WorldWideScience

Sample records for blackwater fever

  1. A CASE OF BLACK-WATER FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 10 year old boy who came to us with fever and passing “cola coloured” urine.Thorough investigations showed a picture of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with hemoglobinuria and the diagnosis of Black-water fever was made which is a rare but potentially fatal condition,however prompt and timely management was initiated which saved a life without any complications.

  2. 33 CFR 117.271 - Blackwater River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blackwater River. 117.271 Section 117.271 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.271 Blackwater River. The draw of...

  3. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness study summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a summary of a wilderness study done of Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge pursuant to the Wilderness Act of 1964. It provides information as to...

  4. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  5. School Board Training at Blackwater: A Process with a Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jackson M.; Mangini, Margaret A.

    1981-01-01

    Consultants from Arizona State University and the Principal and Board of Trustees of the Blackwater Community School teamed together as partners and engaged in a process of school board training institutes endorsed by Public Law 95-56l which resulted in a policies and procedures manual for the operation of the school. (Author/CM)

  6. Tropical blackwater biogeochemistry:The Siak River in Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Antje

    2008-01-01

    The most studied tropical blackwater rivers are tributaries of the Orinoco and Amazon such as the Rio Negro in South America. The dark-brown colour of blackwater rivers results from high concentrations of dissolved organic matter that is leached from organic-rich soils within the river drainage basins. The catchment areas of the blackwater rivers in South America are mainly covered by mineral soils (ferralsols), which feature high contents of organic matter in the upper soil horizons. Blackwa...

  7. Effects of urban sprawl on sediment, surface water, and biota in the little Blackwater River, Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Little Blackwater River drains a catchment area of approximately 11,229 hectares (27,748 acres). About 516 hectares (1,276 acres) in this watershed are...

  8. Furbearer Removal and Trapping Program Annual Report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1994-95

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report supports the proposal by Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge for the utilization of trapping as a management tool for control of furbearer populations...

  9. Furbearer Removal and Trapping Program Annual Report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1992-93

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report supports the proposal by Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge for the utilization of trapping as a management tool for control of furbearer populations...

  10. Furbearer Removal and Trapping Program Annual Report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1993-94

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report supports the proposal by Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge for the utilization of trapping as a management tool for control of furbearer populations...

  11. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in the Blackwater River Watershed, Franklin County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Amy Marie

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) was used to determine sources of fecal pollution in the Blackwater River in South-central Virginia. The Department of Environmental Quality designated six segments as impaired due to high fecal coliform concentrations with non-point source (NPS) agriculture the suspected source of impairment. The Blackwater River watershed encompasses 72,000 ha of dairy, beef, and intensive production agriculture, abundant wildlife populations and many homes with onsite s...

  12. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater events in river systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Janice L; Baldwin, Darren S; Whitworth, Kerry L

    2013-01-15

    Blackwater events are characterised by a high concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the water column. They occur naturally in lowland rivers with forested floodplains and bring a variety of benefits to both aquatic and floodplain biota. However, particularly when accompanied by high temperatures, respiration of the organic carbon may cause blackwater to become hypoxic. This may lead to a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects on the aquatic biota. We review the current scientific knowledge concerning the management of blackwater and hypoxia, and examine how this knowledge may be applied to the management of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems. A range of management options, which aim to either prevent the development of hypoxic blackwater or to reintroduce oxygen into deoxygenated waters, are reported. Mitigation options that may be applicable to lowland river systems include manipulating the season and magnitude of floods in regulated rivers, increasing roughness in flow paths, establishing oxygenated refugia for aquatic biota and introducing hydraulic structures that promote turbulence and re-aeration. With climatic changes trending towards a scenario where extreme events leading to the development of hypoxic blackwater are more probable, it is now vital to validate and optimise management options on local and regional scales and work towards closing knowledge gaps. With judicious management of regulated rivers, it is possible to minimise the impacts of hypoxic flows while preserving the benefits brought to floodplain and river ecosystems by seasonal flooding and carbon exchange. PMID:23137913

  13. Q Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few organisms may be required to cause infection. Q Fever Topics Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Signs of ... Guidelines and Recommendations... Prevention Avoid getting infected... Videos Q Fever: New Guidelines for Patient Management CDC Expert ...

  14. Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... ais (French) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in ...

  15. Dengue fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. Fluids are given if there are signs of dehydration . Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is used to treat a high fever. Avoid taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve). They may ...

  16. Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Text Size What's in this article? About Dengue Fever Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention en español Fiebre del dengue Dengue fever is ... the illness from spreading to others. previous continue Prevention There is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever, so if children live in or will ...

  17. Options for Managing Hypoxic Blackwater in River Systems: Case Studies and Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Kerr, Janice L.; Mosley, Luke M.; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S.

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  18. Typhoid fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/25458731 . Read More Abdominal pain Acute kidney failure Delirium Diarrhea - overview Fatigue Fever Gastrointestinal bleeding Hepatic Malaise Peritonitis Rashes Systemic Weakness Update Date 5/ ...

  19. Rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Binotto, Maria Angelica; Guilherme, L.; Tanaka, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fever is an immunologically mediated inflammatory disease, that occurs as a delayed sequel to group A streptococcal throat infection, in genetically susceptible individuals. Chronic rheumatic heart disease remains an important public health problem in developing countries. Aetiopathogenesis and guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of acute rheumatic fever are reviewed.

  20. Rheumatic Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Binotto, MA; Guilherme, L.; Tanaka, AC

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fever is an immunologically mediated inflammatory disease, that occurs as a delayed sequel to group A streptococcal throat infection, in genetically susceptible individuals. Chronic rheumatic heart disease remains an important public health problem in developing countries. Aetiopathogenesis and guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of acute rheumatic fever are reviewed.

  1. Geostatistical Modeling of the Spatial Distribution of Sediment Oxygen Demand Within a Coastal Plain Blackwater Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater streams of the Georgia Coastal Plain are often listed as impaired due to chronically low DO levels. Previous research has shown that high sediment oxygen demand (SOD) values, a hypothesized cause of lowered DO within these waters, are significantly positively correlated with TOC within th...

  2. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Four different dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is bitten by ...

  3. Dengue fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothing, mosquito repellent, and netting can help reduce the risk of mosquito bites that can spread dengue fever and other infections. Limit outdoor activity during mosquito season, especially when they ...

  4. Dengue fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  5. Yellow fever

    OpenAIRE

    Aluízio Prata

    2000-01-01

    With the infestation by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever might already exist. This did not occur because of either the lacking of a sufficient contact between the diseased individual and the A. aegypti or perhaps because this, after sixty years without transmitting the virus, needs an adaptation phase to infecting again.

  6. Scarlet Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Katherine Fleming-Dutra, pediatrician, discusses scarlet fever, its cause, how to treat it, and how to prevent its spread.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  7. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Aluízio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the infestation by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever might already exist. This did not occur because of either the lacking of a sufficient contact between the diseased individual and the A. aegypti or perhaps because this, after sixty years without transmitting the virus, needs an adaptation phase to infecting again.

  8. Demgue Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    登革热的病名源于西班牙语,是形容患者由于发烧、关节疼痛导致走路时步履蹒跚、步态造作。研究者根据其症状,称其为"关节热"或"碎骨热"。1869年,英国伦敦皇家内科学会正式将其命名为"登革热"(dengue fever,DF)。

  9. Dengue fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, rashes and muscle and joint aches. Treatment includes rehydration and recovery is expected. A second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue ...

  10. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. How are hemorrhagic ... exist that can protect against these diseases. Therefore, prevention efforts must concentrate on avoiding contact with host ...

  11. Fever: Etiology and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Taştan, Yücel

    1996-01-01

    Fever an elevation of body temperature mediated by an increase of the hypothalamic heat regulatory set point has been recognized as a symptom of disease since Hippocrates This article reviews the definition mechanisms and etiology of fever Key words: Fever

  12. Dengue Fever Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Dengue Fever > Understanding Dengue Fever Understanding Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

  13. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ∼99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ∼69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water. PMID:26496512

  14. A new function for cypress knees? Forest composition facilitates aquatic bryophyte extension of oxic periods in blackwater cyperess swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited aquatic primary productivity is often cited as a factor behind low oxygen levels observed in forested blackwater rivers. However, submerged trunks of the same trees that limit light with their canopy also provide stable substrate for growth of aquatic bryophytes. We use laboratory and fiel...

  15. An imported case of P. falciparum malaria presenting as black water fever with acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Al-Haddad, Dalia

    2009-11-01

    This is a report of a case of blackwater fever in a 28-year-old Nigerian man who was admitted to hospital with fever, jaundice and passing dark urine. Abdominal examination revealed splenomegaly and an examination of the peripheral smear of the patient showed the ring form of the trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Serum creatinine was 200micromol/L. Treatment with quinine and doxycycline was started and intravenous fluids were administered with close monitoring of the urine output and serum electrolytes. Due to the alarming amount of fluid accumulation and his exacerbated azotaemia the decision was made to haemodialyse the patient; the patient required five haemodialysis sessions during his stay in the hospital. He was discharged on the sixteenth day after admission with a serum creatinine level of 160micromol/L. PMID:19945017

  16. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient ... life more enjoyable. Why does the body develop allergies? Allergy symptoms appear when the immune system reacts ...

  17. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is followed 3 to 10 days later by: Fever and chills Headache Skin rash (mostly on the arms and ... 21 days later, the following symptoms may surface: Fever and chills Headache Ulceration at the site of the bite ...

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  19. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection. Symptoms due to Streptobacillus moniliformis may include: Chills Fever Joint pain, redness, or swelling Rash Symptoms due to Spirillum minus may include: Chills Fever Open sore at the site of the ...

  20. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen;

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  1. Effect of Long-Term Freezing and Freeze–Thaw Cycles on Indigenous and Inoculated Microorganisms in Dewatered Blackwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Müller, Karoline; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2012-01-01

    coliforms, fecal streptococci, and antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria, and inoculated Salmonella Enteriditis and E. coli bacteriophage ΦX174 in dewatered blackwater. At the end of the long-term freezing experiment (10 months), an MPN recovery study was done, including the microbial groups that had shown the....... Bacteriophages showed limited reduction during the long-term freezing. Repeated freezing and thawing increased the reduction of all tested microbial groups markedly....

  2. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO{sub 2} contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  3. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  4. Q fever - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, T J

    1990-08-01

    Q or "query" fever is a zoonosis caused by the organism Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep and goats are the most common reservoirs of this organism. The placenta of infected animals contains high numbers (up to 10(9)/g) of C. burnetii. Aerosols occur at the time of parturition and man becomes infected following inhalation of the microorganism. The spectrum of illness in man is wide and consists of acute and chronic forms. Acute Q fever is most often a self-limited flu-like illness but may include pneumonia, hepatitis, or meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever almost always means endocarditis and rarely osteomyelitis. Chronic Q fever is not known to occur in animals other than man. An increased abortion and stillbirth rate are seen in infected domestic ungulates.Four provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta) reported cases of Q fever in 1989.A vaccine for Q fever has recently been licensed in Australia. PMID:17423643

  5. Mania in dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Anurag Jhanjee; Bhatia, M.S.; Shruti Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as break bone fever, is a mosquito-borne infection that causes a severe flu-like illness. During the last few years, there had been increasing reports of dengue fever with unusual manifestations, primarily with neurological symptoms. Psychiatric morbidity during acute dengue infection has rarely been reported. There has not been any systemic study mentioning the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric sequelae. We report a 28-year-old male who after an acute dengue infe...

  6. Rheumatic fever reappraised

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulrik Baandrup

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rheumatic fever is a complication following an episode of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. It is an acute immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disorder. Acute rheumatic heart disease during the active phase of rheumatic fever sometimes progresses to chronic rheumatic heart disease. Despite its declining importance in industrialised countries rheumatic fever remains the leading cause of death from heart disease in children and young adults in less developed regions. Fifteen to twenty million new cases emerge every year in developing countries.1

  7. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, David H.; Yun, Nadezhda E.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesi...

  8. [Fever in returning travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, G

    2014-03-01

    Travel-related illness is most often due to gastrointestinal, febrile, and dermatologic diseases. Fever in a returned traveler demands prompt attention because it may be a manifestation of an infection that could be rapidly progressive and lethal. The approach to the febrile patient should be stepwise and consider travel and exposure history. Malaria is the most common cause of fever in patients returning from Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas dengue is more frequent in travelers from other tropical and subtropical areas. Other serious diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fever, amebic liver abscess, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis and-rarely-viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:24557143

  9. Dengue Fever Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the initial fever has passed. Antibody tests for dengue fever can be positive if a person is infected with another arbovirus such as West Nile virus . A health practitioner will consider a person's test results, medical history, and recent travel history in making a diagnosis. ...

  10. Neonatal typhoid fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, K C; Simmonds, E.J.; Tarlow, M J

    1986-01-01

    Three infants of Pakistani immigrant mothers developed typhoid fever in the neonatal period. All three survived, but two became chronic excretors of Salmonella typhi. The risk of an outbreak of typhoid fever in a maternity unit or special care baby unit is emphasized.

  11. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  12. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  13. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  14. Tropical fevers: Management guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunit Singhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum, typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a ′syndromic approach′ to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes.

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because dengue hemorrhagic fever is caused by a virus for which there is no known cure or vaccine, the only treatment is to treat the symptoms. These treatments may include: A transfusion of fresh blood or platelets to ...

  16. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that occur during certain times ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Environmental Control Measures Can Kids Get Allergies All Year? Do ...

  17. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ups are concerned when you have a fever. Shiver, Then Sweat Once your hypothalamus sets a new ... starts, your body gets hotter and you may shiver without thinking about it to create more heat. ...

  18. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone Infection prevention and control guidance for care of Ebola patients Publications, technical guidance on Ebola Related topics Dengue Disease outbreaks Infectious diseases Tropical diseases Yellow fever ...

  19. Is fever beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    Kluger, M J

    1986-01-01

    Fever, the regulation of body temperature at an elevated level, is a common response to infection throughout the vertebrates, as well as in many species of invertebrate animals. It is probable that fever evolved as an adaptive response to infection hundreds of millions of years ago. Many components of the nonspecific and specific host response to infection are enhanced by small elevations in temperature. Perhaps more important, studies of bacterial- and viral-infected animals have shown that,...

  20. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Torreggiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  1. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  2. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  3. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H

    2012-10-01

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

  4. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Walker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  5. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E.; Walker, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

  6. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rates Geography Seasonality Persons at Risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in ... CDC–INFO Q Fever Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Prevention Other Ricketssial ...

  7. The Blackwater Intrusion of the Grampian Orogeny: Implications for the Younger Basics and the Tectonic-Metamorphic Zonation of the Grampian Terrane, NE Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gareth; Raub, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    The Dalradian Supergroup of NE Scotland hosts the classic Buchan low-pressure high-temperature metamorphic domain, as well as a suite of substantial ~470Myr syn-orogenic mafic intrusions (the 'Younger Basics') and a set of major, steeply-inclined shear zones which deform both the Dalradian country rocks and the Younger Basics. The Blackwater mafic intrusion is situated within one such shear zone, the Portsoy-Duchray Hill Lineament (PDHL), which runs SW inland from the coast at Portsoy and corresponds with the westernmost limit of Buchan metamorphism. Occupying a position between the Appin and Argyll Groups, the Blackwater Intrusion is emplaced at a deeper structural level than other more extensively studied Younger Basics to the East towards Aberdeen (such as the Insch Intrusion) and North along the PDHL (such as the Portsoy Gabbro). Uniquely for a Younger Basic mass, it is also in contact with older Dalradian meta-basic rocks, the somewhat enigmatic Blackwater Formation. A well as examining the Blackwater Intrusion, this study presents new evidence pertaining to the history of the Younger Basics and the PDHL, and their place within the Grampian Orogeny. The Blackwater Intrusion has an elongate shape roughly parallel to the strike of the surrounding Dalradian rocks, covers ~9km2 and mainly comprises blue-grey gabbro with scattered serpentinised ultramafic zones. Both the gabbro and serpentinite generally have massive texture, although some evidence of cm-scale modal layering (interpreted as cumulate texture) is present the north of the intrusion. It is in contact to the east with psammites, schists and meta-basic extrusives of the Argyll Group Blackwater Formation, and to the west with the Appin Group Glenfiddich Pelite Formation. Evidence for shearing is widespread, with sheared microstructures in pelites and meta-basites, mylonitised meta-sediments adjacent and parallel to the NW contact of the gabbro and vertical/sub-vertical NE-SW trending shear zones within

  8. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  9. Hay Fever Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nasal Steroids The mainstay of treatment for allergic rhinitis, or hay fever, is nasal steroids. It is important to note that these are not like body-building, or anabolic, steroids. This type of steroids helps to control inflammation, in this case in the nose. For ...

  10. Lithotrites and postoperative fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, David I; Lipkin, Michael E; Wang, Agnes J;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risks of fever from different lithotrites after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PNL database is a prospective, multi-institutional, international PNL registry. Of 5,803 total...

  11. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, A.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to f...

  12. Autoimmunity: from black water fever to regulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmunity is a field that has only been around for a little over a century. Initially, it was thought that autoimmunity could not happen, that the body would never turn on itself (i.e. "horror autotoxicus"). It was only around the First World War that autoimmunity was recognized as the pathogenesis of various diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of Compound E led to successful treatment of patients with autoimmune diseases, but it was not till later that the adverse effects of this class of drugs were elucidated. The "modern" age of autoimmunity began around 1945 with the description of blackwater fever, and most of the subsequent research on hemolytic anemia and the role of an autoantibody in its pathogenesis led to a description of the anti-globulin reaction. The lupus erythematous (LE) cell was recognized in the mid-1940s by Hargreaves. His research carried on into the 1960s. Rheumatoid factor was also first described in the 1940s as yet another serum factor with activity against globulin-coated sheep red blood cells. The concept of autoimmunity really gained a foothold in the 1950s, when autoimmune thyroid disease and idiopathic thrombocytopenia were first described. Much has happened since then, and our understanding of autoimmunity has evolved now to include mechanisms of apoptosis, signaling pathway derangements, and the discovery of subsets of T cells with regulatory activity. The modern day study of autoimmunity is a fascinating area of research, and full understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is far from being completely elucidated. PMID:24491820

  13. Dengue fever: natural management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Tahir, Madeha; Irfan, Muhammad; Raza Bukhari, Syeda Fiza; Ahmed, Bilal; Hanif, Muhammad; Rasul, Akhtar; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Dengue fever is caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1-4, and is the most common arboviral infection of humans in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Dengue virus infections can present with a spacious range of clinical signs, from a mild feverish illness to a life-threatening shock syndrome. Till now, there is no approved vaccine or drug against this virus. Therefore, there is an urgent need of development of alternative solutions for dengue. Several plant species have been reported with anti-dengue activity. Many herbal/natural drugs, most of which are commonly used as nutritional components, have been used as antiviral, larvicidal, mosquitocidal and mosquito repellents that may be used against dengue. The objective of this review article was to provide current approaches for the treatment and management/prevention of dengue fever by targeting viral proteins involved in replication cycle of the virus and different developmental stages of mosquito. PMID:25730815

  14. Treatment of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapakse, Senaka

    2012-01-01

    Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decad...

  15. Fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.)

  16. The Interstitial Status of Irish Gayness in Colm Tóibín’s The Blackwater Lightship and The Master

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Yebra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the liminal status of Irish gayness in the aftermath of its decriminalization in 1993. Colm Tóibín’s The Blackwater Lightship (1999 tries to reconcile Irish Catholicism and traditional family with new models of Irishness. Declan, the protagonist of the novel, goes back home when he is about to die of AIDS. His return reveals a dysfunctional family which only his disease brings together. His grandmother, mother and sister mourn Declan’s corpse-like body. Making reference to Julia Kristeva’s concepts of “abjection” and “the chora” (1982, 1984, I contend that the hero’s disease is a necessary sacrifice for the family and Ireland as a whole to resurface. The second part of the paper addresses Tóibín’s The Master (2004, whose fictional Henry James counterbalances Declan’s overt homosexuality and AIDS-related death. The Master delves into James’s hybridity as a closeted American of Irish descent opposed to Oscar Wilde’s flamboyant gay Irishness. The restraint of the former and the traumatic downfall of the latter make up the late-Victorian framework through which Declan’s late-twentieth-century sacrifice becomes meaningful.

  17. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000...

  18. [Maculopathy and dengue fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellab, B; Fardeau, C; Lehoang, P

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 20 year old female who presented a bilateral decrease in vision. Detailed history revealed that 15 days before the onset of symptoms, the patient presented a dengue fever during her stay in Martinique. On initial examination, the fundus exam revealed a bilateral loss of foveal reflection. The optical coherence tomography demonstrated the macular edema and the dengue serology was postive. The patient received an interferon2a-based therapy. The macular edema disappeared and we noticed a partial but fast improvement of visual acuity 12 days after the treatment initiation. PMID:24923080

  19. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Bahl, Rajiv; Bhatnagar, Shinjini

    Typhoid fever is estimated to have caused 21.6 million illnesses and 216,500 deaths globally in 2000, affecting all ages. There is also one case of paratyphoid fever for every four of typhoid. The global emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and of strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is of great concern. We discuss the occurrence of poor clinical response to fluoroquinolones despite disc sensitivity. Developments are being made in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, and genomic and proteomic studies reveal the possibility of new targets for diagnosis and treatment. Further, we review guidelines for use of diagnostic tests and for selection of antimicrobials in varying clinical situations. The importance of safe water, sanitation, and immunisation in the presence of increasing antibiotic resistance is paramount. Routine immunisation of school-age children with Vi or Ty21a vaccine is recommended for countries endemic for typhoid. Vi vaccine should be used for 2-5 year-old children in highly endemic settings. PMID:16125594

  20. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  1. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Raimunda S. S.; Silva, Eliana V. P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Márcio R. T.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

  2. Borrelia hispanica relapsing fever, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarih, M'hammed; Garnier, Martine; Boudebouch, Najma; Bouattour, Ali; Rihani, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Gern, Lise; Postic, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel

    2009-10-01

    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species. PMID:19861058

  3. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Sarih, M’hammed; Garnier, Martine; Boudebouch, Najma; Bouattour, Ali; Rihani, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Gern, Lise; Postic, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species.

  4. Dengue fever: atypical manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj Gangasiddaiah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is affecting millions of population globally. For the past one decade, we have seen several outbreaks and even causing significant mortality of affected population. We witnessed numerous pattern and multisystem presentation of dengue in this period. The CNS manifestation like encephalitis, polyneuropathy (GB like syndrome and paresthesias were uncommonly reported priorly. Pancreatitis, polyserositis, carditis of varying severity and hepatic failure are the, some of atypical manifestations observed in recent out breaks. So dengue illness can presents with multi system involvement and can account to significant mortality. Here an attempt was done to present varying, uncommon and atypical manifestation of dengue illness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1804-1806

  5. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racsa, Lori D; Kraft, Colleen S; Olinger, Gene G; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-15

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  6. Lassa fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  7. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. PMID:27015434

  8. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... host of Marburg virus is the African fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus . Fruit bats infected with Marburg virus do not to show ... Information for Specific Groups, References... Marburg HF Outbreak Distribution Map Factsheet: Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever [PDF - 3 pages] ...

  9. 20 Years of Archive Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Guy; Bulley, James

    2014-01-01

    "It is what is happening, right here, when a house, the Freuds' last house, becomes a museum: the passage from one institution to another." (Jacques Derrida, 'Archive Fever') Presented as a gift to the Freud Museum, Jacques Derrida's 1994 lecture 'Archive Fever' remains a compelling work for scholars and artists interested in the relationship between archives, memory, and technology. Originally titled 'The Concept of the Archive: A Freudian Impression', Derrida's deconstruction of the...

  10. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher-Hoch, S P; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques...

  11. [Persistent fever of dental origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice, L; Ribault, J Y; Fourestier, J; Gacon, J; Quilichini, R; Aubert, L; Chaffanjon, P; Roubaudi, G

    1990-01-01

    Based on 5 cases of unexplained prolonged fever, the authors stress the need to systematically look for a dental focus of infection. They discuss the difficulties in determining the site of the probable causal focus and stress the uncertain pathogenic relationship between the dental focus of infection and the fever. The extraction of infected teeth leads to a cure, however, the functional disadvantages of multiple extractions need to be carefully taken into account. PMID:2130447

  12. [The fever of international travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristea, Adriana; Luka, A I; Aramă, Victoria; Moroti, Ruxandra

    2008-01-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Although most illness reported by travellers are mild, 20-70% of travellers become ill enough to seek medical attention, either during or immediately after travel. The full spectrum of health complaints is unknown. Nevertheless the usual presentation of a returned traveller is a particular syndrome-fever, respiratory infection, diarrhoea, eosinophilia, or skin and soft tissue infection- or screening for asymptomatic infection. The most common diseases diagnosed in returning travellers are more often of cosmopolitan than exotic origin. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. Therefore, fever in a returned traveller requires prompt investigation focused on infections that are life-threatening, treatable or transmissible. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status, use or non-use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and degree of compliance with the prescribed regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particularly helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Malaria is the most important cause of fever in the returned traveller. While most travel-related infections present within 6 months of return, some infections with long latent periods or potential for lifetime persistence might be seen in those who have lived abroad. PMID:20201239

  13. Treatment of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decades at an alarming rate. In the endemic areas, waves of infection occur in epidemics, with thousands of individuals affected, creating a huge burden on the limited resources of a country's health care system. While the illness passes off as a simple febrile episode in many, a few have a severe illness marked by hypovolemic shock and bleeding. Iatrogenic fluid overload in the management may further complicate the picture. In this severe form dengue can be fatal. Tackling the burden of dengue is impeded by several issues, including a lack of understanding about the exact pathophysiology of the infection, inability to successfully control the vector population, lack of specific therapy against the virus, and the technical difficulties in developing a vaccine. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history, management strategies, and future directions for research on dengue, including the potential for development of a vaccine.Keywords: dengue, treatment, fluid resuscitation

  14. Influence of Vegetation on Sediment Accumulation in Restored Tidal Saltmarshes: Field Evidence from the Blackwater Estuary, Essex, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal saltmarshes in the UK, and especially in the estuaries of southeast England, have been subject to degradation and erosion over the last few decades, primarily caused by sea-level rise and coastal squeeze due to fixed coastal defences. This is of great concern to a range of coastal stakeholders due to the corresponding loss of functions and services associated with these systems. The coastal defence role that saltmarshes play is well established, and the importance of saltmarsh ecosystems as habitats for birds, fish, and other species is evidenced in the fact that a large proportion of saltmarsh in the southeast England is designated for its scientific and conservation significance. Sediment accumulation is critical for the maintenance of marsh elevation within the tidal frame and for delivery of the aforementioned functions and services. Although many studies have examined accumulation processes, key questions have yet to be fully tested through intensive field observations. One such question relates to the role of vegetation in mediating the retention of newly introduced sediment, as recent research has called into doubt the traditional view of halophytes significantly enhancing rates of sedimentation through wave dissipation. This study presents early results from a project designed to advance our understanding of the processes controlling sediment accumulation. The research focuses on the UK's first large-scale experimental managed flood defence realignment at Tollesbury, Blackwater estuary, Essex. The seawall protecting 21ha of reclaimed agricultural land was artificially breached in 1995 and saltmarsh has progressively developed as tidal exchange has introduced fine sediment into the site. Results from a 12 month monitoring campaign involving hierarchical two-week sediment trap deployments indicates that the role of vegetation in marsh development is less clear cut that previously thought. Gross sedimentation rates were generally higher in non

  15. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO. PMID:25724501

  16. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  17. CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a geographically widespread pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality. Although it is primarily zoonosis, sporadic cases and outbreaks of CCHF affecting humans do occur. The disease is endemic in many countries in Africa, Europe and Asia, and during 2002-2006, is has been reported in Turkey. People become infected through tick bites (especially Hyalomma spp., by crushing infected ticks, after contact with a patient with CCHF during the acute phase of infection, or by contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 287-295

  18. Yellow fever in Swansea, 1865.

    OpenAIRE

    Meers, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    A cargo of copper ore from Cuba was discharged at Swansea in mid-September 1865, during a spell of exceptionally hot weather. A small number of mosquitoes infected with the yellow fever virus, disembarking at the same time, established an epidemic of yellow fever in the town. In the next 25 days, at least 27 inhabitants were infected and 15 of them died. The quality of contemporary observation and recording has encouraged a re-examination of the events in the light of knowledge unavailable at...

