WorldWideScience

Sample records for blackwater fever

  1. Annual Narrative Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. Annual Narrative Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Annual Narrative Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Fiscal Year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. Annual Trapping Program 1995-96 - Blackwater NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  6. Annual Trapping Program 1998-99 Blackwater NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  7. Annual Trapping Program 1996-97 Blackwater NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  8. Annual Trapping Program 1999-2000 Blackwater NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  9. Annual Trapping Program 1997-98 Blackwater NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  10. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Blackwater National Wildlife Complex: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge, Martin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Demonstration of Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Shipboard Blackwater and Graywater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse , 3rd ed., (McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991), p. 349. 5. Beltran, Fernando J. Ozone...not effectively prevent backflow. Greywater /blackwater should not be introduced until adequate backflow prevention is confirmed using potable water

  13. Effect of anaerobiosis on indigenous microorganisms in blackwater with fish offal as co-substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Heiske, Stefan; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2014-01-01

    of the microorganisms. In both anaerobic and aerobic samples, survival of Escherichia coli was better in the presence of Greenlandic Halibut offal when compared to samples containing blackwater only and blackwater and shrimp offal, possibly due to more available carbon in the samples containing Greenlandic Halibut....... Addition of fish offal had no effect on survival of coliphages. The results of the recovery study indicated that a fraction of the E. coli in the aerobic blackwater sample and of the faecal streptococci in both the anaerobic and aerobic samples containing blackwater and Greenlandic Halibut were injured...

  14. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge, Martin National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge, Martin National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge, Martin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge, Martin National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Effects of urban sprawl on sediment, surface water, and biota in the little Blackwater River, Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Little Blackwater River drains a catchment area of approximately 11,229 hectares (27,748 acres). About 516 hectares (1,276 acres) in this watershed are currently...

  19. Water quality trends in the Blackwater River watershed, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.; Fortney, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of historic and current water quality is needed to manage and improve aquatic communities within the Blackwater River watershed, WV. The Blackwater River, which historically offered an excellent Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) fishery, has been affected by logging, coal mining, use of off-road vehicles, and land development. Using information-theoretic methods, we examined trends in water quality at 12 sites in the watershed for the 14 years of 1980–1993. Except for Beaver Creek, downward trends in acidity and upward trends in alkalinity, conductivity, and hardness were consistent with decreases in hydrogen ion concentration. Water-quality trends for Beaver Creek were inconsistent with the other sites and reflect ongoing coal-mining influences. Dissolved oxygen trended downward, possibly due to natural conditions, but remained above thresholds that would be detrimental to aquatic life. Water quality changed only slightly within the watershed from 1980–1993, possibly reflecting few changes in development and land uses during this time. These data serve as a baseline for future water-quality studies and may help to inform management planning.

  20. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. Furbearer Removal and Trapping Program Annual Report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1993-94

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report supports the proposal by Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge for the utilization of trapping as a management tool for control of furbearer populations...

  2. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  4. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Furbearer Removal and Trapping Program Annual Report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1988-89

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of the results of the 1988-89 furbearer removal program at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Martin National Wildlife Refuge. This report...

  7. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR, Glen L. Martin NWR, and Susquehanna NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins...

  8. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR, Glen L. Martin NWR, and Susquehanna NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins...

  9. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR, Glen L. Martin NWR, and Susquehanna NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins...

  10. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  11. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  12. Furbearer Removal and Trapping Program Annual Report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1994-95

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report supports the proposal by Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge for the utilization of trapping as a management tool for control of furbearer populations...

  13. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  14. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  15. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  16. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November, and December, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  17. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  18. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  19. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  20. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  1. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November, and December, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  2. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September, October, November and December, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  4. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater NWR, Glen L. Martin NWR, and Susquehanna NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report...

  5. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Quarterly narrative report : August, September, October, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1940. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  6. Furbearer Removal and Trapping Program Annual Report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1992-93

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report supports the proposal by Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge for the utilization of trapping as a management tool for control of furbearer populations...

