberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM). In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%), including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%). In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%). Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  12. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Andersson

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM. In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%, including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%. In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%. Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  13. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of bladder cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. Treatment options include different types of surgery (transurethral resection, radical and partial cystectomy, and urinary diversion), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Learn more about how bladder cancer is treated.

  14. Conformal radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Smaaland, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in radiotherapy (RT) are founded on the enhanced tumour visualisation capabilities of new imaging modalities and the precise deposition of individualised radiation dose distributions made possible with the new systems for RT planning and delivery. These techniques have a large potential to also improve the results of RT of urinary bladder cancer. Major challenges to take full advantage of these advances in the management of bladder cancer are to control, and, as far as possible, reduce bladder motion, and to reliably account for the related intestine and rectum motion. If these obstacles are overcome, it should be possible in the near future to offer selected patients with muscle invading bladder cancer an organ-sparing, yet effective combined-modality treatment as an alternative to radical surgery

  15. Recurrent urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer in the Nijmegen bladder cancer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Hanum, N.; Grotenhuis, A.J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Aben, K.K.H.; Mysorekar, I.U.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on whether urinary tract infection (UTI) is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Here, the association is investigated using data from one of the largest bladder cancer case-control studies worldwide. METHODS: Information on (i) history and age at onset of

  16. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  17. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  18. Bladder cancer: overview and disease management. Part 1: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley

    2018-05-10

    Part 1 of this two-part article provides an overview of bladder cancer and discusses its management. Since publication of a previous article entitled 'Understanding the role of smoking in the aetiology of bladder cancer' ( Anderson, 2009 ), the author has received many requests for an update. This article provides an overview of bladder cancer and its current management practices, underlining the continued role of smoking as the predominant risk factor in the disease's development. The management of bladder cancer is governed by specific guidelines. Management of non-muscle-invasive cancers, including surgical intervention with transurethral resection, and intravesical therapy using chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents, is discussed. Cystectomy (removal of the bladder), is sometimes necessary. Treatments are effective in reducing tumour recurrence, but the effects of the risks and side-effects on the individual's quality of life can be significant. The prevalence of bladder cancer, and the nature of its management make this cancer one of the most expensive for the NHS to treat. The effectiveness of health promotional strategies in increasing peoples' awareness of their risk of developing the disease, and in enabling them to change long-term health behaviours is discussed. The role of the multidisciplinary team is explored, along with that of the uro-oncology cancer nurse specialist. Part 2 will consider the management of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer.

  19. Baicalein and U0126 suppress bladder cancer proliferation via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RT-PCR) and western blot. Results: Baicalein and U0126 suppressed bladder cancer cell T24 proliferation by blocking cell cycle in G0~G1 phase. TUNEL and Annexin V/PI detection showed both baicalein and U0126 induced T24 cell ...

  20. Role of hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Grabe, Magnus; Haug, Erik Skaaheim

    2012-01-01

    Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is an optical imaging agent used with fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) for the detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Guidelines from the European Association of Urology (EAU) and a recent, more detailed European expert consensus statement agree that HAL...

  1. Progress in Personalizing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer.

  2. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  3. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  4. Modeling bladder cancer in mice: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Owczarek, Tomasz B.; McKiernan, James M.; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis and treatment of bladder cancer have hardly improved in the last 20 years. Bladder cancer remains a debilitating and often fatal disease, and among the most costly cancers to treat. The generation of informative mouse models has the potential to improve our understanding of bladder cancer progression, as well as impact its diagnosis and treatment. However, relatively few mouse models of bladder cancer have been described and particularly few that develop invasive cancer phenotypes. This review focuses on opportunities for improving the landscape of mouse models of bladder cancer. PMID:25533675

  5. A new generation of optical diagnostics for bladder cancer: technology, diagnostic accuracy, and future applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Daniël M.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: New developments in optical diagnostics have a potential for less invasive and improved detection of bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the technology and diagnostic yield of recently developed optical diagnostics for bladder cancer and to outline their potential future

  6. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:28241422

  7. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.

  8. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  9. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  10. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-05-10

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease.

  11. Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.

  12. Oncoprotein DEK as a tissue and urinary biomarker for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Antara; Adelson, Martin E; Mogilevkin, Yakov; Mordechai, Eli; Sidi, Abraham A; Trama, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the United States of America with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential for removing the tumor with preservation of the bladder, avoiding metastasis and hence improving prognosis and long-term survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of DEK protein in voided urine of bladder cancer patients as a urine-based bladder cancer diagnostic test. We examined the expression of DEK protein by western blot in 38 paired transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine was analyzed by western blot in 42 urine samples collected from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals. The DEK protein is expressed in 33 of 38 bladder tumor tissues with no expression in adjacent normal tissue. Based on our sample size, DEK protein is expressed in 100% of tumors of low malignant potential, 92% of tumors of low grade and in 71% of tumors of high grade. Next, we analyzed 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals for DEK protein expression by western blot analysis. We are the first to show that the DEK protein is present in the urine of bladder cancer patients. Approximately 84% of TCC patient urine specimens were positive for urine DEK. Based on our pilot study of 38 bladder tumor tissue and 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals; DEK protein is expressed in bladder tumor tissue and voided urine of bladder cancer patients. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine is potentially a suitable biomarker for bladder cancer and that the screening for the presence of DEK protein in urine can be explored as a noninvasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer

  13. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Alan; Hopper, Melanie; Murray, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm; Bishop, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C 595 (gG3) which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radio immuno conjugates of the C 595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immuno reactivity using Tc-99 m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun. (author)

  14. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithamparam, S; Ahmad, R; Sabarudin, A; Othman, Z; Ismail, M

    2017-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients. (paper)

  15. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  16. H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS gene activation in human bladder cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Jagiello, A; Jalmuzna, P

    2000-08-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in most developed countries. In this work, 19 bladder cancer specimens, along with their infiltrations of the urinary bladder wall from the same patients, were examined for the presence of H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS activation using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The H-RAS activation was found in 15 (about 84%) of the 19 bladder cancers studied. The same results were obtained in the infiltrating urinary bladder wall samples. N-RAS gene mutations were observed in all cases (except 1) in which H-RAS gene mutations were detected. The results suggest a strong relationship between H-RAS and N-RAS gene activation in bladder cancer. Changes in the K-RAS gene in bladder cancers seem to be a rare event; this is in agreement with findings of other authors. We found activation of the gene in one specimen of bladder cancer and its infiltration of the urinary bladder wall in the same patient.

  17. Elevated Bladder Cancer Risk in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study has found that drinking water from private wells, particularly dug wells established during the first half of the 20th century, may have contributed to the elevated risk of bladder cancer that has been observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont for over 50 years.

  18. Radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; von der Maase, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The exact value of radiotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive       bladder cancer is difficult to establish, as most studies exploring this       issue are retrospective with different procedures for selecting patients       for treatment, as well as varying treatment strategies. An estima...

  19. Computerized tomography of gall bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, F.I.; Karmazanovskij, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have summed up the experience in the use of computerized tomography (CT) in diagnosis of gall bladder cancer. The investigation of 17 patients with cancer of this site showed a high informative value of the method. A retrospective comparative study of the results of CT and surgical interventions was carried out. It has been concluded that CT makes it possible not only to diagnose malignant lesions of the bile ducts but also to assess a possible scope of a forthcoming operation

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms at Familial Bladder Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ceylan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men in the world, it is the second most seen cancer after lung cancer and the first in urogenital tumours in Turkey. Many molecular epidemiologic studies have been reported to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. In this report, a family with transitional bladder cancer have also MTHFR A1298C heterozygosity which supports the association between MTHFR variants and bladder cancer. This %uFB01nding should be further validated by prospective and larger studies with more diverse ethnic groups.

  1. Nine cases of bladder cancer occurring in occupational dye users

    OpenAIRE

    村瀬, 達良; 高士, 宗久; 青田, 泰博; 下地, 敏雄; 三宅, 弘治; 三矢, 英輔

    1985-01-01

    Workers in the dye manufacturing industry have a high risk of urinary bladder cancer. There may also be a high relative risk of bladder cancer in occupational dye users. Nine occupational dye users were found to have bladder cancer. The period of engaging with dye work ranged from 5 to 40 years. Seven patients had bladder cancer and the other 2 patients had lesions both in the bladder and in the renal pelvis. Histopathology of all cases was transitional cell carcinoma. Three cases were classi...

  2. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  3. Urinary long noncoding RNAs in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: new architects in cancer prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Daniela; Ferro, Matteo; Terreri, Sara; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Carolina; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cimmino, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer. Although lncRNAs have been shown to have critical regulatory roles in cancer biology, the biological functions and prognostic values in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence suggests that several lncRNAs expression profiles in bladder malignancies are associated with poor prognosis, and they can be detected in biological fluids, such as urines. Here, we review current progress in the biology and the implication of lncRNAs associated with bladder cancer, and we discuss their potential use as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers in bladder malignancies with a focus on their role in high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  5. [The biochemical carcinogenesis of selected heavy metals in bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Marchewka, Zofia; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer takes the second place in the classification of morbidity of urinary system cancers. Many chemical factors take part in cancerogenesis. It is suggested that exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, nickel and cadmium as well as its metabolites may trigger the bladder cancer through inducing excessive reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress formation which are responsible for DNA damage. In patients with bladder cancer is observed the disorder of processes regulated by p-53, including apoptosis. There are many patients with bladder cancer with confirmed absence of retinoblastoma protein, which is responsible of holding on the process of coming up the cells with mutation into synthesis, where the replication process undergoes. It is mentioned that excessive expression of proto-oncogenes may also cause the bladder cancer. The article concerns biochemical effects of exposure to chosen heavy metals and their potential role in bladder cancer progression.

  6. Disruption of the FA/BRCA pathway in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveling, K; Kalb, R; Florl, A R; Herterich, S; Friedl, R; Hoehn, H; Hader, C; Hartmann, F H; Nanda, I; Steinlein, C; Schmid, M; Tonnies, H; Hurst, C D; Knowles, M A; Hanenberg, H; Schulz, W A; Schindler, D

    2007-01-01

    Bladder carcinomas frequently show extensive deletions of chromosomes 9p and/or 9q, potentially including the loci of the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes FANCC and FANCG. FA is a rare recessive disease due to defects in anyone of 13 FANC genes manifesting with genetic instability and increased risk of neoplasia. FA cells are hypersensitive towards DNA crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin that are commonly employed in the chemotherapy of bladder cancers. These observations suggest the possibility of disruption of the FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway in bladder tumors. However, mutations in FANCC or FANCG could not be detected in any of 23 bladder carcinoma cell lines and ten surgical tumor specimens by LOH analysis or by FANCD2 immunoblotting assessing proficiency of the pathway. Only a single cell line, BFTC909, proved defective for FANCD2 monoubiquitination and was highly sensitive towards mitomycin C. This increased sensitivity was restored specifically by transfer of the FANCF gene. Sequencing of FANCF in BFTC909 failed to identify mutations, but methylation of cytosine residues in the FANCF promoter region was demonstrated by methylation-specific PCR, HpaII restriction and bisulfite DNA sequencing. Methylation-specific PCR uncovered only a single instance of FANCF promoter hypermethylation in surgical specimens of further 41 bladder carcinomas. These low proportions suggest that in contrast to other types of tumors silencing of FANCF is a rare event in bladder cancer and that an intact FA/BRCA pathway might be advantageous for tumor progression. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Protein shedding in urothelial bladder cancer: prognostic implications of soluble urinary EGFR and EpCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R T; Regan, H L; Pirrie, S J; Devall, A J; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, M P; James, N D; Knowles, M A; Ward, D G

    2015-03-17

    Better biomarkers must be found to develop clinically useful urine tests for bladder cancer. Proteomics can be used to identify the proteins released by cancer cell lines and generate candidate markers for developing such tests. We used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins released into culture media by eight bladder cancer cell lines. These data were compared with protein expression data from the Human Protein Atlas. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was identified as a candidate biomarker and measured by ELISA in urine from 60 noncancer control subjects and from 436 patients with bladder cancer and long-term clinical follow-up. Bladder cancer cell lines shed soluble EGFR ectodomain. Soluble EGFR is also detectable in urine and is highly elevated in some patients with high-grade bladder cancer. Urinary EGFR is an independent indicator of poor bladder cancer-specific survival with a hazard ratio of 2.89 (95% CI 1.81-4.62, Pbladder cancer-specific survival and have prognostic value over and above that provided by standard clinical observations. Measuring urinary EGFR and EpCAM may represent a simple and useful approach for fast-tracking the investigation and treatment of patients with the most aggressive bladder cancers.

  8. [Bladder-conserving treatment for bladder cancer: potential of and developments in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Pieters, Bradley R; Koning, Caro C E

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the bladder and construction of a neobladder. Recently, important improvements have been made in the potential for bladder-conserving treatment using radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy has undergone technological improvements, as a result of which it is possible to radiate the tumour more precisely while decreasing radiation to healthy tissue. Radiochemotherapy improves local recurrence-free and overall survival compared with radiotherapy alone. The results of this combined treatment are comparable with those of surgery. Additionally, Dutch radiotherapy departments have collected data in a national database of 1040 selected patients with confined bladder cancer. These patients were treated with external beam radiation, limited surgery and brachytherapy. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 75%. Bladder conserving treatment options for muscle-invasive bladder cancer should be discussed during the multidisciplinary meeting.

  9. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    logistic regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risks were observed for trichloroethylene (HR 1.23, 95% 95% CI 1.12-1.40), toluene (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), benzene (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (HR 1...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer....

  10. Cytotoxic and toxicogenomic effects of silibinin in bladder cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness forpreventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activityof silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder urothelial ...

  11. Incidental Prostate Cancer in Patients Undergoing Radical Cystoprostatectomy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hiroš

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to verify the incidence of incidental prostate adenocarcinoma in patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for invasive bladder carcinoma. We have retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for infiltrative bladder tumors in period between 2003 and 2007 year, 94 men with bladder cancer underwent radical cystoprostatectomy at Urology Clinic-University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre. Mean age of patients was 67 years, with age limits ranging between 48 and 79 years. Pathohystological evaluation was used for all specimens from RCP. We found that 9,57% of cystoprostatectomy specimens in patients with bladder cancer also contained incidental prostate cancer. This result was much lower than overall mean frequency of incidentally detected prostate cancer in other series of cystoprostatectomy cases (range, 23%-68%. In conclusion we recommended digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA test as part of the bladder cancer work up and complete removal of the prostate at cystoprostatectomy to prevent residual prostate cancer.

  12. Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-02-01

    At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

  13. Biomarker in Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of metastasized bladder cancer has been evolving during recent years. Cisplatin based chemotherapy combinations are still gold standard in the treatment of advanced and metastasized bladder cancer. But new therapies are approaching. Based to this fact biological markers will become more important for decisions in bladder cancer treatment. A systematic MEDLINE search of the key words "cisplatin", "bladder cancer", "DNA marker", "protein marker", "methylation biomarker", "predictive marker", "prognostic marker" has been made. This review aims to highlight the most relevant clinical and experimental studies investigating markers for metastasized transitional carcinoma of the urothelium treated by cisplatin based regimens.

  14. Urine and bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: standard test with new possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flezar, Margareta Strojan

    2010-01-01

    Light microscopic evaluation of cell morphology in preparations from urine or bladder washing containing exfoliated cells is a standard and primary method for the detection of bladder cancer and also malignancy from other parts of the urinary tract. The cytopathologic examination is a valuable method to detect an early recurrence of malignancy or new primary carcinoma during the follow-up of patients after the treatment of bladder cancer. Characteristic cellular and nuclear signs of malignancy indicate invasive or in situ urothelial carcinoma or high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. However, low sensitivity of the method reflects the unreliable cytopathologic diagnosis of low-grade urothelial neoplasms as cellular and nuclear signs of malignancy in these neoplasms are poorly manifested. Many different markers were developed to improve the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma on urinary samples. UroVysion™ test is among the newest and most promising tests. By the method of in situ hybridization one can detect specific cytogenetic changes of urothelial carcinoma

  15. The emerging role of the androgen receptor in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Alan P; Mudryj, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Men are three to four times more likely to get bladder cancer than women. The gender disparity characterizing bladder cancer diagnoses has been investigated. One hypothesis is that androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved in the etiology and progression of this disease. Although bladder cancer is not typically described as an endocrine-related malignancy, it has become increasingly clear that AR signaling plays a role in bladder tumors. This review summarizes current findings regarding the role of the AR in bladder cancer. We discuss work demonstrating AR expression in bladder cancer and its role in promoting formation and progression of tumors. Additionally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting the AR in this disease. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Prognostic factors in invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulard-Durdux, C.; Housset, M.

    1998-01-01

    In France, invasive bladder cancer is the more frequent urologic malignancy after prostate carcinoma. Treatment of bladder cancer is radical cystectomy. New therapeutic approaches such as chemo-radiation combination for a conservative procedure, neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy are still developing. In this way, a rigorous selection of patients is needed. This selection is based on prognostic criteria that could be divided into four groups: the volume of the tumor including the tumor infiltration depth, the nodal status, the presence or not of hydronephrosis and the residual tumor mass after trans-urethral resection; the histologic aspects of the tumor including histologic grading, the presence or not of an epidermoid metaplasia, of in situ carcinoma or of thrombi; the expression of tumor markers tissue polypeptide antigen, bladder tumor antigen; the biologic aspects of the tumor as ploidy, cytogenetic abnormalities, expression of Ki67, expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, expression of tumor antigens or growth factor receptors. This paper reviews the prognostic value of the various parameters. (authors)

  17. Implication of androgen receptor in urinary bladder cancer: a critical mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Babiker, Ali Yousif Y; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M; Rizvi, Moshahid A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is probably the most dreaded disease of mankind and the bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide. It is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. From amongst the bladder cancer, the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the bladder and accounts for 90% of all bladder cancer cases. Despite such a high prevalence, the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of bladder carcinoma and its progression are poorly understood. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression of bladder carcinomas are thought to result from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations. The Androgen Receptor (AR) gene is located on the q arm of X chromosome (q11-12) and considered as a ligand-inducible transcription factor that regulates target gene expression. The Androgen plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of the normal urinary bladder. The AR is also involved in the development and progression of urinary bladder carcinoma, which is the most common type of carcinoma. Mutation in AR alters the ligand binding ability that may cause the progression and development of bladder cancer. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression are thought to result from changes in the function of hormonal receptor gene. The accumulation of the changes in AR expressions, determines the tumor's phenotype and ultimately the patient's clinical outcome. The early detection of which may help in management and prediction, how will it behave and respond to the therapeutic regimen. The present review aimed to study the mechanism and alteration of AR gene that play a vital role in the tumorIgenesis of bladder carcinoma.

  18. Selective bladder preservation with curative intent for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A contemporary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Fumitaka; Kihara, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion, the reference standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, associates with high complication rates and compromises quality of life as a result of long-term effects on urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual function, and changes in body image. As a society ages, the number of elderly patients unfit for radical cystectomy as a result of comorbidity will increase, and thus the demand for bladder-sparing approaches for muscle-invasive bladder cancer will also inevitably increase. Trimodality bladder-sparing approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Σ55-65 Gy) yield overall survival rates comparable with those of radical cystectomy series (50-70% at 5 years), while preserving the native bladder in 40-60% of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, contributing to an improvement in quality of life for such patients. Limitations of the trimodality therapy include muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence in the preserved bladder, which most often arises in the original muscle-invasive bladder cancer site; potential lack of curative intervention for regional lymph nodes; and increased morbidity in the event of salvage radical cystectomy for remaining or recurrent disease as a result of high-dose pelvic irradiation. Consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection followed by induction chemoradiotherapy at lower dose (exempli gratia (e.g.) 40 Gy) is a rational strategy for overcoming such limitations by strengthening locoregional control and reducing radiation dosage. Molecular profiling of the tumor and functional imaging might play important roles in optimal patient selection for bladder preservation. Refinement of radiation techniques, intensified concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy, and novel sensitizers, including molecular targeting agent, are also expected to improve outcomes and consequently provide more muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with favorable

  19. Curcumin inhibits bladder cancer progression via regulation of β-catenin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yunpeng; Jia, Zhuomin; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Chaofei; Yao, Yuanxin

    2017-07-01

    Bladder cancer has a considerable morbidity and mortality impact with particularly poor prognosis. Curcumin has been recently noticed as a polyphenolic compound separated from turmeric to regulate tumor progression. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells is not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effect of curcumin on the bladder cancer as well as possible mechanisms of curcumin. The expression of β-catenin was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis in a series of bladder cancer tissues. In addition, bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin on cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The migration and invasion capacity of T24 and 5637 cells were measured by transwell assay. The effects of curcumin on expression levels of β-catenin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker were determined by western blotting. The β-catenin expression was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer tissues when compared with corresponding peri-tumor tissues. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells, and curcumin reduced the migration and invasive ability of T24 and 5637 cells via regulating β-catenin expression and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Curcumin may be a new drug for bladder cancer.

  20. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Rudkjaer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...... staining on tissue arrays of bladder cancers. The presence and relative amount of ADAM12 in the urine of cancer patients were determined by Western blotting and densitometric measurements, respectively. RESULTS: ADAM12 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer, as determined...

  1. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). Participants The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Findings to date Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. Future plans The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding

  2. Long noncoding RNA in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S; Böttcher, René; Croce, Carlo M; Jenster, Guido; Visakorpi, Tapio; Calin, George A

    2014-06-01

    Genomic regions without protein-coding potential give rise to millions of protein-noncoding RNA transcripts (noncoding RNA) that participate in virtually all cellular processes. Research over the last 10 yr has accumulated evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in human urologic cancers. To review current progress in the biology and implication of lncRNAs associated with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. The PubMed database was searched for articles in the English language with combinations of the Medical Subject Headings terms long non coding RNA, long noncoding RNA, long untranslated RNA, cancer, neoplasms, prostate, bladder, and kidney. We summarise existing knowledge on the systematics, biology, and function of lncRNAs, particularly these involved in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. We also discuss the possible utilisation of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in urologic malignancies and portray the major challenges and future perspectives of ongoing lncRNA research. LncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Alterations in the function of lncRNAs promote tumour formation, progression, and metastasis of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. LncRNAs can be used as noninvasive tumour markers in urologic malignancies. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs perform their function in the normal and malignant cell will lead to a better understanding of tumour biology and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of urologic cancers. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for the detection and treatment of urologic cancers. We conclude that lncRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers in prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer. LncRNAs hold promise as future therapeutic targets, but more research is needed to gain a better

  3. Artificial intelligence and bladder cancer arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P J; Catto, J W F; Abbod, M F; Linkens, D A; Herr, A; Pilarsky, C; Wissmann, C; Stoehr, R; Denzinger, S; Knuechel, R; Hamdy, F C; Hartmann, A

    2007-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is a heterogenous disease whose management is dependent upon the risk of progression to muscle invasion. Although the recurrence rate is high, the majority of tumors are indolent and can be managed by endoscopic means alone. The prognosis of muscle invasion is poor and radical treatment is required if cure is to be obtained. Progression risk in non-invasive tumors is hard to determine at tumor diagnosis using current clinicopathological means. To improve the accuracy of progression prediction various biomarkers have been evaluated. To discover novel biomarkers several authors have used gene expression microarrays. Various statistical methods have been described to interpret array data, but to date no biomarkers have entered clinical practice. Here, we describe a new method of microarray analysis using neurofuzzy modeling (NFM), a form of artificial intelligence, and integrate it with artificial neural networks (ANN) to investigate non-muscle invasive bladder cancer array data (n=66 tumors). We develop a predictive panel of 11 genes, from 2800 expressed genes, that can significantly identify tumor progression (average Logrank p = 0.0288) in the analyzed cancers. In comparison, this panel appears superior to those genes chosen using traditional analyses (average Logrank p = 0.3455) and tumor grade (Logrank, p = 0.2475) in this non-muscle invasive cohort. We then analyze panel members in a new non-muscle invasive bladder cancer cohort (n=199) using immunohistochemistry with six commercially available antibodies. The combination of 6 genes (LIG3, TNFRSF6, KRT18, ICAM1, DSG2 and BRCA2) significantly stratifies tumor progression (Logrank p = 0.0096) in the new cohort. We discuss the benefits of the transparent NFM approach with respect to other reported methods.

  4. Urology and nephrology update: bladder and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, David C; Fox, Cara-Louise

    2014-01-01

    It has been estimated that bladder and kidney cancers would be diagnosed in approximately 140,000 Americans in 2013, with approximately 30,000 dying from these cancers. Urinary tract cancers affect men more commonly than they do women, and the median age at diagnosis is 65 years. Major risk factors for these cancers include tobacco smoking, certain chemical exposures, family history, age, and obesity. Unexplained hematuria in adults should be evaluated to exclude bladder and kidney cancer. Staging of bladder and kidney cancer should be based on the TNM staging system, which, along with tumor grade, provides important treatment and prognostic information. Urothelial cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer; it also can occur in the kidneys or ureters. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Treatment options for bladder cancer vary widely, depending on the grade of the cancer. Early non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer may be removed cystoscopically and/or treated with intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy, whereas patients with muscle-invasive bladder tumors typically require surgery. Management of kidney cancer is almost always surgical, unless the patient is too ill to undergo surgery or chooses palliative care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  5. Computer-aided detection of bladder wall thickening in CT urography (CTU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon Z.; Gordon, Marshall N.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2018-02-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). Bladder wall thickening is a manifestation of bladder cancer and its detection is more challenging than the detection of bladder masses. We first segmented the inner and outer bladder walls using our method that combined deep-learning convolutional neural network with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensity-projection-based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and gray level threshold was applied to the contrast and non-contrast regions separately to extract the bladder wall and potential lesions. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify regions of wall thickening candidates. Volume-based features of the wall thickening candidates were analyzed with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to differentiate bladder wall thickenings from false positives. A data set of 112 patients, 87 with wall thickening and 25 with normal bladders, was collected retrospectively with IRB approval, and split into independent training and test sets. Of the 57 training cases, 44 had bladder wall thickening and 13 were normal. Of the 55 test cases, 43 had wall thickening and 12 were normal. The LDA classifier was trained with the training set and evaluated with the test set. FROC analysis showed that the system achieved sensitivities of 93.2% and 88.4% for the training and test sets, respectively, at 0.5 FPs/case.

  6. Can we improve transurethral resection of the bladder tumour for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Esmee Iml; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The recurrence rate in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is high, and the quality of transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) tumour influences recurrence risk. We review new methods that aim to improve the effectiveness of TURB, and highlight studies of the past

  7. Pathological diagnosis of bladder cancer by image analysis of hypericin induced fluorescence cystoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, James C. Y.; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma based on hypericin fluorescence cystoscopy has shown to have a higher degree of sensitivity for the detection of flat bladder carcinoma compared to white light cystoscopy. The potential of the photosensitizer hypericin-induced fluorescence in performing non-invasive optical biopsy to grade bladder cancer in vivo using fluorescence cystoscopic image analysis without surgical resection for tissue biopsy is investigated in this study. The correlation between tissue fluorescence and histopathology of diseased tissue was explored and a diagnostic algorithm based on fluorescence image analysis was developed to classify the bladder cancer without surgical resection for tissue biopsy. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between tissue fluorescence and bladder cancer grade. By combining both the red-to-blue and red-to-green intensity ratios into a 2D scatter plot yields an average sensitivity and specificity of around 70% and 85% respectively for pathological cancer grading of the three different grades of bladder cancer. Therefore, the diagnostic algorithm based on colorimetric intensity ratio analysis of hypericin fluorescence cystoscopic images developed in this preliminary study shows promising potential to optically diagnose and grade bladder cancer in vivo.

  8. Orgotein in radiation treatment of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.S.; Overgaard, J.; Overgaard, M.; Steenholdt, S.; Jakobsen, A.; Sell, A.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1987-01-01

    The possible protective effect of orgotein (a superoxide dismutase) an radiation cystitis and proctitis was studied in patients with carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A double-blind study in 60 patients was planned but due to unacceptable side effects only 30 patients were included. Radiation treatment was given with curative intent at a dose of 63 Gy in 30 fractions. Orgotein was injected 15 min after each daily radiation treatment at a dose of 4 or 8 mg. No effect of orgotein on tumour radiation response or on the acute radiation reactions in the bladder and rectum was detected. Marked subcutaneous infiltration and redness was seen at the local injection site in 5 patients. No general symptoms were observed. Intradermal tests and antibody titration tests showed that the local reactions were due to allergic reactions to the drug itself. The lack of radioprotective effect and the high frequency of unaccaptable side effects makes orgotein an unsuitable drug in climical radiation therapy. (orig.)

  9. DWI as an Imaging Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Waseda, Yuma; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    OBJECTIVE. DWI has been increasingly applied in the management of bladder cancer. In this article, we discuss the role of DWI as an imaging biomarker for bladder cancer. CONCLUSION. The DWI signal is derived from the motion of water molecules, which represents the physiologic characteristics of the

  10. Perioperative management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is a challenge. Despite current guidelines, the treatment is suboptimal as illustrated by the high risk of recurrence and progression. Transurethral resection plays a pivotal role in the management of bladder cancer, but the

  11. Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Weldon, L; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1977-09-17

    A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%.

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muslet, Nafie A.; Ali, Essam E.

    2012-03-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Africa. It takes several days to reach a diagnosis using histological examinations of specimens obtained by endoscope, which increases the medical expense. Recently, spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues has received considerable attention as a diagnosis technique due to its sensitivity to biochemical variations in the samples. This study investigated the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze a number of bladder cancer tissues. Twenty-two samples were collected from 11 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer from different hospitals without any pretreatment. From each patient two samples were collected, one normal and another cancerous. FTIR spectrometer was used to differentiate between normal and cancerous bladder tissues via changes in spectra of these samples. The investigations detected obvious changes in the bands of proteins (1650, 1550 cm-1), lipids (2925, 2850 cm-1), and nucleic acid (1080, 1236 cm-1). The results show that FTIR spectroscopy is promising as a rapid, accurate, nondestructive, and easy to use alternative method for identification and diagnosis of bladder cancer tissues.

  13. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allory, Yves; Beukers, Willemien; Sagrera, Ana

    2014-01-01

    for detection of recurrences in urine in patients with urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A set of 111 UBCs of different stages was used to assess TERT promoter mutations by Sanger sequencing and TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by reverse transcription...... surveillance after diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive UBC (n=194), was tested using a SNaPshot assay. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Association of mutation status with age, sex, tobacco, stage, grade, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutation, progression-free survival, disease...... frequent among FGFR3 mutant tumors (p=0.0002). There was no association between TERT mutations and mRNA expression (p=0.3). Mutations were not associated with clinical outcome. In urine, TERT mutations had 90% specificity in subjects with hematuria but no bladder tumor, and 73% in recurrence-free UBC...

  14. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy. PMID:25929573

  15. Implication of androgen receptor in urinary bladder cancer: a critical mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Babiker, Ali Yousif Y; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M; Rizvi, Moshahid A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is probably the most dreaded disease of mankind and the bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide. It is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. From amongst the bladder cancer, the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the bladder and accounts for 90% of all bladder cancer cases. Despite such a high prevalence, the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of bladder carcinoma and its progression are poorly understood. Tu...

  16. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  17. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    : The correlation between the relative bladder volume (RBV, defined as repeat scan volume/planning scan volume) and the margins required to account for internal motion was first studied using a series of 20 bladder cancer patients with weekly repeat CT scanning during treatment. Both conformal RT (CRT) and IGRT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... these patients were given fluid intake restrictions on alternating weeks during treatment. RESULTS: IGRT gave the strongest correlation between the RBV and margin size (R(2)=0.75; p10mm were required in only 1% of the situations when the RBV1, whereas isotropic margins >10...

  18. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandron, E.; Desrez, G.; Chatelain, C.