  19. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition to the rash, the infection can cause fever, chills, muscle aches, vomiting, and nausea. Typically, RMSF is ... notice any symptoms of RMSF, such as: high fever headache chills muscle aches red eyes rash Without antibiotic treatment, ...

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  1. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  2. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes t...

  3. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Heilman, James M; Wolff, Jacob De; Beards, Graham M.; Basden, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treat...

  4. Acute acalculous cholecystitis secondary to dengue fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Farah HISAMONIE KOH; Hartini MISLI; Chong, Vui Heng

    2011-01-01

    Patients with dengue fever usually present with typical symptoms such as fever, frontal headache, retro-ocular pain, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, rash, leucopaenia and thrombocytopaenia. However, they can also manifest with atypical symptoms. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is an atypical manifestation of dengue fever. In dengue endemic areas such as Brunei Darussalam, it is imperative that typical and atypical presentations of dengue fever are recognised so that early diagnosis can ...

  5. DIAGNOSTIC PITFALLS IN A CHILD WITH FEVER

    OpenAIRE

    Baldev Prajapati

    2012-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in pediatric practice. 30% of all office visits is due to fever. Those who provide health care for children do receive innumerable phone calls daily for fever. Majority of fever cases get better even without proper diagnosis. Some of them develop complications due to pitfalls in diagnosis and irrational management. Appropriate diagnosis is the prerequisite for rational management. A detailed history and thorough clinical examination are mandatory for reaching ...

  6. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  7. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans.

  8. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  9. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Izri, Arezki; Temmam, Sarah; Moureau, Grégory; Hamrioui, Boussad; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria.

  10. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Jeremiah S.; Macaluso, Kevin; Smith, Nathaniel; Zaki, Sherif R.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Davis, Jon; Peterso, Norman; Azad, Abdu F.; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    We report a fatal case of rickettsiosis in a woman from the United States living in Kenya, who had a history of tick exposure. Immunohistochemical staining of skin, kidney, and liver demonstrated spotted fever group rickettsiae. The clinical findings, severity, and fatal outcome are most consistent with Rickettsia conorii infection.

  11. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquit...

  12. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a...

  13. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Sara; Bokaean, Mohammad; Shahrivar, Mona Ranjvar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. The viral genome consists of 3 RNA segments of 12 kb (L), 6.8 kb (M), and 3 kb (S). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread tickborne viral infection worldwide: it has been reported in many regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The geographical distribution of CCHFV corresponds most closely with the distribution of members of the tick genera, and Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection. In contrast to human infection, CCHFV infection is asymptomatic in all species. Treatment options for CCHF are limited; immunotherapy and ribavirin are effective in the treatment of CCHF; the efficacy of ribavirin in the treatment of CCHF has not yet been proven. This article reviews the history, epidemiology, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CCHFV, as well as the development of a vaccine against it. PMID:26199256

  14. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  15. Unusual manifestation of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Mohanty, D; Sonkar, S K; Gupta, Durgesh Kumar; Gupta, Abhinav

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever is an important public health problem in India and has various serious manifestations, which if not identified and treated at appropriate time can lead to dire consequences. Quadriparesis during the course of dengue infection is quite unusual and rarely reported. The authors hereby report a case of acute motor quadriparesis due to Guillain–Barre syndrome during the course of dengue infection, who showed gradual response to conservative treatment.

  16. Prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Katz; Michael; Frank

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF α was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. We report a case of prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion to treat steroid refractory UC.

  17. Leptospirosis presenting as honeymoon fever

    OpenAIRE

    B. de Sainte Marie; M. Delord; G. Dubourg; Gautret, P; Parola, P; Brouqui, P; Lagier, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers from western countries visit tropical regions, questioning western physicians on the prophylaxis, the diagnosis and the therapeutic management of patients with travel-associated infection. In July 2014, a French couple stayed for an adventure-travel in Columbia without malaria prophylaxis. A week after their return the woman presented with fever, myalgia, and retro-orbital pain. Three days later, her husband presented similar symptoms. In both patients, te...

  18. Bilateral panophthalmitis in dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral panophthalmitis as the initial ocular manifestation of dengue fever. The diagnosis was a little confusing as he initially presented with features suggestive of retrobulbar hemorrhage secondary to his very low platelet count, which is a common feature of dengue fever. Ophthalmic complications are usually seen in young adults who often present at the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Ocular findings may include anterior uveitis, vitritis, retinal hemorrhages, retinal vascular sheathing, yellow subretinal dots, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling, foveolitis that is clinically seen as a round subretinal yellowish lesion at the fovea, retinochoroiditis, choroidal effusion, optic disc swelling, optic neuritis, neuroretinitis, and oculomotor nerve palsy. [1] There is only one reported case of unilateral endogenous panophthalmitis due to dengue fever. Hence, clinicians and ophthalmologists have to be aware of this vision-threatening complication of dengue for early recognition and prompt treatment to save the vision of these young patients and prevent morbidity.

  19. [Combatting fever, phlegm and cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Silva, M A

    1991-03-01

    only ones that should be treated. Fever it probably the defense mechanism that has elicited the greatest treatment efforts. Lowering the fever through medication does nothing to fight the virus but makes children feel well enough to resume playing outside, thereby increasing the risk of secondary bacterial infection. Children with fevers should be kept hydrated. Only in the case of pain should medication be given to lower the fever. Aspirin should be avoided in children. An untreated fever provides information on the course of the disease: spontaneous decline followed by a rise may indicate bacterial infection. PMID:12343310

  20. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities. PMID:19712954

  1. DIAGNOSTIC PITFALLS IN A CHILD WITH FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldev Prajapati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fever is the most common symptom in pediatric practice. 30% of all office visits is due to fever. Those who provide health care for children do receive innumerable phone calls daily for fever. Majority of fever cases get better even without proper diagnosis. Some of them develop complications due to pitfalls in diagnosis and irrational management. Appropriate diagnosis is the prerequisite for rational management. A detailed history and thorough clinical examination are mandatory for reaching the diagnosis. Sound analysis and interpretation of history, physical examination and basic investigations is the key of diagnosis in most cases of fever. Pitfalls in any of these steps may lead to disaster. Common diagnostic pitfalls in a case of fever observed in daily practice are discussed here.

  2. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M.

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  3. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in no...

  4. Fever: Its History, Cause, and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Elisha

    1982-01-01

    Concepts of fever from Hippocrates to the present are briefly outlined and compared with current ideas of the pathogenesis of fever. Evidence is presented that endogenous pyrogen, the hormone that elevates body temperature, is identical with lymphocyte-activating factor, a monokine that stimulates lymphocyte proliferation and function. It now appears that inflammation and fever are closely interrelated phenomena that are modulated by a single hormone and that have been selected by evolution t...

  5. Azathioprine-induced fever in autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik Khoury; Ollech, Jacob E; Shmuel Chen; Meir Mizrahi; Meir Shalit

    2013-01-01

    Underdiagnosis of drug-induced fever leads to extensive investigation and prolongation of hospitalization, and may lead to multiple unnecessary invasive procedures and a wrong diagnosis. Azathioprine is a widely used immunosuppressive drug. We report a case of a 53-year-old female patient diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis treated with azathioprine, who presented to the emergency room with a 6-wk history of fever and chills without other associated symptoms. Since the patient’s fever ...

  6. The use of food waste as a carbon source for on-site treatment of nutrient-rich blackwater from an office block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Simon J C; Clarke, William P

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater from office blocks is typically dominated by blackwater and is therefore concentrated and nutrient-rich. A pilot plant was operated for 260 days, receiving 300 L d(-1) of wastewater directly from an office building to determine whether nutrient removal could be achieved using food waste (FW) as a supplemental carbon source. The pilot plant consisted of a 600 L prefermenter and a 600 L membrane bioreactor that was operated as a sequential batch reactor in order to cycle through anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic phases. The influent wastewater Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/N/P was, on average, 1438/275/40 mg L(-1), considerably higher than typical municipal wastewater. Treatment trials on the wastewater alone showed that the COD was only marginally sufficient to exhaust nitrate, and initiate anaerobic conditions required for phosphate removal. The addition of 15 kg d(-1) of macerated FW increased the average influent COD/N/P concentrations to 20,072/459/66 mg L(-1). The suitability of FW as a carbon source was demonstrated by denitrification to NOx-N concentration of supplementation were 7/50/13 mg L(-1) which equates to 99%, 89% and 80% COD/N/P removal, respectively, meeting the highest nutrient removal efficiency standards stipulated by state jurisdictions for on-site systems in the USA. PMID:26853844

  7. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  8. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and had an uneventful recovery. This case adds to the limited adult cases of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature and the need for prompt recognition and treatment of this rare complication.

  9. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and had an uneventful recovery. This case adds to the limited adult cases of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature and the need for prompt recognition and treatment of this rare complication. PMID:27274854

  10. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Marcos S Freire; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Rita Maria R. Nogueira; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results : Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods : Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to r...

  11. DENGUE FEVER: A REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the outbreaks of Dengue fever increasing in India, one state after other getting affected, it is very essential to know more about this disease and prevalence, any change in the viral strain, severity of the disease pattern, early detection of the virus and early management of the disease resulting in good recovery . P opulat ion growth, rapid urbanization, increase in international trav el from endemic areas and global warming are playing a major role in disease spread. Measures should be taken to control the aforementioned causes to prevent disease spread and reduce epidemic flare up.

  12. When your baby or infant has a fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000319.htm When your baby or infant has a fever To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. The first fever a baby or infant has is often scary for parents. Most fevers are ...

  13. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious medical illness, such as a heart problem, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, or cystic fibrosis Recently had an immunization ... serious medical illness, such as a heart problem, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, COPD, or other chronic lung ...

  14. Q Fever Chronic Osteomyelitis in Two Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beatriz; Morais, Andreia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Tavares, Delfin; Seves, Graça; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    We report 2 cases of chronic Q fever osteomyelitis in 10- and 5-year-old girls who presented with distal right femoral and left parasternal granulomatous osteomyelitis, respectively. Both were treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampin with good response. Q fever osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis in children, and the choice of antimicrobial treatment is difficult because of limited available data. PMID:26226441

  15. What about My Child and Rheumatic Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever causes permanent heart damage, it’s called rheumatic heart disease. Is there a cure for it? There’s no “ ... getting rheumatic fever again. If my child has rheumatic heart disease, how can I protect him or her from ...

  16. Dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Ricardo Gonzalez Fontal; Andres Felipe Henao-Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an atypical complication of dengue fever and is rarely described. We are reporting a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute pancreatitis in a patient with history of diabetes mellitus type 1 and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

  17. Dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ricardo Gonzalez Fontal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an atypical complication of dengue fever and is rarely described. We are reporting a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute pancreatitis in a patient with history of diabetes mellitus type 1 and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

  18. Fever Screening at Airports and Imported Dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Pei-Yun; Chien, Li-Jung; Chang, Shu-Fen; Su, Chien-Ling; Kuo, Yu-Chung; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Ho, Mei-Shang; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung

    2005-01-01

    Airport fever screening in Taiwan, July 2003–June 2004, identified 40 confirmed dengue cases. Results obtained by capture immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG enzyme-linked immunoassay, real time 1-step polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation showed that 33 (82.5%) of 40 patients were viremic. Airport fever screening can thus quickly identify imported dengue cases.

  19. History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Wilbur G.

    1982-01-01

    This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems.

  20. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever…

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  2. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5% o

  3. [Familial Mediterranean fever: not to be missed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Bemelman, F.J.; Potter van Loon, B.J.; Simon, A.

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is common among Turkish and Moroccan migrants. We describe three patients with FMF. A 3-year-old girl with recurrent fever and abdominal pain who was diagnosed early with FMF and treated effectively with colchicine. An adolescent girl who required interleukin (IL)-

  4. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  5. Parental fever phobia and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M S; Naimark, L; Leduc, D G

    1985-06-01

    Parents of 202 young febrile children were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and fears concerning fever and its treatment. Forty-eight percent of the parents considered temperatures less than 38.0 degrees C to be "fevers", 43% felt that temperatures less than 40.0 degrees C could be dangerous to a child, 21% favored treatment for fevers less than 38.0 degrees C, and 15% believed that, left untreated, temperature could rise to 42.0 degrees C or higher. Fifty-three percent advocated waking a febrile child at night to administer antipyretic therapy. Young age of the child was associated with a preference for use of acetaminophen over aspirin and, unexpectedly, with a higher parental threshold for consideration of fever. The higher their child's temperature at the time they were questioned, the higher the minimum temperature that parents considered a cause for concern. Surprisingly, higher socioeconomic status was not associated with a lesser degree of fever phobia. In fact, parents of higher socioeconomic status were more concerned about the risks of brain damage or seizures as sequelae of fever than were parents of lower socioeconomic status. It is concluded that undue fear and overly aggressive treatment of fever are epidemic among parents of infants and young children, even among the highly educated and well-to-do. Considerable effort will be required on the part of pediatricians and other child health workers to reeducate these parents about the definition, consequences, and appropriate treatment of fever. PMID:4000786

  6. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  7. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  8. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  9. DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are re-emerging diseases that are endemic in the Tropics. The global prevalence of dengue cases has increased in South-East Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific, and the Americas. The increasingly widespread distribution and the rising incidence of dengue virus infections are related to increased distribution of Aedes aegypti, an increasingly urban population, and increasing air travel. Several Southeast Asian countries show that the age of the reported dengue cases has increased from 5-9 years, to older children and young adults. Dengue infection in adolescents and adults has also been recognized as a potential hazard to international travelers returning from endemic areas, especially SoutheastAsia. Dengue is one disease entity with different clinical presentations; often with unpredictable clinical evolutions and outcomes. Bleeding manifestations in adult patients, including petechiae and menorrhagia were also frequently found; however, massive hematemesis may occur in adult patients because of peptic ulcer disease and may not be associated with profound shock as previously reported in children. Although shock and plasma leakage seem to be more prevalent as age decreases, the frequency of internal hemorrhage rises as age increases. Increase in liver enzymes found in both children and adults indicated liver involvement during dengue infections. Pre-existing liver diseases in adults such as chronic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and hemoglobinopathies may aggravate the liver impairment in dengue infection. Fulminant hepatitis is a rare but well described problem in adult patients with dengue infection. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent exists for dengue. The early recognition of dengue infection, bleeding tendency, and signs of circulatory collapse would reduce mortality rates in adult patients with dengue infection. PMID:26506734

  10. A fever from the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardin, T

    2000-03-01

    Shirley is a 42 year old woman who has rung you 5 days after returning from a 3 week resort holiday in Malaysia and Thailand. You saw her before her trip and administered a hepatitis A vaccine and advised her that she did not require anti malarial drugs as she was only going to large cities and beach resorts. She says she has had a high fever, headache and body aches for several days and that she feels exhausted, but is well enough to come to the surgery. When you see her later that morning, she looks fairly well, although she is moving rather gingerly. She says she has been resting, is drinking lots of fluids, has some anorexia, but no other significant symptoms. Examination reveals a temperature of 38 degrees C and she has a fine morbilliform rash on her body, limbs and neck. There are no other abnormal findings. PMID:10785992

  11. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, S. P.; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques with vaccinia virus-expressed Lassa virus structural proteins separately and in combination, with the object of inducing a predominantly TH1-type immune response. Following Lassa virus challenge, all unvaccinated animals died (0% survival). Nine of 10 animals vaccinated with all proteins survived (90% survival). Although no animals that received full-length glycoprotein alone had a high titer of antibody, 17 of 19 survived challenge (88%). In contrast, all animals vaccinated with nucleoprotein developed high titers of antibody but 12 of 15 died (20% survival). All animals vaccinated with single glycoproteins, G1 or G2, died, but all those that received both single glycoproteins (G1 plus G2) at separate sites survived, showing that both glycoproteins are independently important in protection. Neither group had demonstrable antibody levels prior to challenge. We demonstrate that in primates, immune responses to epitopes on both glycoproteins are required to protect against lethal challenge with Lassa virus without having untoward side effects and that this protection is likely to be primarily cell mediated. We show that an effective, safe vaccine against Lassa virus can and should be made and that its evaluation for human populations is a matter of humanitarian priority. PMID:10888616

  12. Pediatric Typhoid Fever: Evaluation of 30 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Abuhandan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate pediatric patients with typhoid fever with respect to their epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings and response to treatment in our region, where typhoid fever is endemic.Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 30 pediatric patients diagnosed as typhoid fever between January 2011 and December 2011 in terms of age, gender, complaints on presentation, physical examination and laboratory findings, and the therapeutics selected. Diagnosis was confirmed by Gruber-Widal agglutination test and/or growth of the causative agent in culture.Results: The patients comprised of 15 males and 15 females with a mean age of 10.03±5.08 years. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (n=28, fatigue (n=22, headache (n=19, sweating (n=17, abdominal pain (n=16, diarrhea (n=15, vomiting (n=11 and arthralgia (n=8. Physical examination revealed fever (n=27, hepatomegaly (n=12, splenomegaly (n=10, and rose spots (n=1. Titers of Salmonella typhi O agglutinins were ≥1/160 in all patients. Blood cultures were positive for S. typhi in three patients.Conclusions: There may be many different clinical signs of typhoid fever. In areas where the disease is endemic, it should be considered primarily, especially in patients presenting with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

  13. Dengue fever outbreak: a clinical management experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever and compare the clinical and haematological characteristics of Dengue-probable and Dengue-proven cases. All patients with age above 14 years, who were either hospitalized or treated in medical outdoor clinic due to acute febrile illness, were evaluated for clinical features of Dengue Fever (DF), Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). Patients showing typical clinical features and haematological findings suggestive of Dengue fever (As per WHO criteria) were evaluated in detail for comparison of probable and confirmed cases of Dengue fever. All other cases of acute febrile illness, not showing clinical features or haematological abnormalities of Dengue fever, were excluded. The clinical and laboratory features were recorded on SPSS 11.0 programme and graded where required, for descriptive and statistical analysis. Out of 5200 patients with febrile illness, 107 (2%) presented with typical features of DF, 40/107 (37%) were Dengue-proven while 67/107 (63%) were Dengue-probable. Out of Dengue-proven cases, 38 were of DF and 2 were of DHF. Day 1 temperature ranged from 99-105 degreeC (mean 101 degree C). Chills and rigors were noticed in 86 (80%), myalgia in 67%, headache in 54%, pharyngitis in 35%, rash in 28%, and bleeding manifestations in 2% cases. Hepatomegaly in 1(0.5%), lymphadenopathy in 1 (0.5%) and splenomegaly in 12 (11.2%) cases. Leucopoenia (count 40 U/L in 57% cases. Frequency of clinically suspected dengue virus infection was 107 (2%), while confirmed dengue fever cases were 40 (0.8%) out of 5200 fever cases. Fever with chills and rigors, body aches, headache, myalgia, rash, haemorrhagic manifestations, platelet count, total leukocyte count, and ALT, are parameters to screen the cases of suspected dengue virus infection, the diagnosis cannot be confirmed unless supported by molecular studies or dengue specific IgM. (author)

  14. Parent behaviour regarding fever and febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Erdağ, Gülay Çiler; AKIN, Yasemin; GİRİT, Nadir; ALTUĞ, Habibe

    2010-01-01

    Objective and Aim: This prospective study was planned to evaluate the level of knowledge and approach of the parents on fever and febrile convulsion (FC) of children brought to our Pediatric Emergency Room(PER) for high fever, aged between 3 months-5 years. Material and Methods: Parents of 150 children, brought to PER for high fever were interviewed by pediatricians with a questionnaire. Results: 87.0% of the questions were answered by the mother, and 13% by the father. 64.0% of the parents c...

  15. Nursing experience of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the nursing methods of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Methods: Through careful nursing, 1 case of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever, summed up the experience. Results: Patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever were 2 days later improved, within 6 months to fully recover. Conclusion: With proper treatment and careful nursing, patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever are able to fully recover.

  16. Dot enzyme immunoassay: an alternative diagnostic aid for dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardosa, M. J.; Tio, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    A dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) for the detection of antibodies to dengue virus was tested for use as a tool in the presumptive diagnosis of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Paired sera from the following groups of patients were tested using the DEIA and the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test: those with primary dengue fever; those experiencing a second dengue infection; and febrile patients who did not have dengue. The data obtained show that the DEIA can be effectively used a...

  17. Miller Fisher syndrome associated with Q fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Ortuño, A; Maeztu, C; Muñoz, J. A.; Reigadas, R; Rodriguez, T.; Valdés, M.

    1990-01-01

    A 51 year old woman with pneumonia developed Miller Fisher syndrome. Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed antibodies against Coxiella burnetti. Miller Fisher syndrome associated with Q fever has not been described previously.

  18. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis

  19. Subacute fulminant hepatic failure with intermittent fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Xin Chen; Bo Liu; Yong Hu; Joyce E. Johnson; Yi-Wei Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis B accounts for over 80%of acute hepatic failures in China and the patients die mainly of its complications. A patient with hepatic failure and fever is not uncommon, whereas repeated fever is rare. METHODS:A 32-year-old female was diagnosed with subacute hepatic failure and hepatitis B viral infection because of hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, serum anti-HBs-positive without hepatitis B vaccination, and typical intrahepatic pathological features of chronic hepatitis B. Plasma exchange was administered twice and she awoke with hyperbilirubinemia and discontinuous fever. RESULTS:Urethritis was conifrmed and medication-induced fever and/or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (Gram-negative bacillus infection) was suspected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, steroids and a Chinese herbal medicine, matrine, for three months and she recovered. CONCLUSION:The survival rate of patients with hepatic failure might be improved with comprehensive supporting measures and appropriate, timely management of com-plications.

  20. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... water precautions and frequent handwashing are important in preventing typhoid and paratyphoid fever (see Chapter 2, Food & ...

  1. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 12 months: 8.4% Number with reported respiratory allergies in the past 12 months: 7.4 million ...

  2. Malignant catarrhal fever (Coryza gangraenosa bovum)

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević Filip; Uzelac Đorđe; Milosavljević Zlatko; Vujanac Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever is a disease of cattle and other ruminants, which most often has a lethal outcome. The disease occurs sporadically and is very difficult to control. At a private mini cattle farm, the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever was suspected on the grounds of anaemnestic data and results of clinical examinations. The owner said that, in addition to cattle, he also breeds sheep in a separate facility, but said these animals had not been in contact with the diseased cow. I...

  3. Enteric fever in Mediterranean North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Franka, Ezzedin; Tawil, Khaled; Wasfy, Momtaz; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Rubino, Salvatore; Klena, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in the Mediterranean North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) with an estimated incidence of 10-100 cases per 100,000 persons. Outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B is more commonly involved in nosocomial cases of enteric fever in North Africa than expected and leads to high mortality rates among infants w...

  4. Dengue Fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Effler, Paul V.; Pang, Lorrin; Kitsutani, Paul; Vorndam, Vance; Nakata, Michele; Ayers, Tracy; Elm, Joe; Tom, Tammy; Reiter, Paul; Rigau-Perez, José G.; Hayes, John M; Mills, Kristin; Napier, Mike; Clark, Gary G.; Gubler, Duane J.

    2005-01-01

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock s...

  5. CRIMEAN CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER - AN ARTICLE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Najam Ali; Jaiswal Anushree; Choudhray Reenu; Abid Mohammad; Kishore Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. (CCHF) is a tick-borne infectious disease characterized by fever, malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, sore throat, muscle aches, hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia. CCHF has the most extensive geographic range of the medically significant tick-borne viruses occurring in Africa, Europe and Asia & found recently in India (Ahmadabad) in 2011,become a s...

  6. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  7. Hemophagocytic syndrome in classic dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Sayantan Ray1,*; Supratip Kundu; Manjari Saha; Prantar Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    A 24-year-old previously healthy girl presented with persistent fever, headache, and jaundice. Rapid-test anti-dengue virus IgM antibody was positive but anti-dengue IgG was nonreactive, which is suggestive of primary dengue infection. There was clinical deterioration during empiric antibiotic and symptomatic therapy. Bone marrow examination demonstrated the presence of hemophagocytosis. Diagnosis of dengue fever with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was made according to the diagnost...

  8. Lost Trust: A Yellow Fever Patient Response

    OpenAIRE

    Runge, John S.

    2013-01-01

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response ...

  9. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Fazal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Dengue is a major health problem in many parts of India and Gulbarga (North Karnataka was previously not a known endemic area f or dengue. Infection with dengue virus can cause a spectrum of three clinical syndromes , classic dengue fever (DF , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The present study was undertaken to determine the disease profile of dengue virus infection in hospitalized patients. METHODS AND MATERIAL: One hundred patients admitted in Basaveshwar Teaching and General hospital with fever more than 38.5 degree Celsius and IgM dengue positive were selected. They were followed from the onset of fever to twelve days or till they are recovered according to WHO discharge criteria whichever is earlier. They underwent relevant investigations to identify specific organ dysfunction and categorize them into the spectrum of Dengue fever in accordance to W HO criteria . RESULTS: Out of 100 cases in this study 70 cases belongs to DF , 23 cases to DHF and 7 cases to DSS based on WHO criteria. All the cases had fever (100%. Other common symptoms noted were myalgia (61% , joint pain (54% , headache (66% , vomitin g (55% , pain abdomen (48% , rash (41% , hepatomegaly (20% , bleeding (21% and shock (8%. Hess test was positive in 24% patients. Low platelet count of less than 100 , 000/cu mm according to WHO criteria was present in 73% patients. Deranged liver functio n test and renal parameters were seen in 26 and 8 patients respectively . Mortality documented was 7 patients due to delayed presentation. The average duration of hospital stay was 4.65 days. CONCLUSION: Dengue fever was a more common manifestation than DHF or DSS. During aepidemic , dengue should be strongly considered on the differential diagnosis of any patient with fever. The treatment of dengue is mainly fluid management and supportive. Early recognition and management of alarm symptoms is the key to bet ter outcome

  10. Dengue Fever With Rectus Sheath Hematoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an unc...

  11. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Lovekesh Kumar; Mahendra Singh; Ashish Saxena; Yuvraj Kolhe; Karande, Snehal K.; Narendra Singh; Venkatesh, P.; Rambabu Meena

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked ...

  12. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew E. Dongo; Kesieme, Emeka B.; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C.; Akpede, George O.

    2013-01-01

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefo...

  13. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  14. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  15. Fever in a traveler returning from the Amazon. Do not forget hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Burke A.; Teper, Rina Seerke; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics with fever remain a diagnostic challenge. Fever and chills suggest malaria, but may be present in dengue, chikungunya and influenza, and splenomegaly favors malaria or typhoid fever. In terms of laboratory tests, leukopenia suggests dengue fever, chikungunya fever or influenza. Atypical lymphocytes are present in malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza HAV, but not typhoid fever. Thrombocytopenia is profound in dengue fever, is also present ...

  16. Protection against yellow fever in monkeys by immunization with yellow fever virus nonstructural protein NS1.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, J J; Brandriss, M. W.; Cropp, C.B.; Monath, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Immunization of monkeys with yellow fever virus-specified nonstructural protein NS1 resulted in protection against fatal hepatitis as well as marked reduction in the magnitude of viremia after subcutaneous challenge with yellow fever virus. The results may be relevant to the design of possible subunit or recombinant flavivirus vaccines.