  7. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  8. The Status of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Red Cockaded woodpecker on Blackwater discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery...

  9. Q fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Query fever ... Q fever is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii . These bacteria can infect: ... products Feces Milk Urine Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released into the ...

  10. Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have common features: ... the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural areas of West Africa ...

  11. Options for Managing Hypoxic Blackwater in River Systems: Case Studies and Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Kerr, Janice L.; Mosley, Luke M.; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S.

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  12. Fate of oestrogens during anaerobic blackwater treatment with micro-aerobic post-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, de T.Z.D.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The fate of oestrone (E1), 17b-oestradiol (E2) and 17a-ethynyloestradiol (EE2) was investigated in a concentrated blackwater treatment system consisting of an UASB septic tank, with micro-aerobic post-treatment. In UASB septic tank effluent a (natural) total concentration of 4.02 mg/L E1 and 18.69 m

  13. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen Martin National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  14. Scarlet fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the throat infection. This is crucial to prevent rheumatic fever, a serious complication of strep throat and scarlet ... with the right treatment, but may include: Acute rheumatic fever , which can affect the heart, joints, skin, and ...

  15. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  16. Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Lassa Fever Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... French) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in ...

  17. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is usually applied to disease caused by Arenaviridae (Lassa fever, Junin and Machupo), Bunyaviridae (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, ... fever Dengue and severe dengue Ebola virus disease Lassa fever Marburg haemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Multimedia, features ...

  18. Joint Audit of Blackwater Contract and Task Orders for Worldwide Personal Protective Services in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Information Bulletin ( PIB ) 2007-21, which provides guidance for the administration of contractor-held government-furnished property, requires annual... PIB 2007-21 specifi es responsibilities for the property administrator, including managing all government-furnished property and contractor-acquired...Acquisition cost data required by the FAR and the PIB for government-fur- nished property was often missing from or listed as “N/A” on Blackwater

  19. Hypoxia, blackwater and fish kills: experimental lethal oxygen thresholds in juvenile predatory lowland river fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kade Small

    Full Text Available Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99 ± 0.04 g; mean mass ±SE, the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50 in freshwater ranged from 0.25 ± 0.06 mg l(-1 in T. tandanus to 1.58 ± 0.01 mg l(-1 in M. peelii over 48 h at 25-26 °C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l(-1 to 3.1 mg l(-1 in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish

  20. Yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease occurs in tropical areas of South America and Africa. It is a disease of major historical importance, but remains a threat to travelers to and residents of endemic areas despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 70 years. An important aspect is the receptivity of many non-endemic areas to introduction and spread of yellow fever. This paper reviews the clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of yellow fever, with an emphasis on recent changes in the distribution and incidence of the disease. Recent knowledge about yellow fever 17D vaccine mechanism of action and safety are discussed.

  1. Geology, Hydrology, and Water Quality of the Little Blackwater River Watershed, Dorchester County, Maryland, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; DeJong, Benjamin D.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Little Blackwater River watershed is a low-lying tidal watershed in Dorchester County, Maryland. The potential exists for increased residential development in a mostly agricultural watershed that drains into the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. Groundwater and surface-water levels were collected along with water-quality samples to document hydrologic and geochemical conditions within the watershed prior to potential land-use changes. Lithologic logs were collected in the Little Blackwater River watershed and interpreted with existing geophysical logs to conceptualize the shallow groundwater-flow system. A shallow water table exists in much of the watershed as shown by sediment cores and surface geophysical surveys. Water-table wells have seasonal variations of 6 feet, with the lowest water levels occurring in September and October. Seasonally low water-table levels are lower than the stage of the Little Blackwater River, creating the potential for surface-water infiltration into the water table. Two stream gages, each equipped with stage, velocity, specific conductance, and temperature sensors, were installed at the approximate mid-point of the watershed and near the mouth of the Little Blackwater River. The gages recorded data continuously and also were equipped with telemetry. Discharge calculated at the mouth of the Little Blackwater River showed a seasonal pattern, with net positive discharge in the winter and spring months and net negative discharge (flow into the watershed from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Fishing Bay) in the summer and fall months. Continuous water-quality records showed an increase in specific conductance during the summer and fall months. Discrete water-quality samples were collected during 2007--08 from 13 of 15 monitoring wells and during 2006--09 from 9 surface-water sites to characterize pre-development conditions and the seasonal variability of inorganic constituents and nutrients. The highest mean values of