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  19. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Infiltrating T Cells Promote Bladder Cancer Progression via Increasing IL1→Androgen Receptor→HIF1α→VEGFa Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Le; Qiu, Jianxin; Jiang, Ming; Song, Wenbin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Yu, Hong; Zang, Lijuan; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment impacts tumor progression and individual cells, including CD4(+) T cells, which have been detected in bladder cancer tissues. The detailed mechanism of how these T cells were recruited to the bladder cancer tumor and their impact on bladder cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using a human clinical bladder cancer sample survey and in vitro coculture system, we found that bladder cancer has a greater capacity to recruit T cells than surrounding normal bladder tissues. The consequences of higher levels of recruited T cells in bladder cancer included increased bladder cancer metastasis. Mechanism dissection revealed that infiltrating T cells might function through secreting the cytokine IL1, which increases the recruitment of T cells to bladder cancer and enhances the bladder cancer androgen receptor (AR) signaling that results in increased bladder cancer cell invasion via upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)/VEGFa expression. Interruption of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signals with inhibitors of HIF1α or VEGFa partially reversed the enhanced bladder cancer cell invasion. Finally, in vivo mouse models of xenografted bladder cancer T24 cells with CD4(+) T cells confirmed in vitro coculture studies and concluded that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells can promote bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signaling. Future clinical trials using small molecules to target this newly identified signaling pathway may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to better suppress bladder cancer metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1943-51. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Tyrosine kinase ETK/BMX is up-regulated in bladder cancer and predicts poor prognosis in patients with cystectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Guo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ETK/BMX has been reported in several solid tumors. In this report, we demonstrated that ETK expression is progressively increased during bladder cancer progression. We found that down-regulation of ETK in bladder cancer cells attenuated STAT3 and AKT activity whereas exogenous overexpression of ETK had opposite effects, suggesting that deregulation of ETK may attribute to the elevated activity of STAT3 and AKT frequently detected in bladder cancer. The survival, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells were significantly compromised when ETK expression was knocked down by a specific shRNA. In addition, we showed that ETK localizes to mitochondria in bladder cancer cells through interacting with Bcl-XL and regulating ROS production and drug sensitivity. Therefore, ETK may play an important role in regulating survival, migration and invasion by modulating multiple signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarrays containing 619 human bladder tissue samples shows that ETK is significantly upregulated during bladder cancer development and progression and ETK expression level predicts the survival rate of patients with cystectomy. Taken together, our results suggest that ETK may potentially serve as a new drug target for bladder cancer treatment as well as a biomarker which could be used to identify patients with higher mortality risk, who may be benefited from therapeutics targeting ETK activity.

  2. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, Astrid N.; Leer, Jan-Willem H.; Collins, C. David; Wondergem, Jan; Hermans, Jo; Timothy, Adrian

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The policy of the Radiotherapy Department of St. Thomas' Hospital in London for patients with invasive bladder cancer, used to be treatment with hypofractionated radiotherapy. The advantages of this fractionation scheme included reduction of the number of treatment sessions and better use of limited resources. Our results after hypofractionation were compared to series with more conventional radiotherapy. Material and methods: Between 1975 and 1985, 123 patients with a T2-T3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated by a radical course of hypofractionated radiotherapy. Local control, survival and morbidity rates were analysed retrospectively. Results: The actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years were 31 and 29%, respectively. The actuarial cancer-specific 5- and 10-year survival rates were 48 and 39%, respectively. Acute side effects were observed in 87% of patients. The actuarial overall and severe late complication rates at 5 years were 33 and 9%, respectively. The local control, survival and early side effect rates we found, were in the same range as those reported in literature. Late radiation side effects however, were more common after hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy schedules. Conclusions: We conclude that the potential advantage of a reduced number of treatment sessions may be lost in the long term, because of the higher incidence of late morbidity after hypofractionated radiotherapy. Hypofractionation however, remains a valuable technique for palliation and deserves further investigation for radical treatment where access to equipment is difficult or resources are limited

  3. An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to c...

  4. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine (CQ and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24 compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1 or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7. We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer.

  5. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Lin, Ji-Fan; Wen, Sheng-I; Yang, Shan-Che; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24) in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24) compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1) or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7). We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Fluorescent imaging of high-grade bladder cancer using a specific antagonist for chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Shinya; Tanahara, Noriko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Mikami, Yoshiki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Evans, Barry J; Peiper, Stephen C; Saito, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Jun; Fujii, Nobutaka; Ogawa, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    We previously reported that the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) was upregulated in invasive bladder cancers and that the small peptide T140 was a highly sensitive antagonist for CXCR4. In this study, we identified that CXCR4 expression was induced in high-grade superficial bladder tumors, including carcinoma in situ and invasive bladder tumors. To visualize the bladder cancer cells using urinary sediments from the patients and chemically induced mouse bladder cancer model, a novel fluorescent CXCR4 antagonist TY14003 was developed, that is a T140 derivative. TY14003 could label bladder cancer cell lines expressing CXCR4, whereas negative-control fluorescent peptides did not label them. When labeling urinary sediments from patients with invasive bladder cancer, positive-stained cells were identified in all patients with bladder cancer and positive urine cytology but not in controls. Although white blood cells in urine were also labeled with TY14003, they could be easily discriminated from urothelial cells by their shape and size. Finally, intravesical instillation of TY14003 into mouse bladder, using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder cancer model, demonstrated that fluorescent signals were detected in the focal areas of bladder of all mice examined at 12 weeks of BBN drinking by confocal microscopy and fluorescent endoscopy. On the contrary, all the normal bladders were found to be negative for TY14003 staining. In conclusion, these results indicate that TY14003 is a promising diagnostic tool to visualize small or flat high-grade superficial bladder cancer.

  7. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Rudkjaer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...

  9. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Chai; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  10. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  11. Current trends in the management of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit R; Campbell, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of bladder cancer etiology, diagnosis, and management for WOC nurses. Bladder cancer incidence continues to rise yearly in the United States, and patients with bladder cancer comprise some of the most challenging cases in urologic oncology. Nurses are involved with all aspects of the processes of care for the patient with bladder cancer, from initial diagnosis and treatment to postsurgical care and follow-up. For nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, treatment includes transurethral resection followed by intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy to prevent recurrence or progression. Radical cystectomy along with chemotherapy protocols provides a survival advantage for muscle invasive bladder cancer, although the timing of chemotherapy remains controversial. Numerous factors are considered when determining the type of urinary diversion used at the time of radical cystectomy, but patient, family, surgeon, and nursing input are essential for preserving an optimal health-related quality of life and reducing morbidity. Patients with metastatic bladder cancer are generally treated with a cisplatin-based chemotherapy but continue to have a poor prognosis. Newer therapies involving novel molecular-targeted agents provide hope for the future for patients with metastatic disease.

  12. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  13. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-01-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author)

  14. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  15. Angiogenesis in Schistosoma haematobium-associated urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematei, Anderson; Fernandes, Rúben; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    2017-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic flatworm that infects more than 100 million people, mostly in the developing world, is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, and is associated with a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. During infection, eggs are deposited in the bladder causing an intense inflammatory reaction. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones and is recognized as a key event in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis and spread of malignant lesions. A growing amount of evidence points to angiogenesis playing a key role in schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Thus, identifying biomarkers of this process plays an important role in the study of cancer. Here, we review recent findings on the role of angiogenesis in bladder cancer and the growth factors that induce and assist in their development, particularly SCC of the bladder associated to urogenital schistosomiasis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A case-control study on the association between bladder cancer and prior bladder calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-03-15

    Bladder calculus is associated with chronic irritation and inflammation. As there is substantial documentation that inflammation can play a direct role in carcinogenesis, to date the relationship between stone formation and bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between BC and prior bladder calculus using a population-based dataset. This case-control study included 2,086 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BC between 2001 and 2009 and 10,430 randomly selected controls without BC. Conditional logistic regressions were employed to explore the association between BC and having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus. Of the sampled subjects, bladder calculus was found in 71 (3.4%) cases and 105 (1.1%) controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of having been diagnosed with bladder calculus before the index date for cases was 3.42 (95% CI = 2.48-4.72) when compared with controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and renal disease, tobacco use disorder, obesity, alcohol abuse, and schistosomiasis, bladder outlet obstruction, and urinary tract infection. We further analyzed according to sex and found that among males, the OR of having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus for cases was 3.45 (95% CI = 2.39-4.99) that of controls. Among females, the OR was 3.05 (95% CI = 1.53-6.08) that of controls. These results add to the evidence surrounding the conflicting reports regarding the association between BC and prior bladder calculus and highlight a potential target population for bladder cancer screening.

  17. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  18. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  19. Evaluation of Urinary Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 as Tumor Marker Versus Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen in Bilharzial and Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.A.; El-Kabany, H.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) were determined as potential marker for early detection of bladder tumors in patients with high risk (Bilharzial-patients), monitoring and follow up bladder cancer patients. The objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of markers for bilharzial and cancer lesions. The levels of two parameters were determined pre and post operation. A total of 110 individuals, 20 healthy, 20 bilharzial patients and 70 bladder cancer patients with confirmed diagnosis were investigated. Urine samples were assayed for NMP-22 and TPS test kits. Some bladder cancer patients were selected to follow up. NMP-22 showed highly significant increase (P,0.001) more than TPS (P<0.01) in bladder cancer patients when compared with bilharzial and control group. Overall sensitivity is 7.8% for TPS and 98.5% for NMP-22

  20. Adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer using deformable image registration of empty and full bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Caine, H.; Hunt, P.

    2015-01-01

    to conv-PTV. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that the use of a-PTVs could result in substantial decrease in the course averaged planning target volume. This reduction in the PTV is likely to decrease the radiation related toxicity and benefit bladder cancer patients. Currently...... mm) for bladder planning target volume (PTV). The goal of this retrospective study is to define, evaluate and optimize new patient-specific anisotropic PTVs (a-PTVs) using deformable image registration (DIR) between empty and full bladder computed tomography (CT) scans. This will provide an ART...

  1. NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER CANCER BY CROSS-POLARIZATION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY: A BLIND STATISTICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Streltsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether cross-polarization (CP optical coherence tomography (OCT could be used to detect early bladder cancer was ascertained; it was compared with traditional OCT within the framework of blind (closed clinical statistical studies. One hundred and sixteen patients with local nonexophytic (flat pathological processes of the bladder were examined; 360 CP OCT images were obtained and analyzed. The study used an OCT 1300-U CP optical coherence tomographer. CP OCT showed a high (94% sensitivity and a high (84% specificity in the identification of suspected nonexophytic areas in the urinary bladder.

  2. 15 Pattern of bladder cancer at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    bladder cancer who presented to the hospital during this period were recruited .... malignant tissues. Table 2: Distribution of variables among patients. Gender number. Percentage .... cancer of the cervix, cancer of the eye, breast cancer,. Kaposi's sarcoma .... as a result of national wide roll out of anti retroviral treatment in ...

  3. [High oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Sinyakova, L A; Gundorova, L V; Kosov, V A; Kosova, I V; Pogodina, I E; Kolbasov, D N

    2017-07-01

    To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV. Tumor tissue was sampled for PCR virus detection. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the components of lymphocyte-plasmocyte and leukocyte infiltrates and cytopathic changes in tumor tissue. There were positive correlations between cytopathic cell changes (koylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions, as manifestations of HPV) and the level of antiviral antibodies, the presence of viruses in the tumor, as well as with the components of the lymphoid-plasmocyte infiltrate. Negative correlations were found between the presence of papillomatosis and the above changes. Human papillomavirus is believed to be a trigger for the initiation of a tumor in young patients with a latent infection (CMV and EBV, HSV, HPV). Cytopathic changes (kylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions) were associated with the activity and morphological features of herpes-viral infections. Their degree varied depending on the stage of the process, but not on the anaplasia degree. Papillomatosis is associated with a more favorable course of the tumor process.

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalu S.L. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in urinary bladder cancer and its association with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and high risk human papilloma virus (HPV types 16 and 18. Materials and Methods : Thirty cases of urothelial carcinoma were analyzed. EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 expressions in the tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. For HPV, DNA from tissue samples was extracted and detection of HPV was done by PCR technique. Furthermore, evaluation of different intracellular molecules associated with EGFR signaling pathways was performed by the western blot method using lysates from various cells and tissues. Results : In this study, the frequencies of immunopositivity for EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 were 23%, 60%, 47%, and 80%, respectively. No cases were positive for HPV-18, whereas HPV-16 was detected in 10% cases. Overall, expression of EGFR did not show any statistically significant association with the studied parameters. However, among male patients, a significant association was found only between EGFR and HER2. Conclusions : Overexpression of EGFR and/or HER2, two important members of the same family of growth factor receptors, was observed in a considerable proportion of cases. Precise knowledge in this subject would be helpful to formulate a rational treatment strategy in patients with urinary bladder cancer.

  5. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Rathee, Satyapal; Ghosh, Sunita; Ko, Lawrence; Murray, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (± standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm 3 (SD, 29.71 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm 3 (SD, 21.64 cm 3 ). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm 3 (SD, 36.51 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm 3 (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm 3 (SD, 3.97 cm 3 ). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

  6. Risks on N-acetyltransferase 2 and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Z

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zongheng Zhu,1 Jinshan Zhang,2 Wei Jiang,3 Xianjue Zhang,4 Youkong Li,4 Xiaoming Xu51Department of General Surgery, Huangshi Love & Health Hospital, Huangshi, 2Department of Tumor surgery, Huangshi Central Hospital, Huangshi, 3Department of Urinary Surgery, Huangshi No 5 Hospital, Huangshi, 4Department of Urinary Surgery Jingzhou Central Hospital, Jingzhou, 5Department of Bone Surgery, Jingzhou Central Hospital, Jingzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: It is known that bladder cancer disease is closely related to aromatic amine compounds, which could cause cancer by regulating of N-acetylation and N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2. The NAT2 slowed acetylation and would increase the risk of bladder cancer, with tobacco smoke being regarded as a risk factor for this increased risk. However, the relationship between NAT2 slow acetylation and bladder cancer is still debatable at present. This study aims to explore preliminarily correlation of NAT2 slow acetylation and the risk of bladder cancer.Methods: The articles were searched from PubMed, Cochran, McGrane English databases, CBM, CNKI, and other databases. The extraction of bladder cancer patients and a control group related with the NAT2 gene were detected by the state, and the referenced articles and publications were also used for data retrieval. Using a random effects model, the model assumes that the studies included in the analysis cases belong to the overall population in the study of random sampling, and considering the variables within and between studies. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 6.0 software, using the META module. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the literature study, 20 independent studies are included in this meta-analysis.Results: The results showed that the individual differences of bladder cancer susceptibility might be part of the metabolism of carcinogens. Slow acetylation status of bladder cancer associated with the pooled

  7. Bladder preservation for locally advanced bladder cancer by transurethral resection, systemic chemotherapy and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Masahito; Satoh, Mototaka; Tujimoto, Yuichi; Takada, Tuyoshi; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-three out of 31 patients with clinical T2-4a N0 M0 bladder cancer and given a trial of trimodality therapy including transurethral resection (TUR), systemic chemotherapy and radiation between 1991 and 2002 completed this therapy. The other 8 dropped out because of insufficient clinical effect. Local bladder recurrence was seen in 3 patients and the bladder preservation rate was 64.5%. Nineteen of the 23 patients showed a complete histological response on a subsequent TUR specimen, the other 4 were not examined for histological response. Thirteen of the 19 patients showed a complete histological response after maximal TUR and systemic chemotherapy, while 6 did after TUR, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Bladder cancer was T2 in, 15, T3 in 1, and T4a in 3 patients. The CR rate for T2 cancer was significantly higher than that for T3-4a cancer. The 5-year disease-specific survival of the 23 patients treated with preservation therapy was 67.1%. Some of the patients with locally advanced bladder cancer may benefit from this preservation therapy. (author)

  8. Natural biology and management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpato, Kristen R; Tyson, Mark D; Clark, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the natural biology of noninvasive bladder cancer and its management strategies while summarizing the most recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a tendency to recur and progress. Risk stratification has...... in low-risk patients. SUMMARY: NMIBC represents a variety of disease states and continues to pose management challenges. As our understanding of tumor biology improves and technology advances, achieving better outcomes through individualized care may be possible.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the natural biology of noninvasive bladder cancer and its management strategies while summarizing the most recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a tendency to recur and progress. Risk stratification has...... helped triage patients but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced endoscopy with photodynamic imaging, narrow band imaging, optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification and disease monitoring. Attempts at better...

  9. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  10. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  11. Bladder cancer: what’s new in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Karyakin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bladder cancer has been a complicated problem. Low survival for regional and metastatic disease remains. In recent years,  the efforts of doctors, biologists, diagnosticians were aimed at development of new technologies in these spheres and improvement of treatment results for this pathology. In this review, current views on diagnosis, the role of repeated surgical interventions in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, etc. are presented. Advances in molecular biology allowed to differentiate subtypes of urothelial bladder cancer. Importantly, the results of biomolecular studies allowed to identify different responses to drug treatment. Moreover, in some cases these results have a follow-up period of up to 3 years. Based on other data characterizing the tumor, the effectiveness of new drugs for treatment of regional, metastatic and post-cisplatin therapy bladder cancer was evaluated. These results allow to hope for increased life span and quality of life for patients with this severe disease.

  12. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of transvaginal scan (TVS) in ... bladder tumors in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. ... tumor (malignant transitional cell cancer) were found.

  13. Use of thiazolidinediones and risk of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazelier, Marloes T; de Vries, Frank; Vestergaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with bladder cancer in observational studies. Diabetes mellitus itself has also been linked with bladder cancer. The objective was to estimate the risk of bladder cancer for diabetic patients using...... thialozidinediones (TZDs) compared with patients in other treatment stages of the disease. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study (1996-2007) in the Danish National Health Registers. Oral antidiabetic drug users (n=179,056) were matched 1:3 by sex and year of birth to non-users. Hazard ratios (HRs......) of bladder cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Time-dependent adjustments were made for age, comorbidity, and drug use. Four different treatment stages were defined: current use of either a biguanide or a sulfonylureum (stage 1), current use of a biguanide and a sulfonylureum...

  14. Cohort profile: The Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) and the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hagberg, Oskar; Aljabery, Firas; Ströck, Viveka; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Gårdmark, Truls; Sherif, Amir; Malmström, Per-Uno; Garmo, Hans; Jahnson, Staffan; Holmberg, Lars

    2017-09-27

    To monitor the quality of bladder cancer care, the Swedish National Register of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) was initiated in 1997. During 2015, in order to study trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival of men and women with bladder cancer, we linked the SNRUBC to other national healthcare and demographic registers and constructed the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). The SNRUBC is a nationwide register with detailed information on 97% of bladder cancer cases in Sweden as compared with the Swedish Cancer Register. Participants in the SNRUBC have registered data on tumour characteristics at diagnosis, and for 98% of these treatment data have been captured. From 2009, the SNRUBC holds data on 88% of eligible participants for follow-up 5 years after diagnosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and from 2011, data on surgery details and complications for 85% of participants treated with radical cystectomy. The BladderBaSe includes all data in the SNRUBC from 1997 to 2014, and additional covariates and follow-up data from linked national register sources on comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, detailed information on readmissions and treatment side effects, and causes of death. Studies based on data in the SNRUBC have shown inequalities in survival and treatment indication by gender, regions and hospital volume. The BladderBaSe includes 38 658 participants registered in SNRUBC with bladder cancer diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2014. The BladderBaSe initiators are currently in collaboration with researchers from the SNRUBC investigating different aspects of bladder cancer survival. The SNRUBC and the BladderBaSe project are open for collaborations with national and international research teams. Collaborators can submit proposals for studies and study files can be uploaded to servers for remote access and analysis. For more information, please contact the corresponding author. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  15. The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsson, Sigurdur; Bläckberg, Mats; Chebil, Gunilla; Jahnson, Staffan; Olsson, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Månsson, Wiking; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable. To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder

  16. Novel Multisensor Probe for Monitoring Bladder Temperature During Locoregional Chemohyperthermia for Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Technical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT. Materials and Methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia. PMID:24112045

  17. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care.

  18. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-01-01

    Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care. PMID:26055180

  19. Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

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    Liss, Michael A; White, Martha; Natarajan, Loki; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality. We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview. Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adj ], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HR adj , 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HR adj , 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality. Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Bladder cancer mortality after spinal cord injury over 4 decades.

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    Nahm, Laura S; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Lloyd, L Keith

    2015-06-01

    We estimate bladder cancer mortality in people with spinal cord injury compared to the general population. Data and statistics were retrieved from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center and the National Center for Health Statistics. The mortality experience of the 45,486 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model System or Shriners Hospital was compared to the general population using a standardized mortality ratio. The standardized mortality ratio data were further stratified by age, gender, race, time since injury and injury severity. Our study included 566,532 person-years of followup between 1960 and 2009, identified 10,575 deaths and categorized 99 deaths from bladder cancer. The expected number of deaths from bladder cancer would have been 14.8 if patients with spinal cord injury had the same bladder cancer mortality as the general population. Thus, the standardized mortality ratio is 6.7 (95% CI 5.4-8.1). Increased mortality risk from bladder cancer was observed for various ages, races and genders, as well as for those injured for 10 or more years and with motor complete injuries. Bladder cancer mortality was not significantly increased for ventilator users, those with motor incomplete injuries or those injured less than 10 years. Individuals with a spinal cord injury can potentially live healthier and longer by reducing the incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. Study findings highlight the need to identify at risk groups and contributing factors for bladder cancer death, leading to the development of prevention, screening and management strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer. Accurate staging for bladder preservation

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    Hayashi, Norio; Arima, Kiminobu; Kawamura, Juichi; Tochigi, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of bladder preservation by preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) chemotherapy was studied in 111 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer. BOAI was performed by blocking the blood flow of the internal iliac artery and by performing intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin (50 mg/body) and cisplatin (100 mg/body). Before BOAI the clinical diagnosis was T2 in 36, T3a in 29, T3b in 27, T4 in 11 and after BOAI it was T0 in 1, T1 in 27, T2 in 25, T3a in 20, T3b in 20, and T4 in 10. Down staging was observed on diagnostic images in 46.6%. Thirty patients (27.0%) received transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt) and their bladder could be preserved. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 100% in pT0 (n=9), 97.5% in pT1 (n=47), 79.9% in pT2 (n=21), 80.0% in pT3a (n=6), 39.9% in pT3b (n=18) and 51.9% in pT4 cases (n=9). For the bladder preservation, accurate staging diagnosis is required. Since 1992, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in addition to imaging diagnosis for improving the accuracy of staging diagnosis. The accuracies of staging diagnosis with and without endorectal MRI were 62.5% and 44.0%, respectively. BOAI as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the possibility of bladder-preserving therapy in locally invasive bladder cancer. Also, the endorectal MRI can improve the accuracy of staging diagnosis, which is important for the bladder preservation. (author)

  2. Characterization of the Olfactory Receptor OR10H1 in Human Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lea; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Philippou, Stathis; Eckardt, Josephine; Ubrig, Burkhard; Hoffmann, Michéle J; Tannapfel, Andrea; Kalbe, Benjamin; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are a large group of G-protein coupled receptors predominantly found in the olfactory epithelium. Many ORs are, however, ectopically expressed in other tissues and involved in several diseases including cancer. In this study, we describe that one OR, OR10H1, is predominantly expressed in the human urinary bladder with a notably higher expression at mRNA and protein level in bladder cancer tissues. Interestingly, also significantly higher amounts of OR10H1 transcripts were detectable in the urine of bladder cancer patients than in the urine of control persons. We identified the sandalwood-related compound Sandranol as a specific agonist of OR10H1. This deorphanization allowed the functional characterization of OR10H1 in BFTC905 bladder cancer cells. The effect of receptor activation was morphologically apparent in cell rounding, accompanied by changes in the cytoskeleton detected by β-actin, T-cadherin and β-Catenin staining. In addition, Sandranol treatment significantly diminished cell viability, cell proliferation and migration and induced a limited degree of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G1 fraction. In a concentration-dependent manner, Sandranol application elevated cAMP levels, which was reduced by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and elicited intracellular Ca 2+ concentration increase. Furthermore, activation of OR10H1 enhanced secretion of ATP and serotonin. Our results suggest OR10H1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  3. Characterization of the Olfactory Receptor OR10H1 in Human Urinary Bladder Cancer

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    Lea Weber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are a large group of G-protein coupled receptors predominantly found in the olfactory epithelium. Many ORs are, however, ectopically expressed in other tissues and involved in several diseases including cancer. In this study, we describe that one OR, OR10H1, is predominantly expressed in the human urinary bladder with a notably higher expression at mRNA and protein level in bladder cancer tissues. Interestingly, also significantly higher amounts of OR10H1 transcripts were detectable in the urine of bladder cancer patients than in the urine of control persons. We identified the sandalwood-related compound Sandranol as a specific agonist of OR10H1. This deorphanization allowed the functional characterization of OR10H1 in BFTC905 bladder cancer cells. The effect of receptor activation was morphologically apparent in cell rounding, accompanied by changes in the cytoskeleton detected by β-actin, T-cadherin and β-Catenin staining. In addition, Sandranol treatment significantly diminished cell viability, cell proliferation and migration and induced a limited degree of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G1 fraction. In a concentration-dependent manner, Sandranol application elevated cAMP levels, which was reduced by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and elicited intracellular Ca2+ concentration increase. Furthermore, activation of OR10H1 enhanced secretion of ATP and serotonin. Our results suggest OR10H1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  4. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

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    Leifheit Erica C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. Methods MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA, anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Results Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376 secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. Conclusions This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma.

  6. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Leifheit, Erica C; Vera, Pedro L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA), anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense) on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma

  7. Isorhapontigenin (ISO) Inhibits Invasive Bladder Cancer Formation In Vivo and Human Bladder Cancer Invasion In Vitro by Targeting STAT1/FOXO1 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guosong; Wu, Amy D; Huang, Chao; Gu, Jiayan; Zhang, Liping; Huang, Haishan; Liao, Xin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Zeng, Xingruo; Jin, Honglei; Huang, Haojie; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-07-01

    Although our most recent studies have identified Isorhapontigenin (ISO), a novel derivative of stilbene that isolated from a Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, for its inhibition of human bladder cancer growth, nothing is known whether ISO possesses an inhibitory effect on bladder cancer invasion. Thus, we addressed this important question in current study and discovered that ISO treatment could inhibit mouse-invasive bladder cancer development following bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) exposure in vivo We also found that ISO suppressed human bladder cancer cell invasion accompanied by upregulation of the forkhead box class O 1 (FOXO1) mRNA transcription in vitro Accordingly, FOXO1 was profoundly downregulated in human bladder cancer tissues and was negatively correlated with bladder cancer invasion. Forced expression of FOXO1 specifically suppressed high-grade human bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas knockdown of FOXO1 promoted noninvasive bladder cancer cells becoming invasive bladder cancer cells. Moreover, knockout of FOXO1 significantly increased bladder cancer cell invasion and abolished the ISO inhibition of invasion in human bladder cancer cells. Further studies showed that the inhibition of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation at Tyr701 was crucial for ISO upregulation of FOXO1 transcription. Furthermore, this study revealed that metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was a FOXO1 downstream effector, which was also supported by data obtained from mouse model of ISO inhibition BBN-induced mouse-invasive bladder cancer formation. These findings not only provide a novel insight into the understanding of mechanism of bladder cancer's propensity to invasion, but also identify a new role and mechanisms underlying the natural compound ISO that specifically suppresses such bladder cancer invasion through targeting the STAT1-FOXO1-MMP-2 axis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 567-80. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American

  8. The Immediate Results of Surgical Treatment of Bladder Cancer

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    Alexei L. Charyshkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate results of the use of ureterointestinal anastomosis according to the Bricker technique at radical cystectomy (RC for bladder cancer (BC. Materials and Results: The study included 96 patients (11.5% women and 88.5% men with bladder cancer (BC, aged from 31 to 74 years (mean age 63.8±7.2, who underwent RC in the Lipetsk Regional Oncology Center, in the period from 2005 to 2014. Among the early postoperative complications, we identified dynamic ileus (16.7%, inflammatory complications of the surgical wound (12.5%, acute pyelonephritis (10.4%, and failure of ureterointestinal anastomosis (4.2%. The frequency of postoperative acute pyelonephritis corresponded to the findings of other authors. Two (2.1% patients died from early postoperative complications because of concomitant diseases (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction; thus, postoperative mortality in the early postoperative period was 4.2%. Chronic pyelonephritis with chronic renal failure detected in 15(15.6% patients after one year after surgery was the most frequent late postoperative complication. The stricture of ureterointestinal anastomosis in 9(9.4% patients has been eliminated through relaparotomy and resection of anastomosis. The development of urolithiasis in 12(12.5% patients after one year after surgery has required the implementation of contact lithotripsy and litholytic therapy.

  9. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. → iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. → 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. → Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-κB in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-κB activation, leading to tumor development.

  10. Androgen receptor activation: a prospective therapeutic target for bladder cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Taichi; Tirador, Kathleen A; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Patients with non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing surgery and currently available conventional therapy remain having a high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, respectively. Novel targeted molecular therapy is therefore expected to improve patient outcomes. Meanwhile, substantially higher incidence of bladder cancer in men has prompted research on androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signaling in this malignancy. Indeed, preclinical evidence has suggested that AR signaling plays an important role in urothelial carcinogenesis and tumor outgrowth as well as resistance to some of the currently available conventional non-surgical therapies. Areas covered: We summarize and discuss available data suggesting the involvement of AR and its potential downstream targets in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Associations between AR signaling and sensitivity to cisplatin/doxorubicin or bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment are also reviewed. Expert opinion: AR activation is likely to correlate with the promotion of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer outgrowth as well as resistance to conventional therapies. Molecular therapy targeting the AR may thus provide effective chemopreventive and therapeutic approaches for urothelial cancer. Accordingly, bladder cancer can now be considered as an endocrine-related neoplasm. Clinical application of various anti-AR therapies available for AR-dependent prostate cancer to bladder cancer patients is anticipated.

  11. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

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    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  12. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  13. Suburothelial Bladder Contraction Detection with Implanted Pressure Sensor.

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    Steve J A Majerus

    Full Text Available Managing bladder pressure in patients with neurogenic bladders is needed to improve rehabilitation options, avoid upper tract damage, incontinence, and their associated co-morbidities and mortality. Current methods of determining bladder contractions are not amenable to chronic or ambulatory settings. In this study we evaluated detection of bladder contractions using a novel piezoelectric catheter-free pressure sensor placed in a suburothelial bladder location in animals.Wired prototypes of the pressure monitor were implanted into 2 nonsurvival (feline and canine and one 13-day survival (canine animal. Vesical pressures were obtained from the device in both suburothelial and intraluminal locations and simultaneously from a pressure sensing catheter in the bladder. Intravesical pressure was monitored in the survival animal over 10 days from the suburothelial location and necropsy was performed to assess migration and erosion.In the nonsurvival animals, the average correlation between device and reference catheter data was high during both electrically stimulated bladder contractions and manual compressions (r = 0.93±0.03, r = 0.89±0.03. Measured pressures correlated strongly (r = 0.98±0.02 when the device was placed in the bladder lumen. The survival animal initially recorded physiologic data, but later this deteriorated. However, endstage intraluminal device recordings correlated (r = 0.85±0.13 with the pressure catheter. Significant erosion of the implant through the detrusor was found.This study confirms correlation between suburothelial pressure readings and intravesical bladder pressures. Due to device erosion during ambulatory studies, a wireless implant is recommended for clinical rehabilitation applications.

  14. Gender Differences in Bladder Cancer Treatment Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzar, Rachel A; Berry, Donna L

    2017-03-01

    To explore gender differences in bladder cancer treatment decision making.
. Secondary qualitative analysis of interview transcripts.
. One multidisciplinary genitourinary oncology clinic (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) and two urology clinics (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) in Boston, MA.
. As part of the original study, 45 men and 15 women with bladder cancer participated in individual interviews. Participants were primarily Caucasian, and most had at least some college education.
. Word frequency reports were used to identify thematic differences between the men's and women's statements. Line-by-line coding of constructs prevalent among women was then performed on all participants in NVivo 9. Coding results were compared between genders using matrix coding queries.
. The role of family in the decision-making process was found to be a dominant theme for women but not for men. Women primarily described family members as facilitators of bladder cancer treatment-related decisions, but men were more likely to describe family in a nonsupportive role.
. The results suggest that influences on the decision-making process are different for men and women with bladder cancer. Family may play a particularly important role for women faced with bladder cancer treatment-related decisions.
. Clinical nurses who care for individuals with bladder cancer should routinely assess patients' support systems and desired level of family participation in decision making. For some people with bladder cancer, family may serve as a stressor. Nurses should support the decision-making processes of all patients and be familiar with resources that can provide support to patients who do not receive it from family.

  15. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer invading urinary bladder treated with preoperative mFOLFOX6 and urinary bladder conserving surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Katayama, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 69-year-old man visited our hospital because of melena and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor at sigmoid colon, and by abdominal CT, we detected a sigmoid colon cancer invading the urinary bladder with a single liver metastasis. The patient required sigmoidectomy with partial hepatectomy and total urinary bladder resection. Preoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was initiated as a part of multidisciplinary therapy. After the 6th course was completed, CT revealed a reduction in the primary tumor's size and the disappearance of liver metastasis. After the 8th course was completed, we performed urinary bladder conserving sigmoidectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tub1, pSS, ly0, v0, pN0, and pStage II. Down-sizing chemotherapy might improve the quality of life(QOL)of colon cancer patients with extensive invasion of the urinary bladder.