  17. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  18. Context dependency and generality of fever in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Z. R.; Adamo, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Fever can reduce mortality in infected animals. Yet, despite its fitness-enhancing qualities, fever often varies among animals. We used several approaches to examine this variation in insects. Texas field crickets ( Gryllus texensis) exhibited a modest fever (1 °C increase in preferred body temperature, T pref) after injection of prostaglandin, which putatively mediates fever in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but they did not exhibit fever during chronic exposure to heat-killed bacteria. Further, chronic food limitation and mating status did not affect T pref or the expression of behavioural fever, suggesting limited context dependency of fever in G. texensis. Our meta-analysis of behavioural fever studies indicated that behavioural fever occurs in many insects, but it is not ubiquitous. Thus, both empirical and meta-analytical results suggest that the fever response in insects `is widespread, although certainly not inevitable' (Moore 2002). We highlight the need for future work focusing on standardizing an experimental protocol to measure behavioural fever, understanding the specific mechanism(s) underlying fever in insects, and examining whether ecological or physiological costs often outweigh the benefits of fever and can explain the sporadic nature of fever in insects.

  19. Imported Lassa fever--New Jersey, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral illness caused by Lassa virus, which is hosted by rodents in the Mastomys natalensis species complex and rarely imported to countries outside of those areas in Africa where the disease is endemic. Lassa fever is characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, and chest and abdominal pain. Approximately 15%-20% of patients hospitalized for Lassa fever die from the illness; however, approximately 80% of human infections with Lassa virus are mild or asymptomatic, and 1% of infections overall result in death. On August 28, 2004, a man aged 38 years residing in New Jersey died from Lassa fever after returning from travel to West Africa. This report summarizes the clinical and epidemiologic investigations conducted by federal, state, and local public health agencies. The findings illustrate the need for clinicians and public health officials to remain alert to emerging infectious diseases and to institute appropriate measures to promptly identify and limit spread of unusual pathogens. PMID:15457145

  20. Congo crimean hemorrhagic fever in balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the pattern and mortality of Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Balochistan. Two hundred and twenty-six febrile patients with bleeding of sudden onset, with initial signs and symptoms including headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, vomiting, red eyes, flushed face, red throat and petechiae on the palate of both sexes were screened for CCHF over a period of 10 years. Clinical criteria for initial diagnosis directed the subsequent diagnostic work-up. The ages of these patients ranged from 7 years to 74 years. Sixty-three percent of these patients were positive for CCHF. Males were 68% of the total patients. Over the years, CCHF showed a gradual increase ranging from 43% to 80%. Total mortality was 15%, all being secondary cases. Death was not observed in primary CCHF cases. In this study, suspicion of viral hemorrhagic fever was raised in 62% cases at the time of admission and the patients were immediately isolated, noninvasive procedures were instigated and barrier nursing was implemented. None of the family and hospital staff members who had close contact with the patient became ill, while those who were not suspected initially (38%) infected the health care workers and the family members. Although CCHF is rare, this study stresses the need for proper health facilities in Pakistan and to include VHF (viral hemorrhagic fevers) in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever with hemorrhagic tendencies of sudden onset. (author)

  1. Hepatic Involvement in Dengue Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenahalli Jagadishkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatic dysfunction is common in dengue infection and the degree of liver dysfunction in children varies from mild injury with elevation of transaminases to severe injury with jaundice. This study was undertaken to asses the spectrum of hepatic involvement in dengue infection.Methods: 110 children with serologically positive dengue fever aged between 2 months - 14 years were studied for their hepatic functions both clinically and biochemically after excluding malaria, enteric fever, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B with relevant investigations.Findings: All cases were grouped into DF (Dengue fever, DHF (Dengue hemorrhagic fever and DSS (Dengue shock syndrome according to WHO criteria. The spectrum of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (79%, hepatic tenderness (56%, jaundice (4.5%, raised levels of aspartate transaminase (AST(93 %, alanine transaminase (ALT(78%, alkaline phosphatase (AP (57%, prolonged prothrombin time (PT (20%, reduced levels of serum albumin (66% and abnormal abdomen ultrasound (65%.Conclusion: Hepatic dysfunction was observed more in DHF and DSS group compared to DF group. About 17.27% of children had >10 fold increase in the liver enzymes. There was no correlation between the degree of hepatic enlargement or hepatic tenderness with the abnormalities of liver functions. Any child with fever, jaundice and tender hepatomegaly in geographical areas where dengue is endemic, the diagnosis of dengue infection should be strongly considered.

  2. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity. PMID:27142427

  3. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. PMID:26163194

  4. Milk fever control principles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Østergaard, S;

    2002-01-01

    prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with...... prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K...... palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR...

  5. Hemophagocytic syndrome in classic dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old previously healthy girl presented with persistent fever, headache, and jaundice. Rapid-test anti-dengue virus IgM antibody was positive but anti-dengue IgG was nonreactive, which is suggestive of primary dengue infection. There was clinical deterioration during empiric antibiotic and symptomatic therapy. Bone marrow examination demonstrated the presence of hemophagocytosis. Diagnosis of dengue fever with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was made according to the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol of the Histiocyte Society. The patient recovered with corticosteroid therapy. A review of literature revealed only a handful of case reports that showed the evidence that this syndrome is caused by dengue virus. Our patient is an interesting case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with classic dengue fever and contributes an additional case to the existing literature on this topic. This case highlights the need for increased awareness even in infections not typically associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

  6. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  7. Dengue fever with acute liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Vinodh B; Bammigatti C; Kumar Ashok; Mittal V

    2005-01-01

    A virus belonging to the Flaviviridae group causes dengue haemorrhagic fever. Dengue presenting as acute liver failure is rare. Dengue is endemic in India. The last epidemic of dengue occurred in Delhi in 2003. During this epidemic, 2185 confirmed cases of dengue were reported. Dengue virus serotypes 2 and 3 were responsible for this epidemic. A 19-yr-old male presented to our hospital with the complaints of fever for 12 days, during this epidemic. He was diagnosed as having dengue shock synd...

  8. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Araimi, Hanaa; Al-Jabri, Amal; Mehmoud, Arshad; Al-Abri, Seif

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a 38 year-old Sri Lankan female who was referred to the surgeon on call with a picture of acute abdomen. She presented with a three-day history of fever, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhoea; however, the physical examination was not consistent with acute abdomen. Her platelet count was 22 ×109/L. A diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was made and dengue serology was positive. Dengue epidemics have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms an...

  9. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Virat J. Agravat; Sneha Agarwal; Kiran G. Piparva

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an acute, highly-contagious and life-threatening vector borne disease. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40%. CCHF virus isolation and/or disease has been reported from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, South eastern Europe and Middle east. Jan 2011 marks first ever reports of outbreak of CCHF in India, total 5 cases were detected of CCHF from Gujarat. CCHF has recently in news again,...

  10. Dengue fever with acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodh B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A virus belonging to the Flaviviridae group causes dengue haemorrhagic fever. Dengue presenting as acute liver failure is rare. Dengue is endemic in India. The last epidemic of dengue occurred in Delhi in 2003. During this epidemic, 2185 confirmed cases of dengue were reported. Dengue virus serotypes 2 and 3 were responsible for this epidemic. A 19-yr-old male presented to our hospital with the complaints of fever for 12 days, during this epidemic. He was diagnosed as having dengue shock syndrome, stage IV with acute liver failure. He had primary dengue infection. He made complete recovery with supportive management.

  11. Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160138.html Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever? Potentially fatal infection is found in ... often-overlooked infection, and about 160 die from it, the society says. "Valley fever is underdiagnosed in ...

  12. Effect of vitamin E on thrombocytopenia in dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Vaish; Sudhir Verma; Abhishek Agarwal; Lokesh Gupta; Manish Gutch

    2012-01-01

    Context: Dengue fever frequently causes thrombocytopenia for which there is no satisfactory treatment. Aim: To evaluate the effect of vitamin E on thrombocytopenia in dengue fever. Settings and Design: A tertiary teaching hospital during a recent outbreak of dengue fever in the area. Materials and Methods: Patients of dengue fever (as per WHO criteria) with thrombocytopenia and platelet counts between 10 × 10 3 /mm 3 and 100 × 10 3 /mm 3 seen during September 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010 were...

  13. Assessing Yellow Fever Risk in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Maurizio Macaluso; Watts, Douglas M.; Tesh, Robert B; Bolivar Guerra; Cruz, Ligia M; Sagar Galwankar; Sten H Vermund

    2009-01-01

    This study reports results of a cross-sectional study based on interviews and seroepidemiological methods to identify risk factors for yellow fever infection among personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Clinical symptoms and signs observed among yellow fever cases are also described. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infection was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. A yellow fever...

  14. A Belgian traveler who acquired yellow fever in The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Colebunders, R; Mariage, J. L.; Coche, J. C.; Pirenne, B; Kempinaire, S.; Hantson, P.; Gompel, A; Niedrig, M; Van Esbroeck, M.; Bailey, R; Drosten, C.; Schmitz, H

    2002-01-01

    A 47-year-old Belgian woman acquired yellow fever during a 1-week vacation in The Gambia; she had never been vaccinated against yellow fever. She died of massive gastrointestinal bleeding 7 days after the onset of the first symptoms. This dramatic case demonstrates that it is important for persons to be vaccinated against yellow fever before they travel to countries where yellow fever is endemic, even if the country, like The Gambia, does not require travelers to be vaccinated.

  15. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ogbu; E. Ajuluchukwu; Uneke, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestud...

  16. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão; Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda; Michele de Souza Bastos; Bernardino Cláudio de Albuquerque; Wilson Duarte Alecrim

    2004-01-01

    Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic sur...

  17. Nursing experience of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yan ZHANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the nursing methods of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Methods: Through careful nursing, 1 case of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever, summed up the experience. Results: Patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever were 2 days later improved, within 6 months to fully recover. Conclusion: With proper treatment and careful nursing, patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever are able to fully recover.

  18. NCIDENCE OF BLEEDING MANIFESTATIONS IN FEVER WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIA CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fever is the cardinal manifestation of infection. Platelets are necessary to prevent bleeding manifestations. Certain infections cause thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of bleeding manifestations in i nfections which cause fever and thrombocytopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients who were admitted with fever and thrombocytopenia, aged above 12 years, in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients who are admitted with thrombocytopenia and without fever were excluded. Patients who are admitted with fever and normal platelet count were excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSI ON: Fever with thrombocytopenia is the commonest presenting problem in the medical war ds. In the present study the commonest infectious etiology of fever with thrombocytopenia was malaria fever (36%, followed by undiagnosed fevers (28%, dengue fever (26%, typhoid fever (6% and scrub typhus (4%. In the present study bleeding manifestati ons were seen in 16 cases (32% and bleeding manifestations were not seen in 34 cases (68%. The commonest bleeding manifestation was cutaneous, followed by hematemesis, malena, bleeding gums, hematuria and epistaxis. Bleeding manifestation was commonly se en in thrombocytopenia with dengue fever (14%, followed by malaria (8%, undiagnosed cases (8% and typhoid (2%.

  19. Chikungunya fever in Israeli travelers returning from northwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanay, Amir; Schwartz, Eli; Bin, Hanna; Zeller, Hervé; Niedrig, Matthias; Dan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya fever has been increasingly documented among Western travelers returning from areas with chikungunya virus transmission, which are also popular touristic sites. We describe the case of three Israeli travelers who developed fever, maculopapular rash, and long-standing arthralgias while visiting northern Indian states not known to be involved in the chikungunya fever epidemic. PMID:19006519

  20. [Fever caused by metapramine. Diagnosis of fever caused by psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeunne, C; Plaisant, O; Henslik, V; Hugues, F C

    1988-01-01

    Because of two hyperthermias, due to metapramine a french antidepressives of the tricyclic family, international literature concerning drug fever induced by psychotropics was reviewed. This study stresses the fact that apart from neuroleptics which are frequently involved in that type of accident, other psychotropics are very rarely responsible of hyperthermia. One hundred and five cases published since 1970 and sufficiently well documented to be analysed according to Dangoumeau's french method of imputation of side effects of drugs, were reviewed. Among these cases, one hundred (95%) corresponded to malignant syndrome of neuroleptics, 89 concerned neuroleptics alone, and 11, neuroleptics associated with other psychotropics. Regarding the different mechanisms which can explain drug fever as described by Lipsky, it seems that concerning psychotropics two types may be retained: Fever due to central dysregulation directly induced by drugs, and mainly, immunoallergic fever, the most frequently seen as described in our two cases. PMID:3364875

  1. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control. PMID:26012219

  2. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. PMID:26187566

  3. Autochthonous Dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August–September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan.

  4. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating. PMID:24447877

  5. Broadening the horizons for yellow fever

    OpenAIRE

    Van Epps, Heather L.

    2005-01-01

    The vaccine against yellow fever is one of the safest and most effective ever developed. With an outstanding record in humans, has this live attenuated vaccine been overlooked as a promising vector for the development of vaccines against pathogens outside its own genus? Recent studies, including a report by Tao et al. on page 201 of this issue, have sparked renewed interest.

  6. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U C Chaturvedi; Rachna Nagar

    2008-11-01

    The relationship of this country with dengue has been long and intense. The first recorded epidemic of clinically dengue-like illness occurred at Madras in 1780 and the dengue virus was isolated for the first time almost simultaneously in Japan and Calcutta in 1943–1944. After the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever along the East Coast of India in 1963–1964, it spread to allover the country. The first full-blown epidemic of the severe form of the illness, the dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome occurred in North India in 1996. Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmission of the disease. Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent work in the area of molecular epidemiology, immunopathology and vaccine development. Selected work done in this country on the problems of dengue is presented here.

  7. Imported Lassa fever, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; MacNeil, Adam; McConnell, Ryan; Patel, Ami; Dillon, Katherine E; Hamilton, Keith; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Campbell, Shelley; Knust, Barbara; Cannon, Deborah; Miller, David; Manning, Craig; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of Lassa fever in a US traveler who visited rural Liberia, became ill while in country, sought medical care upon return to the United States, and subsequently had his illness laboratory confirmed. The patient recovered with supportive therapy. No secondary cases occurred. PMID:20875288

  8. Imported Lassa Fever, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Amorosa, Valerianna; MacNeil, Adam; McConnell, Ryan; Patel, Ami; Dillon, Katherine E.; Hamilton, Keith; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Campbell, Shelley; Knust, Barbara; Cannon, Deborah; Miller, David; Manning, Craig; Pierre E Rollin; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of Lassa fever in a US traveler who visited rural Liberia, became ill while in country, sought medical care upon return to the United States, and subsequently had his illness laboratory confirmed. The patient recovered with supportive therapy. No secondary cases occurred.

  9. Imported Lassa Fever, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Adam; McConnell, Ryan; Patel, Ami; Dillon, Katherine E.; Hamilton, Keith; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Campbell, Shelley; Knust, Barbara; Cannon, Deborah; Miller, David; Manning, Craig; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of Lassa fever in a US traveler who visited rural Liberia, became ill while in country, sought medical care upon return to the United States, and subsequently had his illness laboratory confirmed. The patient recovered with supportive therapy. No secondary cases occurred. PMID:20875288

  10. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  11. [Yellow fever: study of an outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mirtes; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    This study had the aim of describing an outbreak of yellow fever that occurred in the municipalities under the jurisdiction of the Regional Healthcare Administration of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, between 2002 and 2003, in which 36 cases were notified. This was an autochthonous outbreak of wild-type yellow fever. Failure of vaccinal coverage and low levels of detection of mild cases were found. Among the cases, 33 (91.7%) were male and the age range was from 16 to 67 years. Nineteen (52.8%) of the cases were classified as severe and 12 men (33.3%) died of the disease. All of the cases came from rural areas and presented fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, myalgia, oliguria and signs of hemorrhage. Surveillance through laboratory tests was the determining factor in diagnosing the outbreak. By describing the epidemiological and clinic findings, this study contributes towards diagnosing and classifying this disease. It was deduced that there is a relationship between deforestation, and outbreaks, and that there is a potential regional risk of yellow fever because of the local development of tourism. PMID:19967234

  12. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  13. Hay fever in adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Aziz; Singh Panesar, Sukhmeet; Salvilla, Sarah; Dhami, Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    Hay fever causes sneezing, with an itchy, blocked, and/or running nose, and affects up to 25% of people in developed countries. Symptoms are caused by an IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to airborne allergens such as pollen or fungal spores, and may also cause eye, sinus, respiratory, and systemic problems.

  14. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  15. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  16. Ciprofloxacin therapy for Mediterranean spotted fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Raoult, D.; Gallais, H.; De Micco, P; Casanova, P

    1986-01-01

    We report the treatment of five patients with Mediterranean spotted fever with the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin. The treatment was administered intravenously for 2 days and then perorally for 8 days. All five patients were cured. These preliminary data seem to correlate with the in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Rickettsia conorii.

  17. Clinical profile of enteric fever: a prospective study of fifty enteric fever patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kakaria

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Clinical presentation, signs and symptoms of Typhoid fever patients are varying. For the confirmatory diagnosis in addition to a high index of suspicion, Widal test and blood culture are required. For the proper treatment of Typhoid fever in view of emergence of resistant strains of S. Typhi antibiotic sensitivity and resistance test should be done whenever facilities available. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1620-1625

  18. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50-100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy. PMID:26167314

  19. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovekesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy.

  20. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic surveillance protocol, expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient had a complete recovery. The serological tests for hepatitis and yellow fever viruses were negative. MAC-ELISA for dengue was positive.

  1. Typhoid fever in a 7 month old infant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande S

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical profile of typhoid fever in an infant is variable and non-specific. A rare case of typhoid fever in a 7 month old infant is reported. The child presented with only a day′s history of fever and loose motions which resulted in severe dehydration, acute tubular necrosis and death. The diagnosis of typhoid fever was made only on post-mortem study. The problem in diagnosing typhoid fever in a young infant is highlighted with a brief literature review on the subject.

  2. Q Fever: an old but still a poorly understood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever. PMID:23213331

  3. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.

  4. Dengue fever in pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phupong Vorapong

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. Currently, the incidence has been increasing among adults. Case presentation A 26-year-old Thai woman, G1P0 31 weeks pregnancy, presented with epigastric pain for 1 day. She also had a high-grade fever for 4 days. The physical examination, complete blood counts as well as serology confirmed dengue fever. The patient was under conservative treatment despite severe thrombocytopenia. She was well at the 3rd day of discharge and 1-week follow-up. The pregnancy continued until term without any complication and she delivered vaginally a healthy female baby. Conclusions More cases of dengue infection in pregnancy can be found due to the increasing incidence during adulthood. It should be suspected when a pregnant woman presents with symptoms and signs like in a non-pregnant. Conservative treatment should be conducted unless there are any complications.

  5. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  6. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. PMID:26572871

  7. An update on crimean congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae. CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community.

  8. Cases of typhoid fever in Copenhagen region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrett, Freja Cecille; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2013-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a systemic illness which in high-income countries mainly affects travellers. The incidence is particularly high on the Indian subcontinent. Travellers who visit friends and relatives (VFR) have been shown to have a different risk profile than others. We wished to identify main ch...... characteristics for travellers infected with S. Typhi considering both clinical and laboratory findings in order to provide for faster and better diagnostics in the future. The outcome of treatment, especially concerning relapse, was evaluated as well.......Typhoid fever is a systemic illness which in high-income countries mainly affects travellers. The incidence is particularly high on the Indian subcontinent. Travellers who visit friends and relatives (VFR) have been shown to have a different risk profile than others. We wished to identify main...

  9. DAY 1 DIAGNOSIS OF DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes particularly Aedes aegypti. It is widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics and in a small proportion of cases the virus leads to life threatening complications dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To study the early diagnosis of Dengue on day 1 as there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment available. METHODS: A prospective study of 104 patients was done based on clinical criteria of Dengue. RESULTS: Out of 104 serum samples 46 (44% were positive by NSI Ag MICROELISA, 37 (35% by NSI antigen IMMUNO CHROMATOGRAPHY. 3 (2% samples are positive by IgM IMMUNO CHROMATOGRAPHY and only one sample was positive for IgG IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHY. CONCLUSION: The present study has established the significance of NSI Ag MICROELISA with NSI antigen IMMUNO CHROMATOGRAPHY in increasing the diagnostic efficiency in the day 1 diagnosis of Dengue fever.

  10. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  11. Dengue Fever in Perspective of Clustering Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Shaukat, Kamran; Masood, Nayyer; Shafaat, Ahmed Bin; Jabbar, Kamran; Shabbir, Hassan; Shabbir, Shakir

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is a disease which is transmitted and caused by Aedes Aegypti mosquitos. Dengue has become a serious health issue in all over the world especially in those countries who are situated in tropical or subtropical regions because rain is an important factor for growth and increase in the population of dengue transmitting mosquitos. For a long time, data mining algorithms have been used by the scientists for the diagnosis and prognosis of different diseases which includes dengue as we...

  12. Hypozincemia during fever may trigger febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Y; Ishii, K; Akiba, K; Hayashi, T

    1990-05-01

    Febrile convulsions are generally thought to be induced by metabolic changes during the rise-phase of body temperature. The mechanism by which convulsions are induced, however, is not fully elucidated. In this article, we propose a new hypothesis about the induction mechanism of febrile convulsions that takes into account the hypozincemia during fever. This hypozincemia activates the NMDA receptor, one of the glutamate family of receptors, which may play an important role in the induction of epileptic discharge. PMID:2190072

  13. Fever of unknown origin in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Causes of fever of unknown origin are different. It is considered that it can be caused with over 200 different clinical entities. Aetiological causes differ according to different categories of age. Febricity in the elderly is at most the result of autoimmune processes, malignancies, bacterial infections and vasculitis. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the most common characteristics of fever, the most common laboratory, bacterial and viral tests and to analyze applied therapy in patients with unknown febrile state, and to affirm final diagnosis in elderly patients, as well as younger than 65 years old, and to define outcome of disease in both groups of patients. Methods. Research comprised 100 patients who had been treated at the Infectious Disease Clinic of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, during a three-year period, and in whom fever of unknown origin had been diagnosed. Patients were divided into two homogenous groups of 50 people. The first one (S consisted of patients older than 65 years, and the second, control group (K was constituted of patients younger than the age of 65. All of them were chosen by random sample method. Results. Average results of standard laboratory parameters of infection were obtained, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, fibrinogen, CRP, and especially leukocyte, and those were significantly higher in the group of elderly patients. The cause had not been found in 10% of elderly patient group, and in the younger group, not even in the third of patients. Among known causative agents dominant were infections, usually of respiratory and urinary tract, in both tested groups. Even 28% of the elderly had sepsis, and 10% endocarditis. Malignant diseases were more frequent in group of the elderly patients, and immune i.e. systematic disorders were evenly noticed in both groups of patients. Conclusion. Despite advanced studies in medicine, and existence of modern

  14. SEIR Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafruddin Side

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied mathematical analysis by reviewing the fixed points and eigen values to determine the dynamic behaviour of system. The Simulations on the model for some parameter values were performed and the breeding rates results showed a state become either endemic or non-endemic. The SEIR model can be potential for modelling using real data.

  15. DAY 1 DIAGNOSIS OF DENGUE FEVER

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam; Sreelatha; Saswati; Raja; Tarkeshwar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes particularly Aedes aegypti. It is widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics and in a small proportion of cases the virus leads to life threatening complications dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To study the early diagnosis of Dengue on day 1 as there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment available. METHODS: A prospective study ...

  16. Yellow fever in Ghana, 1977-80

    OpenAIRE

    Agadzi, V. K.; Boatin, Boakye A.; Appawu, M. A.; Mingle, J. A. A.; Addy, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The 3-year yellow fever epidemic in Ghana that started in 1977 and tailed off in 1980 appears to be the heaviest on record. In all, 827 cases and 189 deaths were reported (a fatality rate of 22.8%), the patients coming from many villages scattered over 4 regions in the country. The distribution of cases and other epidemiological characteristics are described in this article.

  17. Pathogenesis of lassa fever in cynomolgus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz Elizabeth A; Geisbert Joan B; Smith Mark A.; Hensley Lisa E; Daddario-DiCaprio Kathleen M; Larsen Tom; Geisbert Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates; however, little is known about the development of Lassa fever. Here, we performed a pilot study to begin to understand the progression of LASV infection in nonhuman primates. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys were experimentally infected with LASV. Tissues from three animals were examined at an early- to mid-stage of disease and compared with tissues from thre...

  18. Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Dahir Ramos de; Andrade Júnior Dahir Ramos de

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a) Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b) The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein) A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c) The function of ...

  19. Post-Operative Fever And Nursing Care

    OpenAIRE

    POUR, Hossein ASGAR

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating hemodynamic parameters is important nursing initiatives. Changes in physiological functions are reflected on basic vital signs. Therefore, deviations from the normal values of vital signs indicate the disruption of homeostasis. The incidence of fever (elevation of core body temperature) ranges between 28-75% in critically ill patients with different causes. Core Body temperature increase from 37 to 39 °C has been found to be followed by a 10-25% increase of oxyge...

  20. Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler, Mark F.; Purpura, Dominick P.

    2008-01-01

    Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit improved behaviors and enhanced communication during febrile episodes. We hypothesize that febrigenesis and the behavioral-state changes associated with fever in autism depend upon selective normalization of key components of a functionally impaired locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system. We posit that autistic behaviors result from developmental dysregulation of LC-NA system specification and neural network deployment and modul...

  1. Acetaminophen: Beyond Pain and Fever-Relieving

    OpenAIRE

    MiaozongWu

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen, also known as APAP or paracetamol, is one of the most widely used analgesics (pain reliever) and antipyretics (fever reducer). According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), currently there are 235 approved prescription and over-the-counter drug products containing acetaminophen as an active ingredient. When used as directed, acetaminophen is very safe and effective; however when taken in excess or ingested with alcohol hepatotoxicity and irreversible liver damage ca...

  2. STUDY OF BRADYCARDIA IN DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: All the four serotypes of dengue virus are found in our country. Case fatality rates in endemic countries like India are 2.5%. During epidemics of dengue, attack rates among susceptible are 40-90%. Early recognition and prompt treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. Clinical features that can be used in the initial assessment of febrile patients are essential tools for clinicians, especially in limited resource settings. Awareness of bradycardia as a clinical finding, could help in the early recognition of dengue and potentially reduce complications and death. METHOD AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Mysore Medical College & Research Institute, Mysore from the period of July 2010 to December 2010 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 100 patients of Dengue fever were analyzed. The most common age group affected in our study was 20-39 years (53%. The clinical spectrum of cases included 22% cases of Dengue fever (DF, 72% cases of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever (DHF, 6% cases of Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS. Clinical pulse rate distribution amongst cases showed 27% with bradycardia, 61% with relative bradycardia, and 12% with tachycardia. Electrocardiographic changes in our study showed 37% with sinus bradycardia, 48% with normal sinus rhythm, 1% with first degree heart block, and 14% with sinus tachycardia. CONCLUSION: Bradycardia was a predominant occurrence amongst total of 100 cases of Dengue fever analyzed. 88% of the cases had bradycardia. (61% had relative bradycardia and 27% bradycardia. Majority of the patients on ECG showed sinus bradycardia (37% and normal sinus rhythm (48%. Hence, awareness of bradycardia as a clinical finding, can help in the early recognition of dengue and potentially reduce complications and death associated with dengue virus infection.