  16. Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, S.; Kison, P.V.; Greenough, R.; Grossman, H.B.; Wahl, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of imaging of bladder cancer with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning. We studied 12 patients with histologically proven bladder cancer who had undergone surgical procedures and/or radiotherapy. Retrograde irrigation of the urinary bladder with 1000-3710 ml saline was performed during nine of the studies. Dynamic and static PET images were obtained, and standardized uptake value images were reconstructed. FDG-PET scanning was true-positive in eight patients (66.7%), but false-negative in four (33.3%). Of 20 organs with tumor mass lesions confirmed pathologically or clinically, 16 (80%) were detected by FDG-PET scanning. FDG-PET scanning detected all of 17 distant metastatic lesions and two of three proven regional lymph node metastases. FDG-PET was also capable of differentiating viable recurrent bladder cancer from radiation-induced alterations in two patients. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate the feasibility of FDG-PET imaging in patients with bladder cancer, although a major remaining pitfall is intense FDG accumulation in the urine. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Optical coherence tomography in diagnostics of precancer and cancer of human bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaynova, Elena V.; Streltsova, Olga S.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Donchenko, Ekaterina V.

    2004-07-01

    Our goal was statistical assessment of the in vivo cystoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) ability to detect neoplasia in human urinary bladder. We analyzed major reasons of false positive and false negative image recognition results. Optical coherence tomography was performed to image the bladder during cystoscopy. The study enrolled 63 patients with suspicion for bladder cancer and scheduled for cystoscopy. The diagnosis was established by histopathology examination of a biopsy. Each biopsy site was examined by OCT. Benign conditions were diagnosed for 31 patients, and dysplasia or carcinoma were diagnosed for 32 patients. Six physicians blinded to all clinical data participated in the dichotomy recognition (malignant or benign) of the OCT images. 98% sensitivity and 72% specificity for the OCT recognition of dysplastic/malignant versus benign/reactive conditions of the bladder are demonstrated. Total error rate was 14.8%. The interobserver agreement multi-rater kappa coefficient is 0.80. The superficial and invasive bladder cancer and high-grade dysplasia were recognized with minimum error rate ranging from 0 to 3.3%. High sensitivity and good specificity of the OCT method in the diagnostics of bladder neoplasia makes OCT a promising complementary cystoscopic technique for non-invasive evaluation of zones suspicious for high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  18. Possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways for bladder cancer in Ukraine, before and after the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Keiichirou; Romanenko, Alina; Min, Wei; Salim, Elsayed I; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Vozianov, Alexander; Fukushima, Shoji

    2004-04-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the incidence of urinary bladder cancers in the Ukraine increased gradually from 26.2 to 43.3 per 100,000 people between 1986 and 2001. In the areas of low level but persistent cesium-137 (137Cs) radio-contamination, a unique atypical radiation-related urinary bladder cystitis named 'Chernobyl cystitis', a possible pre-neoplastic condition in humans, has been detected. We have previously documented high incidences of bladder lesions, including severe dysplasias and/or carcinoma in situ, in association with this cystitis and correlating with oxidative DNA damage. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying bladder carcinogenesis with this specific etiology, mutation analysis of p53 gene (exon 5-8) was performed for 11 and 18 paraffin-embedded bladder cancers in Ukrainians, respectively collected before and after the Chernobyl disaster. DNAs were extracted and subjected to nested PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by direct DNA sequencing, as well as p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC). The incidences of p53 gene mutation were 54.5 and 16.7% for before and after the Chernobyl disaster, respectively, the difference being statistically significant. Also a tendency for higher p53 IHC score was apparent in the earlier group of lesions. No significant difference was noted for the proportions of historical types. These results point to possible distinct molecular carcinogenic pathways of bladder cancer formation, before and after the Chernobyl disaster, on the basis of variation in p53 gene alteration.

  19. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Marcel R.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  20. [THE SOMATIC MUTATIONS AND ABERRANT METHYLATION AS POTENTIAL GENETIC MARKERS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, D S; Kushlinskii, N E

    2016-02-01

    All around the world, more than 330 thousands cases of bladder cancer are registered annually hence representing actual problem of modern oncology. Still in demand are search and characteristic of new molecular markers of bladder cancer detecting in tumor cells from urinary sediment and having high diagnostic accuracy. The studies of last decade, especially using methods of genome-wide sequencing, permitted to receive a large amount of experimental data concerning development and progression of bladder cancer The review presents systematic analysis of publications available in PubMed data base mainly of last five years. The original studies of molecular genetic disorders under bladder cancer and meta-analyzes were considered This approach permitted to detected the most common local alterations of DNA under bladder cancer which can be detected using routine genetic methods indifferent clinical material and present prospective interest for development of test-systems. The molecular genetic markers of disease can be activating missense mutations in 7 and 10 exons of gene of receptor of growth factor of fibroblasts 3 (FGFR3), 9 and 20 exons of gene of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bi-phosphate-3-kinase (PIK3CA) and mutation in -124 and -146 nucleotides in promoter of gene of catalytic subunit telomerase (TERT). The development of test-systems on the basis of aberrant methylation of CpG-islets of genes-suppressors still is seemed as a difficult task because of differences in pattern of methylation of different primary tumors at various stages of clonal evolution of bladder cancer though they can be considered as potential markers.

  1. Bladder cancer in cancer patients: population-based estimates from a large Swedish study

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo, J Lorenzo; Sundquist, J; Hemminki, K

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study quantified the risk of urinary bladder neoplasms in cancer patients taking into account the age at first diagnosis, the gender of the patients and the lead time between diagnoses. Methods: We used standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare the incidence of bladder tumours in 967?767 cancer patients with the incidence rate in the general Swedish population. A total of 3324 male and 1560 female patients developed bladder tumours at least 1 year after first cancer dia...

  2. Bladder cancer exosomes contain EDIL-3/Del1 and facilitate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Carla J; Olsen, Jayme; Yin, Peng-Nien; Wu, Chia-Hao; Ting, Huei-Ju; Hagen, Fred K; Scosyrev, Emelian; Messing, Edward M; Lee, Yi-Fen

    2014-08-01

    High grade bladder cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how exosomes may affect bladder cancer progression could reveal novel therapeutic targets. Exosomes derived from human bladder cancer cell lines and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer were assessed for the ability to promote cancer progression in standard assays. Exosomes purified from the high grade bladder cancer cell line TCC-SUP and the nonmalignant urothelial cell line SV-HUC were submitted for mass spectrometry analysis. EDIL-3 was identified and selected for further analysis. Western blot was done to determine EDIL-3 levels in urinary exosomes from patients with high grade bladder cancer. shRNA gene knockdown and recombinant EDIL-3 were applied to study EDIL-3 function. Exosomes isolated from high grade bladder cancer cells and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer promoted angiogenesis and migration of bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells. We silenced EDIL-3 expression and found that shEDIL-3 exosomes did not facilitate angiogenesis, and urothelial and endothelial cell migration. Moreover, exosomes purified from the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer contained significantly higher EDIL-3 levels than exosomes from the urine of healthy controls. EDIL-3 activated epidermal growth factor receptor signaling while blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling abrogated this EDIL-3 induced bladder cell migration. Exosomes derived from the urine of patients with bladder cancer contains bioactive molecules such as EDIL-3. Identifying these components and their associated oncogenic pathways could lead to novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, β-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  4. Clinical characteristics of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury: the experience from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böthig, Ralf; Kurze, Ines; Fiebag, Kai; Kaufmann, Albert; Schöps, Wolfgang; Kadhum, Thura; Zellner, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    Life expectancy for people with spinal cord injury has shown a marked increase due to modern advances in treatment methods and in neuro-urology. However, since life expectancy of people with paralysis increases, the risk of developing of urinary bladder cancer is gaining importance. Single-centre retrospective evaluation of patient data with spinal cord injuries and proven urinary bladder cancer and summary of the literature. Between 1998 and 2014, 24 (3 female, 21 male) out of a total of 6599 patients with spinal cord injury were diagnosed with bladder cancer. The average age at bladder cancer diagnosis was 57.67 years, which is well below the average for bladder cancer cases in the general population (male: 73, female: 77). All but one patient had a latency period between the onset of the spinal paralysis and tumour diagnosis of more than 10 years. The median latency was 29.83 years. The median survival for these patients was 11.5 months. Of the 24 patients, 19 (79%) had muscle invasive bladder cancer at ≥T2 at the time of diagnosis. The type of neurogenic bladder (neurogenic detrusor overactivity or acontractility) and the form of bladder drainage do not appear to influence the risk. Long-term indwelling catheter drainage played only a minor role in the investigated patients. The significantly younger age at onset and the frequency of invasive tumours at diagnosis indicate that spinal cord injury influences bladder cancer risk and prognosis as well. Early detection of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury remains a challenge.

  5. Radio-chemo-therapy with 5FU and cisplatin for bladder cancer after TUR-bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchardt, U.; Birkenhake, S.; Leykam, S.; Martus, P.; Sauer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine toxicity and efficacy of radio-chemo-therapy (RCT) with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer. Endpoints are initial response, cystectomy-rates and overall-survival. Materials and Methods: From 11/93 to 1/95 13 patients suffering from bladder cancer were first treated with TUR-bladder (TURB). Patient characteristics were as follows: Within 6 weeks after operation the pelvis was irradiated with 54.0 Gy (median) in conventional fractionation (10 MV photons 4-field-box). The bladder was boosted up to 59.4 Gy (median) in isocentric rotation technique. 7 patients were treated with 45 Gy paraaortal. During the first and 5th treatment week chemotherapy (CT) was simultaneously given: 800 mg/m 2* d CISPLATIN as bolus-infusion 30 min prior to RT. 2 months later a further TURB was performed for restaging. Cystectomy was recommended, if invasive cancer was found at this time. Acute hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity was recorded according to the WHO-criteria. Results: At least 81% (e.g. 75% of 2nd course) of CT was applied in 10/13 patients. Median doses were 3500 mg/m 2 5FU and 200 mg/m 2 CISPLATIN. Acute toxicity to bladder and bowel reached grade 2 WHO only. Hematotoxicity (median values) and results ar shown in the following table. Conclusion: Concomitant RCT with 5FU and CISPLATIN seems to be a promising modality for organ-preserving therapy of bladder cancer. Preliminary results show sufficient effect and acceptable toxicity. Since patient number is still low, further investigation is recommended

  6. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBazzaz Pishtewan H

    2009-01-01

    The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations. (author)

  7. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bazzaz Pishtewan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations.

  8. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  9. [The role of telomerase activity in non-invasive diagnostics of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Alyaev, J G; Potoldykova, N V; Polyakovsky, K A; Vinarov, A Z; Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potentials of determining the telomerase activity (TA) in the cellular material of the urine for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Evaluation of TA was performed in the urine of 48 patients with bladder cancer (study group) before and after transurethral resection of the bladder wall (n=38), an open resection of the bladder (n=4), and cystectomy (n=6). TA was also evaluated in 48 tumor tissue samples obtained from these patients during removal of the bladder tumor. Each sample of the tumor tissue was separated into two parts, one of which was subjected to histological examination, and the latter was used to determine the telomerase activity. In all cases, the diagnosis of bladder cancer was confirmed morphologically. Determination of TA in the samples was performed by the modified TRAP-method (telomerase repeat amplification protocol), RT-PCR, PCR, and electrophoresis. As a control, cell material of the urine and tissue in 12 patients with chronic cystitis was investigated. TA before surgery was found in 45 (93.75%) of 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with suspected bladder cancer. BC was histologically verified in all patients in this group. In the postoperative period, TA was not observed in the 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with BC. In the control group of patients with histologically verified cystitis, weak TA was determined only in one sample of cellular material of the urine. The analysis indicates statistically significant predominance of patients with bladder cancer in case of TA in the urine (P=0.001). TA was detected in all samples of tumor tissue. We also analyzed the dependence of TA levels in urine and tissue on the degree of BC differentiation. In patients with highly differentiated BC, mean AT in the cellular materials of the urine was 0,61% (n=15), in patients with moderately differentiated BC - 0.95% (n=23), in patients with low-grade bladder cancer - 1.33% (n=10

  10. Conditional Expression of the Androgen Receptor Increases Susceptibility of Bladder Cancer in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Johnson

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents a significant human tumor burden, accounting for about 7.7% and 2.4% of all cancer cases in males and females, respectively. While men have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer, women tend to present at a later stage of disease and with more aggressive tumors. Previous studies have suggested a promotional role of androgen signaling in enhancing bladder cancer development. To directly assess the role of androgens in bladder tumorigenesis, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse strain, R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+, in which the human AR transgene is conditionally expressed in bladder urothelium. Intriguingly, both male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice display a higher incidence of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC than the age and sex matched control littermates in response to the carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN. We detect expression of the human AR transgene in CK5-positive and p63-positive basal cells in bladder urothelium. Further analyses of UCC tissues from R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice showed that the majority of tumor cells are of urothelial basal cell origin. Positive immunostaining of transgenic AR protein was observed in the majority of tumor cells of the transgenic mice, providing a link between transgenic AR expression and oncogenic transformation. We observed an increase in Ki67 positive cells within the UCC lesions of transgenic AR mice. Manipulating endogenous androgen levels by castration and androgen supplementation directly affected bladder tumor development in male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice, respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that conditional activation of transgenic AR expression in bladder urothelium enhances carciongen-induced bladder tumor formation in mice. This new AR transgenic mouse line mimics certain features of human bladder cancer and can be used to study bladder tumorigenesis and for drug development.

  11. Molecular evolution of multiple recurrent cancers of the bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. van Tilborg (Angela); A. de Vries (Annie); M. de Bont (Maarten); L.E. Groenfeld (Lilian); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe describe the reconstruction of bladder tumor development in individual patients spanning periods of up to 17 years. Genomic alterations detected in the tumors were used for hierarchical cluster analysis of tumor subclones. The cluster analysis

  12. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  13. Evaluation of associations between lifetime exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and bladder cancer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Lorraine C; Coss, Angela M; Wolkin, Amy F; Flanders, W Dana; Reif, John S

    2008-06-01

    To assess the risk of bladder cancer in dogs from exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and determine whether dogs could serve as sentinels for human bladder cancer associated with such exposures. Case-control study. 100 dogs with cancer of the urinary bladder and 100 control dogs. Case and control dogs were frequency-matched by age (within 2 years) and sex. Owners of dogs enrolled provided verbal informed consent and were interviewed by telephone. The telephone questionnaire included a complete residence history for each dog. Each dog's total exposure history to trihalomethanes was reconstructed from its residence history and corresponding drinking water utility company data. No association was detected between increasing years of exposure to chlorinated drinking water and risk of bladder cancer. Dogs with bladder cancer were exposed to higher total trihalomethanes concentrations than control dogs; however, the difference was not significant. Although humans and their dogs live in the same household, the activity patterns of dogs may lead to lower exposures to household tap water. Thus, although exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water may be a risk factor for human bladder cancer, this may not be true for canine bladder cancer at the concentrations at which dogs are exposed.

  14. Down-regulation of LncRNA TUG1 enhances radiosensitivity in bladder cancer via suppressing HMGB1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huijuan; Hu, Xigang; Zhang, Hongzhi; Li, Wenbo

    2017-04-04

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to regulate the sensitivity of different cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy. Aberrant expression of lncRNA Taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) has been found to be involved in the development of bladder cancer, however, its function and underlying mechanism in the radioresistance of bladder cancer remains unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to measure the expression of TUG1 and HMGB1 mRNA in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. HMGB1 protein levels were tested by western blot assays. Different doses of X-ray were used for radiation treatment of bladder cancer cells. Colony survival and cell viability were detected by clonogenic assay and CCK-8 Kit, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. A xenograft mouse model was constructed to observe the effect of TUG1 on tumor growth in vivo. The levels of TUG1 and HMGB1 were remarkably increased in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Radiation treatment markedly elevated the expression of TUG1 and HMGB1. TUG1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and decreased colony survival in SW780 and BIU87 cells under radiation. Moreover, TUG1 depletion suppressed the HMGB1 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, overexpression of HMGB1 reversed TUG1 knockdown-induced effect in bladder cancer cells. Radiation treatment dramatically reduced the tumor volume and weight in xenograft model, and this effect was more obvious when combined with TUG1 silencing. LncRNA TUG1 knockdown enhances radiosensitivity of bladder cancer by suppressing HMGB1 expression. TUG1 acts as a potential regulator of radioresistance of bladder cancer, and it may represent a promising therapeutic target for bladder cancer patients.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  16. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2-3N0M0, were included in the study. lntra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2-3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. (author)

  17. Hematuria screening test for urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuttiangtum, Ayuth; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria as a screening test for urinary bladder infiltration in cervical cancer patients with a prospective study design. Newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients at Srinagarind hospital from 14 June 2011 to 30 April 2012 were enrolled in this study. We collected midstream urine samples for urinalysis from every patient before routine cystoscopic exam for clinical staging. The presence of 3 or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high power field was defined as positive for hematuria. A two-by-two table was used to determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration using cystoscopy and biopsy as the gold standard. A total of 130 were patients included, 54 of which (41.5%) had hematuria. Of these, four patients (3.08%) had pathological report from cystoscopic biopsy confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of hematuria as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer were 100%, 60.3%, 7.4%, 100%, and 61.5%, respectively. There was no single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in patients initially staged less than stage III. Hematuria can be used as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer. This can reduce the number of cervical cancer patients who really need to undergo cystoscopy as a staging procedure to less than half and to less than 20% if stage III or more were included without missing a single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration.

  18. PET/CT in renal, bladder and testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Physician, Chief; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in uro-oncology as well. In both bladder and renal cancer there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with only limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced in these malignancies. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder and testicular cancer. PMID:26099672

  19. Phosphatidylserine targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for photothermal ablation of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Needa A.; Davis, Carole; McKernan, Patrick; Hauser, Paul; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel; Silvy, Ricardo P.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Harrison, Roger G.

    2018-01-01

    Bladder cancer has a 60%-70% recurrence rate most likely due to any residual tumour left behind after a transurethral resection (TUR). Failure to completely resect the cancer can lead to recurrence and progression into higher grade tumours with metastatic potential. We present here a novel therapy to treat superficial tumours with the potential to decrease recurrence. The therapy is a heat-based approach in which bladder tumour specific single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are delivered intravesically at a very low dose (0.1 mg SWCNT per kg body weight) followed 24 h later by a short 30 s treatment with a 360° near-infrared light that heats only the bound nanotubes. The energy density of the treatment was 50 J cm-2, and the power density that this treatment corresponds to is 1.7 W cm-2, which is relatively low. Nanotubes are specifically targeted to the tumour via the interaction of annexin V (AV) and phosphatidylserine, which is normally internalised on healthy tissue but externalised on tumours and the tumour vasculature. SWCNTs are conjugated to AV, which binds specifically to bladder cancer cells as confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Due to this specific localisation, NIR light can be used to heat the tumour while conserving the healthy bladder wall. In a short-term efficacy study in mice with orthotopic MB49 murine bladder tumours treated with the SWCNT-AV conjugate and NIR light, no tumours were visible on the bladder wall 24 h after NIR light treatment, and there was no damage to the bladder. In a separate survival study in mice with the same type of orthotopic tumours, there was a 50% cure rate at 116 days when the study was ended. At 116 days, no treatment toxicity was observed, and no nanotubes were detected in the clearance organs or bladder.

  20. The epidemiological and histological trend of bladder cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Rafiemanesh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: According to this study the trend of ASIR of bladder cancer in Iran is rising, so it is necessary to conduct further researches in future to provide accurate information on the cancer and investigate related risk factors and implement prevention programs in Iran.

  1. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  2. Telomerase Activity, Cytokeratin 20 and Cytokeratin 19 in Urine Cells of Bladder Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsi, M.I.; Youssef, A.I.; El-Sedafi, A.S.; Ghazal, A.A.; Zaher, E.R.; Hassouna, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the Study: This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. Patients and Methods: The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. Results: For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only KI9 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCe. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K 19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20 . o Conclusion: K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K 19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry ([HC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K 19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder

  3. Results of radiotherapy on ureteric obstruction in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens De Lichtenberg, Mette; Miskowiak, J; Rolff, H

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on ureteric obstruction due to muscle-invasive bladder cancer.......To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on ureteric obstruction due to muscle-invasive bladder cancer....

  4. Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristides, M.; Maase, Hans von der; Roberts, T.

    2005-01-01

    Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer Conventional treatment for advanced bladder cancer is methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin plus cisplatin (MVAC), with a median survival of 1 year but significant toxicity. The newer combinat...

  5. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  6. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John, E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (≥T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder

  7. Intra-fractional bladder motion and margins in adaptive radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Caroline; Vestergaard, Anne; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and to estimate population-based and patient-specific intra-fractional margins, also relevant for a future re-optimisation strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine patients treated in a clinical phase II ART trial of daily plan selection for bladder cancer were included. In the library plans, 5 mm isotropic margins......BACKGROUND: The bladder is a tumour site well suited for adaptive radiotherapy (ART) due to large inter-fractional changes, but it also displays considerable intra-fractional motion. The aim of this study was to assess target coverage with a clinically applied method for plan selection ART...... were added to account for intra-fractional changes. Pre-treatment and weekly repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series were acquired in which a full three-dimensional (3D) volume was scanned every second min for 10 min (a total of 366 scans in 61 series). Initially, the bladder clinical target...

  8. Prediction of Bladder Cancer Recurrences Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta Guerrero, Ekaitz; Garay, Naiara Telleria; Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Vilches, Borja Ayerdi; Iragorri, Eider Egilegor; Castaños, David Lecumberri; de La Hoz Rastrollo, Ana Belén; Peña, Carlos Pertusa

    Even if considerable advances have been made in the field of early diagnosis, there is no simple, cheap and non-invasive method that can be applied to the clinical monitorisation of bladder cancer patients. Moreover, bladder cancer recurrences or the reappearance of the tumour after its surgical resection cannot be predicted in the current clinical setting. In this study, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to assess how different combinations of classical clinical parameters (stage-grade and age) and two urinary markers (growth factor and pro-inflammatory mediator) could predict post surgical recurrences in bladder cancer patients. Different ANN methods, input parameter combinations and recurrence related output variables were used and the resulting positive and negative prediction rates compared. MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) was selected as the most predictive model and urinary markers showed the highest sensitivity, predicting correctly 50% of the patients that would recur in a 2 year follow-up period.

  9. TUR and postoperative megavolt inrradiation in urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschek, H.; Kaercher, K.H.; Studler, G.

    1984-01-01

    100 patients suffering from infiltrating urinary bladder cancer underwent transurethral resection followed by external megavolt irradiation (Betatron) are presented. The value of irradiation and its role in the actual therapeutic concept is discussed. The results of the combined therapy in infiltrative urinary bladder cancer using transurethral resection and megavolt irradiation are demonstrated according to stage (T 2 , T 3 ) and histological grading (G 2 , G 3 ). The 5-years survival rate amounts around 80%, in deep infiltrating bladder cancer about 50%. The morbidity of postoperative megavolt therapy was negligible. The results are superior to megavolt therapy alone and approach the one achieved by radical surgery; in addition the possibility of salvage-cystectomy remains open. (Author)

  10. High resolution photoacoustic imaging of microvasculature in normal and cancerous bladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the interior bladder tissues. Images of ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI to map three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiating malignant from benign bladder tissues was explored. The reported distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way to that in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

  11. Health-related quality of life after bladder preservation therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Miura, Noriyoshi; Numata, Kousaku; Shirato, Akitomi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru; Kataoka, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (QOL) of bladder cancer patients following bladder preservation therapy (BPT). Eighty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer had been treated between January 1992 and July 2005 at our institutions with BPT consisting of transurethral resection, intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Among them, 48 were alive and free from recurrence at the time of survey and were asked to participate. A total of 168 patients who had been treated for superficial bladder cancer in the same period were used as a control group. Three questionnaires, namely the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the SF-36, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) were used. Thirty-three patients in the BPT group (68.8%) and 128 patients in the control group (76.2%) answered the QOL survey. There was no significant difference in age, gender and other clinical factors among these two groups. No significant difference was found between the groups according to IPSS. The QOL score of BPT was lower than that of the control group in the SF-36, but there was no significant difference without body pain (P=0.047). There was a tendency toward a diminished physical functioning (P=0.053) and role-physical (P=0.064) in BPT. The EPIC scores for urinary function, especially storage and voiding symptoms, and bowel function were significantly lower in the BPT group. At multivariable analysis, body pain and bowel function were associated with the type of treatment. Although some of the QOL outcome parameters after BPT were found to be lower than the control group, these differences were not significant. Overall, patients retaining their bladder had an acceptable health related QOL. (author)

  12. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity.

  13. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity ≥G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity ≥G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity

  14. Trimodality therapy in bladder cancer: Who, what and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Christopher; Apolo, Andrea B.; Agarwal, Piyush K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Radical cystectomy is a standard treatment for non-metastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Treatment with trimodality therapy consisting of maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation has emerged as a method to preserve the native bladder in highly motivated patients. A number of factors can impact the likelihood of long term bladder preservation after trimodality therapy, and therefore should be taken into account when selecting patients. New radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided radiation therapy may decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy in this setting, but remain an area of active study. Novel chemotherapy regimens may improve response rates and minimize toxicity. PMID:25882559

  15. Guidelines for radiation therapy in clinical research on bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; VanderSchueren, E.; Kitagawa, T.; Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Frommhold, H.; Magno, L.; Mochizuki, S.; VanderBogaert, W.; VanderWerf-Messing, B.

    1986-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease and that there are important tumor characteristics that will predict significant differences in radiation responsiveness. These should in all instances be well documented prospectively in any treatment protocol. However, in this chapter the authors stress a number of factors related to the tumor at presentation as well as the administration of the radiation therapy that can importantly affect the efficacy of the radiation on the patient's tumor, as well as on his or her normal tissues. As Radiation Oncologists, they are most interested in the conducting and reporting of prospective clinical investigations in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with bladder carcinoma who will be treated with planned preservation of their bladder, but whose radiation therapy may be combined with additional planned bladder-sparing surgery, intraoperative radiation therapy, or chemotherapy

  16. Contemporary management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Era, Marc A; Cheng, Liang; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    The current standard treatment for muscle-invasive nonmetastatic bladder cancer is neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy. However, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not widely accepted even with level 1 evidence. Adjuvant chemotherapy should be discussed if patients have not received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and have high-risk pathologic features. Although not considered standard of care, bladder-sparing therapy can be considered for highly selected patients and for those medically unfit for surgery. Even though there are no level 1 data, the treatment outcomes for highly select patients given bladder-sparing therapy appear promising, with many patients retaining a functional bladder. Personalized chemotherapy is currently being actively pursued to target the underlying molecular changes and tailor to individual needs. PMID:22845409

  17. The effect of Pokemon on bladder cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changcheng; Zhu, Kai; Sun, Wei; Yang, Bin; Gu, Wenyu; Luo, Jun; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2014-01-24

    This study aimed at detecting Pokemon expression in bladder cancer cell and investigating the relationship between Pokemon and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, we investigated the functions of Pokemon in the carcinogenesis and development of bladder cancer. This study was also designed to observe the inhibitory effects of siRNA expression vector on Pokemon in bladder cancer cell. The siRNA expression vectors which were constructed to express a short hairpin RNA against Pokemon were transfected to the bladder cancer cells T24 with a liposome. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative-fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of Pokemon silencing on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay. Pokemon was strongly inhibited by siRNA treatment, especially siRNA3 treatment group, as it was reflected by Western blot and real-time PCR. The gene and protein of E-cadherin expression level showed increased markedly after Pokemon was inhibited by RNA interference. While there were no differences in the levels of gene and protein of β-catenin among five groups. The bladder cancer cell after Pokemon siRNA interference showed a significantly reduced wound-closing efficiency at 6, 12 and 24h. Our findings suggest Pokemon may inhibit the expression of E-cadherin. The low expression of E-cadherin lead to increasing the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Variations in the spatial distribution of gall bladder cancer: a call for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of gall bladder cancers in this part of the world is high and the spatial variation in occurrence of gall bladder cancers can be identified by using geographical information system. Materials and Methods: Data set containing the address information of gall bladder cancer patients from the District of ...

  19. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer using fluorescence cystoscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draga, R.O.P.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A relative high recurrence rate and the need for repeated treatments make bladder cancer one the most expensive cancers from diagnosis till death of the patient. The TURBT

  20. Chemoradiotherapy as a bladder-preservation approach for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2004-01-01

    Radical cystectomy has been considered the (gold standard for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder r cancer. However, because of disappointing results with radical surgery in terms of survival and decreased quality of life (QOL), bladder-preservation treatment has been introduced as an alternative to radical cystectomy. The primary purpose of the bladder-preservation approach has been to maximize overall cure rates, with the secondary purpose being to preserve the patient's bladder. The modalities used to ensure successful bladder preservation include radical transurethral resection (TUR), concurrent cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In patients who achieve a complete response (CR) after trimodality therapy, 5-year survival rates of more than 50%, the same as those of radical cystectomy, can be achieved and 70% of this group will retain an intact functional bladder. In this article, bladder-preservation studies using chemoradiotherapy are reviewed. (author)

  1. Genomic Alterations in Liquid Biopsies from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen; Christensen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Background: At least half of the patients diagnosed with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) experience recurrence and approximately 15% will develop progression to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Biomarkers for disease surveillance are urgently needed. Objective: Development......-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer; t test for ddPCR data. Results and limitations: We developed from one to six personalised assays per patient. Patients with progressive disease showed significantly higher levels of tumour DNA in plasma and urine before disease progression, compared with patients with recurrent...

  2. Enzalutamide inhibits androgen receptor-positive bladder cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ide, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Eiji; El-Shishtawy, Kareem A; Li, Yi; Reis, Leonardo O; Zheng, Yichun; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging preclinical evidence suggests that androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signals promote bladder cancer progression. However, little is known about the efficacy of an AR signaling inhibitor, enzalutamide, in the growth of bladder cancer cells. In this study, we compared the effects of enzalutamide and 2 other classic antiandrogens, flutamide and bicalutamide, on androgen-induced bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as tumor growth in vivo. Thiazolyl blue cell viability assay, flow cytometry, scratch wound-healing assay, transwell invasion assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and reporter gene assay were performed in AR-positive (e.g., UMUC3, TCCSUP, and 647V-AR) and AR-negative (e.g., UMUC3-AR-short hairpin RNA [shRNA], TCCSUP-AR-shRNA, 647V) bladder cancer lines treated with dihydrotestosterone and each AR antagonist. We also used a mouse xenograft model for bladder cancer. Dihydrotestosterone increased bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion indicating that endogenous or exogenous AR was functional. Enzalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and bicalutamide showed similar inhibitory effects, without significant agonist activity, on androgen-mediated cell viability/apoptosis, cell migration, and cell invasion in AR-positive lines. No significant effects of dihydrotestosterone as well as AR antagonists on the growth of AR-negative cells were seen. Correspondingly, in UMUC3 cells, these AR antagonists down-regulated androgen-induced expression of AR, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and interleukin-6. Androgen-enhanced AR-mediated transcriptional activity was also blocked by each AR antagonist exhibiting insignificant agonist activity. In UMUC3 xenograft-bearing mice, oral gavage treatment with each antiandrogen retarded tumor growth, and only enzalutamide demonstrated a statistically significant suppression compared with mock treatment. Our current data support recent observations indicating the involvement of

  3. Cathepsin-D And Tnf-α in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 of them are operable cases and 31 are non-operable ones, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and cytosolic Cathepsin-D were estimated. Though both potential markers were elevated in bladder cancer patients, neither Cathepsin-D nor TNF-α showed associations of prognostic value since there were no positive correlations with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzia ova or lymph node involvement.

  4. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 FNx01 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  5. PET/CT in kidney and bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochev, P.; Klisarova, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: FDG PET/CT has traditionally been considered a method of limited use in tumors of the kidneys and excretory system. Major shortcoming of the method in kidney cancer is considered variable fixation and a more general lack of significant therapeutic alternatives that require early diagnosis of recurrence after nephrectomy. In the context of the modern methods of systemic anticancer therapy in kidney cancer, marking a significant success in terms of time to progression, the need of more detailed selection of the patients and the search methods for the early diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic response arises. While CT remains the primary method for the diagnosis of parenchymal metastases (lung, liver), the use of FDG PET/CT has a significant advantage in detecting of nodal metastasis, locoregional recurrence and bone metastasis. Interesting direction in the use of PET/CT remains the monitoring of therapeutic response to systemic therapy of metastatic kidney cancer. Unlike kidney cancer in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCC), the application of FDG PET/CT is non- systematic and based on the specific clinical indications. As the main indicator can be observed the distant staging in locally advanced tumors and recurrences in restading after cystectomy. Besides the general advantages of PET/CT in terms of nodal and peritoneal involvement it should be noted that the role of the PET/CT in TCC is discussible. Application of FDG PET / CT in kidney cancer and TCC at this stage can not be considered as established, but while in TCCs, the method has sporadically application, mostly for specific clinical questions, the application in kidney cancer is significantly more systemic and in the context of systemic anti-tumor therapy allows early diagnosis and therapeutic approach modulation

  6. Bladder cancer incidence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among asphalt pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Kromhout, Hans; Johansen, Christoffer; Langard, Sverre; Kauppinen, Timo; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the association between exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that arises during asphalt paving, and risk of bladder cancer. 7298 men included in the historical cohort were first employed between 1913 and 1999 in companies applying asphalt in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Israel. The minimal duration of employment for inclusion in the cohort was two seasons of work. Occupational histories were extracted from personnel files. A follow-up for cancer incidence was conducted through national cancer registries. The authors estimated exposures to benzo(a)pyrene as a marker for 4-6 ring PAH. Exposures were reconstructed by using information about changes in asphalt paving technology in each company over time, the modelled relation between production characteristics and exposure levels, and job histories. Relative risks and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression. 48 bladder cancers among asphalt paving workers were detected; of these, 39 cases were exposed at least 15 years before the diagnosis. Cumulative exposure to PAH was not associated with the incidence of bladder cancer. The association with average exposure became stronger when 15-year lag was considered, revealing a twofold increase in relative bladder cancer risk in the two higher exposure categories. There was an indication of exposure-response association with lagged averaged exposure. Risk estimates were adjusted for age, country, duration of employment and calendar period, did not show heterogeneity among countries and did not materially change when re-estimated after excluding non-primary cancers from follow-up. Previously conducted sensitivity analysis indicates that confounding by cigarette smoking is an unlikely explanation for the observed exposure-response trends. The authors were unable to control for all possible sources of confounding and bias. The results do not allow conclusion on the presence or absence of a causal link between

  7. Selection of microsatellite markers for bladder cancer diagnosis without the need for corresponding blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A G van Tilborg

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are used for loss-of-heterozygosity, allelic imbalance and clonality analyses in cancers. Usually, tumor DNA is compared to corresponding normal DNA. However, normal DNA is not always available and can display aberrant allele ratios due to copy number variations in the genome. Moreover, stutter peaks may complicate the analysis. To use microsatellite markers for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer, we aimed to select markers without stutter peaks and a constant ratio between alleles, thereby avoiding the need for a control DNA sample. We investigated 49 microsatellite markers with tri- and tetranucleotide repeats in regions commonly lost in bladder cancer. Based on analysis of 50 blood DNAs the 12 best performing markers were selected with few stutter peaks and a constant ratio between peaks heights. Per marker upper and lower cut off values for allele ratios were determined. LOH of the markers was observed in 59/104 tumor DNAs. We then determined the sensitivity of the marker panel for detection of recurrent bladder cancer by assaying 102 urine samples of these patients. Sensitivity was 63% when patients were stratified for LOH in their primary tumors. We demonstrate that up-front selection of microsatellite markers obliterates the need for a corresponding blood sample. For diagnosis of bladder cancer recurrences in urine this significantly reduces costs. Moreover, this approach facilitates retrospective analysis of archival tumor samples for allelic imbalance.

  8. Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPARγ in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thiazolidinedione (TZD therapy in type II diabetic patients has proven useful in the lowering of blood glucose levels. However, recent investigations have shown that there may be potential health concerns associated, including the risk of developing bladder cancer as well as complications in the cardiovasculature. TZDs are ligands for the nuclear receptor PPARγ, and activation causes lipid uptake and insulin sensitization, both of which are critical processes for diabetic patients whose bodies are unable to utilize insulin effectively. Several studies have shown that PPARγ/TZDs decrease IGF-1 levels and, thus, reduce cancer growth in carcinomas such as the pancreas, colon, liver, and prostate. However, other studies have shed light on the potential of the receptor as a biomarker for uroepithelial carcinomas, particularly due to its stimulatory effect on migration of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, PPARγ may provide the tumor-promoting microenvironment by de novo synthesis of nutrients that are needed for bladder cancer development. In this review, we closely examine the TZD class of drugs and their effects on PPARγ in patient studies along with additional molecular factors that are positive modulators, such as protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, which may have considerable implications for bladder cancer therapy.

  9. Automatic staging of bladder cancer on CT urography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sankeerth S.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Cha, Kenny H.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Alva, Ajjai; Paramagul, Chintana; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Correct staging of bladder cancer is crucial for the decision of neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment and minimizing the risk of under- or over-treatment. Subjectivity and variability of clinicians in utilizing available diagnostic information may lead to inaccuracy in staging bladder cancer. An objective decision support system that merges the information in a predictive model based on statistical outcomes of previous cases and machine learning may assist clinicians in making more accurate and consistent staging assessments. In this study, we developed a preliminary method to stage bladder cancer. With IRB approval, 42 bladder cancer cases with CTU scans were collected from patient files. The cases were classified into two classes based on pathological stage T2, which is the decision threshold for neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (i.e. for stage >=T2) clinically. There were 21 cancers below stage T2 and 21 cancers at stage T2 or above. All 42 lesions were automatically segmented using our auto-initialized cascaded level sets (AI-CALS) method. Morphological features were extracted, which were selected and merged by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. A leave-one-case-out resampling scheme was used to train and test the classifier using the 42 lesions. The classification accuracy was quantified using the area under the ROC curve (Az). The average training Az was 0.97 and the test Az was 0.85. The classifier consistently selected the lesion volume, a gray level feature and a contrast feature. This predictive model shows promise for assisting in assessing the bladder cancer stage.

  10. Invasive bladder cancer treated by radical external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, M.O.; Thomas, D.M.; Lim, A.; Berry, R.J.; Milroy, E.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three consecutive unselected patients with invasive bladder cancer, Stage T2 to T3, treated by radical radiotherapy have been reviewed. Cystectomy was reserved for patients with significant worsening of disease during treatment, histologically confirmed persistent or recurrent invasive tumour after treatment, or patients with intolerable symptoms due to radiation cystitis. In 64% of our patients a favourable tumour response to radiotherapy was seen, while a further 31% showed disease progression either during or on completion of radiotherapy. Cystectomy was performed on 22% of patients, mainly for radiation cystitis, and was not associated with a significant operative mortality rate. The crude 5-year survival rate was 42%. We conclude that radical radiotherapy is as effective as other forms of treatment for invasive bladder cancer, but that there remains a need to identify those bladder tumours destined to respond poorly to radiotherapy at an earlier stage. (author)

  11. Visualisation of bladder cancer using 11C-choline PET: first clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, Igle J.; Pruim, Jan; Elsinga, Philip H.; Jongen, Maud M.G.J.; Vaalburg, Willem; Mensink, Han J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the most widely used radiopharmaceutical in positron emission tomography (PET) for oncological purposes, is unsuitable for imaging of bladder cancer owing to high excretion into the urine. More specific PET radiopharmaceuticals which are not excreted into urine would be welcome. Carbon-11 labelled choline (CHOL) is a new radiopharmaceutical potentially useful for tumour imaging and is not excreted into the urine. We prospectively studied the visualisation of bladder cancer using CHOL PET. Eighteen patients with bladder cancer and five healthy volunteers were included. Bladder cancer was first diagnosed by transurethral resection or by biopsy of the tumour. Next, PET images were performed before surgical treatment by cystectomy. The histopathological findings after cystectomy were used as the gold standard. PET images were performed on either an ECAT 951/31 or an ECAT Exact HR+ system. Attenuation-corrected PET images were obtained after injection of 400 MBq CHOL. PET images were analysed by two independent physicians using visual analysis and calculation of the standardised uptake value (SUV). In the normal bladder wall, the uptake of CHOL was low, and the bladder margin was only outlined by minimal urinary radioactivity, if present. In ten patients the tumour was detected correctly by CHOL PET, with an SUV of 4.7±3.6 (mean±SD). One false positive CHOL PET scan was seen in a patient with an indwelling catheter for 2 weeks prior to the PET scan. In two patients, lymph node metastases were detected by CHOL PET. A micrometastasis <5 mm was not visualised with CHOL PET. In seven patients, no residual tumour was found after surgery. In six of seven patients CHOL PET imaging was negative. In situ carcinoma, dysplasia and a non-invasive urothelial tumour (pTa) remained undetected in three of these six patients. Minimal to no urinary tract radioactivity was seen in 22/23 subjects. Non-specific uptake of CHOL was observed in the small

  12. Review: Application of Nanoparticles in Urothelial Cancer of the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chieh-Hsiao; Chan, Tzu-Min; Wu, Yi-Jhen; Chen, Jia-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy of the urinary tract, which generally develops in the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder. The specific course of treatment depends on the stage of bladder cancer; however, therapeutic strategies typically involve intravesical drug delivery to reduce toxicity and increase therapeutic effects. Recently, metallic, polymeric, lipid, and protein nanoparticles have been introduced to aid in the treatment of bladder cancer. Nanoparticles are also commonly ...

  13. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Duppen, Joop C.; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to ∼0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall

  14. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, Heidi T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duppen, Joop C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to {approx}0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall.

  15. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H; Efstathiou, Jason A; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2016-04-27

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety of timely issues: 1) data sharing, privacy and social media; 2) improving patient navigation through therapy; 3) promising developments in immunotherapy; 4) and moving bladder cancer research from bench to bedside. Lastly, early career researchers presented their bladder cancer studies and had opportunities to network with leading experts.

  16. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten; Lebesque, Joos; Lotz, Heidi; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Moonen, Luc; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV CONV ). During the first treatment week, five daily computed tomography (CT) scans were made immediately before or after treatment. In the second week, a volume was constructed encompassing the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the planning scan and the five CT scans (GTV ART ). The GTV ART was expanded with a 1 cm margin for the construction of a PTV ART . Starting in the third week, patients were treated to PTV ART . Repeat CT scans were used to evaluate treatment accuracy. Results: On 5 of 91 repeat CT scans (5%), the GTV was not adequately covered by the PTV ART . On treatment planning, there was only one scan in which the GTV was not adequately covered by the 95% isodose. On average, the treatment volumes were reduced by 40% when comparing PTV ART with PTV CONV (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The adaptive strategy for bladder cancer is an effective way to deal with treatment errors caused by variations in bladder tumor position and leads to a substantial reduction in treatment volumes

  17. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotz, Heidi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tienhoven, Geertjan van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Moonen, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV{sub CONV}). During the first treatment week, five daily computed tomography (CT) scans were made immediately before or after treatment. In the second week, a volume was constructed encompassing the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the planning scan and the five CT scans (GTV{sub ART}). The GTV{sub ART} was expanded with a 1 cm margin for the construction of a PTV{sub ART}. Starting in the third week, patients were treated to PTV{sub ART}. Repeat CT scans were used to evaluate treatment accuracy. Results: On 5 of 91 repeat CT scans (5%), the GTV was not adequately covered by the PTV{sub ART}. On treatment planning, there was only one scan in which the GTV was not adequately covered by the 95% isodose. On average, the treatment volumes were reduced by 40% when comparing PTV{sub ART} with PTV{sub CONV} (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The adaptive strategy for bladder cancer is an effective way to deal with treatment errors caused by variations in bladder tumor position and leads to a substantial reduction in treatment volumes.

  18. Nanotechnology and cancer: improving real-time monitoring and staging of bladder cancer with multimodal mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sean K; Luo, Yi; O'Donnell, Michael A; Assouline, Jose

    Despite being one of the most common cancers, bladder cancer is largely inefficiently and inaccurately staged and monitored. Current imaging methods detect cancer only when it has reached "visible" size and has significantly disrupted the structure of the organ. By that time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized. Repeated biopsies and scans are necessary to determine the effect of therapy on cancer growth. In this report, we describe a novel approach based on multimodal nanoparticle contrast agent technology and its application to a preclinical animal model of bladder cancer. The innovation relies on the engineering core of mesoporous silica with specific scanning contrast properties and surface modification that include fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. The overall dimensions of the nano-device are preset at 80-180 nm, depending on composition with a pore size of 2 nm. To facilitate and expedite discoveries, we combined a well-known model of bladder cancer and our novel technology. We exposed nanoparticles to MB49 murine bladder cancer cells in vitro and found that 70 % of the cells were labeled by nanoparticles as measured by flow cytometry. The in vivo mouse model for bladder cancer is particularly well suited for T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Under our experimental conditions, we demonstrate that the nanoparticles considerably improve tumor definition in terms of volumetric, intensity and structural characteristics. Important bladder tumor parameters can be ascertained, non-invasively, repetitively, and with great accuracy. Furthermore, since the particles are not biodegradable, repetitive injection is not required. This feature allows follow-up diagnostic evaluations during cancer treatment. Changes in MRI signals show that in situ uptake of free particles has predilection to tumor cells relative to normal bladder epithelium. The particle distribution within the tumors was corroborated by fluorescent

  19. Bladder cancer: Analysis of the 2004 WHO classification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Bladder cancer (BCA) is aworldwide disease and shows a wide range of geographical variation. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of schistosomal and non-schistosomal associated BCA as well as compare our findings with the 2004 WHO consensus classification of urothelial neoplasms and ...

  20. A review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer | Miakhil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous molecular markers for bladder cancer have been identified and investigated with various laboratory techniques. Molecular markers are isolated from tissue, serum and urine. They fall into proteomic, genetic and epigenetic categories. Some of molecular markers show promising results in terms of ...

  1. Mycobacterium bovis endophthalmitis from BCG immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbrandy, S. J. F.; Schreuders, L. C.; de Smet, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report a patient who developed BCG endophthalmitis after BCG immunotherapy for bladder cancer. Comparison of this case with 2 other reported cases reveals a similar pattern of elderly, debilitated and immunocompromised patients with poor response to systemic antituberculous therapy in

  2. A review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Volume 2 Issue 3 September – December 2013 ... methodology were identified but only half of them have shown consistence ... Conclusion: It is envisaged that a combination ... biomarkers for bladder cancer are adopted in the UK standard practice. ... words used for the literature review were ..... Multi centre validation.

  3. Occupation and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of bladder cancer incidence according to occupational categories in the Nordic countries. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 15 million individuals older than 30 years who participated in one or more population censuses in 1960......% CI 1.33 to 1.53), hairdressers (1.28; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.40), seamen (1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.30), printers (1.21; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.30), and plumbers (1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.30). A significantly decreased risk of bladder cancer was observed among gardeners (0.78, 0.75 to 0.80), forestry workers (0.......74; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.78), and farmers (0.70; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The SIR of bladder cancer was overall similar across the Nordic countries. The study suggests that occupation is evidently associated with bladder cancer risk....

  4. Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkali, Z.; Chan, T.; Manoharan, M.; Algaba, F.; Busch, C.; Cheng, L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Kriegmair, M.; Montironi, R.; Murphy, W.M.; Sesterhenn, I.A.; Tachibana, M.; Weider, J.

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a

  5. Characterization and noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer with serum surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoxin; Li, Linfang; Zeng, Qiuyao; Zhang, Yanjiao; Guo, Zhouyi; Liu, Zhiming; Jin, Mei; Su, Chengkang; Lin, Lin; Xu, Junfa; Liu, Songhao

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to characterize and classify serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra between bladder cancer patients and normal volunteers by genetic algorithms (GAs) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA). Two group serum SERS spectra excited with nanoparticles are collected from healthy volunteers (n = 36) and bladder cancer patients (n = 55). Six diagnostic Raman bands in the regions of 481-486, 682-687, 1018-1034, 1313-1323, 1450-1459 and 1582-1587 cm-1 related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids are picked out with the GAs and LDA. By the diagnostic models built with the identified six Raman bands, the improved diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% were acquired for classifying bladder cancer patients from normal serum SERS spectra. The results are superior to the sensitivity of 74.6% and specificity of 97.2% obtained with principal component analysis by the same serum SERS spectra dataset. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed the efficiency of diagnostic algorithm based on GA-LDA technique. This exploratory work demonstrates that the serum SERS associated with GA-LDA technique has enormous potential to characterize and non-invasively detect bladder cancer through peripheral blood.

  6. Towards improved bladder cancer diagnosis using fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide. Its high recurrence rate makes bladder cancer one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the western world and the most costly type of cancer over the patient’s lifetime. In the Netherlands, each year 5,400 new patients with

  7. Paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with occult bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nivean, M; Muttuvelu, Danson V; Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia

    2016-01-01

    (ERG), serology including serum antibodies for CAR, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan. The patient was diagnosed with bladder carcinoma revealed by PET-CT. Timely recognition of this entity may be crucial for an increased patient survival thus adult onset progressive...... photoreceptor dysfunction, confirmed by ERG, should alert to a possible remote effect of known or occult malignancy. In the latter, PET-CT may be exploited as a powerful diagnostic tool....

  8. Molecular Landscape of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Lerner, Seth P

    2017-11-13

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hurst et al. report an integrated analysis of non-invasive (stage Ta) bladder cancer. Two genomic subtypes are distinguished by chromosome 9q loss, resulting in increased AKT/PI3K/mTOR signaling. Tumors from female patients have a higher frequency of KDM6A mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of life in urinary bladder and prostate cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Stefanie, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis was to describe the evolution of Health-Related Quality of Life in Spanish patients with urologic tumours; and to the examine clinical and treatment-related factors associated with changes in Health-Related Quality of Life during the first year of treatment. The EMPARO project is an observational, multicenter, prospective study on patients diagnosed with bladder cancer (n=326) and prostate cancer (n=472). Consecutive patients were enrolled in 7 Spanish hos...

  10. Significance Of Immunohistochemical Markers In Diagnostics Of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Medvedeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of surgical and biopsy material 106 patients with diseases of urinary bladder have been under study. They received treatment at Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Uronephrology of Saratov State Medical University. 13 immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated: markers of proliferative activity - Ki-67, PCNA, p63, suppressor of tumor growth - p53, markers of apoptosis - Bcl-2, Bax, receptor of epidermal growth factors - EGFR, cytokeratin profile - (CK7, CK8, CK10/13, CK 17, CK18, CK19, as well as their diagnostic significance for identifying the urinary bladder cancer

  11. Potential Therapeutic Roles of Tanshinone IIA in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chun Chiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae, has been found to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cells. We have demonstrated that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Here we explored the anticancer effect of Tan-IIA in human bladder cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused bladder cancer cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tan-IIA induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in these bladder cancer cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed the migration of bladder cancer cells as revealed by the wound healing and transwell assays. Finally, combination therapy of Tan-IIA with a lower dose of cisplatin successfully killed bladder cancer cells, suggesting that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-cancer agent in bladder cancer.

  12. Comparison of ultrasound and computed tomography in staging of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Bunzo

    1982-01-01

    Preoperative staging of bladder cancer is very important for decision of treating methods and prognostication. The present author used ultrasound via the abdominal wall in the diagnosis of 83 patients with bladder cancer. I estimated the extent of bladder tumor infiltration by ultrasound via the abdominal wall according to Shiraishi's criteria. Ultrasound scans, pelvic angiograms and CT scans were reviewed to determine their accuracy in staging of bladder tumors. Ultrasound scans were excellent in staging of non-infiltrated bladder tumors, while pelvic angiograms and CT scans were excellent in staging of infiltrated bladder tumors. (author)

  13. Patient-centered prioritization of bladder cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angela B; Chisolm, Stephanie; Deal, Allison; Spangler, Alejandra; Quale, Diane Z; Bangs, Rick; Jones, J Michael; Gore, John L

    2018-05-04

    Patient-centered research requires the meaningful involvement of patients and caregivers throughout the research process. The objective of this study was to create a process for sustainable engagement for research prioritization within oncology. From December 2014 to 2016, a network of engaged patients for research prioritization was created in partnership with the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN): the BCAN Patient Survey Network (PSN). The PSN leveraged an online bladder cancer community with additional recruitment through print advertisements and social media campaigns. Prioritized research questions were developed through a modified Delphi process and were iterated through multidisciplinary working groups and a repeat survey. In year 1 of the PSN, 354 patients and caregivers responded to the research prioritization survey; the number of responses increased to 1034 in year 2. The majority of respondents had non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and the mean time since diagnosis was 5 years. Stakeholder-identified questions for noninvasive, invasive, and metastatic disease were prioritized by the PSN. Free-text questions were sorted with thematic mapping. Several questions submitted by respondents were among the prioritized research questions. A final prioritized list of research questions was disseminated to various funding agencies, and a highly ranked NMIBC research question was included as a priority area in the 2017 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute announcement of pragmatic trial funding. Patient engagement is needed to identify high-priority research questions in oncology. The BCAN PSN provides a successful example of an engagement infrastructure for annual research prioritization in bladder cancer. The creation of an engagement network sets the groundwork for additional phases of engagement, including design, conduct, and dissemination. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  14. Novel multisensor probe for monitoring bladder temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: technical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordeiro, Ernesto R.; Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  16. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our initial experiences with laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2002 and October 2004, laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed in 6 cases at 3 institutions; 3 cases were urachal adenocarcinomas and the remaining 3 cases were bladder transitional cell carcinomas. All patients were male, with a median age of 55 years (45-72 years. Gross hematuria was the presenting symptom in all patients, and diagnosis was established with trans-urethral resection bladder tumor in 2 patients and by means of cystoscopic biopsy in the remaining 4 patients. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed using the transperitoneal approach under cystoscopic guidance. In each case, the surgical specimen was removed intact entrapped in an impermeable bag. One patient with para-ureteral diverticulum transitional cell carcinoma required concomitant ureteral reimplantation. RESULTS: All six procedures were completed laparoscopically without open conversion. The median operating time was 110 minutes (90-220 with a median estimated blood loss of 70 mL (50-100. Frozen section evaluations of bladder margins were routinely obtained and were negative for cancer in all cases. The median hospital stay was 2.5 days (2-4 and the duration of catheterization was 7 days. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Final histopathology confirmed urachal adenocarcinoma in 3 cases and bladder transitional cell carcinoma in 3 cases. At a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range: 26 to 44 months, there was no evidence of recurrent disease as evidenced by radiologic or cystoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic partial cystectomy in carefully selected patients with urachal and bladder cancer is feasible and safe, offering a promising and minimally invasive alternative for these patients.

  17. Outcome of urinary bladder recurrence after partial cystectomy for en bloc urinary bladder adherent colorectal cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao Lun; Tsai, Kai Lung; Lin, Shung Eing; Chiang, Po Hui

    2013-05-01

    Around 10 % of colorectal cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis. There are higher incidences for sigmoid and rectal cancer adhered to urinary bladder (UB) rather than other segments of colon cancer. Surgeons often performed partial cystectomy as possible for preservation of patient's life quality. This study investigates prognostic factors in patients who underwent bladder preservation en bloc resection for UB adherent colorectal cancer. From 2000 to 2011, 123 patients with clinically UB involvement colorectal cancer underwent primary colorectal cancer with urinary bladder resection. Seventeen patients were excluded because of the concurrent distant metastasis at diagnosis and another 22 patients were excluded because of total cystectomy with uretero-ileal urinary diversion. Finally, 84 patients with clinical stage IIIC (T4bN0M0, according to AJCC 7th edition) that underwent en bloc colorectal cancer resection with partial cystectomy were enrolled into this study for further analysis. Preoperative colovesical fistula and positive CT result were significantly more in the urinary bladder invasion group (p = 0.043 and 0.010, respectively). Pathological UB invasion is an independent predictor of intravesical recurrence (p = 0.04; HR, 10.71; 95 % CI = 1.12∼102.94) and distant metastasis (p = 0.016; HR, 4.85; 95 % CI = 1.34 ∼ 17.53) in multivariate analysis. For bladder preservation en bloc resection of urinary bladder adherent colorectal cancer, the pathological urinary bladder invasion is significantly associated with more urinary bladder recurrence and distant metastasis. This result helps surgeons make decisions at surgical planning and establish follow-up protocol.

  18. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 87 (GPR87 Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 87 (GPR87 is a newly deorphanized member of the cell surface molecule G protein-coupled receptor family. GPR signaling was shown to play a role in promotion of cell growth and survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. The overexpression of GPR87 has also been reported in many malignant tumors including bladder cancer. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of silencing GPR87 expression with a replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeting GPR87 (Ad-shGPR87 and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in bladder cancer cells. Six GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells, HT1197, HT1376, J82, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, were used. Infection with Ad-shGPR87 effectively downregulated the GPR87 expression, and significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells in 4 of 6 cell lines as detected by an MTT assay. Significant inhibition on cell proliferation with Ad-shGPR87 was observed in the wild-type p53 bladder cancer cell lines (HT1197, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, but not in the mutant p53 cells (HT1376 and J82. As represented by a wild-type p53 RT112 cell, Ad-shGPR87 infection significantly enhanced p53 and p21 expression and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with Ad-shGPR87 exerted a significant antitumor effect against the GPR87-expressing RT112 xenografts. GPR87 appeared to be a promising target for gene therapy, and Ad-shGPR87 had strong antitumor effects, specifically anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, against GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells.

  19. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  20. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  1. Discoidin domain receptor 1 activity drives an aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xin; Rui, Wenbin; He, Wei; Shao, Yuan; Sun, Fukang; Zhou, Wenlong; Wu, Yuxuan; Zhu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase which utilizes collagen as a ligand to regulate the interaction between cancer cells and tumor stroma. However, the clinical relevance of DDR1 expression in bladder cancer as well as its molecular regulation have not been previously investigated. Here, we assessed the role of DDR1 in bladder cancer. The DDR1 levels in bladder cancer specimens were examined by Western blot, compared to the paired adhesive normal controls. The eff...

  2. Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Recurrence Based on Urinary Levels of EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, TWIST1, VIM, and ZNF154 Hypermethylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Thomas; Borre, Michael; Christiansen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy and as many as 70% of patients experience relapse. Aberrant DNA methylation is present in all bladder tumors and can be detected in urine specimens. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation markers...

  3. Alternating chemo-radiotherapy in bladder cancer: a conservative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsatti, Marco; Curotto, Antonio; Canobbio, Luciano; Guarneri, Domenico; Scarpati, Daniele; Venturini, Marco; Franzone, Paola; Giudici, Stefania; Martorana, Giuseppe; Boccardo, Francesco; Giuliani, Luciano; Vitale, Vito

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this Phase II study was to determine a bladder-sparing treatment in patients with invasive bladder cancer, allowing a better quality of life. Objectives were to test toxicity and disease-free and overall survival of patients given an alternated chemo-radiotherapy definitive treatment. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six patients with bladder cancer Stage T1G3 through T4 N0 M0 were entered in the same chemotherapy regimen (Cisplatin 20 mg/mq and 5-Fluorouracil 200 mg/mq daily for 5 days) alternated with different radiotherapy scheduling, the first 18 patients received two cycles of 20 Gy/10 fractions/12 days each; the second group of 58 patients received two cycles of 25 Gy/10 fractions/12 days each (the last 21 patients received Methotrexate 40 mg/mq instead of 5-Fluorouracil). Results: A clinical complete response was observed in 57 patients (81%), partial response in 7 patients (10%), and a nonresponse in 6 patients (9%). At a median follow-up of 45 months, 33 patients (47%) were alive and free of tumor. The 6-year overall survival and progression-free survival was 42% and 40%, respectively. Systemic side effects were mild, while a moderate or severe local toxicity was observed in 14 patients and 13 patients (about 20%), respectively. Conclusion: Our conservative combination treatment allowed bladder-sparing in a high rate of patients and resulted in a survival comparable to that reported after radical cystectomy

  4. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  5. Definitions, End Points, and Clinical Trial Designs for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Recommendations From the International Bladder Cancer Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamat, A.M.; Sylvester, R.J.; Bohle, A.; Palou, J.; Lamm, D.L.; Brausi, M.; Soloway, M.; Persad, R.; Buckley, R.; Colombel, M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide recommendations on appropriate clinical trial designs in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) based on current literature and expert consensus of the International Bladder Cancer Group. METHODS: We reviewed published trials, guidelines, meta-analyses, and reviews and

  6. PKC α regulates netrin-1/UNC5B-mediated survival pathway in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiao; Kong, Chui-ze; Gong, Da-xin; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Yu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5B play important roles in angiogenesis, embryonic development, cancer and inflammation. However, their expression patttern and biological roles in bladder cancer have not been well characterized. The present study aims to investigating the clinical significance of PKC α, netrin-1 and UNC5B in bladder cancer as well as their association with malignant biological behavior of cancer cells. Netrin-1 and UNC5B expression was examined in 120 bladder cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry and in 40 fresh cancer tissues by western blot. Immunofluorescence was performed in cancer cell lines. PKC α agonist PMA and PKC siRNA was employed in bladder cancer cells. CCK-8, wound healing assays and flow cytometry analysis were used to examine cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle, respectively. Netrin-1 expression was positively correlated with histological grade, T stage, metastasis and poor prognosis in bladder cancer tissues. Immunofluorescence showed elevated netrin-1 and decreased UNC5B expression in bladder cancer cells compared with normal bladder cell line. Furthermore, cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression were promoted with PMA treatment while inhibited by calphostin C. In addition, PMA treatment could induce while calphostin C reduce netrin-1 expression in bladder cancer cells. The present study identified netrin-1/UNC5B, which could be regulated by PKC signaling, was important mediators of bladder cancer progression

  7. mTOR inhibitors in urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Leite, R; Arantes-Rodrigues, R; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, P A; Santos, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the great scientific advances that have been made in cancer treatment, there is still much to do, particularly with regard to urinary bladder cancer. Some of the drugs used in urinary bladder cancer treatment have been in use for more than 30 years and show reduced effectiveness and high recurrence rates. There have been several attempts to find new and more effective drugs, to be used alone or in combination with the drugs already in use, in order to overcome this situation.The biologically important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is altered in cancer and mTOR inhibitors have raised many expectations as potentially important anticancer drugs. In this article, the authors will review the mTOR pathway and present their experiences of the use of some mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, in isolation and in conjunction with non-mTOR inhibitors cisplatin and gemcitabine, on urinary bladder tumour cell lines. The non-muscle-invasive cell line, 5637, is the only one that exhibits a small alteration in the mTOR and AKT phosphorylation after rapalogs exposure. Also, there was a small inhibition of cell proliferation. With gemcitabine plus everolimus or temsirolimus, the results were encouraging as a more effective response was noticed with both combinations, especially in the 5637 and T24 cell lines. Cisplatin associated with everolimus or temsirolimus also gave promising results, as an antiproliferative effect was observed when the drugs were associated, in particular on the 5637 and HT1376 cell lines. Everolimus or temsirolimus in conjunction with gemcitabine or cisplatin could have an important role to play in urinary bladder cancer treatment, depending on the tumour grading.

  8. Xanthogranulomatous Cystitis: A Challenging Imitator of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Ekici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature.

  9. Characterization of Uptake and Internalization of Exosomes by Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Franzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder tumors represent a special therapeutic challenge as they have a high recurrence rate requiring repeated interventions and may progress to invasive or metastatic disease. Exosomes carry proteins implicated in bladder cancer progression and have been implicated in bladder cancer cell survival. Here, we characterized exosome uptake and internalization by human bladder cancer cells using Amnis ImageStreamX, an image cytometer. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from bladder cancer culture conditioned supernatant, labeled with PKH-26, and analyzed on the ImageStreamX with an internal standard added to determine concentration. Exosomes were cocultured with bladder cancer cells and analyzed for internalization. Using the IDEAS software, we determined exosome uptake based on the number of PKH-26+ spots and overall PKH-26 fluorescence intensity. Using unlabeled beads of a known concentration and size, we were able to determine concentrations of exosomes isolated from bladder cancer cells. We measured exosome uptake by recipient bladder cancer cells, and we demonstrated that uptake is dose and time dependent. Finally, we found that uptake is active and specific, which can be partially blocked by heparin treatment. The characterization of cellular uptake and internalization by bladder cancer cells may shed light on the role of exosomes on bladder cancer recurrence and progression.

  10. High-risk bladder cancer: improving outcomes with perioperative chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite treatment with radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, muscle invasive bladder cancer has a relapse rate of 50%. Patients can develop regionally advanced or metastatic disease that ultimately leads to death. The addition of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy to reduce the risk of relapse and death has been extensively studied over the past two decades. Two contemporary trials coupled with a recent meta-analysis evaluating neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated a modest but real improvement in overall survival. This has made neoadjuvant chemotherapy a standard of care. Clinical trials evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk disease have been plagued with statistical flaws and have, therefore, been unable to define the survival impact of this approach. It is hoped that ongoing adjuvant trials that are powered to detect small but meaningful clinical differences will clarify the benefit of chemotherapy after cystectomy. Since there are theoretical advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches, both are widely used in North America. The evidence behind each approach and potential future developments in this field will be described.