  3. Paratyphoid fever- Emerging problem in South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ragini Bekur; KEVandana; KN Shivashankara; Rohit Valsalan; Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To review the clinical profile and drug susceptibilities ofSalmonella paratyphiA in a tertiary care hospital.Methods: Retrospective analyses of113patients with paratyphoid fever and101 culture provenSalmonella paratyphi A infection were included in the study. The study extended over a period of3 years(2006-2008). Diagnosis of patients were based on clinical features, serology and blood culture. The drug susceptibility testing of the isolates were performed by the disc diffusion method. Clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, susceptibility patterns of isolates, treatment and clinical response were studied.Results: Of the 113 cases, 77 (68.4 %) were males and36 were females(32.8%), which included2 pediatric patients. Fever was the most common symptom(100.0%) followed by loose stools(37.2%), headache(35.4%), myalgia(31.9%), pain abdomen (29.2%), dry cough (19.5%) and vomiting(13.3%). All patients were clinically cured. Majority of the isolates (46%)were resistant to cotrimoxazole in2006, however they became 100% sensitive in2007and2008. whereas the strains became100% sensitive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol only in 2008. In2006 the sensitivity of organisms to ciprofloxacin was89% but in2007and2008there has been an increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin (46% and86%) respectively . Surprisingly3isolates (8.1%) were resistant to ceftriaxone in2006, showed100% sensitivity in2008. Common drugs used were ceftriaxone in100 cases(88.4%) and ciprofloxacin in13cases(11.6%).One patient had relapse of paratyphoid fever after treatment with ciprofloxacin which responded to ceftriaxone.Conclusions:Paratyphoid fever A is one of the emerging infections and a significant problem in India. An increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones is noted. Continuous monitoring of drug susceptibilities is mandatory in instituting appropriate therapy.

  4. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we revi...

  5. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  6. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

  7. Pathogenesis of lassa fever in cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Elizabeth A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa virus (LASV infection causes an acute and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates; however, little is known about the development of Lassa fever. Here, we performed a pilot study to begin to understand the progression of LASV infection in nonhuman primates. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys were experimentally infected with LASV. Tissues from three animals were examined at an early- to mid-stage of disease and compared with tissues from three animals collected at terminal stages of disease. Results Dendritic cells were identified as a prominent target of LASV infection in a variety of tissues in all animals at day 7 while Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, adrenal cortical cells, and endothelial cells were more frequently infected with LASV in tissues of terminal animals (days 13.5-17. Meningoencephalitis and neuronal necrosis were noteworthy findings in terminal animals. Evidence of coagulopathy was noted; however, the degree of fibrin deposition in tissues was less prominent than has been reported in other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Conclusion The sequence of pathogenic events identified in this study begins to shed light on the development of disease processes during Lassa fever and also may provide new targets for rational prophylactic and chemotherapeutic interventions.

  8. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  9. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  10. Pathogenesis of lassa fever in cynomolgus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates; however, little is known about the development of Lassa fever. Here, we performed a pilot study to begin to understand the progression of LASV infection in nonhuman primates. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys were experimentally infected with LASV. Tissues from three animals were examined at an early- to mid-stage of disease and compared with tissues from three animals collected at terminal stages of disease. Results Dendritic cells were identified as a prominent target of LASV infection in a variety of tissues in all animals at day 7 while Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, adrenal cortical cells, and endothelial cells were more frequently infected with LASV in tissues of terminal animals (days 13.5-17). Meningoencephalitis and neuronal necrosis were noteworthy findings in terminal animals. Evidence of coagulopathy was noted; however, the degree of fibrin deposition in tissues was less prominent than has been reported in other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Conclusion The sequence of pathogenic events identified in this study begins to shed light on the development of disease processes during Lassa fever and also may provide new targets for rational prophylactic and chemotherapeutic interventions. PMID:21548931

  11. Corticosteroid responsive prolonged thrombocytopenia in a case of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Hamide, Abdoul; Wadhwa, Jyoti; Sivamani, Kalaimani

    2013-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations are consistent features of dengue fever. Usually thrombocytopenia resolves and platelet count normalises by day 10 of fever. Persistent thrombocytopenia is not a feature of dengue fever. Proposed mechanisms behind thrombocytopenia are many. Direct platelet destruction by dengue virus, immune-mediated platelet destruction and even megakaryocytic immune injury have been proposed as underlying mechanisms. We are reporting a case of an old man who pres...

  12. Dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandria, Marissa M

    2009-01-01

    Infection with the dengue virus, transmitted by mosquito, ranges from asymptomatic or undifferentiated febrile illness to fatal haemorrhagic fever, and affects up to 100 million people a year worldwide. Dengue haemorrhagic fever is characterised by: a sudden onset of high fever; haemorrhages in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and mucosa; and low platelet counts. Plasma leakage results in fluid in the abdomen and lungs. It typically occurs in children under 15 years.Severe dengue haemorrh...

  13. Q fever: a case with a vascular infection complication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Labussiere, Anne-Sophie; Guimard, Yves; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The most common clinical presentation of chronic Q fever is endocarditis with infections of aneurysms or vascular prostheses being the second most common presentation. Here, the authors report a case of vascular chronic Q fever. In this patient, a renal artery aneurysm was discovered by abdominal and pelvic CT during a systematic investigation to identify predisposing factors to chronic Q fever because of high antibody titres in a patient with valve disease. PMID:22767654

  14. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Saif Khan; Gupta, N. D.; Sandhya Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-struct...

  15. Early molecular markers predictive of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E Calzavara-Silva; Ana L.V. Gomes; Rita C.C. Maia; Bartolomeu Acioli-Santos; Gil, Laura H.V.G.; Ernesto T.A. Marques Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The management of acute dengue patients during outbreaks is a challenging problem. Most of the dengue fever cases are benign, but some cases develop into a severe and possibly lethal vasculopathy, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever. Early symptoms of dengue and hemorrhagic fever are very similar. An early differential diagnosis is needed to predict which of these two clinical presentations is crucial to proper patient care and public health management. This study evaluates the predictive poten...

  16. Detection of Rickettsioses and Q fever in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Munasinghe, Aruna; Yaddehige, Iranga; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Bregliano, Anne; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Current serological evidence suggests the presence of scrub typhus and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in Sri Lanka. Our objective was to identify rickettsial agents/Q fever as aetiological causes for patients who were presumed having rickettsioses by the presence of an eschar or a rash. Sera from patients with unknown origin fever from Matara were tested by immunofluorescence for SFG rickettsial antigens, typhus group rickettsiae, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and Coxiell...

  17. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it. PMID:27052094

  18. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Yellow fever is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by mosquitos, endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America. Large urban outbreaks of yellow fever have been eliminated in the Americas, where most yellow fever cases result from human exposure to jungle or forested environments. Vaccination is effective but carries a risk of potentially fatal adverse events in a small number of vaccinees. In a large country such as Brazil, vaccination is recommended only in area...

  19. A study of the outbreak of Chikungunya fever

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Supriya Satish; Patil, Satish R.; Durgawale, P. M.; Patil, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chikungunya fever occurred in an epidemic form in the state of Maharashtra after a gap of about 32 years. Many cases with symptoms which were suggestive of Chikungunya fever were reported from the village Kasegaon, Dist Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hence, this study was done to assess the magnitude of the outbreak and to identify the possible socio-environmental factors which are responsible for Chikungunya fever.

  20. Imported Lassa fever: a report of 2 cases in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kyei, Nicholas N. A.; Abilba, Mark M.; Kwawu, Foster K.; Agbenohevi, Prince G; Bonney, Joseph H K; Agbemaple, Thomas K.; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley C.; Ampofo, William; Ohene, Sally-Ann; Edward O. Nyarko

    2015-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is a potentially fatal acute viral illness caused by Lassa virus which is carried by rodents and is endemic in some West African countries. Importation of emerging infections such as Lassa fever, Ebola Virus Disease and other viral hemorrhagic fevers into non endemic regions is a growing threat particularly as international travel and commitments in resolving conflicts in endemic countries in the West Africa sub-region continue. Case presentation We report the first two...

  1. Sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Okokhere Peter O; Ibekwe Titus S; Akpede George O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Lassa fever is an acute arena viral haemorrhagic fever with varied neurological sequelae. Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the rare complications which occur usually during the convalescent stage of the infection. Case presentation The cases of two female patients aged 19 and 43 years old, respectively, with clinical features suggestive of Lassa fever and confirmed by immunoserological/Lassa-virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction are presented...

  2. Severe Thrombotic Events Associated with Dengue Fever, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Geyza Machado; Junior, Cleber Soares; da Costa Campos, Lenilton

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever has been a major problem in hospital settings in Brazil for the past 15 years. The main concern has been the severe forms, i.e., dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Hemorrhagic events of different degrees have also been a major concern. We report five cases of large vein thrombotic events associated with the acute phase of dengue fever, including a previously non-reported case of mesenteric vein thrombosis. Complications such as these could have been overlooked in...

  3. Fever Management Practices of Neuroscience Nurses: National and Regional Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hilaire J.; Kirkness, Catherine J.; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Webb, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroscience patients with fever may have worse outcomes than those who are afebrile. However, neuroscience nurses who encounter this common problem face a translational gap between patient-outcomes research and bedside practice because there is no current evidence-based standard of care for fever management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. The aim of this study was to determine if there are trends in national practices for fever and hyperthermia management of the neurologically vuln...

  4. Acute arthritis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Ahmeti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a severe viral disease caused by a Nairovirus. An atypical manifestation in the form of acute arthritis was found in a confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Kosova-Hoti strain positive patient. Acute arthritis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF may be as a result of immune mechanisms or the bleeding disorder underlying CCHF.

  5. Acute Arthritis in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmeti, Salih; Ajazaj-Berisha, Lindita; Halili, Bahrije; Shala, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a severe viral disease caused by a Nairovirus. An atypical manifestation in the form of acute arthritis was found in a confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Kosova-Hoti strain positive patient. Acute arthritis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) may be as a result of immune mechanisms or the bleeding disorder underlying CCHF. PMID:24926169

  6. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bal Aswine K; Kairys Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenou...

  7. Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

  8. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Andrew E; Kesieme, Emeka B; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Akpede, George O

    2013-01-01

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission. PMID:23597024

  9. Sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okokhere Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lassa fever is an acute arena viral haemorrhagic fever with varied neurological sequelae. Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the rare complications which occur usually during the convalescent stage of the infection. Case presentation The cases of two female patients aged 19 and 43 years old, respectively, with clinical features suggestive of Lassa fever and confirmed by immunoserological/Lassa-virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction are presented. Both patients developed severe sensorineural hearing loss at acute phases of the infections. Conclusion Sensorineural hearing loss from Lassa fever infections can occur in both acute and convalescent stages and is probably induced by an immune response.

  10. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission. PMID:23597024

  11. Sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever: two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lassa fever is an acute arena viral haemorrhagic fever with varied neurological sequelae. Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the rare complications which occur usually during the convalescent stage of the infection. Case presentation The cases of two female patients aged 19 and 43 years old, respectively, with clinical features suggestive of Lassa fever and confirmed by immunoserological/Lassa-virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction are presented. Both patients developed severe sensorineural hearing loss at acute phases of the infections. Conclusion Sensorineural hearing loss from Lassa fever infections can occur in both acute and convalescent stages and is probably induced by an immune response. PMID:19178735

  12. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virat J. Agravat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is an acute, highly-contagious and life-threatening vector borne disease. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40%. CCHF virus isolation and/or disease has been reported from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, South eastern Europe and Middle east. Jan 2011 marks first ever reports of outbreak of CCHF in India, total 5 cases were detected of CCHF from Gujarat. CCHF has recently in news again, 6 human cases and 32 animal samples test positive for CCHF from Kariyana village of Amreli district (Gujarat state July 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, member of genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Numerous genera of ixodid ticks serve both as vector and reservoir for CCHFV. Human infections occurred through tick bites, direct contact with blood or tissue of infected livestock, or nosocomial infections. Human infections begin with nonspecific febrile symptoms, but progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with a high case fatality ratio. The most definitive way of diagnosis is the demonstration of virus or viral genome in sera samples. Hospitalization in special care unit with constant effort to prevent haemorrhagic complication along with laboratory monitoring is cornerstone for treatment of CCHF. Till date there is no FDA approved drug or definitive treatment for CCHF, ribavirin is tried by many physician need to be evaluated further. Current article is an effort to update existing knowledge about CCHF by due focus on various aspects especially prevention of this zoonotic disease. Much of the real life queries about this disease are elaborated after extensive literature research. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 392-397

  13. Dengue Fever Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Seetharam; Gabriel Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    A 56-year-old non-alcoholic male was admitted with complaints of severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis after blood investigations and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen. He developed a high-grade fever on the third day of admission, and serology tested positive for dengue. Treatment for dengue was instituted, leading to a good response and complete resolution of pancreatitis. The patient has been doing well and has had no recurrence of pancreatitis at the end ...

  14. With what was rheumatic fever confused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, J M; Chilvers, C D; Aitchison, W R

    1981-08-26

    Follow-up of 427 cases initially diagnosed in Wairoa county during 1962-76 as rheumatic fever and/or rheumatic heart disease showed that 40 had neither condition and 51 had chronic rheumatic heart disease only. Sources of misdiagnosis were cardiac (e.g. congenital heart disease, onset of atrial fibrillation), joint (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, gout), streptococcal infections not proceeding to rheumatic activity and febrile conditions of childhood. Awareness of the problems, some strengthening of the diagnostic criteria, and the evolution of the illness with time would serve to correct misdiagnosis. PMID:6946305

  15. Humidifier fever, contaminated HVAC and hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.N. [Medical College of Wiscounsin, Dept. of Medicine, Allergy-Immunology Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Heating, cooling and ventilation systems have been modified over the years for comfort and energy gains. The designs of these systems allow for accumulation of microorganisms which are aerosolized into the environment served by the system. Such contaminations may results in several febrile illnesses which may have a toxic or immunologic basis. Humidifier fever is related to toxic effects of inhaled endotoxin according to the evidence, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis is related to an immune response to organic dust or microorganism bio-aerosols. (au) 12 refs.

  16. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...

  17. Fever in a traveler returning from the Amazon. Do not forget hepatitis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A. Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelers returning from the tropics with fever remain a diagnostic challenge. Fever and chills suggest malaria, but may be present in dengue, chikungunya and influenza, and splenomegaly favors malaria or typhoid fever. In terms of laboratory tests, leukopenia suggests dengue fever, chikungunya fever or influenza. Atypical lymphocytes are present in malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza HAV, but not typhoid fever. Thrombocytopenia is profound in dengue fever, is also present in influenza and malaria. Mildly increased serum transaminases are common in malaria, typhoid fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza while very high serum transaminases point to HAV. We present a case of a young woman traveler returning from the Amazon with splenomegaly, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytes, elevated LDH and minimally elevated serum transaminases who was found to have acute hepatitis A infection.

  18. Fever in a traveler returning from the Amazon. Do not forget hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Teper, Rina Seerke; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics with fever remain a diagnostic challenge. Fever and chills suggest malaria, but may be present in dengue, chikungunya and influenza, and splenomegaly favors malaria or typhoid fever. In terms of laboratory tests, leukopenia suggests dengue fever, chikungunya fever or influenza. Atypical lymphocytes are present in malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza HAV, but not typhoid fever. Thrombocytopenia is profound in dengue fever, is also present in influenza and malaria. Mildly increased serum transaminases are common in malaria, typhoid fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza while very high serum transaminases point to HAV. We present a case of a young woman traveler returning from the Amazon with splenomegaly, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytes, elevated LDH and minimally elevated serum transaminases who was found to have acute hepatitis A infection. PMID:27051578

  19. SPECTRUM OF HEPATIC DYSFUNCTION IN DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaraj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue infection is a common and major health problem across the globe and more so in India with its varied presentations and atypical parameters on investigations makes us to have more knowledge of these. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients admitted to KIMS hospital and research centre, Bangalore with the confirmed diagnosis of dengue fever in 2013 were studied. RESULTS: An analysis of 60 confirmed cases of dengue showed that 70% had hepatic dysfunction in form of raised SGOT [>2ULN], 60% had SGPT [>2ULN], 3 had jaundice. All patients had fever; many patients had pain abdomen and vomiting as predominant complaint apart from myalgia. DISCUSSION: In our study mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction in the form of elevated enzymes were seen in most of the patients in consistent with other studies. Hepatic dysfunction was seen more in Patients with severe dengue infections similar to other studies. CONCLUSION: Thus it is necessary to have knowledge of this entity and diagnose early and start treatment to prevent the complications

  20. Malignant catarrhal fever (Coryza gangraenosa bovum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Filip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever is a disease of cattle and other ruminants, which most often has a lethal outcome. The disease occurs sporadically and is very difficult to control. At a private mini cattle farm, the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever was suspected on the grounds of anaemnestic data and results of clinical examinations. The owner said that, in addition to cattle, he also breeds sheep in a separate facility, but said these animals had not been in contact with the diseased cow. In the course of the disease, the characteristic symptoms developed so that the clinical diagnosis set earlier was subsequently confirmed. In addition to constantly elevated body temperature, changes in the eyes were observed very soon (congested blood vessels and capillaries of the white sclera with keratitis on both sides. In addition to photofobia and a copious discharge from the nasal cavities, the discharge was at first seromucous and later became mucopurrulent. In the later course of the disease, there was progressive loss of weight and exhaustion of the animal. Since therapy included, in addition to other medicines, also a glucocorticosteroid preparation, the animal aborted its fetus on the fifth day. A pathological-anatomical examination did not reveal any changes on the fetus. In spite of the applied therapy, the medical condition deteriorated from day to day, and the animal expired on the eighth day of the disease.

  1. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and demographic distribution. Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes. Recently, Sanofi Pasteur's chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age. The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated. Simultaneously, the restricted application of this vaccine candidate warrants continued efforts in developing a dengue vaccine candidate which is additionally efficacious for infants and naïve individuals. In this context, alternative strategies of developing a designed vaccine candidate which does not allow production of enhancing antibodies should be explored, as it may expand the umbrella of efficacy to include infants and naïve individuals. PMID:27525287

  2. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Niyati; Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and demographic distribution. Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes. Recently, Sanofi Pasteur's chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age. The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated. Simultaneously, the restricted application of this vaccine candidate warrants continued efforts in developing a dengue vaccine candidate which is additionally efficacious for infants and naïve individuals. In this context, alternative strategies of developing a designed vaccine candidate which does not allow production of enhancing antibodies should be explored, as it may expand the umbrella of efficacy to include infants and naïve individuals. PMID:27525287

  3. Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Dahir Ramos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c The function of Toll R2 and Toll R4 receptors present in the macrophage surface (discovered in the Drosophila. The Toll family receptors are critical in the signalizing mediated by LPS in macrophages in association with LBP and CD14; d The lines of immune defense between intestinal lumen and internal organs; e The fundamental role of the endothelial cells in the inflammatory deviation from bloodstream into infected tissues by bacteria. In addition to above subjects, the authors comment the correlation between the clinical features of typhoid fever and the cellular and molecular phenomena of this disease, as well as the therapeutic consequences of this knowledge.

  4. Typhoid fever as cellular microbiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Dahir Ramos; de Andrade Júnior, Dahir Ramos

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge about typhoid fever pathogenesis is growing in the last years, mainly about the cellular and molecular phenomena that are responsible by clinical manifestations of this disease. In this article are discussed several recent discoveries, as follows: a) Bacterial type III protein secretion system; b) The five virulence genes of Salmonella spp. that encoding Sips (Salmonella invasion protein) A, B, C, D and E, which are capable of induce apoptosis in macrophages; c) The function of Toll R2 and Toll R4 receptors present in the macrophage surface (discovered in the Drosophila). The Toll family receptors are critical in the signalizing mediated by LPS in macrophages in association with LBP and CD14; d) The lines of immune defense between intestinal lumen and internal organs; e) The fundamental role of the endothelial cells in the inflammatory deviation from bloodstream into infected tissues by bacteria. In addition to above subjects, the authors comment the correlation between the clinical features of typhoid fever and the cellular and molecular phenomena of this disease, as well as the therapeutic consequences of this knowledge. PMID:14502344

  5. Acetaminophen: beyond pain and fever-relieving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiaozongWu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen, also known as APAP or paracetamol, is one of the most widely used analgesics (pain reliever and antipyretics (fever reducer. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, currently there are 235 approved prescription and over-the-counter drug products containing acetaminophen as an active ingredient. When used as directed, acetaminophen is very safe and effective; however when taken in excess or ingested with alcohol hepatotoxicity and irreversible liver damage can arise. In addition to well known use pain relief and fever reduction, recent laboratory and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that acetaminophen may also have beneficial effects on blood glucose levels, skeletal muscle function, and potential use as cardioprotective and neuroprotective agents. Extensive laboratory and pre-clinical studies have revealed that these off label applications may be derived from the ability of acetaminophen to function as an antioxidant. Herein, we will highlight these novel applications of acetaminophen, and attempt, where possible, to highlight how these findings may lead to new directions of inquiry and clinical relevance of other disorders.

  6. Retinal Hemorrhages in 4 Patients with Dengue Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr; Ang, Brenda; Barkham, Timothy; Laude, Augustinus

    2005-01-01

    We report 4 patients with retinal hemorrhages that developed during hospitalization for dengue fever. Onset of symptoms coincided with resolution of fever and the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Retinal hemorrhages may reflect the rising incidence of dengue in Singapore or may be caused by changes in the predominant serotype of the dengue virus.

  7. Dengue fever associated with acute scrotal oedema: two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrotal oedema associated with dengue fever is a rare and self limiting condition resolving in a few days without any complication or sequelae. This is a report of two cases of dengue fever associated with acute scrotal and penile oedema. (author)

  8. Fever tree revisited: From malaria to autoinflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Serena; Vuch, Josef; Bianco, Anna Monica; Taddio, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Over the centuries the idea of recurrent fevers has mainly been associated with malaria, but many other fevers, such as typhoid and diphtheria were cause for concern. It is only in recent times, with the more severe forms of fever from infectious origin becoming less frequent or a cause for worry that we started noticing recurrent fevers without any clear infectious cause, being described as having a pathogenesis of autoinflammatory nature. The use of molecular examinations in many cases can allow a diagnosis where the cause is monogenic. In other cases, however the pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and the diagnostic-therapeutic approach is strictly clinical. The old fever tree paradigm developed to describe fevers caused by malaria has been revisited here to describe today's periodic fevers from the periodic fever adenitis pharyngitis aphthae syndrome to the more rare autoinflammatory diseases. This model may allow us to place cases that are yet to be identified which are likely to be of multifactorial origin. PMID:26566482

  9. First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902.

    OpenAIRE

    Heraud, Jean-Michel; Hommel, D.; Hulin, A.; Deubel, V.; Poveda, J. D.; Sarthou, J L; Talarmin, Antoine

    1999-01-01

    The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador.

  10. The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W

    2012-09-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011. PMID:23661832

  11. The First Cases of Lassa Fever in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Dzotsi, EK; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, AM; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, JHK; Paintsil, SCN; Ampofo, W.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011.

  12. A Case of Dengue-Fever in Nizhny Novgorod

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A case of the imported dengue-fever, with a favorable outcome is described. Dengue-fever was suspected in a patient when she was admitted to Bali hospital because physicians in tropical and subtropical countries are always on the alert to the disease.

  13. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Phuong; P.J. de Vries; T.T.T. Nga; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; T.Q. Binh; N.V. Nam; N. Nagelkerke; P.A. Kager

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thu

  14. Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chang, Lin-Li; Chen, Wei-Fang; Lin, Hsi-Hsun

    2009-01-01

    Acute Q fever and scrub typhus are zoonoses endemic to southern Taiwan. Among the 137 patients with acute Q fever (89, 65.0%) or scrub typhus (43, 31.4%), we identified 5 patients (3.6%) who were co-infected with Coxiella burnetii and Orientia tsutsugamushi.

  15. Care for patients with vascular chronic Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, J.C.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative and intracellular bacterium. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands was confronted with the world’s largest Q fever outbreak. Dairy goats were identified to be the source. At the end of 2009, the outbreak expanded enormously (with 1000 patients in

  16. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Becher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs.

  17. Guidelines for the genetic diagnosis of hereditary recurrent fevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinar, Y; Obici, L; Aksentijevich, I;

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary recurrent fevers (HRFs) are a group of monogenic autoinflammatory diseases characterised by recurrent bouts of fever and serosal inflammation that are caused by pathogenic variants in genes important for the regulation of innate immunity. Discovery of the molecular defects responsible...

  18. Rationalizing the approach to children with fever in neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammann, Roland A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Phillips, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Fever in neutropenia is the most frequent potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapy in children and adolescents with cancer. This review summarizes recent studies that refine our knowledge of how to manage pediatric fever in neutropenia, and their implications for c

  19. Typhoid fever : aspects of environment, host and pathogen interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Soegianto

    2006-01-01

    In a surveillance study in Jakarta, Indonesia, 88 typhoid and 26 paratyphoid fever patients were identified by blood culture. Risk factors for transmission of typhoid fever were mainly intra-household factors (poor hand-washing hygiene, recent household contacts), whereas paratyphoid was mainly cont

  20. Femoral compressive neuropathy from iliopsoas haematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sneha Ganu; Yesha Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue virus. We reported a case of femoral compression neuropathy due to iliopsoas hematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever. Iliopsoas muscle hematoma can cause femoral neuropathy with resultant pain and paralysis. Such manifestations are not well documented in the literature. The pathogenesis of hematoma and compressive neuropathy with its appropriate management is discussed.

  1. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Young Min; Moon, Jin Chang; Yang, Hee Chan; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Won; Park, Sung Kwang; Lee, Sik

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  2. Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal pneumonia: a silent epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the southwestern US. A costly problem • In ...

  3. Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Romero-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs. The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4 and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9. Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8 for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4 for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4 for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases.

  4. Familial Mediterranean Fever and renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a genetic disorder frequently diagnosed among the Arabs. It is also prevalent among Jews, Armenians and Turks. The clinical picture consists of febrile and painful attacks such as joint or chest pain that differ in quality across patients and even within the same patient. The gene responsible for FMF, MEFV has been cloned and mutations were identified within its coding sequence. It encodes a protein that is expected to be a down regulator of inflammation. The major renal involvement FMF is the occurrence of amyloidosis that primarily affects the kidneys causing proteinuria and ending in death from renal failure. It can be treated by dialysis and renal transplantation, but can be prevented by a daily regimen of colchicines. Other renal manifestations of FMF are discussed. (author)

  5. Doctors' Knowledge of Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisk, Clifford; Snell, Luke; Haji-Coll, Michael; Ellis, Jayne; Sufi, Saaidullah; Raj, Rohit; Sharma, A; Smith, C

    2015-01-01

    Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers (VHF) such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) are of increasing concern to clinicians and public heath bodies across Europe and America due to the on-going epidemic in West Africa. We conducted an online study to assess clinicians' knowledge of VHF across six hospital sites in London. This showed suboptimal knowledge of Public Health England guidance, EVD epidemiology and the risk factors for acquiring VHF. Knowledge about VHF was dependent on seniority of grade with the most junior grade of doctors performing worse in several areas of the survey. Poor knowledge raises concerns that those at risk of VHF will be inappropriately risk stratified and managed. Education of doctors and other healthcare professionals about VHF is necessary to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:26305080

  6. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Guy A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Blumberg, Lucille H

    2015-09-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) include a diverse array of diseases caused by a broad range of viruses transmitted from various animal hosts and originating from almost all the continents in the world. These are potentially fatal and highly transmissible diseases without specific treatments or prophylactic vaccines. As has been demonstrated during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the consequences of VHFs are not limited to specific countries - they may become epidemic, and may have considerable economic impact and disrupt local public health and social service structures. Intensive public health intervention is necessary to contain these diseases. Here we provide a concise overview of the VHFs that are of current public health importance to South Africa. PMID:26428973

  7. An epidemiological model of Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Leahy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present and explore a novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever (RVF. RVF is an Old World, mosquito-borne disease affecting both livestock and humans. The model is an ordinary differential equation model for two populations of mosquito species, those that can transmit vertically and those that cannot, and for one livestock population. We analyze the model to find the stability of the disease-free equlibrium and test which model parameters affect this stability most significantly. This model is the basis for future research into the predication of future outbreaks in the Old World and the assessment of the threat of introduction into the New World.

  8. Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers: A threat to Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katendi Changula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk. Previous studies have indicated bats as potential reservoir hosts for filoviruses. An increasing population with an increasing demand for resources has forced incursion into previously uninhabited land, potentially bringing them into contact with unknown pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or amplifying hosts. The recent discovery of a novel arenavirus, Lujo, highlights the potential that every region, including Zambia, has for being the epicentre or primary focus for emerging and re-emerging infections. It is therefore imperative that surveillance for potential emerging infections, such as viral haemorrhagic fevers be instituted. In order to accomplish this surveillance, rapid detection, identification and monitoring of agents in patients and potential reservoirs is needed. International co-operation is the strategy of choice for the surveillance and fight against emerging infections. Due to the extensive area in which filoviral infections can occur, a regional approach to surveillance activities is required, with regional referral centres. There is a need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. There is also need for optimisation of currently available tests and development of new diagnostic tests, in order to have robust, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used even where there are inadequate laboratories and diagnostic services.

  9. Risk factors for shock in children with dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Pothapregada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate and analyze the clinical and laboratory parameters that were predictive of the development of shock in children with dengue fever. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective study carried out from August 2012 to July 2014 at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. Results: Two hundred and fifty-four children were admitted with dengue fever and among them dengue fever without shock was present in 159 children (62.5% and dengue fever with shock was present in 95 cases (37.4%. Various clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression between the two groups and a P value of 20% with concomitant platelet count 6 years, hepatomegaly, pain in the abdomen, and oliguria were the most common risk factors associated with shock in children with dengue fever. There were six deaths (2.4% and out of them four presented with impaired consciousness (66.6% at the time of admission. Conclusion: Age >6 years, hepatomegaly, abdomen pain, and oliguria were the most common risk factors for shock in children with dengue fever. Impaired consciousness at admission was the most ominous sign for mortality in dengue fever. Hence, these features should be identified early, monitored closely, and managed timely.

  10. EPIDEMIOL O GY OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER IN SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunasree

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chikungunya fever is a self - limiting viral fever spread by mosquito bite and has become an epidemic. The proportion of cases has increased in Andhra Pradesh. We report a prospective analysis of cases of c hikungunya fever referred from various primary health centers of rural, tribal and semiurban areas of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. AIMS OF STUDY: To analyse the burden of C hikungunya fever in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh . MATERIAL AND METHODS : A prospective descriptive study was under taken between January - 2013 to December - 2014 by testing clinically suspected c hikungunya fever patients attending tertiary care centre in the Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The blood collected from suspected patients was analyzed for CHIK specific IgM antibodies by ELISA method using Nivchik kit. The data was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period the total number of samples screened with clinical suspicion of c hikungunya fever was 127, out of which 23(18.11% were positive for IgM antibodies. The number of seropositive cases referred from rural area was 3 in number and from tribal areas 20. The seasonal distribution of cases was variable. CONCLUSION: Chikungunya fever is self limiting disease . Efforts have to be made through community awareness and early institution of supportive therapy. Vector control measures should be in full swing

  11. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  12. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste. PMID:17378212

  13. Fever management practices of neuroscience nurses: national and regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Kirkness, Catherine J; Mitchell, Pamela H; Webb, Deborah J

    2007-06-01

    Neuroscience patients with fever may have worse outcomes than those who are afebrile. However, neuroscience nurses who encounter this common problem face a translational gap between patient-outcomes research and bedside practice because there is no current evidence-based standard of care for fever management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. The aim of this study was to determine if there are trends in national practices for fever and hyperthermia management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. A 15-item mailed questionnaire was used to determine national and regional trends in fever and hyperthermia management and decision making by neuroscience nurses. Members of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses were surveyed (N = 1,225) and returned 328 usable surveys. Fewer than 20% of respondents reported having an explicit fever management protocol in place for neurologic patients, and 12.5% reported having a nonspecific patient protocol available for fever management. Several clear and consistent patterns in interventions for fever and hyperthermia management were seen nationally, including acetaminophen administration at a dose of 650 mg every 4 hours, ice packs, water cooling blankets, and tepid bathing. However, regional differences were seen in intervention choices and initial temperature to treat. PMID:17591411

  14. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested. PMID:27156836

  15. STUDY OF SIGNIFICANCE OF PLATELET COUNT IN FEVER CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavilatha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the significance of platelet count in various fevers and also identify the common causes of fever with thrombocytopenia . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 69 patients who were admitted with fever over 2 months of period from 15th October to15th December 2014 in King George Hospital AMC Visakhapatnam studied retrospectively. RESULTS: INCIDENCE: More than half of the cases (52.2% admitted with fever have thrombocytopenia. SEX: The study reveals that irrespective of sex and size of the sample the presentation of fever with/ without thromb ocytopenia could not found any significant difference . Degree of thrombocytopenia in various etiologies: in the present study it is found that out of 15 cases of falciparum malaria 10 cases had thrombocytopenia. Out of 12 undiagnosed cases 8 cases had thro mbocytopenia. Out of 4 cases of gastro intestinal system 3 cases had thrombocytopenia. In the present study it is significantly found that the highest difference is noticed in the presentation of dengue cases. Out of total sample (69 cases it is found tha t 5cases (7.2% of thrombocytopenia with dengue fever were found against 1case (1.4% of dengue fever with normal plate let count. The present study reveals that there is significant difference among various diseases such as malaria 14 (16.6%, dengue feve r 5 (13.9%, Urinary tract infection 2 (5.6%, undiagnosed cases 8 (22.2%. However severe thrombocytopenia (platelets less than 50,000 is seen in14 cases (38.8%out of 36 cases of fever with thrombocytopenia. Further this study reveals that in the cases of malaria 50% of cases reported as severe thrombocytopenia 7cases (19.4% followed by dengue fever3 cases (8.3%. CONCLUSION: Not only malaria, dengue fever and urinary tract infection can also cause severe thrombocytopenia. Fever cases especially with th rombocytopenia show seasonal variations, they are seen commonly in early winter. Febrile thrombocytopenia still presents as atypical and occult forms making

  16. Spontaneous splenic rupture during the recovery phase of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, W T T; Gunasekera, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but known complication of dengue fever. Previously reported cases have occurred early during the course of the disease and most cases have led to a fatal outcome. Here we report a case of spontaneous splenic rupture in a patient with dengue fever, which occurred during the recovery phase of the illness. Case presentation A 28-year-old Sinhalese, Sri Lankan man presented with a history of fever, myalgia and vomiting of 4 days duration. Investiga...

  17. Can cycles of chills and fever resolve bipolar disorder mania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsaas, Audun; Vaaler, Arne Einar

    2014-01-01

    Treatment resistance is common in populations of patients with bipolar disorder stressing the need for new therapeutic strategies. Favourable effects of fever on mental disease have been noted throughout history. Today there is increasing evidence that immunological processes are involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. We present a case in which a patient with treatment resistant bipolar disorder mania seemingly recovered as a result of recurrent fever. This indicates that artificial fever might become a last resort therapy for treatment resistant mania. PMID:24728894

  18. Fever during pregnancy and motor development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    unassisted' (n=53,959) were attained. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07) was used to identify children with indication of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at age 7 years (n=29,401). Any associations between the exposure to fever during pregnancy and motor...... to fever and either 'sitting unsupported' or 'walking unassisted'. The proportion of children with indication of DCD was 3.1%. The odds ratio of indication of DCD if children were exposed to fever in utero was 1.29 (95% CI 1.12-1.49). However, no dose-response association was found. INTERPRETATION: We...

  19. Inflammation and Epidural-Related Maternal Fever: Proposed Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Pervez; David, Anna L; Fernando, Roshan; Ackland, Gareth L

    2016-05-01

    Intrapartum fever is associated with excessive maternal interventions as well as higher neonatal morbidity. Epidural-related maternal fever (ERMF) contributes to the development of intrapartum fever. The mechanism(s) for ERMF has remained elusive. Here, we consider how inflammatory mechanisms may be modulated by local anesthetic agents and their relevance to ERMF. We also critically reappraise the clinical data with regard to emerging concepts that explain how anesthetic drug-induced metabolic dysfunction, with or without activation of the inflammasome, might trigger the release of nonpathogenic, inflammatory molecules (danger-associated molecular patterns) likely to underlie ERMF. PMID:27101499

  20. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  1. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATIONS § 94.10 Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. (a) Classical swine fever is known... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL......

  2. Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Drosten, Christian; Göttig, Stephan; Schilling, Stefan; Asper, Marcel; Panning, Marcus; Schmitz, Herbert; Günther, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in suspected cases. We have established six one-step, real-time reverse transcripti...

  3. Stuck with pancytopenia in dengue fever: Evoke for hemophagocytic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Gandhi, Ronak; Prajapati, Gopal Raj; Choudhary, Akanksha

    2016-01-01

    The hemophagocytic syndrome is an atypical and rare manifestation of dengue fever (DF). We describe a 15-year-old girl developing DF associated hemophagocytic syndrome who responded with supportive treatment. PMID:26955219

  4. Streptococcal Infections, Rheumatic Fever and School Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Milton

    1979-01-01

    Because rheumatic fever is a potentially serious complication of a streptococcal sore throat which can lead to permanent heart disease, this article advocates the expansion of school health services in medically underserved areas. (JMF)

  5. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history.

  6. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif; Gupta, N D; Maheshwari, Sandhya

    2013-07-01

    Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history. PMID:24174736

  7. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  8. Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression? Small study suggests heating the body might alter ... brain region is less active in people with depression, the researchers explained. "Our hope is to find ...

  9. Lassa fever: epidemiology, clinical features, and social consequences

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Lassa fever is endemic in west Africa, where it probably kills several thousand people each year. With access to the region improving, the opportunity, and the need, to improve our understanding of this disease are increasing

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or...

  11. [A case of imported Dengue fever with acute hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang-jun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Ahn, Jae Hong; Park, Eun Bum; Lee, Sun Jae; Sohn, Jang-uk; Um, Soon Ho

    2007-12-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile disease caused by the dengue virus, which belongs to the flaviviridae family, and this virus is transmitted by the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. It occurs in the tropical climates of the South Pacific, Southeast Asia, India, Africa and the subtropical zone of America. Imported cases of Dengue fever and Dengue hemorrhagic fever are rapidly increasing as many Koreans are now traveling abroad. Liver injury is usually detected by laboratory investigation according to a surveillance protocol. Although liver injury by dengue virus has been described in Asia and the Pacific islands, the pathogenic mechanisms are not yet fully clarified. It is usually expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient has a complete recovery. We report here on a case of a young woman who presented with general weakness, nausea and significant elevation of the aminotransferase levels, and she was diagnosed with dengue fever. PMID:18159153

  12. Fever and Stoffer's syndrome in renal and adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical observations of patients with renal and adrenal tumours are presented. Fever and Stoffer's syndrome are the main symptoms. Radioisotope studies, as well as tomography and urography permitted to make precise diagnosis, which is confirmed histologically

  13. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Aswine K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin. Conclusion This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  14. Association of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tümgör

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive,short, acute, self-limiting disease characterized by attacksof fever and polyserositis, which is common in countriesaround the Mediterranean. Inflammatory bowel diseaseis a term used to describe Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’sdisease that associated with chronic idiopathic inflammatory.The patient had FMF but she had been well untilapproximately 20 days before admission, when malaise,fever, abdominal pain, right knee and ankle edema developed.She was taking colchicine. The patient diagnosedas Crohn Disease by endoscopy and histopathology. Thiscase report is presented to emphasize the association oftwo diseases.Key words: Familial Mediterranean Fever, inflammatorybowel disease, Crohn’s disease, childhood

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  18. CORONAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF SHIPPING FEVER PNEUMONIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigations of two natural epizootics of Shipping Fever Pneumonia (SFP) with sequential infections of Cornaviruses and Mannheimia (M) haemolytica and Pasteurella (P) multocida were studied. A prospectively designed and controlled parameters included clinical examinations, coordinated with nasal s...

  19. Dengue fever presenting as acute liver failure- a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajat Jhamb; Bineeta Kashyap; Ranga GS; Kumar A

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever(DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever(DHF) are important mosquito-borne viral diseases of humans and recognized as important emerging infectious diseases in the tropics and subtropics. Compared to nine reporting countries in the 1950s, today the geographic distribution includes more than100 countries worldwide. Dengue viral infections are known to present a diverse clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic illness to fatal dengue shock syndrome. Mild hepatic dysfunction in dengue haemorrhagic fever is usual. However, its presentation as acute liver failure(ALF)is unusual. We report a patient with dengue shock syndrome who presented with acute liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy in a recent outbreak of dengue fever in Delhi, India.

  20. Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in travelers returning from Egypt, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Fabrizio; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R; Nisii, Carla; Suter, Fredy; Rizzi, Marco; Tebaldi, Alessandra; Goglio, Antonio; Passerini Tosi, Cristiana; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought. PMID:21122237

  1. Hypokalaemic quadriparesis: an unusual manifestation of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Durgesh Kumar; Vaish, A.K.; Arya, Rajesh Kumar; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is the most common and widespread arthropod borne arboviral infection in the world today. Recent observations indicate that the clinical profile of dengue fever is changing with neurological manifestations being reported more frequently. A patient with dengue fever presented to us with symptoms suggestive of acute flaccid paralysis, and on subsequent investigation he was diagnosed as a case of hypokalaemic quadriparesis. Clinicians in the endemic area should be aware of such associatio...

  2. Dengue Virus Tropism in Humanized Mice Recapitulates Human Dengue Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Mota; Rebeca Rico-Hesse

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of dengue virus disease have been very difficult to develop because of the virus' specificity for infection and replication in certain human cells. We developed a model of dengue fever in immunodeficient mice transplanted with human stem cells from umbilical cord blood. These mice show measurable signs of dengue disease as in humans (fever, viremia, erythema and thrombocytopenia), and after infection with the most virulent strain of dengue serotype 2, humanized mice showed infec...

  3. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phuong, H.L.; Vries, de, P.M.; Nga, T.T.T.; Giao, P.T.; Hung, L.Q.; Binh, T. Q.; Nam, N.V.; Nagelkerke, N.; Kager, P A

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thuan Province, to describe the characteristics of dengue patients, and analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the health care workers and the determinants of the diagnostic process. Methods: All patients...

  4. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PROLONGED FEVER ASSOCIATED TO SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    OpenAIRE

    Galimberti R; Kowalczuk A; Luque K,; Musso C; Enz P; Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal...

  5. Vaccination for typhoid fever in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Slayton, Rachel B.; Date, Kashmira A.; Eric D Mintz

    2013-01-01

    New data on the epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic aspects of typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa call for new strategies and new resources to bring the regional epidemic under control. Areas with endemic disease at rates approaching those in south Asia have been identified; large, prolonged and severe outbreaks are occurring more frequently; and resistance to antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones is increasing. Surveillance for typhoid fever is hampered by the lack of labor...

  6. Guillain–Barre syndrome following dengue fever and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ralapanawa, Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Priyantha Udaya Kumara; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage; Jayalath, Widana Arachilage Thilak Ananda

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is an arboviral infection that classically presents with fever, joint pain, headaches, skin flush and morbilliform rashes. The incidence of neurological symptoms and complications in dengue varies from 1 to 25 % that include encephalopathy, Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS), acute motor weakness, seizures, neuritis, hypokalaemic paralysis, pyramidal tract signs, and a few more. Dengue fever as an antecedent infection in GBS is uncommon. Case presentation A 34-years-old Sri Lanka...

  7. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 1981–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, João Bosco; MARTELLI Celina Maria Turchi; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Simplício, Ana Cristina da Rocha; Hatch, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 5 years, Brazil has accounted for ≈70% of reported dengue fever cases in the Americas. We analyzed trends of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) from the early 1980s to 2002 by using surveillance data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Two distinct epidemiologic patterns for dengue were observed: localized epidemics (1986–1993), and endemic and epidemic virus circulation countrywide (1994–2002). Currently, serotypes 1, 2, and 3 cocirculate in 22 of 27 states. Dengue and ...

  8. Approach to postoperative fever in pediatric cardiac patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fever in the postoperative period in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease is fairly common and tends to cause anxiety to both the surgeon and the patient. Such fever is associated with the metabolic response to trauma, systemic response to the cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia, presence of drainage tubes, drugs, blood transfusion as well as infections. Establishing the diagnosis requires proper assessment of the patient with focused history, targeted physical examination and judicious use of investigations with the knowledge of the common causes

  9. Can cycles of chills and fever resolve bipolar disorder mania?

    OpenAIRE

    Setsaas, Audun; Vaaler, Arne Einar

    2014-01-01

    Treatment resistance is common in populations of patients with bipolar disorder stressing the need for new therapeutic strategies. Favourable effects of fever on mental disease have been noted throughout history. Today there is increasing evidence that immunological processes are involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. We present a case in which a patient with treatment resistant bipolar disorder mania seemingly recovered as a result of recurrent fever. This indicates that artifi...

  10. Present status of yellow fever: Memorandum from a PAHO Meeting*

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow ...

  11. Shortage of vaccines during a yellow fever outbreak in Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, N.; Barry, M; Van Herp, Michel; Zeller, H.

    2001-01-01

    A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...

  12. Pathologic and virologic study of fatal Lassa fever in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D. H.; McCormick, J. B.; Johnson, K M; Webb, P. A.; Komba-Kono, G.; Elliott, L. H.; Gardner, J J

    1982-01-01

    Postmortem examination of 21 virologically documented cases of Lassa fever, including 6 complete autopsies, was performed as part of a field study of community-acquired Lassa fever in Sierra Leone. The most consistently observed lesions were hepatocellular, adrenal, and splenic necrosis and adrenal cytoplasmic inclusions. Neither these lesions, nor other milder and less constantly observed lesions such as myocarditis, renal tubular injury, and interstitial pneumonia, appeared severe enough to...

  13. Lassa fever: the challenges of curtailing a deadly disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe, Titus

    2012-01-01

    Today Lassa fever is mainly a disease of the developing world, however several imported cases have been reported in different parts of the world and there are growing concerns of the potentials of Lassa fever Virus as a biological weapon. Yet no tangible solution to this problem has been developed nearly half a decade after its identification. Hence, the paper is aimed at appraising the problems associated with LAF illness; the challenges in curbing the epidemic and recommendations on importa...

  14. Analysis of significant factors for dengue fever incidence prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Siriyasatien, Padet; Phumee, Atchara; Ongruk, Phatsavee; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Kesorn, Kraisak

    2016-01-01

    Background Many popular dengue forecasting techniques have been used by several researchers to extrapolate dengue incidence rates, including the K-H model, support vector machines (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN). The time series analysis methodology, particularly ARIMA and SARIMA, has been increasingly applied to the field of epidemiological research for dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and other infectious diseases. The main drawback of these methods is that they do not co...

  15. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laborat...

  16. Deep sequencing approach for investigating infectious agents causing fever

    OpenAIRE

    Susilawati, T. N.; Jex, A. R.; Cantacessi, C.; Pearson, M.; Navarro, S.; Susianto, A.; Loukas, A. C.; McBride, W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) poses a diagnostic challenge due to the variety of possible aetiologies. While the majority of AUFs resolve spontaneously, some cases become prolonged and cause significant morbidity and mortality, necessitating improved diagnostic methods. This study evaluated the utility of deep sequencing in fever investigation. DNA and RNA were isolated from plasma/sera of AUF cases being investigated at Cairns Hospital in northern Australia, including eight control samp...

  17. Dengue haemorrhagic fever presenting with cholestatic hepatitis: two case reports and a review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yudhishdran, Jevon; Navinan, Rayno; Ratnatilaka, Asoka; Jeyalakshmy, Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a common mosquito borne viral fever in South Asia, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Dengue fever is well known to involve the liver, especially in dengue hemorrhagic fever. The hepatic involvement is usually that of a mild hepatitis with transaminase derangement without jaundice. In cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever where shock has ensued, a severe hepatitis with gross derangements of transaminases and bilirubin may occur. These are two rare cases o...

  18. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Alijani, Neda; Aghighi, Yahya; Parvaneh, Nima; Mordinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. The first manifestation of these disorders are present in childhood and adolescence, but infrequently it may be presented in young and middle ages. Genetic base has been known for all types of periodic fever syndromes except periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). Common periodic fever disorders are Familial Mediterranean...

  19. Identification of fever and vaccine-associated gene interaction networks using ontology-based literature mining

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Junguk; Özgür, Arzucan; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Background Fever is one of the most common adverse events of vaccines. The detailed mechanisms of fever and vaccine-associated gene interaction networks are not fully understood. In the present study, we employed a genome-wide, Centrality and Ontology-based Network Discovery using Literature data (CONDL) approach to analyse the genes and gene interaction networks associated with fever or vaccine-related fever responses. Results Over 170,000 fever-related articles from PubMed abstracts and tit...

  20. Knowledge and management of fever among Moroccan parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rkain, M; Rkain, I; Safi, M; Kabiri, M; Ahid, S; Benjelloun, B D S

    2014-06-01

    Parents often have misperceptions about childhood fever, and little information is available about the home management of feverish children in Morocco. In this study of the perceptions, knowledge and practices of families regarding children's fever, the parents of 264 febrile children aged 0-16 years were interviewed in a paediatric emergency department in Rabat in 2011. Only 3.5% of parents knew the correct temperature definition for fever, 54.4% determined their children's fever using a thermometer, and the preferred site was rectal. Most of them (96.8%) considered that fever was a very serious condition, which could lead to side-effects such as brain damage (28.9%), seizures (18.8%) paralysis (19.5%), dyspnoea (14.8%) and coma (14.8%). Paracetamol was used by 85.9% and traditional treatments by 45.1%. Knowledge about the correct definition of fever was significantly associated with parents' profession, educational level and receipt of previous information and advice from health professionals. PMID:24960517

  1. Meteorological factors and dengue fever transmission in South Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    The variations in meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in weekly basis in south Taiwan. Several extreme and average index of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study applies the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to reveal the significant meteorological variables and their temporal lag effects to the dengue fever epidemic by analyzing the dengue fever records from 1998-2011. Results show that the weekly minimum temperature (minT) and 1-hr maximum rainfall (maxR) are significantly important to the dengue fever spread. Among them, once minT is higher than 20°C, the relative risk of dengue fever of nine-fourteen week later will be significantly elevated. On the other hand, the incidences of maxR higher than 80mm can also increase the relative risk of dengue fever occurrences around nine-fourteen weeks afterwards.

  2. [Diagnostic image (157). A man with fever and a 'tache noire' after a holiday in South Africa. Rickettsiosis, probably African tick-bite fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederen, B M; Buiting, A G

    2003-09-20

    A 54-year-old man presented with fever and an eschar, probably caused by African tick-bite fever, contracted during a holiday in South Africa. He recovered rapidly after treatment with doxycyclin. PMID:14533497

  3. Clinical Genetic Testing of Periodic Fever Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marcuzzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic fever syndromes (PFSs are a wide group of autoinflammatory diseases. Due to some clinical overlap between different PFSs, differential diagnosis can be a difficult challenge. Nowadays, there are no universally agreed recommendations for most PFSs, and near half of patients may remain without a genetic diagnosis even after performing multiple-gene analyses. Molecular analysis of periodic fevers’ causative genes can improve patient quality of life by providing early and accurate diagnosis and allowing the administration of appropriate treatment. In this paper we focus our discussion on effective usefulness of genetic diagnosis of PFSs. The aim of this paper is to establish how much can the diagnostic system improve, in order to increase the success of PFS diagnosis. The mayor expectation in the near future will be addressed to the so-called next generation sequencing approach. Although the application of bioinformatics to high-throughput genetic analysis could allow the identification of complex genotypes, the complexity of this definition will hardly result in a clear contribution for the physician. In our opinion, however, to obtain the best from this new development a rule should always be kept well in mind: use genetics only to answer specific clinical questions.

  4. [Acute rheumatic fever, Sydenham's chorea and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimzal, Aylan; Topçuoğlu, Volkan; Yazgan, M Yanki

    2002-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections. ARF consists of several combinations of carditis, polyarthritis and Sydenham's chorea, and rarely seen erythema marginatum and subcutaneous nodules. Sydenham's chorea is seen in about 20% of patients with ARF. As a late symptom of ARF, Sydenham's chorea usually occurs 3 months or longer after the streptococcal infection. Sydenham's chorea is a neuropsychiatric disorder that may present with emotional lability, anxiety, obsessive compulsive symptoms, attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms or tics. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms occur in 70% of patients with Sydenham's chorea. The role of the autoimmune mechanisms and the dysfunction of the basal ganglia have been demonstrated in Sydenham's chorea. Antibodies against group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cross-react with basal ganglia. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) shares the same mechanism with Sydenham's chorea, but PANDAS has not been shown to require penicillin prophylaxis. Thus it is important to distinguish between them. Sydenham's chorea is associated with adulthood OCD, Tourette syndrome and schizophrenia. These features make Sydenham's chorea an explanatory model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders. This poststreptococcal disorder provides a treatment opportunity with new therapies like antibiotic therapy, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for psychiatric disorders. In this paper we summarize the phenomenological and treatment studies of OCD, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and tic disorders in subjects with ARF, with or without Sydenham's chorea. PMID:12794666

  5. Towards a Vaccine Against Rheumatic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guilherme

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic fever (RF is an autoimmune disease which affects more than 20 million children in developing countries. It is triggered by Streptococcus pyogenes throat infection in untreated susceptible individuals. Carditis, the most serious manifestation of the disease, leads to severe and permanent valvular lesions, causing chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD. We have been studying the mechanisms leading to pathological autoimmunity in RF/RHD for the last 15 years. Our studies allowed us a better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of RHD, paving the way for the development of a safe vaccine for a post-infection autoimmune disease. We have focused on the search for protective T and B cell epitopes by testing 620 human blood samples against overlapping peptides spanning 99 residues of the C-terminal portion of the M protein, differing by one amino acid residue. We identified T and B cell epitopes with 22 and 25 amino acid residues, respectively. Although these epitopes were from different regions of the C-terminal portion of the M protein, they showed an identical core of 16 amino acid residues. Antibodies against the B cell epitope inhibited bacterial invasion/adhesion in vitro. Our results strongly indicated that the selected T and B cell epitopes could potentially be protective against S. pyogenes.

  6. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapetis, Jonathan R; Beaton, Andrea; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Guilherme, Luiza; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Mayosi, Bongani M; Sable, Craig; Steer, Andrew; Wilson, Nigel; Wyber, Rosemary; Zühlke, Liesl

    2016-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is the result of an autoimmune response to pharyngitis caused by infection with group A Streptococcus. The long-term damage to cardiac valves caused by ARF, which can result from a single severe episode or from multiple recurrent episodes of the illness, is known as rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor settings around the world. Although our understanding of disease pathogenesis has advanced in recent years, this has not led to dramatic improvements in diagnostic approaches, which are still reliant on clinical features using the Jones Criteria, or treatment practices. Indeed, penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for decades and there is no other treatment that has been proven to alter the likelihood or the severity of RHD after an episode of ARF. Recent advances - including the use of echocardiographic diagnosis in those with ARF and in screening for early detection of RHD, progress in developing group A streptococcal vaccines and an increased focus on the lived experience of those with RHD and the need to improve quality of life - give cause for optimism that progress will be made in coming years against this neglected disease that affects populations around the world, but is a particular issue for those living in poverty. PMID:27188830

  7. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  8. Mathematical modeling of Chikungunya fever control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Chikungunya fever is a global concern due to the occurrence of large outbreaks, the presence of persistent arthropathy and its rapid expansion throughout various continents. Globalization and climate change have contributed to the expansion of the geographical areas where mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia) remain. It is necessary to improve the techniques of vector control in the presence of large outbreaks in The American Region. We derive measures of disease control, using a mathematical model of mosquito-human interaction, by means of three scenarios: a) a single vector b) two vectors, c) two vectors and human and non-human reservoirs. The basic reproductive number and critical control measures were deduced by using computer algebra with Maple (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada). Control measures were simulated with parameter values obtained from published data. According to the number of households in high risk areas, the goals of effective vector control to reduce the likelihood of mosquito-human transmission would be established. Besides the two vectors, if presence of other non-human reservoirs were reported, the monthly target of effective elimination of the vector would be approximately double compared to the presence of a single vector. The model shows the need to periodically evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures.