  11. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-06-28

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play a key role in driving the transition to the invasive phenotype of urothelial cancer. However, it is not established whether targeting progranulin could have therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. In this study, we stably depleted urothelial cancer cells of endogenous progranulin by shRNA approaches and determined that progranulin depletion severely inhibited the ability of tumorigenic urothelial cancer cells to migrate, invade and grow in anchorage-independency. We further demonstrate that progranulin expression is critical for tumor growth in vivo, in both xenograft and orthotopic tumor models. Notably, progranulin levels correlated with response to cisplatin treatment and were upregulated in bladder tumors. Our data indicate that progranulin may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, progranulin may serve as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  12. [The diagnostic value of microsatellite LOH analysis and the prognostic relevance of angiogenic gene expression in urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarvas, Tibor

    2009-12-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting the urinary system. Currently, histology is the only tool that determines therapy and patients' prognosis. As the treatment of non-invasive (Ta/T1) and muscle invasive (T2-T4) bladder tumors are completely different, correct staging is important, although it is often hampered by disturbing factors. Molecular methods offer new prospects for early disease detection, confirmation of unclear histological findings and prognostication. Applying molecular biological methods, the present study is searching for answers to current diagnostic and prognostic problems in bladder carcinoma. We analyzed tumor, blood and/or urine samples of 334 bladder cancer patients and 117 control individuals. Genetic alterations were analyzed in urine samples of patients and controls, both by PCR-based microsatellite loss of heterozigosity (LOH) analysis using 12 fluorescently labeled primers and by DNA hybridization based UroVysion FISH technique using 4 probes, to assess the diagnostic values of these methods. Whole genome microsatellite analysis (with 400 markers) was performed in tumor and blood specimens of bladder cancer patients to find chromosomal regions, the loss of which may be associated with tumor stage. Furthermore, we assessed the prognostic value of Tie2, VEGF, Angiopoietin-1 and -2. We concluded that DNA analysis of voided urine samples by microsatellite analysis and FISH are sensitive and non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. Furthermore, we established a panel of microsatellite markers that could differentiate between non-invasive and invasive bladder cancer. However, further analyses in a larger cohort of patients are needed to assess their specificity and sensitivity. Finally, we identified high Ang-2 and low Tie2 gene expression as significant and independent risk factors of tumor recurrence and cancer related survival.

  13. Recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-01-01

    individually contributed to the management of the disease. However, the development of high-throughput techniques for simultaneous assessment of a large number of markers has allowed classification of tumors into clinically relevant molecular subgroups beyond those possible by pathological classification. Here......Bladder cancer is the fifth most common neoplasm in industrialized countries. Due to frequent recurrences of the superficial form of this disease, bladder cancer ranks as one of the most common cancers. Despite the description of a large number of tumor markers for bladder cancers, none have......, we review the recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers....

  14. Pharmacokinetics of etanidazole (SR-2508) in bladder and cervical cancer: evidence of diffusion from urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwad, H.K.; el Badawy, S.; abd el Baki, H.; Zaghloul, M.; el Moneim Osman, A.; Akoush, H.; Fairchild, K.

    1989-01-01

    Following an IV infusion of 2.0 g/m2 of Etanidazole, the mean tumor concentration 40 min after injection was 126 micrograms/g in bladder cancer and 65 micrograms/g in cervical cancer. The tumor/plasma concentration ratio was 1.88 in bladder and 0.85 in cervical cancer. This high tumor concentration in bladder cancer could be accounted for by diffusion from a highly concentrated urine. This renders bladder cancer a suitable clinical model for testing this sensitizer

  15. Radiochemotherapy With Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil After Transurethral Surgery in Patients With Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Christian; Engehausen, Dirk G.; Krause, Frens S.; Papadopoulos, Thomas; Dunst, Juergen; Sauer, Rolf; Roedel, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To give an update on the long-term outcome of an intensified protocol of combined radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin after initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) with selective organ preservation in bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred twelve patients with muscle-invading or high-risk T1 (G3, associated Tis, multifocality, diameter >5 cm) bladder cancer were enrolled in a protocol of TURBT followed by concurrent cisplatin (20 mg/m 2 /day as 30-min infusion) and 5-FU (600 mg/m 2 /day as 120-h continuous infusion), administered on Days 1-5 and 29-33 of radiotherapy. Response to treatment was evaluated by restaging TURBT 4-6 weeks after RCT. In case of invasive residual tumor or recurrence, salvage cystectomy was recommended. Results: Ninety-nine patients (88.4%) had no detectable tumor at restaging TURBT; 71 patients (72%) have been continuously free from local recurrence or distant metastasis. Superficial relapse occurred in 13 patients and muscle-invasive recurrence in 11 patients. Overall and cause-specific survival rates for all patients were 74% and 82% at 5 years, respectively. Of all surviving patients, 82% maintained their own bladder, 79% of whom were delighted or pleased with their urinary condition. Hematologic Grade 3/4 toxicity occurred in 23%/6% and Grade 3 diarrhea in 21% of patients. One patient required salvage cystectomy due to a shrinking bladder. Conclusion: Concurrent RCT with 5-FU/cisplatin has been associated with acceptable acute and long-term toxicity. Overall and cause-specific survival rates are encouraging. More than 80% of patients preserved their well-functioning bladder

  16. The progression from a lower to a higher invasive stage of bladder cancer is associated with severe alterations in glucose and pyruvate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Vanessa R. [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Oliveira, Pedro F. [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Department of Microscopy, Laboratory of Cell Biology and Unit for Multidisciplinary Research in Biomedicine, Abel Salazar Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto – UMIB/ICBAS/UP (Portugal); Nunes, Ana R.; Rocha, Cátia S. [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Ramalhosa, Elsa; Pereira, José A. [Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); Alves, Marco G., E-mail: alvesmarc@gmail.com [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Silva, Branca M., E-mail: bmcms@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Cancer cells present a particular metabolic behavior. We hypothesized that the progression of bladder cancer could be accompanied by changes in cells glycolytic profile. We studied two human bladder cancer cells, RT4 and TCCSUP, in which the latter represents a more invasive stage. The levels of glucose, pyruvate, alanine and lactate in the extracellular media were measured by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The protein expression levels of glucose transporters 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Our data showed that glucose consumption and GLUT3 levels were similar in both cell lines, but TCCSUP cells displayed lower levels of GLUT1 and PFK expression. An increase in pyruvate consumption, concordant with the higher levels of lactate and alanine production, was also detected in TCCSUP cells. Moreover, TCCSUP cells presented lower protein expression levels of GPT and LDH. These results illustrate that bladder cancer progression is associated with alterations in cells glycolytic profile, namely the switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption in the more aggressive stage. This may be useful to develop new therapies and to identify biomarkers for cancer progression. - Highlights: • Metabolic phenotype of less and high invasive bladder cancer cells was studied. • Bladder cancer progression involves alterations in cells glycolytic profile. • More invasive bladder cancer cells switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption. • Our results may help to identify metabolic biomarkers of bladder cancer progression.

  17. Transforming Growth Factor-β Is an Upstream Regulator of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 2-Dependent Bladder Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sounak; Hau, Andrew M; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Harwalkar, Jyoti; Shoskes, Aaron C; Elson, Paul; Beach, Jordan R; Hussey, George S; Schiemann, William P; Egelhoff, Thomas T; Howe, Philip H; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-05-01

    Our prior work identified the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) as a key regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion, although upstream growth factor mediators of this pathway in bladder cancer have not been well delineated. We tested whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, which can function as a promotility factor in bladder cancer cells, could regulate mTORC2-dependent bladder cancer cell motility and invasion. In human bladder cancers, the highest levels of phosphorylated SMAD2, a TGF-β signaling intermediate, were present in high-grade invasive bladder cancers and associated with more frequent recurrence and decreased disease-specific survival. Increased expression of TGF-β isoforms, receptors, and signaling components was detected in invasive high-grade bladder cancer cells that expressed Vimentin and lacked E-cadherin. Application of TGF-β induced phosphorylation of the Ser473 residue of AKT, a selective target of mTORC2, in a SMAD2- and SMAD4-independent manner and increased bladder cancer cell migration in a modified scratch wound assay and invasion through Matrigel. Inhibition of TGF-β receptor I using SB431542 ablated TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. A similar effect was seen when Rictor, a key mTORC2 component, was selectively silenced. Our results suggest that TGF-β can induce bladder cancer cell invasion via mTORC2 signaling, which may be applicable in most bladder cancers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play...

  19. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aota, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiko

    1999-01-01

    A total of 83 patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (T1, n=5; T2, n=28; T3a, n=21; T3b, n=21; T4, n=8) were treated with intra-arterial (i.a.) cisplatin and adriamycin (or epirubicin) chemotherapy. In 51 of the 83 cases, we combined this treatment with radiotherapy. The pathological complete response (CR) rate was 68% for all patients, 84% for i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and only 41% for i.a. chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rate was 57% for all patients, 71% for i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and only 44% for i.a. chemotherapy. The 5-year survival as a function of the clinical stage was 82% for T1+T2, 66% for T3a, 28% for T3b, 25% for T4 (T1+T2 vs. T3b: p<0.001, T1+T2 vs. T4: p<0.0001, T3a vs. T3b: p<0.0263, T3a vs. T4: p<0.0214, T3b vs. T4: p<0.029). In 46% of all patients, we succeeded in preserving the bladder; especially noteworthy, is that in 65% of the patients undergoing i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy, we succeeded in preserving the bladder. These results demonstrate that i.a. chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy is a useful method for locally advanced bladder cancer which may make preservation of the bladder function feasible. (author)

  20. An analysis of suppressing migratory effect on human urinary bladder cancer cell line by silencing of snail-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Shima; Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Davoudian, Sadaf; Musavi Shenas, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Shajari, Neda; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-12-01

    Snail-1 actively participates in tumor progression, invasion, and migration. Targeting snail-1 expression can suppress the EMT process in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of snail1 silencing on urinary bladder cancer. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect snail-1 and other related metastatic genes expression following siRNA knockdown in urinary bladder cancer EJ-138 cells. The protein level of snail1 was assessed by Western blot. MTT and TUNEL assays were assessed to understand if snail-1 had survival effects on EJ-138 cells. Scratch wound healing assay measured cell motility effects after snail1 suppression. The significant silencing of snail-1 reached 60pmol siRNA in a 48-h post-transfection. The result of scratch assay showed that snail-1 silencing significantly decreased Vimentin, MMPs, and CXCR4 expression; however, expression of E-cadherin was induced. The cell death assay indicated that snail-1 played the crucial role in bladder cancer survival rate. These results propose that snail-1 plays a major role in the progression and migration of urinary bladder cancer, and can be a potential therapeutic target for target therapy of invasive urinary bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The clinical use of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in bladder cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingxing; Du, Peng; Yang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence regarding the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a factor predictive of survival in bladder cancer patients. A search of PubMed and Embase for relevant studies between January 1, 1966 and November 10, 2016 was performed with the terms [NLR OR (neutrophil lymphocyte ratio)] AND [(bladder cancer) OR BCa OR NMIBC OR MIBC]. Inclusion required studies published in English containing bladder cancer patients and evaluating NLR as a predictive factor. Endpoints of NLR and survival data were extracted for pooled analysis. The pooled results showed that an elevated NLR was a predictor for poor overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.31], cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.17-1.69), recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.24-2.03) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.49) in patients with bladder cancer. Heterogeneity between studies was observed for OS, CSS and RFS, but not for PFS. Publication bias was detected for all these outcomes. Our results showed that elevated NLR might be valuable as a predictive factor of survival in bladder cancer patients.

  2. Assessing Prediction Performance of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a treatment routinely prescribed to patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Unfortunately, not all patients are responsive to this treatment and would greatly benefit from an accurate prediction of their expected response to chemotherapy. In this project, I attempt to develop a model that will predict response using tumour microarray data. I show that using my dataset, every method is insufficient at accurately classifying responders and non-respond...

  3. CURCUMIN DECREASES SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Papineni, Sabitha; Smith, Roger; Li, Xiangrong; Safe, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin is the active component of tumeric, and this polyphenolic compound has been extensively investigated as an anticancer drug that modulates multiple pathways and genes. In this study, 10 – 25 µM curcumin inhibited 253JB-V and KU7 bladder cancer cell growth, and this was accompanied by induction of apoptosis and decreased expression of the proapoptotic protein survivin and the angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1). Since expression of...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health ...

  6. BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to

  7. Bladder Metastasis of non-Small Cell Lung Cancer : an Unusual Cause of Hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, O. Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Yildirim, M. Erol; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 2% of bladder malignancies are metastatic. The lung cancer makes metastasis sporadically to the bladder. A-69-year-old female patient presented with a history of pain in kidneys, vomiting and hematuria. Cystoscopic examination of the patient revealed small bladder capacity and solitary

  8. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@harthosp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaufman, Donald S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heney, Niall M. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  9. Relevance of prostate cancer in patients with synchronous invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma: a monocentric retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Dell’Atti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with incidental prostate cancer (PCa who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP for invasive bladder cancer and we analyzed their features with regard to incidence, pathologic characteristics, clinical significance, and implications for management. Material and Methods: Clinical data and pathological features of 64 patients who underwent standard RCP for bladder cancer were included in this study. Besides the urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, the location and tumor volume of the PCa, prostate apex involvement, Gleason score, pathological staging and surgical margins were evaluated. Clinically significant PCa was defined as a tumor with a Gleason 4 or 5 pattern, stage ≥ pT3, lymph node involvement, positive surgical margin or multifocality of three or more lesions. Postoperative follow-up was scheduled every 3 months in the first year, every 6 months in the second and third year, annually thereafter. Results: 11 out of 64 patients (17.2% who underwent RCP had incidentally diagnosed PCa. 3 cases (27.3% were diagnosed as significant PCa, while 8 cases (72.7% were clinically insignificant. The positive surgical margin of PCa was detected in 1 patient with significant disease. The prostate apex involvement was present in 1 patient of the significant PCa group. Median follow-up period was 47.8 ± 29.2 (range 4-79. During the follow-up, biochemical recurrence occurred in 1 patient (9%. Concernig the cancer specific survival there was no statistical significance (P = 0.326 between the clinically significant and clinical insignificant cancer group. Conclusions: In line with published studies, incidental PCa does not impact on the prognosis of bladder cancer of patients undergoing RCP.

  10. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Ashish M.; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B.; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety o...

  11. The Long Non-Coding RNA XIST Interacted with MiR-124 to Modulate Bladder Cancer Growth, Invasion and Migration by Targeting Androgen Receptor (AR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yaoyao; Wang, Long; Li, Yuan; Chen, Minfeng; He, Wei; Qi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) is involved in the progression of several tumors. The interaction between lncRNA and miRNA or miRNA's target genes is reported to play crucial roles in malignancy. In addition, Androgen receptor (AR) is considered to be involved in bladder cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the role of XIST in human bladder cancer and its interaction with miR-124 and AR. XIST and AR expression was detected in bladder tumor samples and cell lines. Effects of XIST and AR on bladder cancer cells growth, invasion and migration were analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assays were used to identify the interaction among XIST, AR and miR-124. The correlations of miR-124 with XIST and AR in bladder cancer samples were statistically analyzed. XIST and AR were upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and positively correlated. Higher XIST and AR expression were related to poorer TNM stage of bladder cancer. XIST knockdown reduced bladder cancer cells' proliferation, invasion and migration. While this inhibitory effect could be partially restored by AR overexpression. XIST inhibited miR-124 expression by directly targeting. Moreover, miR-124 could bind to the 3'UTR of AR to regulate its expression. MiR-124 inhibition partially restored the XIST knockdown-induced reduction of AR, c-myc, p27, MMP13 and MMP9 expression. In bladder cancer tissues, miR-124 level was inversely correlated with the expression of XIST and AR, respectively. These findings indicated that XIST might be an oncogenic lncRNA that promoted the bladder cancer growth, invasion and migration via miR-124 dependent AR regulation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Long Non-Coding RNA XIST Interacted with MiR-124 to Modulate Bladder Cancer Growth, Invasion and Migration by Targeting Androgen Receptor (AR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Xiong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds/Aims: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST is involved in the progression of several tumors. The interaction between lncRNA and miRNA or miRNA’s target genes is reported to play crucial roles in malignancy. In addition, Androgen receptor (AR is considered to be involved in bladder cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the role of XIST in human bladder cancer and its interaction with miR-124 and AR. Methods: XIST and AR expression was detected in bladder tumor samples and cell lines. Effects of XIST and AR on bladder cancer cells growth, invasion and migration were analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assays were used to identify the interaction among XIST, AR and miR-124. The correlations of miR-124 with XIST and AR in bladder cancer samples were statistically analyzed. Results: XIST and AR were upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and positively correlated. Higher XIST and AR expression were related to poorer TNM stage of bladder cancer. XIST knockdown reduced bladder cancer cells’ proliferation, invasion and migration. While this inhibitory effect could be partially restored by AR overexpression. XIST inhibited miR-124 expression by directly targeting. Moreover, miR-124 could bind to the 3’UTR of AR to regulate its expression. MiR-124 inhibition partially restored the XIST knockdown-induced reduction of AR, c-myc, p27, MMP13 and MMP9 expression. In bladder cancer tissues, miR-124 level was inversely correlated with the expression of XIST and AR, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicated that XIST might be an oncogenic lncRNA that promoted the bladder cancer growth, invasion and migration via miR-124 dependent AR regulation.

  13. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachnic, L. A.; Kaufman, D. S.; Zietman, A. L.; Dallow, K. C.; Griffin, P. P.; Heney, N. M.; Althausen, A. F.; Shipley, W. U.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the success of selective organ preservation or radical cystectomy in a large group of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with induction by combined transurethral resection (TURBT), systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 106 patients (median age 68 years) were treated with induction by maximal TURBT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy (methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine - MCV) followed by 39.6 Gy irradiation in 1.8 Gy fractions with concomitant cisplatin. Tumor response was then evaluated by cystoscopy, rebiopsy, and urine cytology. Complete responders were consolidated with radiation to 64.8 Gy and further cisplatin. Any subsequent isolated invasive local relapse was managed by cystectomy. Patients with any less than a complete response (CR) were recommended cystectomy. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess outcome. Results: 74 CR patients (70%) and 7 non-cystectomy candidates with less than a CR (7%) received consolidation chemotherapy and radiation. 13 incomplete responders (12%) underwent immediate cystectomy. 6 patients underwent cystectomy because they could not tolerate induction chemo-radiation. 1 complete response patient underwent radical cystectomy. 83 patients completed their planned therapy but 5 died of treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Five year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival were 52% and 60% respectively. For T2 patients, actuarial overall survival was 63%, and for T3-4, 45%. Five year survival with an intact functioning bladder was 43%. Five year freedom from distant metastases was 66%. Of those who had a CR after TURBT and MCV, the risk of a subsequent invasive bladder relapse was 18% at 5 years. Of those who had a CR after the completion of induction chemotherapy and 39.6 Gy, this risk was 21%. 18 patients (17%) have experienced a non-invasive bladder relapse requiring further TUR and

  14. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, L A; Kaufman, D S; Zietman, A L; Dallow, K C; Griffin, P P; Heney, N M; Althausen, A F; Shipley, W U

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the success of selective organ preservation or radical cystectomy in a large group of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with induction by combined transurethral resection (TURBT), systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 106 patients (median age 68 years) were treated with induction by maximal TURBT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy (methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine - MCV) followed by 39.6 Gy irradiation in 1.8 Gy fractions with concomitant cisplatin. Tumor response was then evaluated by cystoscopy, rebiopsy, and urine cytology. Complete responders were consolidated with radiation to 64.8 Gy and further cisplatin. Any subsequent isolated invasive local relapse was managed by cystectomy. Patients with any less than a complete response (CR) were recommended cystectomy. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess outcome. Results: 74 CR patients (70%) and 7 non-cystectomy candidates with less than a CR (7%) received consolidation chemotherapy and radiation. 13 incomplete responders (12%) underwent immediate cystectomy. 6 patients underwent cystectomy because they could not tolerate induction chemo-radiation. 1 complete response patient underwent radical cystectomy. 83 patients completed their planned therapy but 5 died of treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Five year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival were 52% and 60% respectively. For T2 patients, actuarial overall survival was 63%, and for T3-4, 45%. Five year survival with an intact functioning bladder was 43%. Five year freedom from distant metastases was 66%. Of those who had a CR after TURBT and MCV, the risk of a subsequent invasive bladder relapse was 18% at 5 years. Of those who had a CR after the completion of induction chemotherapy and 39.6 Gy, this risk was 21%. 18 patients (17%) have experienced a non-invasive bladder relapse requiring further TUR and

  15. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  16. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Alexis; Burzio, Verónica; Landerer, Eduardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Gatica, Sebastian; Ávila, Rodolfo; López, Constanza; Villota, Claudio; de la Fuente, Rodrigo; Echenique, Javiera; Burzio, Luis O; Villegas, Jaime

    2012-12-18

    Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense) in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA) and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs) transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors revealed no expression of these mitochondrial transcripts. This assay

  17. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Alexis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. Methods The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. Results This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors

  18. Telomerase Activity Detected by Quantitative Assay in Bladder Carcinoma and Exfoliated Cells in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fedriga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is one of the most determining factors for patient survival. The detection of telomerase activity is a potentially promising tool in the diagnosis of bladder and other types of cancer due to the high expression of this enzyme in tumor cells. We carried out a quantitative evaluation of telomerase activity in urine samples in an attempt to determine a cut-off capable of identifying cancer patients. Telomerase activity was quantified by fluorescence TRAP assay in urine from 50 healthy volunteers and in urine and bioptic tumor samples from 56 previously untreated bladder cancer patients and expressed in arbitrary enzymatic units (AEU. Telomerase activity in urine ranged from 0 to 106 AEU (median 0 in healthy donors and from 0 to 282 AEU (median 87 in patients with cancer. A telomerase expression higher than the cut off value determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was observed in 78% of cases, regardless of tumor grade and in 71% (15/21 of cases of nonassessable or negative cytology. The quantitative analysis of telomerase activity in urine enabled us to define cut-off values characterized by different sensitivity and specificity. Cytologic and telomerase determination, used sequentially, enabled us to detect about 90% of tumors.

  19. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for elderly bladder cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Wang, Li-Ying; Hsieh, Yen-Ping; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chan, Pei-Hui; Lai, Siu-Kai; Chang, Hsiao-Chun; Hsiao, Chi-Huang; Wu, Le-Jung; Chong, Ngot-Swan; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2011-01-01

    To review our experience and evaluate treatment planning using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) for the treatment of elderly patients with bladder cancer. From November 2006 through November 2009, we enrolled 19 elderly patients with histologically confirmed bladder cancer, 9 in the IMRT and 10 in the HT group. The patients received 64.8 Gy to the bladder with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Conventional 4-field 'box' pelvic radiation therapy (2DRT) plans were generated for comparison. The median patient age was 80 years old (range, 65-90 years old). The median survival was 21 months (5 to 26 months). The actuarial 2-year overall survival (OS) for the IMRT vs. the HT group was 26.3% vs .37.5%, respectively; the corresponding values for disease-free survival were 58.3% vs. 83.3%, respectively; for locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), the values were 87.5% vs. 83.3%, respectively; and for metastases-free survival, the values were 66.7% vs. 60.0%, respectively. The 2-year OS rates for T1, 2 vs. T3, 4 were 66.7% vs. 35.4%, respectively (p = 0.046). The 2-year OS rate was poor for those whose RT completion time greater than 8 weeks when compared with the RT completed within 8 wks (37.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.004). IMRT and HT provide good LRPFS with tolerable toxicity for elderly patients with invasive bladder cancer. IMRT and HT dosimetry and organ sparing capability were superior to that of 2DRT, and HT provides better sparing ability than IMRT. The T category and the RT completion time influence OS rate

  20. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for elderly bladder cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Ngot-Swan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To review our experience and evaluate treatment planning using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and helical tomotherapy (HT for the treatment of elderly patients with bladder cancer. Methods From November 2006 through November 2009, we enrolled 19 elderly patients with histologically confirmed bladder cancer, 9 in the IMRT and 10 in the HT group. The patients received 64.8 Gy to the bladder with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Conventional 4-field "box" pelvic radiation therapy (2DRT plans were generated for comparison. Results The median patient age was 80 years old (range, 65-90 years old. The median survival was 21 months (5 to 26 months. The actuarial 2-year overall survival (OS for the IMRT vs. the HT group was 26.3% vs .37.5%, respectively; the corresponding values for disease-free survival were 58.3% vs. 83.3%, respectively; for locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS, the values were 87.5% vs. 83.3%, respectively; and for metastases-free survival, the values were 66.7% vs. 60.0%, respectively. The 2-year OS rates for T1, 2 vs. T3, 4 were 66.7% vs. 35.4%, respectively (p = 0.046. The 2-year OS rate was poor for those whose RT completion time greater than 8 weeks when compared with the RT completed within 8 wks (37.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.004. Conclusion IMRT and HT provide good LRPFS with tolerable toxicity for elderly patients with invasive bladder cancer. IMRT and HT dosimetry and organ sparing capability were superior to that of 2DRT, and HT provides better sparing ability than IMRT. The T category and the RT completion time influence OS rate.

  1. Outcome of urinary bladder cancer after combined therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, R M; Gales, L N; Trifanescu, O G

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth in women, being an important public health issue. Methods: : Medical files of 155 patients (132M/ 23F) with urinary bladder cancer treated between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range: 19-85 years). Disease free survival (DFS) for patients with complete tumor resection receiving adjuvant treatment and progression free survival (PFS) for patients with post-operative residual disease was estimated. Results: The distribution of the stage disease was: 50 patients (32.2%) stage II, 47 (30.3%) stage III, 58 (37.4%) stage IV. Radical cystectomy was performed in 56 patients (36.1%), while 99 patients (63.9%) underwent repeated transurethral resection of the urinary bladder tumor (TURBT). Postoperative treatment included multimodal therapy in 47 patients (30.3%) (chemotherapy and external beam radiation), external beam radiation alone in 57 patients (36.8%) and chemotherapy alone (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin-MVAC or gemcitabine+platinum) in 51 patients (32.9%). After a median follow-up of 31 months (range: 3-79 months), 51 patients (32.9%) presented local recurrence, 32 patients (21%) distant recurrence (metastases), 10 patients (6.4%) both local and distant recurrence, and 62 patients (40%) were free of disease. The median duration until progression was 27 months. Discussion: Despite the combined therapy approaches, urinary bladder carcinoma remains an aggressive disease, with a high relapse rate. Earlier diagnosis, aggressive radical surgery in intention to cure (cystectomy), and adjuvant multimodal treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) are needed for survival improvement.

  2. Monitoring treatment response and metastatic relapse in advanced bladder cancer by liquid biopsy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Christensen, Emil; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma and urine to detect metastatic relapse after cystectomy and measure treatment efficacy. We exome sequenced tumour and germline DNA from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and monitored ctDNA in 370 liquid biopsies throughout the disease courses by 84......DNA detection in plasma and diagnosis of relapse was 101 d after cystectomy (range 0-932 d). Early detection of metastatic relapse and treatment response using liquid biopsies represents a novel, highly sensitive tool for monitoring patients, supporting clinicians, and guiding treatment decisions. PATIENT...

  3. Nitrate in drinking water and bladder cancer risk in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Cantor, Kenneth P; Malats, Nuria; Silverman, Debra T; Tardón, Adonina; García-Closas, Reina; Serra, Consol; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2015-02-01

    Nitrate is a widespread contaminant in drinking water and ingested nitrate under conditions resulting in endogenous nitrosation is suspected to be carcinogenic. However, the suggested association between nitrate in drinking water and bladder cancer remains inconsistent. We evaluated the long-term exposure to drinking water nitrate as a risk factor for bladder cancer, considering endogenous nitrosation modifiers and other covariables. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in Spain (1998-2001). Residential histories and water consumption information were ascertained through personal interviews. Historical nitrate levels (1940-2000) were estimated in study municipalities based on monitoring records and water source. Residential histories of study subjects were linked with nitrate estimates by year and municipality to calculate individual exposure from age 18 to recruitment. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for bladder cancer among 531 cases and 556 controls with reliable interviews and nitrate exposure information covering at least 70% of years from age 18 to interview. Average residential levels ranged from 2.1mg/L to 12.0mg/L among regions. Adjusted OR (95%CI) for average residential levels relative to ≤ 5 mg/L were 1.2 (0.7-2.0) for >5-10mg/L and 1.1 (0.6-1.9) for >10mg/L. The OR for subjects with longest exposure duration (>20 years) to highest levels (>9.5mg/L) was 1.4 (0.9-2.3). Stratification by intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, meat, and gastric ulcer diagnosis did not modify these results. A non-significant negative association was found with waterborne ingested nitrate with an OR of 0.7 (0.4-1.0) for >8 vs. ≤ 4 mg/day. Adjustment for several covariables showed similar results to crude analyses. Bladder cancer risk was inconsistently associated with chronic exposure to drinking water nitrate at levels below the current regulatory limit. Elevated risk is suggested only among subjects with longest

  4. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is up-regulated in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hongxue; Li, Xuechao; Song, Yarong; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Yajun; Xing, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a member of long non-coding RNAs and has been reported to be dysregulated in several human cancers. However, the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer remains unclear. This present study aimed to investigate whether and how ANRIL involved in bladder cancer. Our results showed up-regulation of ANRIL in bladder cancer tissues versus the corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues. To explore the specific mechanisms, ANRIL was silenced by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA transfection in human bladder cancer T24 and EJ cells. Knockdown of ANRIL repressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expressions of Bax, cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Smac and cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. However, no change of cleaved caspase-8 level was observed. Furthermore, in vivo experiment confirmed that knockdown of ANRIL inhibited tumorigenic ability of EJ cells in nude mice. Meanwhile, in accordance with in vitro study, knockdown of ANRIL inhibited expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-9, but did not affect cleaved caspase-8 level. In conclusion, we first report that ANRIL possibly serves as an oncogene in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • We first report the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer. • ANRIL is obviously up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. • ANRIL regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and cell apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway.