  9. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2013-10-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country's 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  10. Encapsulating peritonitis and familial Mediterranean fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Resat Dabak; Oya Uygur-Bayrami(c)li; Didem K1l1(c) Ayd1n; Can Dolap(c)1oglu; Cengiz Gemici; Turgay Erginel; Cem Turan; Nimet Karaday1

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between encapsulating peritonitis and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed one year ago for cholelithiasis. Eleven months after the operation she developed massive ascites. Biochemical evaluation revealed hyperglycemia, mild Fe deficiency anemia, hypoalbuminemia and a CA-125 level of 2 700 IU. Ascitic evaluation showed characteristics of exudation with a cell count of 580/mm3. Abdominal CT showed omental thickening and massive ascites. At exploratory laparotomy there was generalized thickening of the peritoneum and a laparoscopic clip encapsulated by fibrous tissue was found adherent to the uterus. Biopsies were negative for malignancy and a prophilactic total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy were performed. RESULTS: The histopathological evaluation was compatible with chronic nonspecific findings and mild mesothelial proliferation and chronic inflammation at the uterine serosa and liver biopsy showed inactive cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: The patient was evaluated as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis induced by the laparoscopic clip acting as a foreign body. Due to the fact that the patient had FMF the immune response was probably exaggerated.

  11. Hantavirus fever without pulmonary syndrome in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions. PMID:23836565

  12. A Patient with Microcytic Anemia and Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Bhatia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old man with a history of mechanical aortic valve insertion and ascending aorta replacement in 1997 presented to his family doctor in August 2004 with a two-week history of melena after recently returning from a six-month vacation in Mexico. The patient had no other abdominal complaints. He took warfarin but did not take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetylsalicylic acid or alcohol. The patient had no history of liver or peptic ulcer disease. He had lost 7 kg over the past month, but did not complain of fever or night sweats. On physical examination, vital signs were normal, the second heart sound was mechanical, and there were no abnormal findings. Laboratory investigations showed a borderline microcytic anemia (hemoglobin 76 g/L; mean corpuscular volume 79 fL; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 323 g/L, a therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.6 and an elevated creatinine level (112 µmol/L. His stool was positive for occult blood, although the ferritin level was high (623 µg/L. Other routine blood work was normal. The patient was admitted to hospital for investigation of the anemia.

  13. Rift Valley fever ecology and early warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rift Valley fever (RVF) once again dramatically affected the Horn of Africa (Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania) in 2006-2007. This outbreak was linked to unusual rainfall associated with climatic events (El Nino), which affected the populations of the mosquitoes acting as vectors and reservoirs of the disease. The disease also reappeared in Sudan in the autumn of 2007, following excessive rainfall driven by a post-El Nino, unusually warm sea temperature in the Indian Ocean. In the same year and in 2008, the disease affected southern Africa countries (Swaziland, South Africa) and islands in the Indian Ocean (Comoros, Mayotte, Madagascar). Based on near real-time climatic data, forecasting models and Early Warning Systems were available at the continental level and proved to be efficient in raising the alert before the onset of the epidemic, at least for the coastal countries of eastern Africa. In addition, these recent events gave an opportunity to review the natural history of RVF, especially in some places where its ecology was poorly documented. FAO and WHO officers widely use outcomes from the different models and then identified gaps or needs that could be filled in order to improve the use of these predictions. A brainstorming meeting was organized in Rome in September 2008 to discuss adjustments and complementarities of the existing models, as forecasting and early warning systems are the key points that may provide a time window for preventive measures, before the amplification of the virus is out of control. (author)

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serkan (O)ncü

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral infection that is a serious threat to humans.The disease is widely distributed in Africa,Asia,and Europe and has developed into a serious public health concern.Humans become infected through the bites of ticks,by contact with a patient with CCHF,or by contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock.Microvascular instability and impaired hemostasis are the hallmarks of the infection.Infection in human begins with nonspecific febrile symptoms,but may progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with high mortality rates.Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the most used and specific tests for the diagnosis.The mainstay of treatment is supportive.Although definitive studies are not available,ribavirin is suggested to be effective especially at the earlier phase of the infection.Uses of universal protective measures are the best way to avoid the infection.In this review,all aspects of CCHF are overviewed in light of the current literature.

  15. Risk factors associated with an outbreak of dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, D T T; Hoat, L N; Hu, W; Wright, P; Martens, P

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) appears to be emerging in Hanoi in recent years. A case-control study was performed to investigate risk factors for the development of DF/DHF in Hanoi. A total of 73 patients with DF/DHF and 73 control patients were included in the study. The risk factor analysis indicated that living in rented housing, living near uncovered sewers, and living in a house discharging sewage directly into to ponds were all significantly associated with DF/DHF. People living in rented houses were 2·2 times more at risk of DF/DHF than those living in their own homes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1-4·6]. People living in an unhygienic house, or in a house discharging sewage directly to the ponds were 3·4 times and 4·3 times, respectively, more likely to be associated with DF/DHF (aOR 3·4, 95% CI 1-11·7; aOR 4·3, 95% CI 1·1-16·9). These results contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of dengue transmission in Hanoi, which is needed to implement dengue prevention and control programmes effectively and efficiently. PMID:25308711

  16. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachvanichsanong, Prayong; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus infection (DVI)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a common febrile illness with a variety of severities. The mortality rate is high in dengue shock syndrome (DSS), caused by circulatory failure due to plasma leakage resulting in multi-organ failure. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) is rarely reported. In areas of endemic DVI, the prevalence of AKI due to DVI has been reported to be as high as 6.0 % in children with AKI, and 0.9 % in children with DVI who were admitted to a hospital. The mechanism of AKI in DVI is not clear. It may result from (a) direct injury as in other infectious diseases, (b) an indirect mechanism such as via the immune system, since DHF is an immunological disease, or (c) hypotensive DSS, leading in turn to reduced renal blood supply and renal failure. The mortality rates of DF/DHF, DSS and DHF/DSS-related AKI are 60 %, respectively. Kidney involvement is not actually that rare, but is under-recognized and often only reported when microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, electrolyte imbalance, or even AKI is found. The prevalence of proteinuria and hematuria has been reported as high as 70-80 % in DVI. A correct diagnosis depends on basic investigations of kidney function such as urinalysis, serum creatinine and electrolytes. Although DVI-related renal involvement is treated supportively, it is still important to make an early diagnosis to prevent AKI and its complications, and if AKI does occur, dialysis may be required. Fortunately, in patients who recover, kidney function usually completely recovers as well. PMID:26699788

  17. Drivers for inappropriate fever management in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M; McCarthy, S; O'Sullivan, R; Shiely, F; Larkin, P; Brenner, M; Sahm, L J

    2016-08-01

    Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms and accounts for numerous consultations with healthcare practitioners. It causes much anxiety amongst parents as many struggle with managing a feverish child and find it difficult to assess fever severity. Over- and under-dosing of antipyretics has been reported. Aim of the review The aim of this review was to synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever and febrile illness in children. Method A systematic search was conducted in ten bibliographic databases from database inception to June 2014. Citation lists of studies and consultation with experts were used as secondary sources to identify further relevant studies. Titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quantitative studies using a questionnaire were analysed using narrative synthesis. Qualitative studies with a semi-structured interview or focus group methodology were analysed thematically. Results Of the 1565 studies which were screened for inclusion in the review, the final review comprised of 14 studies (three qualitative and 11 quantitative). Three categories emerged from the narrative synthesis of quantitative studies: (i) parental practices; (ii) knowledge; (iii) expectations and information seeking. A further three analytical themes emerged from the qualitative studies: (i) control; (ii) impact on family; (iii) experiences. Conclusion Our review identifies the multifaceted nature of the factors which impact on how parents manage fever and febrile illness in children. A coherent approach to the management of fever and febrile illness needs to be implemented so a consistent message is communicated to parents. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists regularly advise parents on fever management. Information given to parents needs to be timely, consistent and accurate so that inappropriate fever

  18. Confirmed malaria cases among children under five with fever and history of fever in rural western Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidenya Benson R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that malaria treatment should begin with parasitological diagnosis. This will help to control misuse of anti-malarial drugs in areas with low transmission. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of parasitologically confirmed malaria among children under five years of age presenting with fever or history of fever in rural western Tanzania. A finger prick blood sample was obtained from each child, and thin and thick blood smears were prepared, stained with 10% Giemsa and examined under the light microscope. A structured questionnaire was used to collect each patient's demographic information, reasons for coming to the health center; and a physical examination was carried out on all patients. Fever was defined as axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C. Findings A total of 300 children with fever or a history of fever (1 or 2 weeks were recruited, in which 54.3% (163/300, 95%CI, 48.7-59.9 were boys. A total of 76 (76/300, 25.3%, 95%CI, 22.8 - 27.8 of the children had fever. Based on a parasitological diagnosis of malaria, only 12% (36/300, 95%CI, 8.3-15.7 of the children had P. falciparum infection. Of the children with P. falciparum infection, 52.7% (19/36, 95%CI, 47.1-58.3 had fever and the remaining had no fever. The geometrical mean of the parasites was 708.62 (95%CI, 477.96-1050.62 parasites/μl and 25% (9/36, 95%CI, 10.9 -- 39.1 of the children with positive P. falciparum had ≥ 1001 parasites/μl. On Univariate (OR = 2.13, 95%CI, 1.02-4.43, P = 0.044 and multivariate (OR = 2.15, 95%CI, 1.03-4.49 analysis, only children above one year of age were associated with malaria infections. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the children under the age of five with fever had malaria, and with a proportion of children having non-malaria fever. Improvement of malaria diagnostic and other causes of febrile illness may provide effective measure in management of febrile illness in

  19. [Two cases of acute hepatitis associated with Q fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Murat; Kılıç, Selçuk; Gürsoy, Bensu; Celebi, Bekir; Yerer, Mehmet

    2012-07-01

    Q fever which is caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a worldwide zoonosis. Many species of wild and domestic mammals, birds, and arthropods, are reservoirs of C.burnetii in nature, however farm animals are the most frequent sources of human infection. The most frequent way of transmission is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The clinical presentation of Q fever is polymorphic and nonspecific. Q fever may present as acute or chronic disease. In acute cases, the most common clinical syndromes are selflimited febrile illness, granulomatous hepatitis, and pneumonia, but it can also be asymptomatic. Fever with hepatitis associated with Q fever has rarely been described in the literature. Herein we report two cases of C.burnetii hepatitis presented with jaundice. In May 2011, two male cases, who inhabited in Malkara village of Tekirdag province (located at Trace region of Turkey), were admitted to the hospital with the complaints of persistent high grade fever, chills and sweats, icterus, disseminated myalgia and headache. Physical examination revealed fever, icterus and the patient appeared to be mildly ill but had no localizing signs of infection. Radiological findings of the patients were in normal limits. Laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis, increased hepatic and cholestatic enzyme levels, and moderate hyperbilirubinemia- mainly direct bilirubin, whereas serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were found normal. Blood and urine cultures of the patients yielded no bacterial growth. Serological markers for acute viral hepatitis, citomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections, brucellosis, salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis were found negative. Acute Q fever diagnosis of the cases were based on the positive results obtained by C.burnetii Phase II IgM and IgG ELISA (Vircell SL, Spain) test, and the serological diagnosis were confirmed by Phase I and II immunofluorescence (Vircell SL, Spain) method. Both cases were treated with

  20. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. [Radboud University Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Draaisma, Jos M.T. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in children with FUO and in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. All FDG-PET/(CT) scans performed in the Radboud university medical center for the evaluation of FUO or unexplained fever during immune suppression in the last 10 years were reviewed. Results were compared with the final clinical diagnosis. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 31 children with FUO. A final diagnosis was established in 16 cases (52 %). Of the total number of scans, 32 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in these patients was 80 % and 78 %, respectively. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 12 children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. A final diagnosis was established in nine patients (75 %). Of the total number of these scans, 58 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression was 78 % and 67 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT appears a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of children with FUO and in the diagnostic process of children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. Prospective studies of FDG-PET/CT as part of a structured diagnostic protocol are warranted to assess the additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

  1. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in children with FUO and in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. All FDG-PET/(CT) scans performed in the Radboud university medical center for the evaluation of FUO or unexplained fever during immune suppression in the last 10 years were reviewed. Results were compared with the final clinical diagnosis. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 31 children with FUO. A final diagnosis was established in 16 cases (52 %). Of the total number of scans, 32 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in these patients was 80 % and 78 %, respectively. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 12 children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. A final diagnosis was established in nine patients (75 %). Of the total number of these scans, 58 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression was 78 % and 67 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT appears a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of children with FUO and in the diagnostic process of children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. Prospective studies of FDG-PET/CT as part of a structured diagnostic protocol are warranted to assess the additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous Onset of Chickenpox and Scarlet Fever: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chickenpox is a contagious febrile illness with rash that is caused by varicella zoster virus. Most children up to age 15 are infected with the virus. Scarlet fever is caused by erythrogenic toxin of streptococcus group A and usually causes skin reactions such as fine red and often itchy papules on the trunk and extremities as well as skin redness, especially on the groin and forearm. Case: Patient is a 3-year-old girl that two days after chickenpox while she had active lesions of the chickenpox, was infected with scarlet fever. Skin lesions at different stages along with the clinical symptoms confirmed the diagnosis of chickenpox. Chickenpox is a febrile illness, more contagious and associated with the rash, which rarely has been reported with scarlet fever. Macular lesions spreading all over the body especially the trunk, with strawberry red tongue and exudative lesions of tonsils with good response to penicillin confirmed the complication of scarlet fever following chickenpox. Rarely scarlet fever is a complication of chickenpox and symptoms of both conditions may be seen simultaneously. Considering that diagnosis of both diseases are based on clinical findings, so physicians should start the appropriate treatment if they have clinical suspicion.

  3. [Dengue fever--not just a tropical infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, i. e., A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Other species are rarely involved. The disease is caused by dengue virus, an enveloped RNA virus which belongs to the family of flaviviridae. Although most infections are asymptomatic, in 20 to 30 percentages all cases infections are accompanied with high fever and other influenza-like signs of illness. Serious medical conditions with lethal complications also occur. During the last decades, the incidence of dengue fever rose sharply in many tropical and subtropical countries. In some of these regions, dengue is one of the leading causes of death in children. In Europe, since a few years a strong clustering of dengue fever cases has been registered in travelers returning from certain tropical or subtropical regions. Recently, autochthonous outbreaks have been observed on the Atlantic island of Madeira and in a few other regions of South Europe. Treatment of dengue fever is supportive and symptomatic, a specific therapy does not exist. For prevention of disease, vector control is of crucial importance. PMID:27120872

  4. Frequency of splenomegaly in dengue fever in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengue Fever is caused by arthropod born viruses.According to World Health Organization approximately 50-100 million infections of dengue fever occur yearly. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of splenomegaly in dengue fever in children. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Paediatrics, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, during a period from June 2012 to May 2013 by including 93 Children, aged 4-14 years presenting with fever of less than 14 days with thrombocytopenia and positive IgM or IgM and IgG dengue antibodies by ELISA. Patients were thoroughly evaluated by detailed history and clinical examination. Ultrasonography of the patients was performed to confirm the splenomegaly. The data was analysed to determine the frequency and percentage of disease. Results: Out of 93 children, 51 (54.8%) were male and 42 (45.2%) were female. The most common clinical presentation was noted is chills and rigors in 80 (86.02%). Unusual clinical features were encephalopathy in 37 (39.78%) followed by bleeding manifestations and upper respiratory tract infection (upper RTI). Splenomegaly was seen in 45 (48.4%) children. Conclusion: Dengue fever is increasingly presenting with atypical presentation like splenomegaly, encephalopathy, bleeding manifestations and upper RTI. (author)

  5. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  6. Causes of fever in adults in thall and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common symptom for which the patients are admitted in our hospitals is fever. This study was carried out to know the causes of fever based on clinical and laboratory findings. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 865 consecutive male patients with fever of 100 degree F and above were included in the study conducted from January 2010 to April 2012. Results: All the patients were male having age between 17 years and 45 years. Out of the 865 patients, 507 (58.61%) came out to be malarial parasite slide positive, 186 (21.50%) patients were malarial parasite slide negative but were having clinical picture of malaria and responded to anti-malarial treatment, 73 (8.44%) patients were of respiratory tract infections, 21 (2.43%) patients were having gastro enteritis, 20 (2.31%) were diagnosed as cases of typhoid fever, 17 (1.97%) were having urinary tract infections, 24 (2.77%) patients were referred to medical specialist and the rest 17 (1.97%) were grouped as others. Conclusion: The most common cause of fever in our study was malaria. Respiratory tract infections are the second most common cause. (author)

  7. FATAL RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriyakorn, Nirada; Insiripong, Somchai

    2015-01-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is caused by dengue virus infection. The classical manifestations consist of fever, thrombocytopenia, and hemoconcentration. However, its unusual complications may be fatal, such as prolong shock, massive bleeding, volume overload, and unusual manifestations, for example, severe rhabdomyolysis. Here we report a case of 17-year old Thai man who was referred to our hospital because of 7-day fever with thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration and right pleural effusion. The serology tests confirmed to be dengue infection. He developed various complications: severe hepatitis, coagulopathy, and heavy proteinuria; encephalopathy that needed a respiratory ventilator. On day 12 of fever, he had myalgia and passed dark urine. Serum creatinine and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) were found abnormally high. He was diagnosed as severe rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury, and immediate hemodialysis was performed. He did not respond to treatment and expired within three hours. Although the mechanism of severe rhabdomyolysis in dengue fever is not clearly known, it may theoretically be proposed such as direct muscle cell injury leading to myositis by dengue virus, myotoxic cytokines which are produced in response to viral infection, dehydration or hypophosphatemia. PMID:26506741

  8. Poverty and fever vulnerability in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Oyindamola B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa, where widespread poverty also contribute to the burden of the disease. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of childhood fever and socioeconomic factors including poverty in Nigeria, and to examine these effects at the regional levels. Methods Determinants of fever in the last two weeks among children under five years were examined from the 25004 children records extracted from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data set. A two-level random effects logistic model was fitted. Results About 16% of children reported having fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. The prevalence of fever was highest among children from the poorest households (17%, compared to 15.8% among the middle households and lowest among the wealthiest (13% (p6months, whereas the effect of wealth no longer reached statistical significance. Conclusion While, overall bednet possession was low, less fever was reported in households that possessed bednets. Malaria control strategies and interventions should be designed that will target the poor and make an impact on poverty. The mechanism through which wealth may affect malaria occurrence needs further investigation.

  9. Q Fever: An Emerging Public Health Concern in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a zoonotic disease considered as an emerging or re-emerging disease in many countries. It is caused by Coxiella burnetii that are highly resistant to the environment. The most common reservoirs of the diseases are livestock. In this study, all studies carried out on Q fever in Iran were reviewed, in order to have a better understanding of the epidemiological features of the disease in this country. All published documents were systematically searched to find the related studies between the years 1937 and 2012. The collected studies were then classified based on the study group. In this review 29 published papers or reports were found, which included 12 studies on animals and birds, 1 on foetuses, 4 on ticks, 4 on milk and 14 on humans. The existence of the Q fever pathogen has been confirmed in different molecular and serological studies among different animals (including sheep, cattle, goats, horses, camels, wild rodents and wild pigeons and their productions in Iran. Also, there are few seroepidemiological studies on the presence of human Q fever in Iran that most of them confirmed this issue. According to this study, Iran can be considered as an endemic focus of Q fever. As the presence of C. burnetii or its antibody has been reported among different animals in Iran, the disease can be transmitted to humans and so it can be considered as a public health problem in Iran.

  10. A Case of Pediatric Q Fever Osteomyelitis Managed Without Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Sparks, Rebecca T; Marais, Ben J

    2015-12-01

    Q fever osteomyelitis, caused by infection with Coxiella burnetti, is rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of children with culture-negative osteomyelitis, particularly if there is a history of contact with farm animals, and/or granulomatous change on histologic examination of a bone biopsy specimen. We describe a case of Q fever osteomyelitis in a 6-year-old boy in which a decision was made not to treat the patient with combination antimicrobial agents, balancing possible risks of recurrence against potential side effects of prolonged antibiotic treatment. The patient had undergone surgical debridement of a single lesion and was completely asymptomatic after recovery from surgery. This case suggests that a conservative approach of watchful waiting in an asymptomatic patient with chronic Q fever osteomyelitis may be warranted in select cases when close follow-up is possible. PMID:26574586

  11. Pathologic and virologic study of fatal Lassa fever in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. H.; McCormick, J. B.; Johnson, K. M.; Webb, P. A.; Komba-Kono, G.; Elliott, L. H.; Gardner, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Postmortem examination of 21 virologically documented cases of Lassa fever, including 6 complete autopsies, was performed as part of a field study of community-acquired Lassa fever in Sierra Leone. The most consistently observed lesions were hepatocellular, adrenal, and splenic necrosis and adrenal cytoplasmic inclusions. Neither these lesions, nor other milder and less constantly observed lesions such as myocarditis, renal tubular injury, and interstitial pneumonia, appeared severe enough to explain the cause of death in Lassa fever. The central nervous system (CNS) contained no specific lesions. Viral titrations demonstrated high viral content in liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart, placenta, and mammary gland. Clinical laboratory data included elevation of hepatic enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Because of the paucity of pathologic lesions in spite of widely disseminated viral infection, further investigation of humoral inflammatory mechanisms is indicated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7081389

  12. Dengue encephalitis-A rare manifestation of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Madi; Basavaprabhu Achappa; John T Ramapuram; Nityananda Chowta; Mridula Laxman; Soundarya Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of dengue fever ranges from asymptomatic infection to dengue shock syndrome. Dengue is classically considered a non-neurotropic virus. Neurological complications are not commonly seen in dengue. The neurological manifestations seen in dengue are encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy, stroke and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dengue encephalitis is a rare disease. We report an interesting case of dengue encephalitis from Southern India. A 49-year-old gentleman presented with fever, altered sensorium and seizures. Dengue NS-1 antigen test was reactive. Dengue IgM was also positive. CSF PCR was negative for herpes simplex 1 & 2. Dengue encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever with altered sensorium, especially in countries like India where dengue is rampant.

  13. Panuveitis with disc edema after dengue fever: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Annamalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 47 year old male who presented with panuveitis and disc oedema two weeks after an episode of dengue fever. He had complaints of headache with pain and defective vision in his right eye that had developed during his recovery from dengue fever. We treated him with topical steroid drops and subtenon steroid injections along with atropine eye drops. Oral prednisolone was started after 1 week on his review visit following which his symptoms resolved and vision improved. This case is being presented as panuveitis with disc oedema is a rare complication of dengue fever and also because the patient responded well to medical management with restoration of his vision.

  14. [Gastroenteritis with fever, headache and rash after travelling in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, A; Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Löscher, T

    2011-05-01

    A 63-year-old patient presented to our emergency unit two days after returning from India suffering from watery diarrhea, nausea, fever and headache. On admission we found a maculopapular rash on his trunk and forehead. Laboratory findings revealed a leuko-thrombopenia and elevated levels of CRP and procalcitonin. We started treatment with ciprofloxacin. After 48 hours of treatment the diarrhea subsided, whereas the rush on his trunk increased. Under the suspicion of rickettsial fever we started doxycycline 200 mg/d. Because of an incipient pneumonia we added ceftriaxon. The patient improved rapidly and the laboratory abnormalities resolved. Serological investigations revealed a significant increase of specific antibodies against Rickettsia typhi. In conclusion, headache with fever and maculopapular rash after traveling to endemic countries should rise suspicion for murine typhus. PMID:20945058

  15. Diagnosis and management of undifferentiated fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sarah S

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and likely causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) have changed over the last few decades, largely because enhanced capabilities of laboratory testing and imaging have helped confirm earlier diagnoses. History and examination are still of paramount importance for cryptogenic infections. Adolescents who have persisting nonspecific complaints of fatigue sometimes are referred to Pediatric Infectious Diseases consultants for FUO because the problem began with an acute febrile illness or measured temperatures are misidentified as "fevers". A thorough history that reveals myriad symptoms when juxtaposed against normal findings on examination and simple laboratory testing can suggest a diagnosis of "fatigue of deconditioning". "Treatment" is forced return to school, and reconditioning. The management of patients with acute onset of fever without an obvious source or focus of infection is dependent on age. Infants under one month of age are at risk for serious and rapidly progressive bacterial and viral infections, and yet initially can have fever without other observable abnormalities. Urgent investigation and pre-emptive therapies usually are prudent. By two months of age, clinical judgment best guides management. Between one and two months of age, a decision to investigate or not depends on considerations of the height and duration of fever, the patient's observable behavior/interaction, knowledge of concurrent family illnesses, and likelihood of close observation and follow up. Children 6 months-36 months of age with acute onset of fever who appear well and have no observable focus of infection can be evaluated clinically, without laboratory investigation or antibiotic therapy, unless risk factors elevate the likelihood of urinary tract infection. PMID:27209095

  16. Clinico-epidemiologicalfeatures of dengue fever in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.

  17. Clinical features and patient management of Lujo hemorrhagic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivesh H Sewlall

    Full Text Available In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth study of their clinical manifestations, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis, or response to treatment options typically available in industrialized countries.We describe the clinical features of five cases of Lujo hemorrhagic fever and summarize their clinical management, as well as providing additional epidemiologic detail regarding the 2008 outbreak. Illness typically began with the abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, and myalgias followed successively by sore throat, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, minor hemorrhage, subconjunctival injection, and neck and facial swelling over the first week of illness. No major hemorrhage was noted. Neurological signs were sometimes seen in the late stages. Shock and multi-organ system failure, often with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, ensued in the second week, with death in four of the five cases. Distinctive treatment components of the one surviving patient included rapid commencement of the antiviral drug ribavirin and administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, N-acetylcysteine, and recombinant factor VIIa.Lujo virus causes a clinical syndrome remarkably similar to Lassa fever. Considering the high case-fatality and significant logistical impediments to controlled treatment efficacy trials for viral hemorrhagic fever, it is both logical and ethical to explore the use of the various compounds used in the treatment of the surviving case reported here in future outbreaks

  18. Marburg hemorrhagic fever associated with multiple genetic lineages of virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bausch, D G; Nichol, S T; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J;

    2006-01-01

    Background An outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever was first observed in a gold-mining village in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo in October 1998. Methods We investigated the outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever most intensively in May and October 1999. Sporadic cases and short...... reported such contact (P<0.001). Most of the affected miners (94 percent) worked in an underground mine. Cessation of the outbreak coincided with flooding of the mine. Epidemiologic evidence of multiple introductions of infection into the population was substantiated by the detection of at least nine...... imply that reservoir hosts of Marburg virus inhabit caves, mines, or similar habitats....

  19. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized. PMID:27087465

  20. Infection risk to travelers going to dengue fever endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsumpun, P; Patanarapelert, K; Sriprom, M; Varamit, S; Tang, I M

    2004-03-01

    The risk of dengue virus infection to travelers visiting dengue fever endemic regions was studied through the use of mathematical modeling. A Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model is used to describe the transmission of dengue fever (DF) in an endemic region into which tourists enter. The dynamics of a new class of human, the traveler, is incorporated into the systems of first order differential equations in the SIR describing the dynamics of the transmission in the host region. Using standard dynamic analysis methods, the numbers of travelers who become infected with the dengue virus are calculated as a function of the length of time the tourist stays in the region. PMID:15272760

  1. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet; David John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the peri...