  5. Long-term survival of bladder preservation therapy with radiation and chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Sumio; Takase, Kazunori; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Mitsunobu; Yao, Masahiro; Hosaka, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    The prognoses and prognostic factors of the 54 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer who underwent bladder preservation therapy at Yokohama City University Hospital between 1977 and 1995 were analyzed statistically. The therapeutic modalities of bladder preservation were mainly radiation or chemotherapy. The prognosis for the patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy was worse than that for the patients who underwent total cystectomy. The prognostic factors of these patients were size and grade of tumor, presence of hydronephrosis and performance status (PS) of the patients by univariate analysis. Tumor grade was the most predictable prognostic factor using multivariate analysis. Only 17 patients survived more than 5 years after treatment; 78% of the survivors had good PS (0 or 1). Five of them died of cancer and two patients were alive with cancer. All of them had G3 tumors. These results suggest that patients with locally invasive G2 tumor could be candiates for bladder preservation therapy and patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy should be evaluated at 10 years post-therapy. (author)

  6. The role of STAG2 in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Lanni; Ohm, Joyce; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Stromal Antigen 2 (STAG2) is one of four components of the cohesin complex and predominantly functions in sister chromatid cohesion and segregation. STAG2 is the most frequently mutated cohesin subunit and was recently identified as a gene that is commonly altered in bladder cancer. The significance of these mutations remains controversial. Some studies associate loss of STAG2 expression with low stage and low grade bladder tumors, as well as with improved clinical outcomes. In other cases, STAG2 inactivation has been shown to be a predictor of worse outcome for these patients. The role of STAG2 in aneuploidy also remains controversial. Loss of STAG2 is associated with significant changes in chromosome number in certain cell lines, while in others, aneuploidy is not induced or results remain inconclusive. At this time, little is known about the influence of STAG2 on cellular migration, invasion, proliferation, and cell death, and such studies are required to determine the role of STAG2 in bladder cancer and other malignancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does phosphorylation of cofilin affect the progression of human bladder cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Lee, Chang-Kwon; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Song, Ki Hak

    2013-01-01

    We determined the differently expressed protein profiles and their functions in bladder cancer tissues with the aim of identifying possible target proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms for taking part in their progression. We examined the expression of proteins by proteomic analysis and western blot in normal urothelium, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs), and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). The function of cofilin was analyzed using T24 human bladder cancer cells. The expression levels of 12 proteins were altered between bladder cancers and normal bladder tissues. Of these proteins, 14-3-3σ was upregulated in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with controls. On the other hand, myosin regulatory light chain 2, galectin-1, lipid-binding AI, annexin V, transthyretin, CARD-inhibitor of NF-κB-activating ligand, and actin prepeptide were downregulated in cancer samples. Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, was prominent in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with normal bladder tissues. Furthermore, we confirmed that cofilin phosphorylation was more prominent in MIBCs than in NMIBCs using immunoblotting and immunohistochemcal analyses. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased the phosphorylation of cofilin and elevated the migration in T24 cells. Knockdown of cofilin expression with small interfering RNA attenuated the T24 cell migration in response to EGF. These results demonstrate that the increased expression and phosphorylation of cofilin might play a role in the occurrence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. We suspected that changes in cofilin expression may participate in the progression of the bladder cancer

  8. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  9. Physical activity and risk of prostate and bladder cancer in China: The South and East China case-control study on prostate and bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul C Reulen

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses have suggested a modest protective effect of high levels of physical activity on developing both prostate and bladder cancer, but significant heterogeneity between studies included in these meta-analyses existed. To our knowledge, few Chinese studies investigated the association between physical activity and prostate cancer and none between physical activity and bladder cancer. Given the inconsistencies between previous studies and because studies on the relation between physical activity and prostate and bladder cancer in China are scarce, it remains elusive whether there is a relationship between physical activity and prostate and bladder cancer within the Chinese population.We investigated the association between physical activity and risk of developing prostate and bladder cancer within a hospital-based case-control study in the East and South of China among 260 and 438 incident prostate and bladder cancer cases, respectively, and 427 controls. A questionnaire was administered to measure physical activity as metabolic equivalents (METs. Random effects logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs of prostate and bladder cancer for different levels of physical activity and for the specific activities of walking and cycling.Increasing overall physical activity was associated with a significant reduction in prostate cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.04 with the highest activity tertile level showing a nearly 50% reduction in prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.28-0.98. Overall physical activity was not significantly associated with risk of bladder cancer (Ptrend = 0.61, neither were vigorous (Ptrend = 0.60 or moderate levels of physical activity (Ptrend = 0.21. Walking and cycling were not significantly associated with either prostate (Ptrend> = 0.62 or bladder cancer risk (Ptrend> = 0.25.The findings of this largest ever case-control study in China investigating the relationship between physical activity and

  10. Kidney, Ureteral, and Bladder Cancer: A Primer for the Internist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Hans C; Fascelli, Michele; Zhang, Jj H; Isharwal, Sudhir; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-03-01

    Malignancies of the urinary tract (kidney, ureter, and bladder) are distinct clinical entities. Hematuria is a unifying common presenting symptom for these malignancies. Surgical management of localized disease continues to be the mainstay of treatment, and early detection is important in the prognosis of disease. Patients often require life-long follow-up and assessment for recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Forced diuresis and dual-phase 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scan for restaging of urinary bladder cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkirat S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. Aims: To investigate the role of dual-phase FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive cancers of the urinary bladder, with delayed imaging after forced diuresis and oral hydration as the scanning protocol. Settings and Design: FDG-PET has been considered to be of limited value for the detection of urinary tract cancers because of interference by the FDG excreted in urine. We investigated the efficacy of delayed FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive bladder cancer, with imaging performed after intravenous (IV administration of a potent diuretic and oral hydration. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (22 patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had not undergone cystectomy and group II (seven patients included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion procedure. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scan from the skull base to the mid-thighs 60 min after IV injection of 370 mega-Becquerel (MBq of FDG. Additional delayed images were acquired 60-90 min after IV furosemide and oral hydration. PET/CT data were analyzed as PET and CT images studied separately as well as fused PET/CT images and the findings were recorded. The imaging findings were confirmed by cystoscopy, biopsy or follow-up PET/CT. Results: The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract. Hypermetabolic lesions could be easily detected by PET and precisely localized to the bladder wall, perivesical region and pelvic lymph nodes. PET/CT delayed images were able to

  12. Forced diuresis and dual-phase 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scan for restaging of urinary bladder cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkirat, S; Anand, SS; Jacob, MJ

    2010-01-01

    The results of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging carried out with the current standard techniques for assessment of urinary tract cancers have been reported to be less than satisfactory because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. To investigate the role of dual-phase FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive cancers of the urinary bladder, with delayed imaging after forced diuresis and oral hydration as the scanning protocol. FDG-PET has been considered to be of limited value for the detection of urinary tract cancers because of interference by the FDG excreted in urine. We investigated the efficacy of delayed FDG-PET/CT in the restaging of invasive bladder cancer, with imaging performed after intravenous (IV) administration of a potent diuretic and oral hydration. Twenty-nine patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (22 patients) included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had not undergone cystectomy and group II (seven patients) included cases with invasive bladder cancer who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion procedure. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scan from the skull base to the mid-thighs 60 min after IV injection of 370 mega-Becquerel (MBq) of FDG. Additional delayed images were acquired 60-90 min after IV furosemide and oral hydration. PET/CT data were analyzed as PET and CT images studied separately as well as fused PET/CT images and the findings were recorded. The imaging findings were confirmed by cystoscopy, biopsy or follow-up PET/CT. The technique was successful in achieving adequate washout of urinary FDG and overcame the problems posed by the excess FDG in the urinary tract. Hypermetabolic lesions could be easily detected by PET and precisely localized to the bladder wall, perivesical region and pelvic lymph nodes. PET/CT delayed images were able to demonstrate 16 intravesical lesions (in 13 patients), with excellent clarity. Lymph

  13. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  14. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  16. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  17. Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JB; Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Borden, EC

    2006-01-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent malignancies, and is characterised by frequent tumour recurrences and localised inflammation, which may promote tissue invasion and metastasis. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in normal bladder urothelium with that in tumours...... at different stages of progression. The innate immune response gene, interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa (ISG15, GIP2), was highly expressed at all stages of bladder cancer as compared to normal urothelium. Western blotting revealed a tumour-associated expression of ISG15 protein. ISG15 exhibited a stage...... component of bladder cancer-associated gene expression....

  18. An unusual case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy, in a renal transplant recipient. METHOD: A retrospective review of this clinical case and the associated literature were performed. CONCLUSION: This unusual case highlights two very rare entities. Bladder exstrophy has an incidence of 1 in 50,000 newborns, whereas urachal cancer accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumours.

  19. An unusual case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2009-03-18

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first case of cancer of the urachal remnant following repair of bladder exstrophy, in a renal transplant recipient. METHOD: A retrospective review of this clinical case and the associated literature were performed. CONCLUSION: This unusual case highlights two very rare entities. Bladder exstrophy has an incidence of 1 in 50,000 newborns, whereas urachal cancer accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumours.

  20. Low awareness of risk factors among bladder cancer survivors: New evidence and a literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Ellen; Maria de Oliveira-Neumayer, Julia; Aben, Katja K; Vrieling, Alina; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2016-06-01

    Data on urinary bladder cancer (UBC) patients' perceptions about causes of bladder cancer is limited, while this may be important knowledge for health prevention and education. We evaluated self-reported perceptions and beliefs about the causes of bladder cancer among UBC survivors in the Netherlands. UBC survivors identified through the Netherlands Cancer Registry from 2007 to 2012 were invited to participate. Patients who consented were asked to fill out a questionnaire, including questions on lifestyle characteristics, occupational and medical history, and family history of cancer. The final question was 'You have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. Do you have any idea what may have been the cause of your cancer?'. Of the 1793 UBC survivors included, 366 (20%) reported a possible cause for their bladder cancer. The most frequently reported suspected causes were smoking (10%), occupational exposure (5%), and heredity (2%). Smoking, occupational exposure and heredity were mentioned only slightly more frequently by participants with these risk factors (11%, 8%, and 5%, respectively) compared to the total population. Most UBC survivors did not suspect any cause that might have contributed to the development of their cancer. Even among participants with established risk factors for bladder cancer, these risk factors were not commonly perceived. This finding probably reflects the superficial knowledge of risk factors for bladder cancer in the population and highlights the importance of effective education on cancer prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. CXCL5 is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Qiao, Yan; Liu, Weihua; Wang, Wenying; Shen, Hongliang; Lu, Yi; Hao, Gangyue; Zheng, Jiajia; Tian, Ye

    2016-04-01

    Chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5 (CXCL5) is critical for bladder cancer growth and progression. Our previous study demonstrated that increase of CXCL5 in bladder cancer cell lines had an effect on tumor growth and progression. This study aims to investigate the expression of CXCL5 in tissue and urine of bladder cancer patients, in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, and as a predictive value in diagnosing and evaluating bladder cancer. Urothelial bladder cancer tissues from 255 patients were profiled for CXCL5 alterations by immunohistochemistry. Urine samples collected from patients with bladder cancer and urinary tract infections as well as healthy volunteers were analyzed by ELISA. High expression of CXCL5 in bladder cancer tissue was correlated with TNM stage (P = 0.012), cancer grade (P = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007). CXCL5 alterations were associated with overall survival (P = 0.007), progression free survival (P = 0.004), and recurrence free survival in muscle invasive bladder cancers (P = 0.026). CXCL5 expression in the urine of bladder cancer patients was significantly different from urinary tract infection patients (P = 0.001) and healthy volunteers. However, urine leukocytes may predict CXCL5 levels (β = 0.56, P bladder cancer TNM stage (P = 0.039), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.007), and tumor grade (P = 0.005). The sensitivity and specificity for CXCL5/creatinine in predicting bladder cancer were 80.4 and 61.3 %, respectively. These results suggest increased CXCL5 expression in cancer tissue predicts poor survival in bladder cancer patients. CXCL5 expression in urine is useful in a minimally invasive modality for bladder cancer diagnosis. However, urine leukocytes are significant predictors of CXCL5 levels and may affect its result in bladder cancer diagnosis.

  2. Protoporphyrin IX induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid in bladder cancer cells in voided urine can be extracorporeally quantified using a spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Anai, Satoshi; Onishi, Sayuri; Masaomi, Kuwada; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Makito; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer by spectrophotometric analysis of voided urine samples after extracorporeal treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Sixty-one patients with bladder cancer, confirmed histologically after the transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, were recruited as the bladder cancer group, and 50 outpatients without history of urothelial carcinoma or cancer-related findings were recruited as the control group. Half of the voided urine sample was incubated with ALA (ALA-treated sample), and the rest was incubated without treatment (ALA-untreated sample). For detecting cellular protoporphyrin IX levels, intensity of the samples at the excitation wavelength of 405 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer. The difference between the intensity of the ALA-treated and ALA-untreated samples at 635 nm was calculated. The differences in the bladder cancer group were significantly greater than those in the control group (p spectrophotometer in patients with bladder cancer. Therefore, this cancer detection system has a potential for clinical use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship between Food Intake and Bladder Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide and the third most common cancer among Iranian males. Despite the relative high incidence of bladder cancer in Iran, no study has examined the relationship between dietary factors and bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship. Methods: The present case-control study was carried out on fifty-five patients with bladder cancer and including 110 cancer-free patients as controls. Dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. To investigate the relationship between food items and bladder cancer, the subjects were classified according to the tertile of food items. The odds ratio was calculated for each tertile and the first tertile was considered as the reference group. Results: Our findings revealed that among food groups, animal fat (OR=19.76, fat (OR=12.92, junk foods (OR=8.1, organ meat (OR=5.47, processed meat (OR=5.34 and sweets (OR=3.62 were involved in the development of bladder cancer. In bladder carcinogenesis, an inverse association was recorded between consumption of low fat dairy products (OR=0.31, yoghurt (OR =0.14, fish (OR = 0.13, specific fruits (OR=0.13 and the development of bladder cancer. Conclusion: Animal products and sources of saturated fat are associated with an increased in risk of bladder cancer. The protective effect of olive oil, specific fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy fermented was observed to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

  4. Muscle invasive bladder cancer: examining survivor burden and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nihal E; Chaoprang Herrera, Phapichaya; Hudson, Shawna; Revenson, Tracey A; Lee, Cheryl T; Quale, Diane Z; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Hall, Simon J; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Although improvements in perioperative care have decreased surgical morbidity after radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer, treatment side effects still have a negative impact on patient quality of life. We examined unmet patient needs along the illness trajectory. A total of 30 patients (26.7% women) treated with cystectomy and urinary diversion for muscle invasive bladder cancer participated in the study. Patients were recruited from the Department of Urology at Mount Sinai and through advertisements on the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) website between December 2011 and September 2012. Data were collected at individual interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcribed data were quantitatively analyzed to explore key unmet needs. At diagnosis unmet informational needs were predominant, consisting of insufficient discussion of certain topics, including urinary diversion options and their side effects, self-care, the recovery process and medical insurance. Unmet psychological needs related to depression, and worries about changes in body image and sexual function were reported. Postoperative unmet needs revolved around medical needs (eg pain and bowel dysfunction) and instrumental needs (eg need of support for stomal appliances, catheters and incontinence). During survivorship (ie 6 to 72 months postoperatively) unmet needs centered around psychological support (ie depression, poor body image and sexual dysfunction) and instrumental support (eg difficulty adjusting to changes in daily living). Meeting patient needs is imperative to ensure adequate patient involvement in health care and enhance postoperative quality of life. An effective support provision plan should follow changes in patient needs. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF INTERSPECIES CONCORDANCE OF MECHANISMS OF ARSENIC INDUCED BLADDER CANCER BY GENE EXPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that induces urinary bladder cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed for arsenic-induced cancer. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) does not induce tumors in adult rodents, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), a major metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder c...

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor targeting of replication competent adenovirus enhances cytotoxicity in bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, HG; Molenaar, B; van Beusechem, VW; Haisma, HJ; Rodriguez, R; Curiel, DT; Gerritsen, WR

    Purpose: We evaluated the delivery and oncolytic potential of targeted replication competent adenoviruses in bladder cancer lines. Materials and Methods: Seven established human bladder cancer tumor lines (5637, SW800, TCCsup, J82, Scaber, T24 and 253J) were studied for the expression of integrins

  7. Updated 2016 EAU Guidelines on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, J.A.; Lebret, T.; Comperat, E.M.; Cowan, N.C.; Santis, M. de; Bruins, H.M.; Hernandez, V.; Espinos, E.L.; Dunn, J.; Rouanne, M.; Neuzillet, Y.; Veskimae, E.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Gakis, G.; Ribal, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Invasive bladder cancer is a frequently occurring disease with a high mortality rate despite optimal treatment. The European Association of Urology (EAU) Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer (MIBC) Guidelines are updated yearly and provides information to optimise diagnosis,

  8. Future strategies in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der; Witjes, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review new modalities in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of superficial and invasive bladder cancer are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Urinary markers still cannot replace cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder cancer. However, DNA micro-array has shown promise for diagnosis.

  9. Designing the selenium and bladder cancer trial (SELEBLAT, a phase lll randomized chemoprevention study with selenium on recurrence of bladder cancer in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Maria E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2% and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%. Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported that selenium concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer. This suggests that selenium may also be suitable for chemoprevention of recurrence. Method The SELEBLAT study opened in September 2009 and is still recruiting all patients with non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder on TURB operation in 15 Belgian hospitals. Recruitment progress can be monitored live at http://www.seleblat.org. Patients are randomly assigned to selenium yeast (200 μg/day supplementation for 3 years or matching placebo, in addition to standard care. The objective is to determine the effect of selenium on the recurrence of bladder cancer. Randomization is stratified by treatment centre. A computerized algorithm randomly assigns the patients to a treatment arm. All study personnel and participants are blinded to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. Design The SELEnium and BLAdder cancer Trial (SELEBLAT is a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, academic, double-blind superior trial. Discussion This is the first report on a selenium randomized trial in bladder cancer patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00729287

  10. MIM, a Potential Metastasis Suppressor Gene in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a modified version of the mRNA differential display technique, five human bladder cancer cell lines from low grade to metastatic were analyzed to identify differences in gene expression. A 316-bp cDNA (C11300 was isolated that was not expressed in the metastatic cell line TccSuP. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was identical to KIAA 0429, has a 5.3-kb transcript that mapped to 8824.1. The protein is predicted to be 356 amino acids in size and has an actin-binding WH2 domain. Northern blot revealed expression in multiple normal tissues, but none in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (SKBR3 or in metastatic prostatic cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3. We have named this gene Missing in Metastasis (MIM and our data suggest that it may be involved in cytoskeletal organization.

  11. Systemic Management of Bladder Cancer in Egypt: Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is still the most frequent malignant tumor among Egyptian males. It has a peculiar biologic, clinico-pathologic features and responsiveness to chemotherapy profile than that observed in Western countries. The current review aims to demonstrate the present state of-art in using systemic therapy as part of the management options available to treat such patients at different stages of their disease. Individualizing therapy for these patients based on more rationale basis is the challenge that oncologists must face in the near future

  12. A study of image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer based on lipiodol injection in the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Elstroem, Ulrik Vindelev; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Oerding Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. We have tested a procedure of focal injection of the contrast medium Lipiodol as a fiducial marker for image-guided boost of the tumor in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility and the safety of the method as well as the inter- and intra-fraction shift of the bladder tumor. Materials and methods. Five patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer were included in the study. Lipiodol was injected during flexible cystoscopy into the submucosa of the bladder wall at the periphery of the tumor or the post resection tumor-bed. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired daily throughout the course of RT. Results. Lipiodol demarcation of the bladder tumor was feasible and safe with only a minimum of side effects related to the procedure. The Lipiodol spots were visible on CT and CBCT scans for the duration of the RT course. More than half of all the treatment fractions required a geometric shift of 5 mm or more to match on the Lipiodol spots. The mean intra-fraction shift (3D) of the tumor was 3 mm, largest in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Lipiodol can be injected into the bladder mucosa and subsequently visualized on CT and CBCT as a fiducial marker. The relatively large inter-fraction shifts in the positions of Lipiodol spots compared to the intra-fraction movement indicates that image-guided RT based on radio-opaque markers is important for RT of the bladder cancer tumor.

  13. Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1, NAT1 and NAT2 genes and bladder cancer risk in men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Monica; Michaud, Dominique; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for bladder cancer. Epidemiological and biological data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in activating and detoxifying enzymes may play a role in determining an individual's susceptibility to bladder cancer in particular when in combination with specific environmental exposures such as cigarette smoking. N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2, are involved in the activation and detoxification of tobacco smoke constituents. Polymorphisms in these genes alter the ability of these enzymes to metabolize carcinogens, as certain allelic combinations result in a slow or rapid acetylation phenotype. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) also detoxify tobacco smoke constituents, and polymorphisms within the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes can result in a complete lack of enzyme activity. We assessed the association between common polymorphisms identified in the GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes and the risk of bladder cancer in two nested case-control studies within the Nurses' Health Study (n = 78 female cases, 234 female controls) and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (n = 139 male cases, 293 male controls). We also evaluated whether cigarette smoking modified the associations of the genotypes and bladder cancer risk in men and women. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between the polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk among men and women, although given our sample size, we had limited power to detect small to moderate effects. There was however the suggestion of an increased risk among female ever smokers with the NAT2 slow genotype and an increased risk in male never smokers with the GSTM1 null genotype. In summary, these prospective results are consistent with previous literature supporting associations between bladder cancer and the NAT2 slow acetylation and the GSTM1 null genotypes

  14. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  15. Increased cell motility and invasion upon knockdown of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) in SW780 bladder cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbsleb, Malene; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Thykjaer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the malignant development in bladder cancer are still not well understood. Lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has previously been found to be upregulated by P53. Furthermore, we have previously found LSR to be differentially expressed in bladder cancer. Here we...... investigated the role of LSR in bladder cancer....

  16. Prognosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: difference between primary and progressive tumours and implications for therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Hollander, M.P.; Rhijn, B.W. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in prognosis between progressive and primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1986 to 2000, 74 patients with progressive muscle-invasive bladder cancer were identified. Eighty-nine patients with primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer

  17. Fluorescence cystoscopy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rusakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge of treating non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is multifocal tumors. Current methods of diagnosis are failed to detect all superficial flat tumor lesions in bladder mucosa. The use of fluorescence imaging with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA allows to improve the sensibility of routine cystoscopy, but low specificity decreases its diagnostic accuracy. The method of fluorescence imaging combined with local fluorescence spectroscopy developed in P.A. Herzen MCRI has been shown to increase the specificity from 71% to 84%. Thus, local fluorescence spectroscopy in visible fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin allows to perform guided biopsy and decrease the rate of diagnostic mistakes. 

  18. Curcumin inhibits bladder cancer stem cells by suppressing Sonic Hedgehog pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengdian; Kong, Xiaochuan; Li, Yuan; Qian, Weiwei; Ma, Jiaxing; Wang, Daming; Yu, Dexin; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-11-04

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for the recurrence of human cancers. Thus, targeting CSCs is considered to be a valid way for human cancer treatment. Curcumin is a major component of phytochemicals that exerts potent anticancer activities. However, the effect of curcumin on bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of curcumin suppressing bladder cancer stem cells. In this study, UM-UC-3 and EJ cells were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) to form cell spheres that was characterized as BCSCs. Then cell spheres were separately treated with different concentrations of curcumin and purmorphamine. Cell cycle analysis were used to determine the percentage of cells in different phases. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR analysis were used to detect the expression of relative molecules. Immunofluorescence staining analysis were also utilized to measure the protein level of CD44. We found that CSC markers, including CD44, CD133, ALDH1-A1, OCT-4 and Nanog, were obviously highly expressed in cell spheres. Moreover, we observed that curcumin reduced the cell spheres formation, decreased the expression of CSC markers, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. We also found that curcumin inhibited the activation of Shh pathway, while the inhibitory effects of curcumin on BCSCs could be weakened by upregulation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Altogether, these data suggested that curcumin inhibited the activities of BCSCs through suppressing Shh pathway, which might be an effective chemopreventive agent for bladder cancer intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. MR imaging of urinary bladder cancer for T-staging: a review and a pictorial essay of diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Shigeru; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2013-12-01

    Treatment decisions for bladder cancer patients are mainly based on the depth of bladder wall invasion by the tumor. In this article, we review the conventional MRI and exhibit a recently emerged diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of urinary bladder cancer for T-staging. We discuss limitations of conventional MRI, scanning protocols of DWI, normal pelvic findings on DWI, determination of T-stage using DWI, and pitfalls of DWI. DWI provides high contrast between bladder cancer and background tissue because the cancer shows markedly high SI. DWI has high sensitivity for detecting the stalk seen in stage Ta or T1. An inflammatory change or fibrosis surrounding the tumor mimics the invasion of bladder cancer on T2-weighted imaging or enhanced MRI and could lead to over-staging, but DWI could differentiate them clearly because these benign changes do not show high SI on DWI. DWI is also useful for detecting ureteral, urethral, and prostatic extension by means of the urethra. DWI provides more accurate information on the extent of bladder cancer and contributes to determination of the treatment strategy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Combined cisplatin and radiation therapy for advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Masaharu; Sawamura, Yoshikatsu; Kase, Takahisa

    1991-01-01

    The combined effects of cisplatin and irradiation were investigated in 44 patients with bladder cancer accompanied by the infiltration of T 2 ∼T 4 cells, in a study commencing in September 1985. The antitumor effect and adverse reactions to the therapy were recorded. The majority of these patients had not undergone total bladder excision, for a variety of reasons. Thirty-two patients were male and 12 were female; the average age was 66.7 years, with ranging from 33∼83 years of age. Irradiation was performed using table cobalt 60 or a linear accelerator at a dose of 2 Gy per day, 5 days a week. The total radiation dose ranged from 40 to 70 Gy. Cisplatin was administered systemically at a dose of 20∼30 mg/day for 5 consecutive days during the first and fourth weeks of irradiation. At the time of final assessment of the antitumor effect, 24 out of 40 eligible patients (60%) had achieved complete remission (CR). The duration of CR averaged 18.8 months, with a range of 1∼50 months. The actual survival rates were as follows: 81% at 1 year, 69% at 2 years, and 52% at 3 and 4 years. Regarding adverse reactions, anorexia occurred in 28 patients (70%), nausea and vomiting in 21 (53%), diarrhea in 8 (20%), leukopenia in 16 (40%), mild thrombocytopenia in 5 (13%), and dermatitis in 8 (20%). All of these adverse reactions were mild and were alleviated after completion of the combined therapy. The present investigation demonstrated that combined therapy with cisplatin and irradiation is effective for the regional treatment of invasive bladder cancer. (author)

  1. Partially wedged beams improve radiotherapy treatment of urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Hafslund, Rune; Gustafsson, Anders; Smaaland, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Partially wedged beams (PWBs) having wedge in one part of the field only, can be shaped using dynamic jaw intensity modulation. The possible clinical benefit of PWBs was tested in treatment plans for muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer. Material and methods: Three-dimensional treatment plans for 25 bladder cancer patients were analyzed. The originally prescribed standard conformal four-field box technique, which includes the use of lateral ordinary wedge beams, was compared to a modified conformal treatment using customized lateral PWBs. In these modified treatment plans, only the anterior parts of the two lateral beams had a wedge. To analyze the potential clinical benefit of treatment with PWBs, treatment plans were scored and compared using both physical parameters and biological dose response models. One tumour control probability model and two normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were applied. Different parameters for normal tissue radiation tolerance presented in the literature were used. Results: By PWBs the dose homogeneity throughout the target volume was improved for all patients, reducing the average relative standard deviation of the target dose distribution from 2.3 to 1.8%. A consistent reduction in the maximum doses to surrounding normal tissue volumes was also found. The most notable improvement was demonstrated in the rectum where the volume receiving more than the prescribed tumour dose was halved. Treatment with PWBs would permit a target dose escalation of 2-6 Gy in several of the patients analyzed, without increasing the overall risk for complications. The number of patients suitable for dose escalation ranged from 3 to 15, depending on whether support from all or only one of the five applied NTCP model/parameter combinations were required in each case to recommend dose escalation. Conclusion: PWBs represent a simple dose conformation tool that may allow radiation dose escalation in the treatment of muscle

  2. Photodynamic therapy of bladder cancer - a phase I study using hexaminolevulinate (HAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M J; Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Pongratz, Thomas; Sroka, Ronald; Kriegmair, Martin; Zaak, Dirk; Welschof, Mona; Tilki, Derya; Stief, Christian G; Waidelich, Raphaela

    2013-10-01

    To assess the safety and feasibility of hexaminolevulinate (HAL) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) as adjuvant treatment after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) in patients with intermediate or high-risk urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder. Seventeen patients received 50 ml of either a 16 mM (4 patients) or 8 mM HAL (13 patients) solution instilled intravesically. Bladder wall irradiation was performed using an incoherent white light source coupled via a quartz fiber assembled into a flexible transurethral irrigation catheter. Each patient received 3 treatments with HAL-PDT 6 weeks apart. After PDT, patients were followed by regular cystoscopy for up to 21 months to assess time to recurrence. Reported adverse events (AEs) were coded according the World Health Organization Adverse Reaction Terminology (WHO-ART). Efficacy was assessed by cystoscopy, cytology, and histology, and was defined as the number of patients who were tumor-free at 6 or 21 months after initial PDT treatment. Transient bladder irritability was reported by 15 of the 17 patients and resolved completely in all patients. No evidence of a cumulative effect of treatment on the incidence of AEs could be detected. PDT treatment was performed without any technical complications. Furthermore preliminary assessment of efficacy showed that of the 17 patients included, 9 (52.9%; 95% CI: 27.8-77.0) were tumor-free at 6 months, 4 (23.5%; 95% CI: 6.8-49.9) were tumor-free at 9 months, and 2 (11.8%, 95% CI: 1.5-36.4) were tumor-free after 21 months. PDT using hexaminolevulinate and an incoherent white light system with the special flexible irradiation catheter system is technically feasible and safe and may offer an alternative in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive intermediate and high-risk bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors potentiate receptor tyrosine kinase therapies in bladder cancer cells in vitro

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    Bourn J

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Bourn,1,2 Maria Cekanova1,2 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 2UT-ORNL Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs are used as targeted therapies for patients diagnosed with cancer with highly expressed receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR and c-Kit receptor. Resistance to targeted therapies is partially due to the activation of alternative pro-survival signaling pathways, including cyclooxygenase (COX-2. In this study, we validated the effects of two RTKIs, axitinib and AB1010, in combination with COX inhibitors on the V-akt murine thymoma oncogene homolog 1 (Akt and COX-2 signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells.Methods: The expression of several RTKs and their downstream signaling targets was analyzed by Western blot (WB analysis in human and canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC cell lines. The effects of RTKIs and COX inhibitors in bladder TCC cells were assessed by MTS for cell viability, by Caspase-3/7 and Annexin V assay for apoptosis, by WB analysis for detection of COX-2 and Akt signaling pathways, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels.Results: All tested TCC cells expressed the c-Kit and PDGFRα receptors, except human 5637 cells that had low RTKs expression. In addition, all tested cells expressed COX-1, COX-2, Akt, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhance of activated B cells proteins, except human UM-UC-3 cells, where no COX-2 expression was detected by WB analysis. Both RTKIs inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in tested bladder TCC cells, which positively correlated with their expression levels of the PDGFRα and c

  4. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Berbel, O; Alonso-López, J; Garcia, J; Ortega, J A

    2013-10-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, review the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987-2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been "Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs" and "Bladder cancer". Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2-5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favour BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Paradox of life among survivors of bladder cancer and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To interpret the meanings attributed to the experience of bladder cancer among survivors in therapeutic follow-up. METHOD: Qualitative methodological approach, based on medical anthropology and narrative methodology. After approval by the research ethics committee of a public university hospital, data were collected from January 2014 to February 2015, by means of recorded semi-structured interviews, direct observation and field journal entries on daily immersion with a group of six men and six women, aged between 57 and 82 years, in therapeutic follow-up. Narratives were analyzed by means of inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The meanings revealed difficulties with the processes of disease and treatment, such as breakdown of normal life, uncertainty about the future due to possible recurrence of the disease, difficulty with continuity of care and emotional control, relating it to conflicting ways of understanding the present life. Thus, the meaning of this narrative synthesis is paradox. CONCLUSION: Interpretation of the meaning of experience with bladder cancer among patients provides nurses with a comprehensive view of care, which encompasses biological, psychological and social dimensions, and thereby systematizes humanized care.

  6. Radiotherapy treatment results of bladder cancer: study of 458 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vara Santos, J.; Torre Tomas, A. de la; Romero Fernandez, J.; Regueiro Otero, C.; Clavo Varas, B.; Magallan Sebastian, R.; Valcarcel Sancho, F.; Polo Tolosana, E.; Aragon de la Cruz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1964 to 1990, 458 patients diagnosed of bladder cancer have been treated with radical radiotherapy in our department. The 5-years and 10-years actuarial survival rates were 37% and 27% respectively. The 5-years and 10-years actuarial local control rates, evaluated in 404 patients, were 41% and 38%. In regard to survival, T stage (p=0.013), advanced intravesical extension or multicentrity (p>0.0001), and squamous differentiation (p<0.0001), reached statistical significance as adverse prognostic factors. In 248 patients, with invasive transitional carcinoma, radical radiotherapy alone was used. In this group of patients, T stage (p=0.006) and advanced intravesical extension or multicentrity (p=0.0002) were adverse prognostic factors for survival. Our results suggest that radical radiotherapy must be considered and alternative to surgery in management of bladder cancer. On the basis of prognostic factors evidenced in this series a subgroup of patients with low probability of survival when treated with exclusive radiotherapy are defined. This patients must be included in clinical research protocols. (Author) 44 refs

  7. [Concomitant oncopathological changes in the prostate of urinary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystoprostateectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komyakov, B K; Sergeev, A V; Fadeev, V A; Ismailov, K I; Ulyanov, A Yu; Shmelev, A Yu; Onoshko, M V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence of spreading bladder transitional cell carcinoma and primary adenocarcinoma to the prostate in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. From 1995 to 2016, 283 men underwent radical cystectomy with removal of the bladder, perivesical tissue, prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. Prostate sparing cystectomy was performed in 45 (13.7%) patients. The whole prostate and the apex of the prostate were preserved in 21 (6.4%) and 24 (7.3%) patients, respectively. The spread of transitional cell cancer of the bladder to the prostate occurred in 50 (15.2%) patients. Twelve (3.6%) patients were found to have primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed in 4 (33.3%) patients. We believe that the high oncological risk of prostate sparing cystectomy, despite some functional advantages, dictates the need for complete removal of the prostate in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  8. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Results Sirolimus inhibits the growth of bladder carcinoma cells and decreases their viability. Significant correlations were found between cell proliferation and sirolimus concentration (r = 0.830; p Conclusion Sirolimus has an anti-proliferation effect on the T24 bladder carcinoma cell line. The information from our results is useful for a better understanding sirolimus's anti-proliferative activity in the T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  9. Cigarette Smoking, N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylation Status, and Bladder Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcus, P.M.; Hayes, R.B.; Vineis, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco use is an established cause of bladder cancer. The ability to detoxify aromatic amines, which are present in tobacco and are potent bladder carcinogens, is compromised in persons with the N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation polymorphism. The relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder...... cancer risk therefore has been hypothesized to be stronger among slow acetylators. The few studies to formally explore such a possibility have produced inconsistent results, however. To assess this potential gene-environment interaction in as many bladder cancer studies as possible and to summarize...... results, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 16 bladder cancer studies conducted in the general population (n = 1999 cases), Most had been conducted in European countries. Because control subjects were unavailable for a number of these studies, we used a case-series design, which can be used...

  10. Age at diagnosis in bladder cancer: does opium addiction play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Dabbagh, Najmeh; Shabani, Azadeh; Tabibi, Ali; Akhavizadegan, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major health problem, especially among men. Opium addiction can be an important risk factor. One important question is whether it can affect the age of onset of bladder cancer .We performed this study to evaluate this question. In a cross-section study, records of patients diagnosed with bladder carcinoma in Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, within 1999-2008 were included. Data were extracted from records regarding age at onset, gender, smoking status, and opioid addiction and analyzed with SPSS 13. Within 10 years, 920 cases were diagnosed with bladder cancer of which 97 percent were transitional cell carcinoma. In 698 cases, opium addiction status was recorded in 21.3% (n=149). Age at diagnosis was 59.7±11.51 (median: 60) among opioid addicts which was significantly lower than non- addicts (63.1±13.65, Median: 65) (POpium addiction can decrease the age of onset of bladder cancer.

  11. Downregulation of long noncoding RNA TUG1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the TUG1/miR-142/ZEB2 axis in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Hui; Cheng, Hepeng; Li, Yang; Li, Xiaodong; Zhu, Chaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common serious disease around the world. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to participate in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) on proliferation and apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines and the underlying mechanism. The levels of TUG1 were detected by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in bladder cancer tissues and cells. The mRNA and protein levels of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The functional targets of TUG1 were predicted by online softwares and confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. The effects of TUG1 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by MTT and apoptosis assay, respectively. The expression levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, and c-Myc in T24 cells were determined by Western blot analysis. The levels of TUG1 and ZEB2 were significantly increased in bladder cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of either TUG1 or ZEB2 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Interestingly, ZEB2 overexpression reversed the effects of TUG1 knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, ZEB2 was verified as a direct target of miR-142 and miR-142 could specially bind to TUG1. In addition, downregulation of TUG1 inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by regulating ZEB2 expression in bladder cancer cells. Downregulation of TUG1 expression inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by targeting ZEB2 mediated by miR-142 through the inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  12. Genetic Alterations in the Molecular Subtypes of Bladder Cancer: Illustration in the Cancer Genome Atlas Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woonyoung; Ochoa, Andrea; McConkey, David J; Aine, Mattias; Höglund, Mattias; Kim, William Y; Real, Francisco X; Kiltie, Anne E; Milsom, Ian; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Lerner, Seth P

    2017-09-01

    Recent whole genome mRNA expression profiling studies revealed that bladder cancers can be grouped into molecular subtypes, some of which share clinical properties and gene expression patterns with the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer and the molecular subtypes found in other solid tumors. The molecular subtypes in other solid tumors are enriched with specific mutations and copy number aberrations that are thought to underlie their distinct progression patterns, and biological and clinical properties. The availability of comprehensive genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other large projects made it possible to correlate the presence of DNA alterations with tumor molecular subtype membership. Our overall goal was to determine whether specific DNA mutations and/or copy number variations are enriched in specific molecular subtypes. We used the complete TCGA RNA-seq dataset and three different published classifiers developed by our groups to assign TCGA's bladder cancers to molecular subtypes, and examined the prevalence of the most common DNA alterations within them. We interpreted the results against the background of what was known from the published literature about the prevalence of these alterations in nonmuscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancers. The results confirmed that alterations involving RB1 and NFE2L2 were enriched in basal cancers, whereas alterations involving FGFR3 and KDM6A were enriched in luminal tumors. The results further reinforce the conclusion that the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer are distinct disease entities with specific genetic alterations. Our observation showed that some of subtype-enriched mutations and copy number aberrations are clinically actionable, which has direct implications for the clinical management of patients with bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Deregulation of HOX B13 expression in urinary bladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, L; Cantile, M; Scognamiglio, G; Perdonà, S; La Mantia, E; Cerrone, M; Gigantino, V; Cillo, C; Caraglia, M; Pignata, S; Facchini, G; Botti, G; Chieffi, S; Chieffi, P; Franco, R

    2013-02-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy in industrialized countries. More than 90% of bladder cancer originates in the transitional cells. Bladder transitional cancer prognosis is, according to the most recent definition related to the level of tumor infiltration, characterized by two main phenotypes, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (NMIBC) and Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (MIBC). The genetic profile and the clinical course of the two subtypes are completely different, however among NMIBC the prognosis is not completely predictable, since 20% of the cases experience a relapse, even in the form of MIBC. It has recently been reported that the chromosomal region 12q13-15, containing crucial cancer genes such as MDM2, CDK4, GLI and an entire cluster of HOX genes, is amplified in bladder cancer. HOX genes codify for transcriptionl factor, involved in embryonal development and cancer progression, with main nuclear expression. Particularly it was also described the strong involvement of HOX B13 in several tumors of urogenital system. In this study we have been investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX B13 expression in bladder cancer evolution and progression, evaluating its ability to discriminate between NMIBC and MBCI phenotypes. Cytoplasmic HOX B13 delocalization significantly relates with muscle invasion (p 0.004). In addition in the series of NMIBC nuclear HOX B13 expression loss is significantly associated to shorter disease free survival (p-value=0.038) defining a potential prognostic role. Overexpression of HOX B13 in more aggressive phenotype is also demonstrate at gene level by quantitative RT-PCR. The de-regulation and delocalization of HOX B13 in urinary bladder cancer supports again the important role of HOX genes in tumor evolution and represents a starting point to establish an integrated analysis, in which HOX genes represent important prognostic and predictive markers for bladder

  14. Patient resources available to bladder cancer patients: a pilot study of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl T; Mei, Minghua; Ashley, Jan; Breslow, Gene; O'Donnell, Michael; Gilbert, Scott; Lemmy, Simon; Saxton, Claire; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Latini, David M

    2012-01-01

    To survey thought leaders attending an annual bladder cancer conference about resources available to survivors at, primarily, large academic centers treating a high volume of patients. Bladder cancer is a disease with high treatment burden. Support groups and survivorship programs are effective at managing physical and psychosocial impairments experienced by patients. The Institute of Medicine recommends increased resources for cancer survivorship, but no description of current resources exists for bladder cancer patients. Preceding the 4th annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank meeting in August 2009, we carried out an Internet-based survey of registrants that queried respondents about institutional resources and support systems devoted to bladder cancer survivors. Data were collected using SurveyMonkey.com, and descriptive statistics were computed. A total of 43 eligible respondents included urologists (77%), medical oncologists (16%), and other physicians or health professionals (7%). Physician respondents represented 22 academic centers and 2 private groups. Although 63% of respondent institutions had a National Cancer Institute designation, only 33% had an active bladder cancer support group. Survivorship clinics were available in 29% of institutions, and peer support networks, community resources for education, and patient navigation were available in 58%, 13%, and 25% of respondent institutions, respectively. Resources for bladder cancer survivors vary widely and are lacking at several academic centers with high-volume bladder cancer populations. Bladder cancer providers are often unaware of available institutional resources for patients. Urologists need to advocate for additional survivor resources and partner with other disciplines to provide appropriate care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Arshad A; Shah, Zafar A; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A

    2013-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary tumor and constitutes a very heterogeneous disease. Molecular and pathologic studies suggest that low-grade noninvasive and high-grade invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) arise via distinct pathways. Low-grade noninvasive UCC represent the majority of tumors at presentation. A high proportion of patients with low-grade UCC develop recurrences but usually with no progression to invasive disease. At presentation, a majority of the bladder tumors (70%-80%) are low-grade noninvasive (pTa). Several genetic changes may occur in bladder cancer, but activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes are the most common and most specific genetic abnormality in bladder cancer. Interestingly, these mutations are associated with bladder tumors of low stage and grade, which makes the FGFR3 mutation the first marker that can be used for diagnosis of noninvasive bladder tumors. Since the first report of FGFR3 involvement in bladder tumors, numerous studies have been conducted to understand its function and thereby confirm the oncogenic role of this receptor particularly in noninvasive groups. Efforts are on to exploit this receptor as a therapeutic target, which holds much promise in the treatment of bladder cancer, particularly low-grade noninvasive tumors. Further studies need to explore the potential use of FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and in surveillance of patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the role of FGFR3 in bladder tumors in the backdrop of various studies published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. What are the currently available and in development molecular markers for bladder cancer? Will they prove to be useful in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajed, Mohamed Ismat; Sancak, Eyüp Burak; Reşorlu, Berkan; Al-Chalaby, Gydhia Zuhair

    2014-12-01

    Urothelial carcinoma is the 9(th) most common cancer worldwide. Most urothelial tumors are non-muscle invasive on presentation. However, two-thirds of non-invasive bladder cancers will eventually recur with a 25% risk of progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Tumor stage, histological grade and pathological invasion of blood vessels and lymphatic tissue are the main indicators for urothelial cancer prognosis. The gold standard for diagnosing bladder cancer is conventional white-light cystoscopy and biopsy. Urine cytology is a highly specific, sensitive test for high-grade tumors or carcinoma in situ (CIS). Urinary NMP22 has an overall sensitivity and specificity for detecting bladder cancer of 49% and 87%, respectively. However, there are false-positive results in the presence of urinary tract infection or hematuria. The detection of specific gene mutations related to urothelial cancers has been studied and employed to reproduce markers helpful for diagnosis. According to current studies, molecular markers can be used to predict tumor recurrence. From a prognostic point of view, new molecular markers have yet to be established as reliable indicators of tumor aggressiveness. We aimed to review the molecular markers with possible prognostic significance that have been discussed in the literature. This review examined the literature for various molecular markers under development for bladder cancer in an attempt to optimize patient care and reduce the costs of treating these patients.

  17. Application of three-dimensional volumetric ultrasonography in patients with bladder cancer and its mimickers: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sujin; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Various diseases of the urinary bladder can be demonstrated as being polypoid, a nodular bladder mass or as focal bladder wall thickening. This includes malignant or benign neoplasms, urinary stones, or other inflammatory bladder conditions. In daily practice many of these bladder diseases are easily confused with bladder cancer. On the other hand, ultrasonography (US) is safe and can be easily applied as a screening modality or an initial evaluating tool for urinary bladder disease. Furthermore, additional three-dimensional (3D) volumetric techniques can support more delicate delineation of these lesions. This study presents a 3D volumetric US for bladder lesions, and demonstrates various pathological conditions of the urinary bladder ranging from bladder cancer to other benign lesions.

  18. The value of computed tomography in the management of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karrer, P.; Zingg, E.; Vock, P.; Fischedick, A.; Haertel, M.; Fuchs, W.A.; Bern Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In 77 patients suffering from bladder cancer histopathological staging and CT-staging are compared. The invasion of bladder and lymph nodes by the tumor is confirmed by histological examination. The CT-results correspond with the pathological findings in 78% for the primary tumor and in 89% for the glands. CT is valuable help to establish the extent and staging of bladder tumors. (orig.) [de

  19. Enhanced Application of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Bladder Cancer by Adding Early Dynamic Acquisition to a Standard Delayed PET Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Yoo, Jang; Kim, Yemi; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the value of early dynamic (ED) PET for the detection and characterization of bladder cancer. Fifty-two bladder cancer patients were prospectively enrolled. The study protocol was composed of ED, whole-body (WB, 60 minutes after injection), and additional delayed (AD, 120 minutes after injection) PET acquisition. Early dynamic PET was acquired for 10 minutes and reconstructed as 5 frames at 2-minute intervals. A focal radiotracer accumulation confined to the bladder wall was considered as PET positive and referred for further quantitative measurement. SUVmax on ED (SUVmax, SUVmax, SUVmax, SUVmax, and SUVmax for 5 frames), WB (SUVmax), and AD PET (SUVmax) were measured. PET results were correlated with bladder cancer pathology variables. The sensitivities of ED, WB, and AD PET for bladder cancer were 84.6%, 57.7%, and 61.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of ED PET was significantly higher than that of WB (P = 0.002) and AD PET (P = 0.008). On ED PET, SUVmax was significantly correlated with muscle invasiveness, histological grade, and pathological tumor size (P = 0.018, P = 0.030, and P = 0.030). On WB and AD PET, only pathological tumor size showed significant positive correlation with SUVmax and SUVmax (P = 0.043 and P = 0.007). Early dynamic PET can help to detect and characterize bladder cancer.

  20. Polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bladder cancer patients of the Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbinghaus, Dörte; Bánfi, Gergely; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bürger, Hannah; Hengstler, Jan G; Nyirády, Péter; Golka, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) or glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) are known to modulate bladder cancer risk. As no apparent data were available from Hungary, a former member of the eastern European economic organization, a study was performed in Budapest. In total, 182 bladder cancer cases and 78 cancer-free controls were investigated by questionnaire. Genotypes of NAT2, GSTM1, GSTT1, rs1058396 and rs17674580 were determined by standard methods. Current smokers' crude odds ratio (OR) (3.43) and former smokers crude OR (2.36) displayed a significantly increased bladder cancer risk. The risk rose by a factor of 1.56 per 10 pack years. Exposure to fumes was associated with an elevated bladder cancer risk (23% cases, 13% controls). Sixty-four % of the cases and 59% of controls were slow NAT2 acetylators. It was not possible to establish a particular impact of NAT2*6A and *7B genotypes (15 cases, 8%, 5 controls, 7%). GSTT1 exerted no marked influence on bladder cancer (negative 21% cases vs. 22% controls). The portion of GSTM1 negative bladder cancer patients was increased (63% cases vs. 54% controls). The SLC14A1 SNPs rs1058396[AG/GG] and the nearby rs17674580[CT/TT] occurred more frequently in cases (79% and 68%) than controls (77% and 55%). The portion of GSTM1 negative bladder cancer patients is comparable with portions reported from other industrialized areas like Lutherstadt Wittenberg/Germany (58%), Dortmund/Germany (70%), Brescia/Italy (66%) or an occupational case-control series in Germany (56%). Data indicate that GSTM1 is a susceptibility factor for environmentally triggered bladder cancer rather than for smoking-mediated bladder cancer.

  1. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves survival outcome in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate survival rates and prognostic factors related to treatment outcomes after bladder preserving therapy including transurethral resection of bladder tumor, radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in bladder cancer with a curative intent. We retrospectively studied 50 bladder cancer patients treated with bladder-preserving therapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from January 1999 to December 2010. Age ranged from 46 to 89 years (median, 71.5 years). Bladder cancer was the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II, III, and IV in 9, 27, and 14 patients, respectively. Thirty patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and 20 patients with RT alone. Nine patients received chemotherapy prior to CCRT or RT alone. Radiation was delivered with a four-field box technique (median, 63 Gy; range, 48.6 to 70.2 Gy). The follow-up periods ranged from 2 to 169 months (median, 34 months). Thirty patients (60%) showed complete response and 13 (26%) a partial response. All patients could have their own bladder preserved. Five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 37.2%, and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 30.2%. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade and CCRT were statistically significant in OS. Tumor grade was a significant prognostic factor related to OS. CCRT is also considered to improve survival outcomes. Further multi-institutional studies are needed to elucidate the impact of RT in bladder cancer

  2. Genetic Variants in the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway as Indicators of Bladder Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzynski, Jeanne A; Hildebrandt, Michelle A; Kamat, Ashish M; Lin, Jie; Ye, Yuanqing; Dinney, Colin P N; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-12-01

    Genetic factors that influence bladder cancer risk remain largely unknown. Previous research has suggested that there is a strong genetic component underlying the risk of bladder cancer. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a key modulator of cellular proliferation through its regulation of stem cell homeostasis. Furthermore, variants in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway have been implicated in the development of other cancers, leading us to believe that this pathway may have a vital role in bladder cancer development. A total of 230 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 40 genes in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were genotyped in 803 bladder cancer cases and 803 healthy controls. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant for risk. Individuals with 2 variants of LRP6: rs10743980 were associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer in the recessive model in the initial analysis (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99, p=0.039). This was validated using the bladder genome-wide association study chip (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-1.00, p=0.049 and for combined analysis p=0.007). Together these findings implicate variants in the Wnt/β-catenin stem cell pathway as having a role in bladder cancer etiology. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Bao Ye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion. Methods: A total of 118 cases of bladder cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue surgically removed in our hospital between May 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the research samples, the RNA was extracted and then reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and the expression levels of SDF-1/ CXCR4, PD-L1/PD-1, cell apoptosis-related molecules and cell invasion-related molecules were detected. Results: SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue; PD-L1, PD-1, Rec1, Survivin, MRPS5, Nanog, BCAPP2Ac, TRPM8, TRPV2, ILK, β-catenin and GUGBP1 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue and positively correlated with SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression. Conclusion: Highly expressed SDF-1/CXCR4 in bladder cancer tissue are closely related to the high expression of negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, pro-proliferation molecules and proinvasion molecules, and SDF-1/CXCR4 can promote the immune escape, proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells.

  4. Results of chemoradiotherapyfor muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gumenetskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of chemoradiotherapy (CRT in 108 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer in whom surgery was contraindicated. The efficacies and toxicities of three variants of CRT were evaluated. Group 1 (neoadjuvant chemotherapy: 2–3 cycles of cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy followed by a continuous course of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. Group 2: concurrent CRT – cisplatin i.v., 70–100 mg/m 2 during the first and last weeks of continuous-course EBRT. Group 3: sequential neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 2–3 cycles and concurrent CRT. The comparative analysis of long-term outcomes following CRT indicated an improvement in survival rates in group 3 in which the 5-and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were 42,3 ± 8,8 % and 31,3 ± 9,4 %, respectively, compared with 28,6 ± 9,7 % and 28,6 ± 9,7 % in group 1, and 29,5 ± 8,5 % and 14,8 ± 7,4 % in group 2, respectively (р=0,093. Acute toxicity (GU Grade 1 or 2 arose more often from concurrent radiation and chemotherapy: in 40,0 % and 40,5 % of cases in groups 2 and 3, respectively, whereas in group 1 it occurred in 25,9 % of cases (р<0,2. Late radiation toxicity (GU Grade 2 occurred more often in the concurrent CRT groups: 11,4 % and 11,9 % versus 3,2 % in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group; Grade 3 was noted in 5,7 % and 2,4 % of patients in groups 2 and 3, respectively. The results indicated that chemoradiotherapy including neoadjuvant and concomitant chemotherapy improved the outcomes in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer in whom surgery was contraindicated. There was an acceptable rate of clinically significant complications.

  5. Ruthenium porphyrin-induced photodamage in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoeva, Vanya; Siksjø, Monica; Sæterbø, Kristin G; Melø, Thor Bernt; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Lindgren, Mikael; Gederaas, Odrun A

    2016-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment for solid malignant and flat tumors. Light activated sensitizers catalyze photochemical reactions that produce reactive oxygen species which can cause cancer cell death. In this work we investigated the photophysical properties of the photosensitizer ruthenium(II) porphyrin (RuP), along with its PDT efficiency onto rat bladder cancer cells (AY27). Optical spectroscopy verified that RuP is capable to activate singlet oxygen via blue and red absorption bands and inter system crossing (ISC) to the triplet state. In vitro experiments on AY27 indicated increased photo-toxicity of RuP (20μM, 18h incubation) after cell illumination (at 435nm), as a function of blue light exposure. Cell survival fraction was significantly reduced to 14% after illumination of 20μM RuP with 15.6J/cm(2), whereas the "dark toxicity" of 20μM RuP was 17%. Structural and morphological changes of cells were observed, due to RuP accumulation, as well as light-dependent cell death was recorded by confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry verified that PDT-RuP (50μM) triggered significant photo-induced cellular destruction with a photoxicity of (93%±0.9%). Interestingly, the present investigation of RuP-PDT showed that the dominating mode of cell death is necrosis. RuP "dark toxicity" compared to the conventional chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin was higher, both evaluated by the MTT assay (24h). In conclusion, the present investigation shows that RuP with or without photoactivation induces cell death of bladder cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can urologists introduce the concept of “oligometastasis” for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a so...

  7. Metastatic Gastric Linitis Plastica from Bladder Cancer Mimicking a Primary Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Won Sun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Byun, Jae Ho; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2009-01-01

    Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  8. Bladder preservation in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC): a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Marianna A; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Zerini, Dario; Surgo, Alessia; Dicuonzo, Samantha; Spoto, Ruggero; Fodor, Cristiana; Verri, Elena; Rocca, Maria Cossu; Nolè, Franco; Muto, Matteo; Ferro, Matteo; Musi, Gennaro; Bottero, Danilo; Matei, Deliu V; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to access the feasibility, toxicity profile, and tumour outcome of an organ preservation curative approach in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients affected by M0 bladder cancer, who refused cystectomy and were treated with a curative approach. The standard bladder preservation scheme included maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) and combination of radiotherapy and platin-based chemotherapy, followed by endoscopic evaluation, urine cytology, and instrumental evaluation. Thirteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. TNM stage was cT2cN0M0 and cT2cNxM0, in 12 and one patients, respectively. All patients had transitional cell cancer. Twelve patients completed the whole therapeutic programme (a bimodal treatment without chemotherapy for one patient). Median follow-up is 36 months. None of the patients developed severe urinary or intestinal acute toxicity. In 10 patients with a follow-up > 6 months, no cases of severe late toxicity were observed. Response evaluated in 12 patients included complete response and stable disease in 11 patients (92%), and one patient (8%), respectively. At the time of data analysis (March 2016), 10 patients (77%) are alive with no evidence of disease, two patients (15%) died for other reasons, and one patient has suspicious persistent local disease. The trimodality approach, including maximal TURBT, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, is well-tolerated and might be considered a valid and feasible option in fit patients who refuse radical cystectomy.

  9. A place for precision medicine in bladder cancer: targeting the FGFRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, Erica; Tomlinson, Darren C; Williams, Sarah V; Knowles, Margaret A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder tumors show diverse molecular features and clinical outcome. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer has poor prognosis and novel approaches to systemic therapy are urgently required. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer has good prognosis, but high recurrence rate and the requirement for life-long disease monitoring places a major burden on patients and healthcare providers. Studies of tumor tissues from both disease groups have identified frequent alterations of FGFRs, including mutations of FGFR3 and dysregulated expression of FGFR1 and FGFR3 that suggest that these may be valid therapeutic targets. We summarize current understanding of the molecular alterations affecting these receptors in bladder tumors, preclinical studies validating them as therapeutic targets, available FGFR-targeted agents and results from early clinical trials in bladder cancer patients.

  10. Sexual function following radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, F.A.; Howard, G.C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: The effect of radical radiotherapy (RT) for bladder cancer on sexual function has not been previously investigated. The current study was designed as a pilot to assess sexual function in males pre- and post-radiotherapy. Materials and methods: An anonymous questionnaire was devised to examine the following sexual domains: libido, frequency of sexual function, erectile capacity, orgasm and ejaculation in the 6 months prior to radiotherapy and following treatment. Serum testosterone, FSH and LH were measured in 10 patients. Results: Eighteen patients completed the questionnaire from 10 to 56 months following irradiation, 13 of whom were able to achieve an erection prior to RT. Over half of these patients noted a decline in the quality of erections after RT, with a similar proportion noting decreased libido and frequency of sexual activity. Three patients lost the ability to have any erections whatsoever. Of the 10 patients retaining erectile capacity, three noted reduced frequency of early morning erections suggesting a physical aetiology, five had decreased frequency of ejaculation and four had reduced intensity of orgasms. Seventy-one percent (12/17) felt their sex life was worse following RT but only 56% (9/16) were concerned about the deterioration. Testosterone levels were normal in all but one patient. Conclusions: Radical RT to the bladder can cause a decrease in sexual function in males. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Combined intraarterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Hidekazu; Okamura, Keigo; Matsuo, Yasushige; Yajima, Hisanori

    2003-01-01

    A total of 9 patients with invasive bladder cancer (T2b, n=2; T3a, n=0; T3b, n=3; T4, n=4) were treated with intra-arterial cisplatin (CDDP) and pirarubicin (THP)-doxorubicin (ADM), in combination with external radiotherapy. Clinical response was as follows: complete response (CR) was obtained in 3 patients, partial response (PR) in 2 patients, no change (NC) in 3 patients and no progressive disease (PD). One patient died during the treatment because of pneumonia caused by myelosuppression and overall response rate was 62.5%. Total cystectomy was performed for 4 patients after chemo-radiotherapy. Overall survival rate was 75.0% for 1-year, 62.5% for 2-year, and 41.7% for 5-year. In group with cystectomy survival rate was 100% for 1-year, 100% for 2-year, and 50.0% for 5-year. In group without cystectomy, 50.0% for 1-year, and 25.0% for 2-year. Overall no recurrence rate was 87.5% for 6-months, 58.3% for 1-year, and 58.3% for 5-year. Main side effects were myelosuppression, appetite loss, diarrhea, thigh pain and contracted bladder. (author)

  12. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  13. Comparative Tissue Proteomics of Microdissected Specimens Reveals Novel Candidate Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lun; Chung, Ting; Wu, Chih-Ching; Ng, Kwai-Fong; Yu, Jau-Song; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Chang, Yu-Sun; Liang, Ying; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2015-01-01

    More than 380,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide, accounting for ∼150,200 deaths each year. To discover potential biomarkers of bladder cancer, we employed a strategy combining laser microdissection, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, and liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) analysis to profile proteomic changes in fresh-frozen bladder tumor specimens. Cellular proteins from four pairs of surgically resected primary bladder cancer tumor and adjacent nontumorous tissue were extracted for use in two batches of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments, which identified a total of 3220 proteins. A DAVID (database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery) analysis of dysregulated proteins revealed that the three top-ranking biological processes were extracellular matrix organization, extracellular structure organization, and oxidation-reduction. Biological processes including response to organic substances, response to metal ions, and response to inorganic substances were highlighted by up-expressed proteins in bladder cancer. Seven differentially expressed proteins were selected as potential bladder cancer biomarkers for further verification. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significantly elevated levels of three proteins—SLC3A2, STMN1, and TAGLN2—in tumor cells compared with noncancerous bladder epithelial cells, and suggested that TAGLN2 could be a useful tumor tissue marker for diagnosis (AUC = 0.999) and evaluating lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer patients. ELISA results revealed significantly increased urinary levels of both STMN1 and TAGLN2 in bladder cancer subgroups compared with control groups. In comparisons with age-matched hernia urine specimens, urinary TAGLN2 in bladder cancer samples showed the largest fold change (7.13-fold), with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.70 (p < 0.001, n = 205). Overall, TAGLN2 showed the most significant

  14. Finite element based bladder modeling for image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Remeijer, Peter; Lotz, Heidi T.; Bel, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A biomechanical model was constructed to give insight into pelvic organ motion as a result of bladder filling changes. Methods: The authors used finite element (FE) modeling to simulate bladder wall deformation caused by urine inflow. For ten volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic

  15. Significance of Metabolic Super scan in Patients With Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, M.H.; El-Kholy, E.; Omar, W.; El-Refaei, S.; Taher, A.N.; El-Marakby, H.

    2011-01-01

    Non-metastatic metabolic related skeletal changes are predicted in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. Renal impairment may be a contributing factor in such abnormalities. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of metabolic bone disease in patients with different pathological subgroups of locally advanced bladder cancer and determine its clinical impact, and to correlate these metabolic super scan features with variable laboratory tests of bone bio markers and renal functions. In this study, a total of 350 patients (mean age = 58±8.4 y) with histopathologically proven locally advanced bladder cancer; 238 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), 100 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 7 adenocarcinoma, 2 mucinous adenocarcinoma, 2 undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 leiomyosarcoma. The patients were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Unit, National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt, between July 2006 and December 2009. Whole body bone scan was obtained 3 hours following IV administration of 555-925 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium and parathormone (PTH) levels were monitored as markers for bone metabolism while serum creatinine was used to monitor kidney function. The exclusion criteria included patients who had liver disease or those taking calcium or vitamin D supplement or any medication that affects bone metabolism. All bone scan results in the study were verified by correlation with other radiological imaging, laboratory data and follow-up for at least 12 months. According to bone scan results, patients were classified into four groups: group A: normal scan (n=223), group B: metabolic super scan features (MSS) (n=70), group C: metastatic bone disease (n=45) and group D: bone scan with indeterminate lesions (n=12). Osteomalacic MSS features were detected in 20 % of the studied patients (locally advanced bladder cancer) compared to 14.5% who had bone metastases. Contrary to metastases which showed high prevalence in TCC (P<0.001), MSS

  16. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a comprehensive analysis of 412 muscle-invasive bladder cancers characterized by multiple TCGA analytical platforms. Fifty-eight genes were significantly mutated, and the overall mutational load was associated with APOBEC-signature mutagenesis. Clustering by mutation signature identified a high-mutation subset with 75% 5-year survival.

  17. A subclass of HER1 ligands are prognostic markers for survival in bladder cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Helle-Merete Vissing; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family have been suggested as prognostic markers in patients with bladder cancer. Thus far, there has been no consensus on their usefulness. We report an analysis of six ligands and two receptors of which a subset correlate to tumor stage and survival...... of the EGF family, especially EPI, may be potential bladder tumor markers....

  18. Nitrate intake does not influence bladder cancer risk: The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.; Selen, R.F.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: N-nitroso compounds, endogenously formed from nitrate-derived nitrite, are suspected to be important bladder carcinogens. However, the association between nitrate exposure from food or drinking water and bladder cancer has not been substantially investigated in epidemiologic studies.

  19. Activation of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.M. van Oers (Johanna)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of frequent FGFR3 mutations in superficial bladder cancer suggests that mutation of the FGFR3 gene is a key genetic event in the development of noninvasive bladder tumors. Furthermore, FGFR3 mutations were associated with a good prognosis, suggesting that the

  20. Concurrent 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy in radical treatment of frail patients with deeply invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellin, G.; Mussari, S.; Graffer, U.; Caffo, O.; Valduga, F.; Tomio, L.; Luciani, L. [S. Chiara Hospital, Trento (Italy)

    2004-11-01

    The radical treatment of deeply invasive bladder cancer with full dose radiotherapy and concomitant 5- fluorouracil continuous infusion is feasible even in frail patients, with an acceptable toxicity and a response rate comparable to that obtained using radiotherapy and simultaneous cisplatin. Many patients can retain a functioning bladder. (author)

  1. Role of radiation therapy in bladder cancer in the Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochet, F.; Barrette, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Bladder cancer is more frequent in Quebec, especially in Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean than in other Canadian provinces and in the USA. From 1983 to 1996, only 78 patients presenting with bladder cancer received external beam radiation therapy. Sixty-eight were treated with curative intent Overall survival rates were 70% at 3 years, 66% at 5 years, and 40% at 10 years. Retrospective analysis of these cases and literature review show that preoperative radiation therapy is useful in the management of bladder cancer, especially in T3 tumors. It is also useful for patients whose tumor objectively responds to radiation therapy, without an increase in morbidity. (authors)

  2. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinikanth Ayyathurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper urinary tract (UUT transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of monitoring the UUT and there is no consensus among them. This article reviews the recommendations on monitoring the UUT in patients with bladder cancer.

  3. The health economics of bladder cancer: an updated review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Christina; Dinh, Tuan; Lee, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a current view of the economic burden of bladder cancer, with a focus on the cost effectiveness of available interventions. This review updates a previous systematic review and includes 72 new papers published between 2000 and 2013. Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common and expensive malignancies. The annual cost of bladder cancer in the USA during 2010 was $US4 billion and is expected to rise to $US5 billion by 2020. Ten years ago, urinary markers held the potential to lower treatment costs of bladder cancer. However, subsequent real-world experiments have demonstrated that further work is necessary to identify situations in which these technologies can be applied in a cost-effective manner. Adjunct cytology remains a part of diagnostic standard of care, but recent research suggests that it is not cost effective due to its low diagnostic yield. Analysis of intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), neo-adjuvant therapy for cystectomy, and robot-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy suggests that these technologies are cost effective and should be implemented more widely for appropriate patients. The existing literature on the cost effectiveness of bladder cancer treatments has improved substantially since 2000. The body of work now includes many new models, registry analyses, and real-world studies. However, there is still a need for new implementation guidelines, new risk modeling tools, and a better understanding of the empirical burden of bladder cancer.