  2. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne) disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4). The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from a...

  3. Approach to postoperative fever in pediatric cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fever in the postoperative period in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease is fairly common and tends to cause anxiety to both the surgeon and the patient. Such fever is associated with the metabolic response to trauma, systemic response to the cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia, presence of drainage tubes, drugs, blood transfusion as well as infections. Establishing the diagnosis requires proper assessment of the patient with focused history, targeted physical examination and judicious use of investigations with the knowledge of the common causes.

  4. DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral disease of humans. An estimated 50 million dengue infections and 500,000 Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever cases occur annually, particularly in south - east Asia, the western Pacific a nd the Americas . [1] The overall mortality in dengue infection is 1 - 5% without treatment and less than 1% with adequate treatment however severe disease carries a mortality of 26%. [2],[3] Hemorrhagic complications causing intracerebral hemorrhage is rare but fatal. We report a case of 30 year old male with dengue haemorrhagic fever with intracerebral hemorrhage.

  5. [Fever and dry cough in a construction worker from Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesli, P; Flepp, M; Greminger, P

    1997-07-30

    A 33-year-old Portugese worker presented with a one-week history of nonproductive cough and fever. A presumptive diagnosis "viral infection of the respiratory tract" was made. However, because of persisting cough and fever further investigations were necessary, and finally Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood cultures. Three months before admission to the hospital the man was dressing the carcasses of a goat in Portugal and consumpted fresh goats milk cheese. Antibiotic therapy with Rifampicin and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazol over 6 weeks improved the signs and symptoms of the infection. PMID:9340710

  6. Fever of undetermined etiology after cleaning of steam turbine condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, D C; Gilliam, D K

    1977-01-01

    Two outbreaks of a febrile syndrome marked by chills, headaches, myalgia, nausea, and malaise occurred in workers who had cleaned the steam condensers of electric power turbines. Mean incubation period was 38 hours. Twenty-two of twenty-three exposed men became ill. Clinical and environmental investigation failed to reveal the etiology of the outbreaks. The circumstances and clinical syndrome have points of similarity to fever following inhalation of metal fumes and low-grade, stained cotton dust, and to Pontiac fever. PMID:869594

  7. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochetes in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job E. Lopez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relapsing fever spirochetes are tick- and louse-borne pathogens that primarily afflict those in impoverished countries. Historically the pathogens have had a significant impact on public health, yet currently they are often overlooked because of the nonspecific display of disease. In this review, we discuss aspects of relapsing fever (RF spirochete pathogenesis including the: (1 clinical manifestation of disease; (2 ability to diagnose pathogen exposure; (3 the pathogen’s life cycle in the tick and mammal; and (4 ecological factors contributing to the maintenance of RF spirochetes in nature.

  8. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano; Zouraide Guerra Antunes Costa; Daniel Garkauskas Ramos; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Valéria de Sá Jayme; Marco Antônio Barreto de Almeida; Kátia Campomar Vettorello; Melissa Mascheretti; Brendan Flannery

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and durin...

  9. Prostaglandin A1 Inhibits Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Rosária Pereira Freitas; Lucio Ayres Caldas; Moacyr Alcoforado Rebello

    1998-01-01

    Prostaglandins (Pgs) have been shown to inhibit the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report the effect of prostaglandin (PgA1) on the multiplication of a positive strand RNA virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) in PK15 cells. PgA1 was found to inhibit the multiplication of CSFV. At a concentration of 5 µg/ml, which was nontoxic to the cells, PgA1 inhibitis virus production in 99%. In PgA1 treated cells the size and number of characteristic Classical Swine Fever focus d...

  10. Prostaglandin A1 Inhibits Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Rosária Pereira Freitas

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (Pgs have been shown to inhibit the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report the effect of prostaglandin (PgA1 on the multiplication of a positive strand RNA virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV in PK15 cells. PgA1 was found to inhibit the multiplication of CSFV. At a concentration of 5 µg/ml, which was nontoxic to the cells, PgA1 inhibitis virus production in 99%. In PgA1 treated cells the size and number of characteristic Classical Swine Fever focus decreased in amount.

  11. General Approach to Familial Mediterranean Fever in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarı O et al.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, an autoinflammatory periodic disorder, is an autosomal recessive disease that is prevalent among eastern Mediterranean populations, mainly Sephardic Jews, Turks, Armenians and Arabs. FMF is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and pain secondary to polyserositis, especially peritoneum, pleura and joints. The symptoms are sudden onset, usually happen before the age of 20 and generally decrease spontaneously within 1-4 days. Since a large proportion of all the FMF patients in the world live in Turkey, approach to patients with FMF in the primary care is discussed in this article.

  12. Acute glomerulonephritis in dengue hemorrhagic fever: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Meena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male child presented with fever, bodyache, swelling over the whole body, and oliguria. He had hypertension. Urine microscopy showed hematuria and glomerular casts. Renal functions were deranged and had low complement C3 level. Chest X-ray showed plural effusion and ultrasonography abdomen showed mild ascitis. The immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent essay for dengue virus were positive. Diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever with acute glomerulonephritis was made. He was managed with maintenance fluid, antihypertensive medicine and supportive care. He recovered gradually and was discharged 12 days after admission.

  13. Outcome of surgical treatment of intestinal perforation in typhoid fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziz; Sümer; zgür; Kemik; Ahmet; Cumhur; Dülger; Aydemir; Olmez; Ismail; Hasirci; Erol; Kisli; Vedat; Bayrak; Gulay; Bulut; etin; Kotan

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To represent our clinical experience in the treatment of intestinal perforation arising from typhoid fever.METHODS:The records of 22 surgically-treated patients with typhoid intestinal perforation were evaluated retrospectively.RESULTS:There were 18 males and 4 females,mean age 37 years(range,8-64 years).Presenting symptoms were fever,abdominal pain,diarrhea or constipation.Sixteen cases were subjected to segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis,while 3 cases received 2-layered primary repair foll...

  14. Dengue fever in returned Swedish travelers from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tuiskunen, Anne; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke

    2011-01-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic in the tropical and sub-tropical countries and cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. Travelers visiting endemic areas may both acquire and spread DENV infections, and this is the reason why prevention of mosquito bites is of crucial importance. Dengue fever (DF) has become the most common cause for tropical fever in Swedish tourists. Swedish data from 1995 to 2010 show that the number of DF cases has increased since the beginning ...

  15. Mothers’ approach to feverish child and fever phobia Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Esenay, Figen Işık; İşler, Ayşegül; Kurugöl, Zafer; Conk, Zeynep; KOTUROĞLU, Güldane

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to determine mother’s knowledge thoughts and attitudes about fever fever phobia fear situations and related factors Material and Method: The study was carried out with 426 mothers who had a child aged between 0 to 6 years and who were admitted to the pediatric policlinic of Ege University Hospital in a four month period Data was collected using a questionnaire form that included 17 open ended and multiple choiced questions; the results were evaluated using the numb...

  16. Transient cutaneous hyperpigmentation of extremities following dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikiran Aroor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 14 year old boy presented with fever and generalized flushing of skin of 1 week duration. His vital signs were normal. Examination revealed generalized blanching macular erythematous rash. Systemic examination was unremarkable except for tender hepatomegaly. Investigations revealed leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and normal hemoglobin with mildly elevated liver transaminases. NS 1 (Non-structural protein-1 antigen and IgM antibody titer for Dengue ELISA was positive suggesting dengue fever. He was managed symptomatically and he recovered. During his follow up after 2 weeks he presented with brownish discoloration of dorsum of both hands and feet.

  17. Septic Arthritis and Concern for Osteomyelitis in a Child with Rat Bite Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Flannery, Dustin D.; Akinboyo, Ibukunoluwa; Ty, Jennifer M.; Averill, Lauren W.; Freedman, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Rat bite fever is a rare infection usually caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. A case of septic arthritis and possible osteomyelitis as sequelae of rat bite fever in a pediatric patient is described.

  18. The first case of Lassa fever imported from Mali to the United Kingdom, February 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, S; Anaraki, S; Gothard, P; Walsh, A; Brown, D; Gopal, R; Hand, J; Morgan, D

    2009-03-12

    This is the first case of Lassa fever to be imported from Mali to the United Kingdom. This paper discusses the investigations, the virological analysis, the surveillance and management of contacts undertaken following a case of Lassa fever. PMID:19317988

  19. International travel of Korean children and Dengue fever: A single institutional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo Han; Kim, Yae Jean; Shin, Ji Hun; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Dengue fever occurs in many popular tourist destinations and is increasingly imported by returning travelers in Korea. Since Korea is not an endemic country for dengue fever, pediatricians do not usually suspect dengue fever in febrile children even with typical presentation and exposure history. This study was performed to describe the international travel experiences and dengue fever in Korean children. Methods Travel histories were collected based on questionnaires completed by all...

  20. Skin rash, headache and abnormal behaviour: unusual presentation of intracranial haemorrhage in dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Mejally, Mousa Ali Al; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Maimani, Wail Al; Hanif, Sadia; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Siddiqi, Ahmad; Akhtar, Mubeena; Bafaraj, Mazen G; Fareed, Khurram

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. The dengue virus is a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. There are four serotypes (DEN 1–4) classified according to biological and immunological criteria. Patients may be asymptomatic or their condition may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a mill...

  1. An Integrated Syndromic Surveillance System for Monitoring Scarlet Fever in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wan-Jen; Liu, Yu-Lun; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Huang, Wan-Ting; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an integrated syndromic surveillance system for timely monitoring and early detection of unusual situations of scarlet fever in Taiwan, since Hong Kong, being so close geographically to Taiwan, had an outbreak of scarlet fever in June 2011. Introduction Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). The clinical symptoms are usually mild. Before October, 2007, case-based surveillance of scarlet fever was conducted through notifiable infectio...

  2. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  3. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  4. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Eze, Kenneth C.; Salami, Taofeek A; James U Kpolugbo

    2014-01-01

    Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-yea...

  5. Diagnostic proficiency and reporting of Lassa fever by physicians in Osun State of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Adepoju, Ebenezer Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is highly contagious and commonly results in death. It is therefore necessary to diagnose and report any suspected case of Lassa fever to facilitate preventive strategies. This study assessed the preparedness of physicians in the diagnosis and reporting of Lassa fever. Methods The study design was descriptive cross-sectional. The consenting medical doctors completed a self-administered questionnaire on the diagnosis and reporting of Lassa fever. Descriptive and inferent...

  6. An atypical case of dengue haemorrhagic fever presenting as quadriparesis due to compressive myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, S P; Himanshu, D.; Tripathi, A.K.; Vaish, A.K.; Jain, Nirdesh

    2011-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever is a serious presentation of dengue viral infection. Case reports of cerebral haemorrhage due to dengue are rare. The authors report a rare case of dengue haemorrhagic fever presenting with fever and acute onset progressive quadriparesis of the upper motor neuron type. Rare cases of quadriparesis in dengue fever have been reported in the literature due to myositis, Guillain–Barre syndrome, myelitis and hypokalaemia. This case on investigations was found to have extra...

  7. A Comprehensive Study on the 2012 Dengue Fever Outbreak in Kolkata, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Adhikary, Srima; Konar, Jayshree; Dawar, Nidhi; Sarkar, Jayeeta; Mondal, Saiantani; Singh Chauhan, Mayank; Bhattacharya, Nemai; Chakravarty, Anita; Biswas, Asit; Saha, Bibhuti

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue viruses (DV) belong to the family Flaviviridae, with four serotypes referred to as DV-1, DV-2, DV-3, and DV-4. A large-scale outbreak of dengue fever occurred in 2012 involving several districts of West Bengal. Objective. To present a comprehensive picture of the dengue fever outbreak in 2012 and to identify the prevailing serotypes. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from suspected dengue fever cases. Samples from fever cases

  8. A Case of Yellow Fever Vaccine–Associated Viscerotropic Disease in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Richard W Douce; Freire, Diana; Tello, Betzabe; Vásquez, Gavino A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first case of viscerotropic syndrome in Ecuador. Because of similarities between yellow fever and viscerotropic syndrome, the incidence of this recently described complication of vaccination with the 17D yellow fever vaccine is not known. There is a large population in South America that is considered at risk for possible reemergence of urban yellow fever. Knowledge of potentially fatal complications of yellow fever vaccine should temper decisions to vaccinate populations where ...

  9. Urinary tract infections and post-operative fever in percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jorge; Smith, Arthur; Geavlete, Petrisor;

    2013-01-01

    fever as a predictor of systemic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 10% of PCNL-treated patients developed fever in the post-operative period despite receiving antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk of post-operative fever increased in the presence of a positive urine bacterial culture, diabetes, staghorn...

  10. Evidence-based provisional clinical classification criteria for autoinflammatory periodic fevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federici, Silvia; Sormani, Maria Pia; Ozen, Seza; Lachmann, Helen J; Amaryan, Gayane; Woo, Patricia; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Dewarrat, Natacha; Cantarini, Luca; Insalaco, Antonella; Uziel, Yosef; Rigante, Donato; Quartier, Pierre; Demirkaya, Erkan; Herlin, Troels; Meini, Antonella; Fabio, Giovanna; Kallinich, Tilmann; Martino, Silvana; Butbul, Aviel Yonatan; Olivieri, Alma; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Neven, Benedicte; Simon, Anna; Ozdogan, Huri; Touitou, Isabelle; Frenkel, Joost; Hofer, Michael; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Gattorno, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and validate a set of clinical criteria for the classification of patients affected by periodic fevers. Patients with inherited periodic fevers (familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD); tumour necrosis factor receptor-associate

  11. DMPD: Cytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15967158 Cytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. Blatteis CM, Li S, L... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Cytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. PubmedID 15967158 Title C...ytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. Authors Blatteis CM, Li S, L

  12. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Medicine: A Student With Fever and Sore Throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P

    2016-05-01

    Fever and sore throat are common chief complaints encountered by school nurses. This article explains the etiology of both fever and sore throat in children, describes the office assessment, and delineates life-threatening complications associated with fever and sore throat that may prompt the school nurse to transfer the child to a local emergency department. PMID:27091630

  13. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Persad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971. George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990. Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis and Dengue Fever: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Sargeant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical literature contains only a few reports of rhabdomyolysis occurring in patients with dengue fever. We report the case of a 25-year-old Jamaican man who was admitted to a private hospital four days after the onset of an acute febrile illness with fever, myalgia, and generalized weakness. Dengue fever was confirmed with a positive test for the dengue antigen, nonstructural protein 1. He remained well and was discharged on day 6 of his illness. On day 8, he started to pass red urine and was subsequently admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies. On admission he was found to have myoglobinuria and an elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK of 325,600 U/L, leading to a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Dengue IgM was positive. He was treated with aggressive hydration and had close monitoring of his urine output, creatinine, and CPK levels. His hospital course was uneventful without the development of acute renal failure and he was discharged after 14 days in hospital, with a CPK level of 2463 U/L. This case highlights that severe rhabdomyolysis may occur in patients with dengue fever and that early and aggressive treatment may prevent severe complications such as acute renal failure and death.

  15. Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Prins, J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were i

  16. Salmonella enteritidis from a case of fever with thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shamma Arora; Naveen Gupta; Ashwani Kumar; IR Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Non typhoidalSalmonella species are thought to be potentially infectious to humans. We isolated Salmonella enteritidis from a 10-year-old boy with fever and thrombocytopenia. We reviewed the literature concerning infections caused bySalmonella but we could not find any such case report from India.

  17. Edith Wharton's "Roman Fever": A Rune of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Dale M.

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that "Roman Fever" responds to a reactionary political climate, demonstrating an anti-reactionary thrust to Edith Wharton's fiction. Argues that Wharton deserves credit for articulating the destructive character of a cultural misogyny that led quickly to what she saw in 1933 as "a world whizzing ... crazily to the everlasting abyss." (RAE)

  18. Viral hemorrhagic fevers of animals caused by DNA viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we outline serious diseases of food and fiber animals that cause damaging economic effect on products all over the world. The only vector-borne DNA virus is included here, such as African swine fever virus, and the herpes viruses discussed have a complex epidemiology characterized by outbreak...

  19. Dengue Fever Outbreak in a Recreation Club, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Breiman, Robert F.; Hossain, Anowar; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever occurred among employees of a recreation club in Bangladesh. Occupational transmission was characterized by a 12% attack rate, no dengue among family contacts, and Aedes vectors in club areas. Early recognition of the outbreak likely limited its impact.

  20. [Ocular complications in a patient with dengue fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; D'Hedouville, L; Feltgen, N; Hoerauf, H; Eiffert, H

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the spontaneous development of ocular complications in a case of dengue fever in a young tourist returning from Thailand. Despite severe inital clinical symptoms, a clear remission occurred after several months without any therapy; however, a partial atrophy of the optic nerve remained. PMID:26160106

  1. Late-onset drug fever associated with minocycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, D A

    1990-01-01

    A patient presenting with a pyrexial illness and transiently deranged liver function tests is described. He had been taking minocycline for 12 months. The causal association with this drug was demonstrated by withholding and then rechallenging with minocycline. This report documents drug fever as an adverse reaction to minocycline, and its late onset is of added interest.

  2. Molecular confirmation of Lassa fever imported into Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H.K. Bonney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports have shown an expansion of Lassa virus from the area where it was first isolated in Nigeria to other areas of West Africa. Two Ghanaian soldiers on a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Liberia were taken ill with viral haemorrhagic fever syndrome following the death of a sick colleague and were referred to a military hospital in Accra, Ghana, in May 2013. Blood samples from the soldiers and five asymptomatic close contacts were subjected to laboratory investigations.Objective: We report the results of these investigations to highlight the importance of molecular diagnostic applications and the need for heightened awareness about Lassa fever in West Africa.Methods: We used molecular assays on sera from the two patients to identify the causativeorganism. Upon detection of positive signals for Lassa virus ribonucleic material by two differentpolymerase chain reaction assays, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed.Results: The presence of Lassa virus in the soldiers’ blood samples was shown by L-gene segment homology to be the Macenta and las803792 strains previously isolated in Liberia, with close relationships then confirmed by phylogenetic tree construction. The five asymptomatic close contacts were negative for Lassa virus.Conclusions: The Lassa virus strains identified in the two Ghanaian soldiers had molecular epidemiological links to strains from Liberia. Lassa virus was probably responsible for the outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fever in the military camp. These data confirm Lassa fever endemicity in West Africa.

  3. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nora S; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, the most common periodic disorder of childhood, presents with the cardinal symptoms of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis typically before age 5. This review presents the recent literature on PFAPA and summarizes key findings in the pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment of the disease. Theories surrounding the pathogenesis of PFAPA include a faulty innate immunologic response in conjunction with dysregulated T-cell activation. A potential genetic link is also under consideration. Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene variants have been implicated and appear to modify disease severity. In individuals with the heterozygous variant, PFAPA episodes are milder and shorter in duration. Diagnostic criteria include the traditional clinical signs, in addition to the following biomarkers: elevated C-reactive protein in the absence of elevated procalcitonin, vitamin D, CD64, mean corpuscular volume, and other nonspecific inflammatory mediators in the absence of an infectious explanation for fever. Treatment of PFAPA includes tonsillectomy, a single dose of corticosteroids, and, most recently, interleukin 1 blockers such as anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab. Tonsillectomy remains the only permanent treatment modality. PMID:27343963

  4. Eschar-associated Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Nanci; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Rozental, Tatiana; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G.; Favacho, Alexsandra R.M.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Elba R.S. Lemos; Ko, Albert I.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, Brazilian spotted fever was once considered the only tick-borne rickettsial disease. We report eschar-associated rickettsial disease that occurred after a tick bite. The etiologic agent is most related to Rickettsia parkeri, R. africae, and R. sibirica and probably widely distributed from São Paulo to Bahia in the Atlantic Forest.

  5. An overview of Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Chinikar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a viral zoonotic tick-born disease with a mortality rate of up to 50% in humans. After a short incubation period, the disease is characterized by sudden fever, chills, severe headache, dizziness, back, and abdominal pain. Additional symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular changes. In severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations, ranging from petechiae to large areas of ecchymosis develop. The CCHF Virus (CCHFV is from the genus Nairovirus and family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected tick and by direct contact with blood or tissue from infected humans and livestock. In addition to zoonotic transmission, CCHFV can be spread from person to person and is one of the rare hemorrhagic fever viruses able to cause nosocomial outbreaks in hospitals. CCHF is a public health problem in many regions of the world e.g Eastern Europe, Asia, Middle East, and Africa. The history of CCHF in Iran shows that the disease has been detected in Iran since 1970. From 1970 to 1978 some scientists worked on serology and epidemiology of this disease in humans and livestock in Iran. Since 1999 , establishment of a surveillance and laboratory detection system on viral hemorrhagic fevers particularly on CCHF has had benefits. One of which is the fact that a mortality rate approaching 20% in the year 2000 remarkably dropped to 6% in the year 2007.

  6. Yellow Fever Virus Infectivity for Bolivian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Gianella, Alberto; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Higgs, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The absence of urban yellow fever virus (YFV) in Bolivian cities has been attributed to the lack of competent urban mosquito vectors. Experiments with Aedes aegypti from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, demonstrated infection (100%), dissemination (20%), and transmission of a Bolivian YFV strain (CENETROP-322).

  7. CAPRINE HERPESVIRUS 2 ASSOCIATED MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER IN DEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presumptive histopathologic diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was made in three cases of disease in Sika deer and white-tailed deer with various degrees of hair loss and skin lesions. Antibody against an epitope conserved among the MCF group viruses was detected in the serum of all dise...

  8. Accelerated apoptosis of neutrophils in familial Mediterranean fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manukyan, Gayane; Aminov, Rustam; Hakobyan, Gagik;

    2015-01-01

    The causative mutations for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) are located in the MEFV gene, which encodes pyrin. Pyrin modulates the susceptibility to apoptosis via its PYD domain, but how the mutated versions of pyrin affect apoptotic processes are poorly understood. Spontaneous and induced rates...

  9. An outbreak of scarlet fever in a primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamden, K H

    2011-04-01

    Scarlet fever, due to infection with an erythrogenic toxin-producing Group A streptococcus, is an uncommon and generally mild illness, although serious sequelae do occur. In March 2009, 57 of the 126 (45%) pupils in a primary school in Lancashire, UK developed scarlet fever over a 4-week period. Infection was transmitted via direct contact between pupils, particularly among the youngest pupils. A significant degree of transmission also occurred between siblings. The median number of days absent from school was 3 (range 1-10 days). No children were hospitalised. Control measures, including hygiene advice to the school and exclusion of pupils for 24h while initiating penicillin treatment, were ineffective. The outbreak occurred against a background of an unusually high incidence of invasive Group A streptococcal infection. While there are national guidelines for the control of invasive disease, none exist for the control of scarlet fever outbreaks. This prolonged outbreak of scarlet fever highlights the need for an evidence based approach to outbreak management. PMID:21068078

  10. Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Abe M; Wolfe, Martin S

    2006-05-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  11. Historical Lassa Fever Reports and 30-year Clinical Update

    OpenAIRE

    Macher, Abe M.; Martin S. Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years.

  12. A fatal case of Lassa fever in London, January 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, A; Addiman, S; Cathcart, S; Bischop, L; Krahé, D; Nicholas, M; Coakley, J; Lloyd, G; Brooks, T; Morgan, D; Turbitt, D

    2009-02-12

    In January 2009, the eleventh [corrected] case of Lassa fever imported to the United Kingdom was diagnosed in London. Risk assessment of 328 healthcare contacts with potential direct exposure to Lassa virus - through contact with the case or exposure to bodily fluids - was undertaken. No contacts were assessed to be at high risk of infection and no secondary clinical cases identified. PMID:19215723

  13. Historical Lassa Fever Reports and 30-year Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Martin S.

    2006-01-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  14. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran and neighboring countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Hewson, R;

    2010-01-01

    causative virus is often transmitted by ticks, livestock-to-human and human-to-human transmissions also occur. The disease is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and some parts of Europe. In this study, we have focused on the CCHF situation...

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Lunyo

    OpenAIRE

    Lumley, Sarah; Horton, Daniel L.; Marston, Denise A.; Johnson, Nicholas; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Using next-generation sequencing technologies, the first complete genome sequence of Rift Valley fever virus strain Lunyo is reported here. Originally reported as an attenuated antigenic variant strain from Uganda, genomic sequence analysis shows that Lunyo clusters together with other Ugandan isolates.

  16. Typhoid fever as a cause of opportunistic infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumminia Salvatore

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhi, which is acquired by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Each year the disease affects at least 16 million persons world-wide, most of whom reside in the developing countries of Southeast Asia and Africa. In Italy the disease is uncommon with a greater number of cases in Southern regions than in Northern ones. Case presentation We report on a 57-year-old Sri-Lankan male affected by typhoid fever, the onset of which was accompanied by oropharyngeal candidiasis. This clinical sign was due to a transient cell-mediated immunity depression (CD4+ cell count was 130 cells/mm3 probably caused by Salmonella typhi infection. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was ruled out. Diagnosis of typhoid fever was made by the isolation of Salmonella typhi from two consecutive blood cultures. The patient recovered after a ten days therapy with ciprofloxacin and his CD4+ cell count improved gradually until normalization within 3 weeks. Conclusion Our patient is the first reported case of typhoid fever associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis. This finding suggests a close correlation between Salmonella typhi infection and transitory immunodepression.

  17. Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified. PMID:25223921

  18. Persistent Classical Swine Fever infection in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Lohse, Louise; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets is...

  19. To importerede tilfaelde af "West Nile fever" i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Wilcke, Jon Torgny R; Andersen, Ove

    2003-01-01

    In the light of the current American epidemic, and since West Nile fever (WNF) has never previously been reported in Denmark, we describe two cases imported from Israel and Canada, respectively. WNF was diagnosed in a 46-year-old Danish tourist returning from Israel and a visiting 73-year...

  20. Enteric fever and its impact on returning travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayshree; Sefton, Armine

    2015-05-01

    Enteric fever, a systemic illness, is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B or C. The organism is transmitted to humans by the faecal oral route and is endemic in countries with poor sanitation and lacking clean drinking water. There are around 27 million individuals infected with S. Typhi worldwide annually. Enteric fever is a particular problem in travellers to endemic areas, especially those visiting friends and relatives. Currently, the two main vaccines recommended for travellers are the Vi polysaccharide vaccine and the oral Ty21a vaccine. These internationally licensed vaccines are safe and effective against S. Typhi. However, there is currently no commercially available vaccine against S. Paratyphi, which is increasingly reported as a cause of enteric fever. Vaccine uptake and taking appropriate precautions are poor in travellers visiting friends and relatives abroad; this problem requires addressing. Ciprofloxacin is no longer recommended for empirical treatment of infection because of increasing reports of resistance, especially from South Asia. Ceftriaxone and azithromycin are currently the most commonly used antimicrobials for empirical treatment of enteric fever but resistance to both these agents is emerging. PMID:25808163

  1. How Brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D’Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.

  2. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  3. Overlapping humoral autoimmunity links rheumatic fever and the antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, M; Krause, I; Magrini, L; Spina, G; Kalil, J; Jacobsen, Søren; Thiesen, Henrik; Cunningham, M W; Guilherme, L; Shoenfeld, Y

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that share similar cardiac and neurological pathologies. We assessed the presence of shared epitopes between M protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and beta2 glycoprotein-I (beta2GPI), the pathogenic...

  4. HEPATITIS B PATIENT WITH FEVER DUE TO FOCAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assya Krasteva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent undiagnosed fever remains a common problem in clinical practice. It is a fact that dental sepsis is one potential cause of persistent fever that can escape detection (Siminoski, K., 1993. We present a 50 years old woman with chronic hepatitis B, febrile for the past two months (max. 38.60C with characteristic of septic fever. She underwent consultations with endocrinologist, rheumatologist, neurologist, gynecologist, pulmonologist and infectionst. All negative for any disease, also negative serology for Lyme disease. She had no data for urine infection. She had negative cultures. The patient was treated with corticosteroids for 30 days with no effect; she had no response to treatment with Gentamycin, Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Methronidazole, Meronem, Clindamicin and Nystatin. Only reduction but not normalization, of CRP was observed, the fever remained. The patient underwent focal dental diagnostic protocol. We remarked potential dental foci - 17, 16, 27, 43, 47 and active temperature zone – submandibular lymph nodes. The dental focuses were extracted consequently and the patient became afebrile 5 days afterwards. Her liver enzymes, CRP and albumin returned to normal after performance of dental recommendations.

  5. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reacti

  6. An investigation into the cyclical incidence of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, J

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to review the topic of dengue fever transmission and investigate the relationship between seasonal temperature fluctuations and cyclical dengue fever incidence. Data from Puerto Rico (1988-1992) were used to test the model proposed. Dengue fever is a viral disease caused by any one of four antigenically distinct serotypes. It is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and infects 80 million people per year. Currently, dengue is endemic in specific tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and epidemic dengue has been reported in the Americas, Asia and some Pacific Islands. Data for Puerto Rico were collected from the NCDC/NOAA and a study conducted by Perez et al. (1994). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine if a relationship exists between the monthly mean temperature lagged and the monthly incidence of dengue fever in Puerto Rico. Statistical significance was achieved and a second-order model produced an R2 of 0.71. A residual analysis reveals positive autocorrelation, thus weakening the model's power to predict monthly dengue incidence. This suggests that other forces or factors related to the history of the herd immunity, the introduction of a new serotype, or demographic transitions are also influencing the cyclical transmission of dengue fever. Case clustering information, regional dengue distributions, and population density transformations must also be obtained in order to assess the forecasting ability of this model. Additional research is needed to avoid oversimplifying the problem. Without such attempts at establishing significant correlations, dengue prevention and control will remain a formidable task for many developing and developed countries. PMID:11762885

  7. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the study were to highlight early subclinical presentation of dengue viral infection (DVI) as an undifferentiated febrile illness. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Microbiology Department, Rawalpindi Medical College from March to September 2009. Stratified random sampling was used to select subjects from various urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi, and Serum IgG anti-dengue antibodies were detected by using 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the total 240 subjects, 69 (28.75%) were found to be positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies. Of the positive cases, 41 (59.4%) - comprising 31 (44.9%) urban residents - and 10 (14.4%) rural residents presented with a previous history of undifferentiated fever (p<0.05). It was concluded that primary DVI can present as subclinical form in healthy population residing in rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, which is an alarming situation indicating the spread of disease in the study area. (author)

  8. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Humaira; Hayyat, Abbas; Akhtar, Naeem; Rizwan, Syeda Fatima

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight early subclinical presentation of dengue viral infection (DVI) as an undifferentiated febrile illness. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Microbiology Department, Rawalpindi Medical College from March to September 2009. Stratified random sampling was used to select subjects from various urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi, and Serum IgG anti-dengue antibodies were detected by using 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the total 240 subjects, 69 (28.75%) were found to be positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies. Of the positive cases, 41 (59.4%) - comprising 31 (44.9%) urban residents - and 10 (14.4%) rural residents presented with a previous history of undifferentiated fever (p<0.05). It was concluded that primary DVI can present as subclinical form in healthy population residing in rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, which is an alarming situation indicating the spread of disease in the study area. PMID:23901683

  9. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection of rhesus macaques as a model of viral hemorrhagic fever: Clinical characterization and risk factors for severe disease

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reed F.; Dodd, Lori; Yellayi, Srikanth; Gu, Wenjuan; Cann, Jennifer A.; Jett, Catherine; Bernbaum, John G.; Ragland, Dan R.; Claire, Marisa St.; Byrum, Russell; Paragas, Jason; Blaney, Joseph E.; Jahrling, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (SHFV) has caused sporadic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers in macaques at primate research facilities. SHFV is a BSL-2 pathogen that has not been linked to human disease; as such, investigation of SHFV pathogenesis in non-human primates (NHPs) could serve as a model for hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses. Here we describe the pathogenesis of SHFV in rhesus macaques inoculated with doses ranging from 50 PFU to 500,000 PFU. Disease...

  10. Performance of Different Diagnostic Criteria for Familial Mediterranean Fever in Children with Periodic Fevers : Results from a Multicenter International Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirkaya, Erkan; Saglam, Celal; Turker, Turker; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Woo, Pat; Doglio, Matteo; Amaryan, Gayane; Frenkel, Joost; Uziel, Yosef; Insalaco, Antonella; Cantarini, Luca; Hofer, Michael; Boiu, Sorina; Duzova, Ali; Modesto, Consuelo; Bryant, Annette; Rigante, Donato; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Guillaume-Czitrom, Severine; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmine; Neven, Bénédicte; Lachmann, Helen; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Gattorno, Marco; Ozen, Seza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to validate the pediatric diagnostic criteria in a large international registry and to compare them with the performance of previous criteria for the diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: Pediatric patients with FMF from the Eurofever registry were used f

  11. EFFECT OF PAPAYA LEAF JUICE ON PLATELET AND WBC COUNT IN DENGUE FEVER: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmiprasad L Jadhav; Girish KJ; Deepak BSR

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever caused by dengue viruses (dengue 1–4) having Aedes aegypti mosquito as their principal vector, causes symptoms such as sudden onset of fever, headache, retro-orbital pain  and back pain along with severe myalgia due to which dengue fever is also known as “break-bone fever.” Laboratory findings include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and in many cases, serum aminotransferase elevations. dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS) may occur as a complication of dengu...

  12. Q fever endocarditis with multi-organ complication: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-juan; FU Xiu-ping; ZHANG Jing-shan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Qfever is a worldwide zoonosis and its agent is Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii).1 There are two forms of Q fever: acute and chronic. Acute Q fever is caused by primary infection with C. burnetii and its main clinical features are high fever, granulomatous hepatitis and atypical pneumonia.2,3 Acute Q fever is extremely prone to develop chronic infection if it is improperly treated. Endocarditis is the main characteristic of chronic Q fever and it accounts for 3% to 5% of all cases of endocarditis.4,5

  13. Typhoid Fever Presenting With Acute Renal Failure And Hepatitis Simultaneously - A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajput R.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is an important health problem worldwide but its incidence is more in developing countries. Hepatic involvement is common, but both hepatic and renal involvement is rare in typhoid fever. We report a case of typhoid fever presenting with hepatitis and acute renal failure. A 17 year old male presenting with fever and pain abdomen was found to have raised blood urea, creatinine, liver enzymes and bilirubin. Widal and typhidot (IgM,IgG test were positive. His symptoms subsided and deranged parameters resolved with treatment of typhoid fever.

  14. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  15. Defining Terms: Greywater, Blackwater and Clearwater

    OpenAIRE

    Brain, Roslynn; Lynch, Jeremy; Kopp, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Why irrigate with treated drinking water when you can meet your irrigation needs through an effective greywater system? What is greywater*? Greywater includes all wastewater generated in the home, except toilet water (which is considered “blackwater”). In Utah, kitchen sink and dishwasher water are also categorized as “blackwater”. Greywater is an abundant resource in both residential and commercial buildings. According to Brad Lancaster of the Watershed Management Group in Tucson, Arizona...

  16. Eagles at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memo is a letter from Frederick Schmid of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to the Regional Director of Region 4 in Atlanta, Georgia. The author describes his...

  17. A Case of Acute Q Fever Hepatitis Diagnosed by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 53-year-old man with fever of unknown origin underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) as a workup for a fever of unknown origin. On presentation, he complained of fever, chills, and myalgia. The F-18 FDG PET/CT scan showed diffusely increased uptake of the liver with mild hepatomegaly. A liver biopsy then revealed fibrin-ring granulomas typically seen in Q fever. The patient was later serologically diagnosed as having acute Q fever as the titers for C. IgM and IgG were 64:1 and -16:1, respectively. He recovered completely following administration of doxycycline. This indicates that F-18 FDG PET/CT may be helpful for identifying hepatic involvement in Q fever as a cause of fever of unknown origin.

  18. Genetic and environmental contributions to hay fever among young adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO; Hjelmborg, JB; Skadhauge, LR; Steffensen, I; Backer, V

    2006-01-01

    environment, whereas the aetiology of 'sporadic' hay fever was mainly genetic. CONCLUSIONS: The susceptibility to develop hay fever is attributable to major genetic influences. However, effects of family environment and upbringing are also of importance in families where asthma is present. These results...... observed data using maximum likelihood methods. RESULTS: The overall cumulative prevalence of hay fever was 12.6%. Identical twins were significantly more likely to be concordant for hay fever than were fraternal twins (P<0.001). Additive genetic effects accounted for 71% and non-shared environmental...... effects accounted for 29% of the individual susceptibility to hay fever. The same genes contributed to the susceptibility to hay fever both in males and in females. In families with asthma, the susceptibility to develop hay fever was, in addition to genes, to a great extent ascribable to family...

  19. A Case of Acute Q Fever Hepatitis Diagnosed by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Sora [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Minyoung; Lee, Sand-Oh; Yu, Eunsil; Ryu Jin-Sook [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    A 53-year-old man with fever of unknown origin underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) as a workup for a fever of unknown origin. On presentation, he complained of fever, chills, and myalgia. The F-18 FDG PET/CT scan showed diffusely increased uptake of the liver with mild hepatomegaly. A liver biopsy then revealed fibrin-ring granulomas typically seen in Q fever. The patient was later serologically diagnosed as having acute Q fever as the titers for C. IgM and IgG were 64:1 and -16:1, respectively. He recovered completely following administration of doxycycline. This indicates that F-18 FDG PET/CT may be helpful for identifying hepatic involvement in Q fever as a cause of fever of unknown origin.

  20. Risk maps of Lassa fever in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the period 1965-2007. Information on contemporary environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, vegetation was derived from NASA Terra MODIS satellite sensor data and other sources and for elevation from the GTOPO30 surface for the region from Senegal to the Congo. All multi-temporal data were analysed using temporal Fourier techniques to generate images of means, amplitudes and phases which were used as the predictor variables in the models. In addition, meteorological rainfall data collected between 1951 and 1989 were used to generate a synoptic rainfall surface for the same region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three different analyses (models are presented, one superimposing Lassa fever outbreaks on the mean rainfall surface (Model 1 and the other two using non-linear discriminant analytical techniques. Model 2 selected variables in a step-wise inclusive fashion, and Model 3 used an information-theoretic approach in which many different random combinations of 10 variables were fitted to the Lassa fever data. Three combinations of absenceratiopresence clusters were used in each of Models 2 and 3, the 2 absenceratio1 presence cluster combination giving what appeared to be the best result. Model 1 showed that the recorded outbreaks of Lassa fever in human populations occurred in zones receiving between 1,500 and 3,000 mm rainfall annually. Rainfall, and to a much lesser extent temperature variables, were most strongly selected in both Models 2 and 3, and

  1. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Rogers, David John

    2009-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the period 1965–2007. Information on contemporary environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, vegetation) was derived from NASA Terra MODIS satellite sensor data and other sources and for elevation from the GTOPO30 surface for the region from Senegal to the Congo. All multi-temporal data were analysed using temporal Fourier techniques to generate images of means, amplitudes and phases which were used as the predictor variables in the models. In addition, meteorological rainfall data collected between 1951 and 1989 were used to generate a synoptic rainfall surface for the same region. Methodology/Principal Findings Three different analyses (models) are presented, one superimposing Lassa fever outbreaks on the mean rainfall surface (Model 1) and the other two using non-linear discriminant analytical techniques. Model 2 selected variables in a step-wise inclusive fashion, and Model 3 used an information-theoretic approach in which many different random combinations of 10 variables were fitted to the Lassa fever data. Three combinations of absence∶presence clusters were used in each of Models 2 and 3, the 2 absence∶1 presence cluster combination giving what appeared to be the best result. Model 1 showed that the recorded outbreaks of Lassa fever in human populations occurred in zones receiving between 1,500 and 3,000 mm rainfall annually. Rainfall, and to a much lesser extent temperature variables, were most strongly selected in both Models 2 and 3, and neither vegetation nor

  2. STUDY OF SERUM AMINOTRANSFERASE LEVELS IN DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jnaneshwari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The involvement of liver in dengue fever is not uncommon as reported in literature since 1970. Liver and nervous system involvement simultaneously predicts poor outcome in dengue fever. Atypical manifestations include liver involvement with elevation of enzymes, central nervous involvement (encephalopathy and cardiac alterations (myocarditis. Liver involvement in dengue fever is manifested by the elevation of transaminases representing reactive hepatitis, due to direct attack of virus itself or the use of hepatotoxic drugs. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Study of serum aminotransferase levels in dengue fever. METHODOLOGY: In this descriptive, cross sectional study, all patients who presented to the Department of medicine with dengue IgM positive were included. Study period of 24 months from July 2010-June 2012, patients attending to M.S. Ramaiah medical college were included (n=166. RESULTS: 166 patients reactive for dengue virus specific IgM antibody were studied. As per WHO classification, 137 (82.5% patients were classified as dengue fever, 20 (12% as dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 9 (5.4% as dengue shock syndrome. Mean age of dengue infection patients was 35.71 ±12.9 (SD years, with male to female ratio nearly equal. Hepatic dysfunction is very common in all forms of dengue infection, with AST rising significantly more than ALT. Serum aminotransferase levels appear to have a directly proportional correlation with grading of dengue infection. Hyperbilirubinemia, elevated transaminases, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and deranged coagulation profile were seen in higher frequency in DHF and DSS group as compared to classical DF group. AST and ALT were significantly higher in patients with secondary infection (IgM & IgG positive as compared to primary infection (IgM positive. CONCLUSION: Serum aminotransferase levels are significantly raised in all forms of dengue infection and it directly correlates with severity of infection. Serum

  3. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever: A child with acute myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Moaz; Aleem, Numra A; Zahid, Mohammad F; Rahman, Arshalooz J

    2016-02-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile illness that follows a self-limiting course. However, some patients suffer from complications, including myocarditis, due to the involvement of other organs. A child presented at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, in June 2013 with a high-grade fever, malaise and epigastric pain radiating to the chest. Positive DF antigen and immunoglobulin M assays confirmed the diagnosis of DF. Persistent bradycardia with low blood pressure led to further cardiac investigations which showed a decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage. With supportive care and use of inotropes, the spontaneous normalisation of cardiac enzyme levels and ejection fraction was observed. The child was discharged five days after admission. This case highlights the importance of identifying myocarditis in DF patients suffering from cardiac symptoms that are not explained by other potential aetiologies. Awareness, early suspicion and supportive care are essential to ensure favourable outcomes. PMID:26909198

  4. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever; A child with acute myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Aslam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is an acute febrile illness that follows a self-limiting course. However, some patients suffer from complications, including myocarditis, due to the involvement of other organs. A child presented at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, in June 2013 with a high-grade fever, malaise and epigastric pain radiating to the chest. Positive DF antigen and immunoglobulin M assays confirmed the diagnosis of DF. Persistent bradycardia with low blood pressure led to further cardiac investigations which showed a decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage. With supportive care and use of inotropes, the spontaneous normalisation of cardiac enzyme levels and ejection fraction was observed. The child was discharged five days after admission. This case highlights the importance of identifying myocarditis in DF patients suffering from cardiac symptoms that are not explained by other potential aetiologies. Awareness, early suspicion and supportive care are essential to ensure favourable outcomes.

  5. Managing childhood fever and pain – the comfort loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinch Jacqui

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parents can transmit their anxiety to their child, and just as children can pick up on parental anxiety, they can also respond to a parent's ability to stay calm in stressful situations. Therefore, when treating children, it is important to address parental anxiety and to improve their understanding of their child's ailment. Parental understanding and management of both pain and fever – common occurrences in childhood – is of utmost importance, not just in terms of children's health and welfare, but also in terms of reducing the economic burden of unnecessary visits to paediatric emergency departments. Allaying parental anxiety reduces the child's anxiety and creates a positive feedback loop, which ultimately affects both the child and parent. In this review, the integral role of parental perception of the child's condition and the efficacy of treatment in the management of childhood fever and pain will be discussed.

  6. Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southeastern Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, Ivanka; Kamarinchev, Bozhin

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is endemic in Bulgaria, is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). The seroprevalence of CCHFV in southeastern Bulgaria was examined in this study. For this purpose, a total of 751 human blood samples were collected and examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In addition, a questionnaire was completed for every participant. Anti-CCHFV antibodies were detected in 3.20% (24/751) of the tested sera. None of the seropositive individuals had a history of CCHF. The results indicate that the proportion of positive findings increase with age. The significant risk factors for CCHFV infection are tick bites (18.85%, 23/122), livestock breeding (6.15%, 16/260), and residing in rural areas (6.20%, 21/339). PMID:25241694

  7. Diagnostic Testing for Hemorrhagic Fevers in Pakistan: 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zahra; Atkinson, Barry; Jamil, Bushra; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Hewson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and dengue virus (DENV) are endemic to Pakistan. Patients presenting with symptoms of fever, bleeding, and rash cannot be distinguished without appropriate testing. We report data on 354 samples tested for CCHFV at The Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan between 2007 and 2013. All samples were tested for the presence of CCHFV RNA. Some samples were also tested for DENV RNA, NS-1 antigen, and/or reactive immunoglobulin M antibodies. Of 354 clinical specimens screened for CCHFV, 52 specimens were positive, with 24 cases in 2013 alone. Most cases were from Sindh and Baluchistan, which border other CCHFV-endemic regions: Iran and Afghanistan. Among CCHFV-negative samples, 168 samples were tested for DENV, and 36% of these samples were found to be DENV-positive. Rapid differentiation of CCHFV and DENV can prevent nosocomial transmission and result in time and cost savings for patients and healthcare workers. PMID:25311694

  8. Imported Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever cases in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakar Mehmet

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We described a series of imported cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF in Istanbul and investigated the genetic diversity of the virus. All the suspected cases of CCHF, who were applied to the health centers in Istanbul, were screened for CCHF virus (CCHFv infection by using semi-nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR following RT-PCR. Simultaneous blood samples were also sent to the national reference laboratory in Ankara for serologic investigation. In 10 out of 91 patients, CCHFv was detected by PCR, and among 9 out of 10, anti-CCHFv IgM antibodies were also positive. Clinical features were characterized by fever, myalgia, and hemorrhage. The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated, and bleeding markers were prolonged. All the cases were treated with ribavirin. There was no fatal case. All the strains clustered within the same group as other Europe/Turkey isolates.

  9. [Familial Mediterranean fever--from gene test to clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeck, H

    2000-10-26

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a genetically defined disease affecting mostly families of jewish, turkish or armenian origin whose ancestors originate from the mediterranean basin. The first officially acknowledged description was given by SIEGAL in 1945 but previous cases were reported since 1908. The main clinical signs which are very varying in intensity and appearance are periodic attacks of fever with peritonitis, pleurisy and arthritis. The classical but not always found complication is amyloidosis with renal failure which is preventable by lifelong colchicine therapy. By using a novel genetest it is now possible to definitely diagnose FMF instead of relying on a diagnosis made merely by exclusion. This will emphasize the use of colchicine and should bring us nearer to the pathophysiology of this interesting disease. PMID:11103618

  10. Sensitivity analysis in a Lassa fever deterministic mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Doko, Umar Chado; Mamuda, Mamman

    2015-05-01

    Lassa virus that causes the Lassa fever is on the list of potential bio-weapons agents. It was recently imported into Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States as a consequence of the rapid growth of international traffic. A model with five mutually exclusive compartments related to Lassa fever is presented and the basic reproduction number analyzed. A sensitivity analysis of the deterministic model is performed. This is done in order to determine the relative importance of the model parameters to the disease transmission. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the most sensitive parameter is the human immigration, followed by human recovery rate, then person to person contact. This suggests that control strategies should target human immigration, effective drugs for treatment and education to reduced person to person contact.

  11. Maculopathy associated with Dengue fever in a military pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Gerard; Tan, Marcus; Teoh, Stephen; Chong, Chun Hon

    2007-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most prevalent vector-borne flavivirus infection in humans. Its ocular manifestations have only recently been reported with increasing frequency. We present a case of an air force rotary wing pilot who presented with dengue-related maculopathy and decrement in visual function. The pilot ultimately recovered full visual function and was returned to full unrestricted flying duties with the proviso of regular ophthalmic monitoring. Dengue-related maculopathy may present with retinal edema, blot hemorrhages, and vasculitis. Less common features include exudative retinal detachment, cotton wool spots, and anterior uveitis. It is generally self-resolving with good prognosis. Treatment is controversial, but a course of corticosteroids has been tried in view of a postulated underlying immune-mediated pathology. It is recommended that aviators who have recovered from dengue fever undergo a clinical ophthalmological examination before return to flying duties. PMID:18018440

  12. Clozapine and Fever: A Case of Continued Therapy With Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Valentina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Alcoverro, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine is a major atypical antipsychotic drug used in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (Patel and Allin. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2011;1:25-29). It interferes with dopamine binding to D1, D2, D3, and D5 receptors but has high affinity to D4. It also has an anticholinergic effect and antagonizes α-adrenergic, histaminergic, and serotoninergic receptors (Oerther and Ahlenius. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000;292:731-736). Clozapine has proved effective in treating positive and negative symptoms in patients with refractory schizophrenia, thus accounting for its frequent use. Despite its effectiveness, this drug is not without its adverse effects. The most well known is agranulocytosis. There are, however, many others, such as myocarditis, aspiration pneumonia, ileus, fever, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglycemia, tachycardia, and weight gain, among others (Bruijnzeel et al. Asian J Psychiatr 2014;11:3-7). Fever induced by clozapine is a common phenomenon (Lowe et al. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41:1700-1704), which usually occurs in the first 4 weeks of treatment, and its prevalence oscillates from 0.5% and 55%, depending on the study (Jeong et al. Schizophr Res 2002;56:191-193; Young et al. Schizophr Bull 1998;24:381-390). The fever lasts for 2.5 days on average, and unless the treatment is discontinued, it generally abates between day 8 and 16 of treatment (Kohen et al. Ann Pharmacother 2009;43:143-146). There are several different theories about the physiopathological mechanism; it could be a variation of malignant neuroleptic syndrome, an infection secondary to neutropenia, and allergic reaction or the emergence of the immunomodulating effect of clozapine. Some case reports in the bibliography have shown that patients in treatment with clozapine can develop a mild leukocytosis, but the presence of other concurrent symptoms, which indicate infection, is not common (Tham and Dickson. J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63:880-884). The theory of an allergic reaction is

  13. Renal amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever misdiagnosed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Hama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, MIM 249100 is an autosomal recessive disease affecting mainly patients of the Mediterranean basin. It is an autoinflammatory periodic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and abdominal pain, synovitis, and pleuritis. The major complication of FMF is the development of renal AA amyloidosis. Treatment with colchicine prevents the occurrence of recurrent seizures and renal amyloidosis. The disease is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. We report here the cases of two unrelated patients, who have been late diagnosed with FMF complicated by renal amyloidosis. We focus on the importance of early diagnosis of FMF, both to start rapidly treatment with colchicine and avoid renal amyloidosis, and to provide genetic counseling to families.

  14. Genetic variability and distribution of Classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Martin; Goller, Katja V; Staubach, Christoph; Blome, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease that affects domestic and wild pigs worldwide. The causative agent of the disease is Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. On the genome level, CSFV can be divided into three genotypes with three to four sub-genotypes. Those genotypes can be assigned to distinct geographical regions. Knowledge about CSFV diversity and distribution is important for the understanding of disease dynamics and evolution, and can thus help to design optimized control strategies. For this reason, the geographical pattern of CSFV diversity and distribution are outlined in the presented review. Moreover, current knowledge with regard to genetic virulence markers or determinants and the role of the quasispecies composition is discussed. PMID:26050570

  15. Key features of Ebola hemorrhagic fever:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zulane; Lima; sousa

    2014-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has become a devastating problem.with a mortality rate around 51%;over 3132 deaths have been confirmed and even more arc expected in this case.The virus causes a characteristic disease known as hemorrhagic fever.Its symptoms range from nonspecific signs such as fever,lo more specific problems such as serious bleeding.Transmission occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated fluids.Treatment is supportive because there are still no specific drugs for use.The present review focuses on the main features related to the Ebola virus,its transmission,pathogenesis,treatment and control forms.There is little in-depth knowledge about this disease,but its severily requires attention and information lo prevent a worse scenario than the current.

  16. Chikungunya fever. Rheumatic manifestations of an emerging disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcada, M Loreto; Díaz-Calderón, Carlos; Garrido, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease caused by an alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, transmitted by several species of Aedes mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus). It is endemic in Africa and Asia with recurrent outbreaks. It is an emerging disease and cases in Europe transmitted by A. albopictus have been established in Mediterranean areas. The first autochthonous cases detected on the Caribbean islands suppose a serious threat of spreading disease to America, which so far has been disease free. Clinical symptoms begin abruptly with fever, skin rash and polyarthritis. Although mortality is low, a high percentage of patients develop a chronic phase defined by persistent arthritis for months or even years. A severe immune response is responsible for joint inflammation. The absence of specific treatment and lack of vaccine requires detailed studies about its immunopathogenesis in order to determine the most appropriate target. PMID:25192946

  17. Dengue fever in returned Swedish travelers from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuiskunen, Anne; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Ake

    2011-01-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic in the tropical and sub-tropical countries and cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. Travelers visiting endemic areas may both acquire and spread DENV infections, and this is the reason why prevention of mosquito bites is of crucial importance. Dengue fever (DF) has become the most common cause for tropical fever in Swedish tourists. Swedish data from 1995 to 2010 show that the number of DF cases has increased since the beginning of 2000; partly due to improved diagnostics based on IgM detection, and partly due to an increase in the number of tourists traveling to, and between, endemic areas. Young adults aged 20-29 are mostly affected, and epidemiological data indicate increased incidence rates from 2008 onwards. Our data pose a call for attention when traveling to DENV endemic areas as well as an increased awareness among physicians when treating returning travelers. PMID:22957112

  18. The Utilization of Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) Model for the Analysis of Dengue Fever Cases in Banjar City 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Martya Rahmaniati; Tris Eryando; Dewi Susanna; Dian Pratiwi; Fajar Nugraha; Andri Ruliansah; Muhammad Umar Riandi

    2014-01-01

    Dengue Fever Disease is still regarded as an endemic disease in Banjar City. Information is still required to map dengue fever case distribution, mean center of case distribution, and the direction of dengue fever case dispersion in order to support the surveillance program in the relation to the vast area of the dengue fever disease control program. The objective of the research is to obtain information regarding the area of dengue fever disease distribution in Banjar City by utilizing the S...

  19. Unusual clinical manifestations of dengue hemorrhagic fever in children

    OpenAIRE

    Stave-Salgado Karen; Herrera-Galvis Enovaldo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: dengue and in particular dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) have animportant prevalence in Colombia.Objective: to describe the most common unusual manifestations observed in pediatricpatients with DHF.Methods: a retrospective, descriptive study, case series, of clinical histories of childrenless than 18 years of age that left the Hospital Infantil Napoleón Franco Pareja inCartagena, Colombia with diagnosis of DHF since 2006 to 2011. As of the dischargediagnosis, the clinical histori...

  20. Dengue encephalitis-A rare manifestation of dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Ramapuram, John T; Chowta, Nityananda; Laxman, Mridula; Mahalingam, Soundarya

    2014-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of dengue fever ranges from asymptomatic infection to dengue shock syndrome. Dengue is classically considered a non-neurotropic virus. Neurological complications are not commonly seen in dengue. The neurological manifestations seen in dengue are encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy, stroke and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dengue encephalitis is a rare disease. We report an interesting case of dengue encephalitis from Southern India. A 49-year-old gentleman presented with...