  4. The impact of bladder preparation protocols on post treatment toxicity in radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yat Man Tsang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The empty bladder preparation approach has non-inferior acute and intermediate post RT GI and GU toxicities in patients treated for localised prostate cancer with advanced radiotherapy techniques compared to the full bladder preparation.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life after Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Porter, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    With multiple options for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer that have comparable cancer control and complication rates, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important consideration. This article reviews the methods for defining HRQOL, the challenges in measuring HRQOL in bladder cancer, and the literature comparing HRQOL after various methods of urinary diversion. Recent contributions include the validation of HRQOL instruments specific to bladder cancer and the publication of several prospective studies measuring HRQOL outcomes after cystectomy and urinary diversion. There is no convincing evidence from existing literature that any particular method of urinary diversion offers superior HRQOL outcomes. Rather, there is growing evidence that good HRQOL can be achieved with patient education and consideration of each patient's clinical and psychosocial situation. Future research should utilize the validated bladder cancer specific HRQOL instruments and perhaps explore the impact of preoperative counseling on postoperative HRQOL. PMID:21826139

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life after Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Shih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With multiple options for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer that have comparable cancer control and complication rates, health-related quality of life (HRQOL has become an important consideration. This article reviews the methods for defining HRQOL, the challenges in measuring HRQOL in bladder cancer, and the literature comparing HRQOL after various methods of urinary diversion. Recent contributions include the validation of HRQOL instruments specific to bladder cancer and the publication of several prospective studies measuring HRQOL outcomes after cystectomy and urinary diversion. There is no convincing evidence from existing literature that any particular method of urinary diversion offers superior HRQOL outcomes. Rather, there is growing evidence that good HRQOL can be achieved with patient education and consideration of each patient's clinical and psychosocial situation. Future research should utilize the validated bladder cancer specific HRQOL instruments and perhaps explore the impact of preoperative counseling on postoperative HRQOL.

  7. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG for immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, K R; Buss, J H; Collares, T; Seixas, F K

    2015-05-01

    In the past three decades, intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used for treating bladder cancer and it still remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for cancer patients. Although BCG-based therapy is the most effective intravesical therapy for this kind of tumor and represents the only agent known to reduce progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer, BCG is ineffective in approximately 30-40 % of cases and disease recurs in up to 50 % of patients. Since that BCG is considered an effective vehicle for delivery of antigens due to its unique characteristics, the genetic manipulation of these mycobacteria has been appealing in the search for less toxic and more potent therapeutic agents for bladder cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we discuss current advances in recombinant BCG construction, research, concerns, and future directions to promote the development of this promising immunotherapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  8. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A Gordon; Kim, Jaegil; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Guo, Guangwu; Cherniack, Andrew D; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W; Hoadley, Katherine A; Akbani, Rehan; Castro, Mauro A A; Gibb, Ewan A; Kanchi, Rupa S; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Shukla, Sachet A; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Hansel, Donna E; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Reuter, Victor E; Su, Xiaoping; de Sa Carvalho, Benilton; Chagas, Vinicius S; Mungall, Karen L; Sadeghi, Sara; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Lu, Yiling; Klimczak, Leszek J; Zhang, Jiexin; Choo, Caleb; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Bullman, Susan; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Wu, Catherine J; Schultz, Nicholaus; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Mills, Gordon B; McConkey, David J; Weinstein, John N; Kwiatkowski, David J; Lerner, Seth P

    2017-10-19

    We report a comprehensive analysis of 412 muscle-invasive bladder cancers characterized by multiple TCGA analytical platforms. Fifty-eight genes were significantly mutated, and the overall mutational load was associated with APOBEC-signature mutagenesis. Clustering by mutation signature identified a high-mutation subset with 75% 5-year survival. mRNA expression clustering refined prior clustering analyses and identified a poor-survival "neuronal" subtype in which the majority of tumors lacked small cell or neuroendocrine histology. Clustering by mRNA, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and miRNA expression converged to identify subsets with differential epithelial-mesenchymal transition status, carcinoma in situ scores, histologic features, and survival. Our analyses identified 5 expression subtypes that may stratify response to different treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

  10. Bladder filling variations during concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients: early experience of bladder volume assessment using ultrasound scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jee Suk; Yoon, Hong In; Cha, Hye Jung; Chang, Yoon Sun; Cho, Yeo Na; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    To describe the early experience of analyzing variations and time trends in bladder volume of the rectal cancer patients who received bladder ultrasound scan. We identified 20 consecutive rectal cancer patients who received whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and bladder ultrasound scan between February and April 2012. Before simulation and during the entire course of treatment, patients were scanned with portable automated ultrasonic bladder scanner, 5 times consecutively, and the median value was reported. Then a radiation oncologist contoured the bladder inner wall shown on simulation computed tomography (CT) and calculated its volume. Before simulation, the median bladder volume measured using simulation CT and bladder ultrasound scan was 427 mL (range, 74 to 1,172 mL) and 417 mL (range, 147 to 1,245 mL), respectively. There was strong linear correlation (R = 0.93, p < 0.001) between the two results. During the course of treatment, there were wide variations in the bladder volume and every time, measurements were below the baseline with statistical significance (12/16). At 6 weeks after RT, the median volume was reduced by 59.3% to 175 mL. Compared to the baseline, bladder volume was reduced by 38% or 161 mL on average every week for 6 weeks. To our knowledge, this study is the first to prove that there are bladder volume variations and a reduction in bladder volume in rectal cancer patients. Moreover, our results will serve as the basis for implementation of bladder training to patients receiving RT with full bladder.

  11. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  12. Synchronous bladder and prostate cancers in the specimens of radical cystoprostatectomy: A multicenter retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Cem Özgür

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the features of prostate cancer that have been incidentally detected in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens of bladder cancer patients. The researchers of the current study retrospectively evaluated the data from 119 men who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy at four referral institutions in Ankara, Turkey. Of the 21 prostate cancer patients, 17 (81% were aged ≥60 years; 10 (47.6% had clinically significant diseases; three had a Gleason score of 6, three had a Gleason score of 7, three had a Gleason score of 8, one had a positive surgical margin along with extracapsular invasion of the tumor and a high Gleason score, and three patients had a tumor volume of ≥0.5 cm3, of which two also had a high Gleason score. Patients were followed-up for a mean of 29 ± 10.2 months; the overall survival was 96.6% (n = 115 during that period. Preoperative digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen values did not differ between the benign and prostate cancer groups. There was no survival advantage in the insignificant prostate cancer and benign prostate groups. No additional benefit for predicting prostate cancer was found with digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen tests, although some clinicians advised such. In patients aged 60 years, the preoperative work-up may routinely include prostate biopsy, especially the apex. Preoperative findings of multifocality of bladder cancers and the presence of carcinoma in situ have the risk of prostatic involvement.

  13. A novel role for drebrin in regulating progranulin bioactivity in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Qiong; Buraschi, Simone; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Shirao, Tomoaki; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Birbe, Ruth; Belfiore, Antonino; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2015-05-10

    We recently established a critical role for the growth factor progranulin in bladder cancer insofar as progranulin promotes urothelial cancer cell motility and contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, progranulin expression is upregulated in invasive bladder cancer tissues compared to normal controls. However, the molecular mechanisms of progranulin action in bladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we searched for novel progranulin-interacting proteins using pull-down assays with recombinant progranulin and proteomics. We discovered that drebrin, an F-actin binding protein, bound progranulin in urothelial cancer cells. We characterized drebrin function in urothelial cancer cell lines and showed that drebrin is critical for progranulin-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways and modulates motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, drebrin regulates tumor formation in vivo and its expression is upregulated in bladder cancer tissues compared to normal tissue controls. Our data are translationally relevant as indicate that drebrin exerts an essential functional role in the regulation of progranulin action and may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, drebrin may serve as novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  14. Genome-wide association studies in bladder cancer: first results and potential relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wu, Xifeng

    2009-09-01

    The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of urinary bladder cancer is unclear, as it is in many other types of cancer. Since 2007, however, an innovative research approach (i.e. genome-wide association studies or GWASs) has led to the identification of numerous genomic loci that harbor susceptibility factors for one or more cancer sites. All GWASs have been published in high-impact journals and the strengths of the design are acknowledged by all experts, but there is criticism about the relevance of the results. Late 2008, the first GWAS in bladder cancer was published. In this review, the principles of GWASs are explained, as well as their strengths and limitations. The study in bladder cancer among 4000 cases and 38,000 controls identified three new susceptibility loci at 8q24, 3q28, and 5p15 that increase the risk of bladder cancer by 22, 19, and 16%, respectively. The results of two other GWASs in bladder cancer are expected to appear this year. Joint analysis of the three studies will probably identify additional susceptibility loci. The results of bladder cancer GWASs may point the way to yet unknown disease mechanisms. So far, the findings are not sufficiently discriminative for risk predictions to be used in clinical care or public health.

  15. Kaempferol suppresses bladder cancer tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qiang; Song, Wenbin; Xu, Defeng; Ma, Yanmin; Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, which is an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation and an inducer of cell apoptosis have been shown in various cancers, including lung, pancreatic, and ovarian, but its effect has never been studied in bladder cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of kaempferol on bladder cancer using multiple in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies. The MTT assay results on various bladder cancer cell lines showed that kaempferol enhanced bladder cancer cell cytotoxicity. In contrast, when analyzed by the flow cytometric analysis, DNA ladder experiment, and TUNEL assay, kaempferol significantly was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These in vitro results were confirmed in in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenografted mouse models. Consistent with the in vitro results, we found that treating mice with kaempferol significant suppression in tumor growth compared to the control group mice. Tumor tissue staining results showed decreased expressions of the growth related markers, yet increased expressions in apoptosis markers in the kaempferol treated group mice tissues compared to the control group mice. In addition, our in vitro and in vivo data showed kaempferol can also inhibit bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Further mechanism dissection studies showed that significant down-regulation of the c-Met/p38 signaling pathway is responsible for the kaempferol mediated cell proliferation inhibition. All these findings suggest kaempferol might be an effective and novel chemotherapeutic drug to apply for the future therapeutic agent to combat bladder cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. NBI - plasma vaporization hybrid approach in bladder cancer endoscopic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, F; Geavlete, B; Georgescu, D; Jecu, M; Moldoveanu, C; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-06-15

    A prospective study was performed aiming to evaluate the surgical efficacy, perioperative safety profile, diagnostic accuracy and medium term results of a multi-modal approach consisting in narrow band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy and bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) when compared to the standard protocol represented by white light cystoscopy (WLC) and transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A total of 260 patients with apparently at least one bladder tumor over 3 cm were included in the trial. In the first group, 130 patients underwent conventional and NBI cystoscopy followed by BPV, while in a similar number of cases of the second arm, classical WLC and TURBT were applied. In all non-muscle invasive bladder tumors' (NMIBT) pathologically confirmed cases, standard monopolar Re-TUR was performed at 4-6 weeks after the initial intervention, followed by one year' BCG immunotherapy. The follow-up protocol included abdominal ultrasound, urinary cytology and WLC, performed every 3 months for a period of 2 years. The obturator nerve stimulation, bladder wall perforation, mean hemoglobin level drop, postoperative bleeding, catheterization period and hospital stay were significantly reduced for the plasma vaporization technique by comparison to conventional resection. Concerning tumoral detection, the present data confirmed the NBI superiority when compared to standard WLC regardless of tumor stage (95.3% vs. 65.1% for CIS, 93.3% vs. 82.2% for pTa, 97.4% vs. 94% for pT1, 95% vs. 84.2% overall). During standard Re-TUR the overall (6.3% versus 17.4%) and primary site (3.6% versus 12.8%) residual tumors' rates were significantly lower for the NBI-BPV group. The 1 (7.2% versus 18.3%) and 2 (11.5% versus 25.8%) years' recurrence rates were substantially lower for the combined approach. NBI cystoscopy significantly improved diagnostic accuracy, while bipolar technology showed a higher surgical efficiency, lower morbidity and faster postoperative recovery. The combined

  17. Time-Trend in Epidemiological and Pathological Features of Schistosoma-Associated Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAGHLOUL, M.S.; EL-BARADIE, M.; NAZMY, M.; NOUH, A.; MONEER, M.; YOUNIS, A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the different emerging trends in the features of bladder cancer along 17 years. Patients and Methods: During a 17-year period (1988- 2004), 5071 epithelial bladder cancer patients underwent radical cystectomy at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Egypt. The time was divided into 3 time periods to detect changes of the clinico pathologic features of patients in these periods. Results: There was a significant progressive increase in the patients' age with time and decrease in squamous/ transitional ratio, with transient increase in male predominance during the 2nd time period. Moreover, there was a decrease in the well differentiated (grade 1) tumor (p<0.001) and an increase in the frequency of pelvic nodal involvement (p<0.001). Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients were significantly older than those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (p<0.001). Progressive increase of age with time was evident in TCC, SCC and adenocarcinoma patients. Male to female ratio changed significantly in TCC and SCC. Conclusion: Time trend was confirmed with relative decrease in frequency of SCC and increase of TCC with changes in their pathological details. The differences between their characteristics and that of the Western countries are decreasing.

  18. Clinical and pathological implications of miRNA in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braicu C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia Braicu,1 Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric,1,2 Sergiu Chira,1 Anamaria Truta,1,3 Alexandru Floares,4 Bogdan Petrut,5,6 Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu,7,8,* Ioana Berindan-Neagoe1,9–11,*1Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 3Department of Medical Genetics, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 4Solutions of Artificial Intelligence Applications, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 5Department of Urology, The Oncology Institute “ Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 6Department of Urology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 7Department of Surgery, The Oncology Institute “ Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 8Department of Surgical Oncology and Gynaecological Oncology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 9Department of Immunology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 10Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “ Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 11Department of Experimental Therapeutics M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX, USAAbstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, noncoding RNA species with a length of 20–22 nucleotides that are recognized as essential regulators of relevant molecular mechanisms, including carcinogenesis. Current investigations show that miRNAs are detectable not only in different tissue types but also in a wide range of biological fluids, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles. miRNAs were proven to be involved in cell communication, both in pathological and physiological processes. Evaluation of the global expression patterns of miRNAs provides key opportunities with

  19. Vitamin K2 Induces Mitochondria-Related Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells via ROS and JNK/p38 MAPK Signal Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fengsen; Yu, Yuejin; Guan, Rijian; Xu, Zhiliang; Liang, Huageng; Hong, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The effects of vitamin K2 on apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells have been well established in previous studies. However, the apoptotic effect of vitamin K2 on bladder cancer cells has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to examine the apoptotic activity of Vitamin K2 in bladder cancer cells and investigate the underlying mechanism. In this study, Vitamin K2 induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through mitochondria pathway including loss of mitochondria membrane potential, cytochrome C release and caspase-3 cascade. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK was detected in Vitamin K2-treated cells and both SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) completely abolished the Vitamin K2-induced apoptosis and loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in bladder cancer cells, upon treatment of vitamin K2 and the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) almost blocked the Vitamin K2-triggered apoptosis, loss of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings revealed that Vitamin K2 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells via ROS-mediated JNK/p38 MAPK and Mitochondrial pathways.

  20. Cases of a Borderline Pathology That Can Mimic Bladder Cancer: Primary Amyloidosis of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Selçuk İşoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disease characterised by accumulation of a fibrillar protein called amyloid in the extracellular space. The kidneys, ureters and the bladder can be affected in the urinary tract. However, primary amyloidosis of bladder is a rare entity. Macroscopic hematuria could be the first and only symptom of primary amyloidosis of the bladder; therefore, it has similar findings with urinary tract malignancies. Histopathological evaluation is mandatory for the diagnosis. Follow-up should always include cystoscopic evaluation as recurrence is expected in the natural course.

  1. Gender and Bladder Cancer: A Collaborative Review of Etiology, Biology, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobruch, Jakub; Daneshmand, Siamak; Fisch, Margit; Lotan, Yair; Noon, Aidan P; Resnick, Matthew J; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boorjian, Stephen A

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer is three to four times greater in men than in women. However, women are diagnosed with more advanced disease at presentation and have less favorable outcomes after treatment. To review the literature on potential biologic mechanisms underlying differential gender risk for bladder cancer, and evidence regarding gender disparities in bladder cancer presentation, management, and outcomes. A literature search of English-language publications that included an analysis of the association of gender with bladder cancer was performed using Pubmed. Ninety-seven articles were selected for analysis with the consensus of all authors. It has been shown that the gender difference in bladder cancer incidence is independent of differences in exposure risk, including smoking status. Potential molecular mechanisms include disparate metabolism of carcinogens by hepatic enzymes between men and women, resulting in differential exposure of the urothelium to carcinogens. In addition, the activity of the sex steroid hormone pathway may play a role in bladder cancer development, with demonstration that both androgens and estrogens have biologic effects in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, gender differences exist in the timeliness and completeness of hematuria evaluation, with women experiencing a significantly greater delay in urologic referral and undergoing guideline-concordant imaging less frequently. Correspondingly, women have more advanced tumors at the time of bladder cancer diagnosis. Interestingly, higher cancer-specific mortality has been noted among women even after adjusting for tumor stage and treatment modality. Numerous potential biologic and epidemiologic factors probably underlie the gender differences observed for bladder cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, and outcomes. Continued evaluation to define clinical applications for manipulation of the sex steroid pathway and to improve the standardization of hematuria

  2. Bladder Cancer in HIV-infected Adults: An Emerging Issue? Case-Reports and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    Full Text Available Non-AIDS-related malignancies now represent a frequent cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, it has been rarely reported among HIV-infected patients. We wished to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients.We conducted a single center retrospective study from 1998 to 2013 in a university hospital in Paris. Cases of bladder cancer among HIV-infected patients were identified using the electronic records of the hospital database and of the HIV-infected cohort. Patient characteristics and outcomes were retrieved from patients charts. A systematic review of published cases of bladder cancers in patients with HIV-infection was also performed.During the study period we identified 15 HIV-infected patients (0.2% of the cohort with a bladder cancer. Patients were mostly men (73% and smokers (67%, with a median age of 56 years at cancer diagnosis. Bladder cancer was diagnosed a median of 14 years after HIV-infection. Most patients were on ART (86% with median current and nadir CD4 cell counts of 506 and 195 cells/mm3, respectively. Haematuria (73% was the most frequent presenting symptom and HPV-associated lesions were seen in 6/10 (60% patients. Histopathology showed transitional cell carcinoma in 80% and a high proportion of tumors with muscle invasion (47% and high histologic grade (73%. One-year survival rate was 74.6%. The systematic review identified 13 additional cases of urothelial bladder cancers which shared similar features.Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but may occur in relatively young patients with a low nadir CD4 cell count, have aggressive pathological features and can be fatal.

  3. Occupation, smoking, opium, and bladder cancer: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ghadimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, control group included patients who referred to a specialized clinic in the same city and hospitals where patients had been registered. Data were entered into SPSS software. Odds ratios (OR were calculated for occupational variables and other characteristics. Then, using logistic regression, the association between cancer and drugs was studied while smoking was controlled. Results: Cigarette smoking, even after quitting, was also associated with bladder cancer (OR = 2.549. Considering the classification of occupations, the OR of working in metal industry in patients was 10.629. Multivariate analysis showed that use of the drug by itself can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. Drug abuse together with the control of smoking increased the risk of bladder cancer by 4.959. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, contact with metal industries such as welding, and working with tin was found as a risk factor for bladder cancer. In addition, cigarette smoking and opium abuse individually were associated with bladder cancer.

  4. Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Gall Bladder Cancer: A Call ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adjusted incidence rates (AAR) of certain cancers in specific geographical regions within ... which is second to the highest (Chile) in the world and AAR of carcinoma gall bladder .... Conflict of Interest: None declared. 4. Asmarian NS, Ruzitalab ...

  5. Folate receptor expression in bladder cancer and its correlation with tumor behaviors and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dah-Shyong Yu

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In addition to tumor grade and stage, the expression of FR in bladder cancer is related to cellular differentiation. However, no correlation with patient survival was seen in this limited study.

  6. Chemoradiation May Help Some Patients with Bladder Cancer Avoid Radical Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers in the United Kingdom have found that adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy as a treatment for bladder cancer may reduce the risk of a recurrence more than radiation alone, without causing a substantial increase in side effects.

  7. Intra- and Intersexual swim bladder dimorphisms in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus): Implications of swim bladder proximity to the inner ear for sound pressure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Robert A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ryan D; Forlano, Paul M; Fay, Richard R; Ketten, Darlene R; Cox, Timothy C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that females and type II males have prominent, horn-like rostral swim bladder extensions that project toward the inner ear end organs (saccule, lagena, and utricle). The rostral swim bladder extensions were longer, and the distance between these swim bladder extensions and each inner-ear end organ type was significantly shorter in both females and type II males compared to that in type I males. Our results revealed that the normalized swim bladder length of females and type II males was longer than that in type I males while there was no difference in normalized swim bladder width among the three sexual phenotypes. We predict that these intrasexual and intersexual differences in swim bladder morphology among midshipman sexual phenotypes will afford greater sound pressure sensitivity and higher frequency detection in females and type II males and facilitate the detection and localization of conspecifics in shallow water environments, like those in which midshipman breed and nest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Inter-fraction bladder filling variations and time trends for cervical cancer patients assessed with a portable 3-dimensional ultrasound bladder scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rozilawati; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Quint, Sandra; Mens, Jan Willem; Pree, Ilse de; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For cervical cancer patients, bladder filling variations may result in inadequate EBRT target coverage, unless large safety margins are used. For a group of patients who received full bladder instructions, inter-fraction variations and time trends in bladder volume were quantified, and a 3D ultrasound (US) scanner was tested for on-line bladder volume measurements. Methods and materials: For 24 patients, the bladder volume was measured with US at the time of the planning CT scan, and twice weekly during the course of RT. Comparisons of US with planning CT were used to assess the bladder scanner accuracy. Patients were treated in prone on a belly board, EPID images were acquired to correlate set-up errors with bladder filling variations. Results: Measured US and CT bladder volumes were strongly correlated (R = 0.97, slope 1.1 ± 0.1). The population mean bladder volume at planning of 378 ± 209 ml (1 SD) reduced to 109 ± 88 ml (1 SD) in week 6, a reduction by 71% (average reduction 46 ml/week), revealing a large inter-fraction time trend. Intra-patient variation in bladder volume during RT was 168 ml (1 SD) (range 70-266 ml). Rotation around the LR axis was significantly correlated with bladder volume changes. Conclusions: Despite a full bladder instruction, bladder volumes reduced dramatically during treatment, implying large time trends in target position of these patients. The portable US scanner provides a quick and reliable measurement of the bladder volume, which might assist future online treatment adaptation

  9. Novel robust biomarkers for human bladder cancer based on activation of intracellular signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Lezhnina, Ksenia; Kovalchuk, Olga; Zhavoronkov, Alexander A.; Korzinkin, Mikhail B.; Zabolotneva, Anastasia A.; Shegay, Peter V.; Sokov, Dmitry G.; Gaifullin, Nurshat M.; Rusakov, Igor G.; Aliper, Alexander M.; Roumiantsev, Sergey A.; Alekseev, Boris Y.; Borisov, Nikolay M.; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2014-01-01

    We recently proposed a new bioinformatic algorithm called OncoFinder for quantifying the activation of intracellular signaling pathways. It was proved advantageous for minimizing errors of high-throughput gene expression analyses and showed strong potential for identifying new biomarkers. Here, for the first time, we applied OncoFinder for normal and cancerous tissues of the human bladder to identify biomarkers of bladder cancer. Using Illumina HT12v4 microarrays, we profiled gene expression ...

  10. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Reversal Effect and Its Mechanisms of Tetramethylpyrazine on Multidrug Resistance in Human Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wang

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is an important strategy for the treatment of bladder cancer. However, the main problem limiting the success of chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR. To improve the management of bladder cancer, it is an urgent matter to search for strategies to reverse MDR. We chose three kinds of herbal medicines including ginsenoside Rh2, (--Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP to detect their effects on bladder cancer. Reversal effects of these three herbal medicines for drug resistance in adriamycin (ADM-resistant Pumc-91 cells (Pumc-91/ADM were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 cell proliferation assay system. The mechanisms of reversal effect for TMP were explored in Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells. After Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells were treated with TMP, cell cycle distribution analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The expression of MRP1, GST, BCL-2, LRP and TOPO-II was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, immunefluorescence assay and western blot. It was observed that TMP was capable of enhancing the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents on Pumc-91/ADM cells in response to ADM, however Rh2 and EGCG were unable to. The reversal effect of TMP was also demonstrated in T24/DDP cells. Moreover, the treatment with TMP in Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells led to an increased of G1 phase accompanied with a concomitant decrease of cell numbers in S phase. Compared to the control group, an obvious decrease of MRP1, GST, BCL-2 and an increase of TOPO-II were shown in TMP groups with a dose-dependency in mRNA and protein levels. However, there was no difference on LRP expression between TMP groups and the control group. TMP could effectively reverse MDR of Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells and its mechanisms might be correlated with the alteration of MRP1, GST, BCL-2 and TOPO-II. TMP might be a potential candidate for reversing drug resistance in bladder cancer

  12. Reducing recurrence in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using photodynamic diagnosis and immediate post-transurethral resection of the bladder chemoprophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Malene Bøg; Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Zieger, Karsten Egbert Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluorescence cystoscopy and immediate post-transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) chemoprophylaxis on the risk of recurrence of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) under routine clinical conditions. Materials...

  13. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiajia [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Xi [Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjiebjmu@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  14. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy

  15. Bladder cancers respond to intravesical instillation of HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Gustafsson, Lotta; Månsson, Wiking; Ljunggren, Eva; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-09-15

    We studied if bladder cancers respond to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) to establish if intravesical HAMLET application might be used to selectively remove cancer cells in vivo. Patients with nonmuscle invasive transitional cell carcinomas were included. Nine patients received 5 daily intravesical instillations of HAMLET (25 mg/ml) during the week before scheduled surgery. HAMLET stimulated a rapid increase in the shedding of tumor cells into the urine, daily, during the 5 days of instillation. The effect was specific for HAMLET, as intravesical instillation of NaCl, PBS or native alpha-lactalbumin did not increase cell shedding. Most of the shed cells were dead and an apoptotic response was detected in 6 of 9 patients, using the TUNEL assay. At surgery, morphological changes in the exophytic tumors were documented by endoscopic photography and a reduction in tumor size or change in tumor character was detected in 8 of 9 patients. TUNEL staining was positive in biopsies from the remaining tumor in 4 patients but adjacent healthy tissue showed no evidence of apoptosis and no toxic response. The results suggest that HAMLET exerts a direct and selective effect on bladder cancer tissue in vivo and that local HAMLET administration might be of value in the future treatment of bladder cancers. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, A.; Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A.; Bankart, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) and in differentiating organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ-confined (≥T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ confined (≥T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  17. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, A., E-mail: arajesh27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Bankart, M.J.G. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) and in differentiating organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ-confined ({>=}T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ confined ({>=}T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  18. Association between MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer: new data in a Chinese population and an updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie LG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguo Xie,1,2,* Yan Sun,2,* Tao Chen,1,2,* Dawei Tian,1,2 Yujuan Li,3 Yu Zhang,1,2 Na Ding,2 Zhonghua Shen,1,2 Hao Xu,1,2 Xuewu Nian,4 Nan Sha,1,2 Ruifa Han,1,2 Hailong Hu,1,2 Changli Wu1,2 Objective: Human murine double minute 2 protein (MDM2 is mainly a negative regulator of p53 tumor suppressor pathway. We aimed to investigate the association between MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. Methods: A total of 535 bladder cancer patients and 649 health controls were recruited for our study. MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the genotype and susceptibility of bladder cancer. Kaplan–Meier estimates and log-rank test were obtained to analyze the association between the genotype and risk of recrudesce in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify independent prognostic factors. To further investigate the association, we conducted a meta-analysis including six studies. Results: The frequency of the MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism showed no significant difference between cases and controls (all P>0.05. In the stratification analysis, the results showed that G allele carriers were prone to have a significant decrease in risk of low-grade bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio: 0.613, 95% confidence interval: 0.427–0.881, and G variant was associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrence in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with or without chemotherapy (P<0.05. The results of the meta-analysis showed that G allele and GG genotype of MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism were significantly associated with increased risk of bladder cancer in Caucasians (both P<0.05, and no association was observed in total populations and Asians (P>0.05. Conclusion: MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism has no influence on bladder cancer risk in Asians, but

  19. G-protein-coupled receptor 137 accelerates proliferation of urinary bladder cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiheng; Bi, Wenhuan; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Wenbo; Xia, Shujie; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a worldwide concern because of its level of incidence and recurrence. To search an effective therapeutic strategy for urinary bladder cancer, it is important to identify proteins involved in tumorigenesis that could serve as potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) constitute a large protein family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate signal transduction pathways and cellular responses inside the cell. GPR137 is a newly discovered human gene encoding orphan GPRs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of GPR137 in urinary bladder cancer. The effect of GPR137 on cell growth was examined via an RNA interference (RNAi) lentivirus system in two human urinary bladder cancer cell lines BT5637 and T24. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi could specifically suppressed GPR137 expression in vitro, resulting in alleviated cell viability and impaired colony formation, as well as blocks G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results suggested GPR137 as an essential player in urinary bladder cancer cell growth, and it may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of delivered dose for a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy for bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutkenhaus, Lotte J.; Visser, Jorrit; Jong, Rianne de; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To account for variable bladder size during bladder cancer radiotherapy, a daily plan selection strategy was implemented. The aim of this study was to calculate the actually delivered dose using an adaptive strategy, compared to a non-adaptive approach. Material and methods: Ten patients were treated to the bladder and lymph nodes with an adaptive full bladder strategy. Interpolated delineations of bladder and tumor on a full and empty bladder CT scan resulted in five PTVs for which VMAT plans were created. Daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were used for plan selection. Bowel, rectum and target volumes were delineated on these CBCTs, and delivered dose for these was calculated using both the adaptive plan, and a non-adaptive plan. Results: Target coverage for lymph nodes improved using an adaptive strategy. The full bladder strategy spared the healthy part of the bladder from a high dose. Average bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy significantly reduced with 60 and 69 ml, respectively (p < 0.01). Other parameters for bowel and rectum remained unchanged. Conclusions: Daily plan selection compared to a non-adaptive strategy yielded similar bladder coverage and improved coverage for lymph nodes, with a significant reduction in bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy only, while other sparing was limited

  1. Comparison of doses according to change of bladder volume in treatment of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In the case of radiation therapy for prostate cancer, a balloon infused with a certain amount of air through the anus is used to reduce rectal dose. Because of the reason, radiation therapy for prostate cancer has acquired CBCT for daily image induction. In order to maintain the anatomical structure most similar to the first CT taken before treatment, it is pretreated, but it can not be said to be perfectly consistent. In two actual treatment regimens, the volume of the bladder was measured as 45.82 cc and 63.43 cc, and the equivalent diameter was 4.4 cm and 4.9 cm. As a result of this study, the mean volume of the bladder was estimated to be 56.2 cc, 105.6 cc by 20 CBCT. The mean dose of CBCT was 1.74% and the mean Bladder mean dose was 96.67%. In case B, PTV mean dose was 4.31%, Bladder mean Dose was estimated to be 97.35%. The changes in the volume of the bladder resulted in changes in the dose of PTV and bladder. The correlation coefficient of bladder dose according to the change of bladder volume showed linearity of mean dose R2= -0.94. The correlation coefficient of the PTV dose according to the volume change of the bladder showed linearity of mean dose R2= 0.04. It was found that the dose change of PTV was larger than that of bladder according to the change of bladder volume.

  2. Sniffer mice discriminate urine odours of patients with bladder cancer: A proof-of-principle study for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer-induced odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Katsuoka, Yoji; Yoneda, Kimihiko; Nonomura, Mitsuo; Uchimoto, Shinya; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko; Mizutani, Yoichi

    2017-11-07

    Similar to fingerprints, humans have unique, genetically determined body odours. In case of urine, the odour can change due to variations in diet as well as upon infection or tumour formation. We investigated the use of mice in a manner similar to "sniffer dogs" to detect changes in urine odour in patients with bladder cancer. We measured the odour discrimination thresholds of mice in a Y-maze, using urine mixtures from patients with bladder cancer (Stage I) and healthy volunteers (dietary variations) as well as occult blood- or antibiotic drug metabolite-modulated samples. Threshold difference indicated that intensities of urinary olfactory cues increase in the following order: dietary variation < bladder cancer < occult blood < antibiotic drug metabolites. After training with patient urine mixtures, sniffer mice discriminated between urine odours of pre- and post-transurethral resection in individual patients with bladder cancer in an equal-occult blood diluted condition below the detection level of dietary variations, achieving a success rate of 100% (11/11). Furthermore, genetic ablation of all dorsal olfactory receptors elevated the discrimination thresholds of mice by ≥ 10 5 -fold. The marked reduction in discrimination sensitivity indicates an essential role of the dorsal olfactory receptors in the recognition of urinary body odours in mice.