  2. Typhoid fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most commonly caused due to a bacteria called Salmonella typhi ( S typhi ). Causes S typhi is spread through contaminated food, ... as food handlers. Alternative Names Enteric fever Images Salmonella typhi organism Fly Digestive system organs References Harris JB, ...

  3. Recurrent fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Kesson, Alison; Lester-Smith, David; Chaitow, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    An 11-year-old girl had four episodes of fever in a year, lasting 7-10 days and associated with headache and neck stiffness. She had a long history of recurrent urticaria, usually preceding the fevers. There was also a history of vague pains in her knees and in the small joints of her hands. Her serum C-reactive protein was moderately raised at 41 g/L (normal <8). Her rheumatologist felt the association of recurrent fevers that lasted 7 or more days with headaches, arthralgia and recurrent urticaria suggested one of the periodic fever syndromes. Genetic testing confirmed she had a gene mutation consistent with one of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.

  4. Dengue fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mosquito Aedes aegypti , which is found in tropic and subtropic regions. This area includes parts of: ... encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur forest disease, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever, Zika). In: Bennett JE, ...

  5. A new function for cypress knees? Forest composition facilitates aquatic bryophyte extension of oxic periods in blackwater cyperess swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited aquatic primary productivity is often cited as a factor behind low oxygen levels observed in forested blackwater rivers. However, submerged trunks of the same trees that limit light with their canopy also provide stable substrate for growth of aquatic bryophytes. We use laboratory and fiel...

  6. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ∼99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ∼69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water.

  7. Dengue fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  8. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  9. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Operating Room? A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth > For Kids > A Kid's Guide to Fever ... some lighter-weight pajamas. previous continue Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  10. Typhoid fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mikoleit, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, e...

  11. Scarlet Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Katherine Fleming-Dutra, pediatrician, discusses scarlet fever, its cause, how to treat it, and how to prevent its spread.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  12. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Aluízio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the infestation by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever might already exist. This did not occur because of either the lacking of a sufficient contact between the diseased individual and the A. aegypti or perhaps because this, after sixty years without transmitting the virus, needs an adaptation phase to infecting again.

  13. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  14. Effect of Long-Term Freezing and Freeze–Thaw Cycles on Indigenous and Inoculated Microorganisms in Dewatered Blackwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Müller, Karoline; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2012-01-01

    coliforms, fecal streptococci, and antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria, and inoculated Salmonella Enteriditis and E. coli bacteriophage ΦX174 in dewatered blackwater. At the end of the long-term freezing experiment (10 months), an MPN recovery study was done, including the microbial groups that had shown....... Bacteriophages showed limited reduction during the long-term freezing. Repeated freezing and thawing increased the reduction of all tested microbial groups markedly....

  15. [Typhoid fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchou, B

    1996-01-15

    Endemic in regions with poor hygienic conditions, Enteric fevers are imported in France by returning travellers. They are caused by Salmonella strains, mainly S. Typhi, transmitted via fecal-oral route. Salmonella reach the blood stream after proliferating in mesenteric lymph nodes. At an initial stage blood and bone marrow cultures, later on Widal-Felix serology permit diagnosis. Antibiotics have rendered death exceptional. Quinolones and ceftriaxone allow treatments shorter than 10 days. Immunization (Typhim Vi) and improvement of hygienic standards are the cornerstone of prevention.

  16. Demgue Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    登革热的病名源于西班牙语,是形容患者由于发烧、关节疼痛导致走路时步履蹒跚、步态造作。研究者根据其症状,称其为"关节热"或"碎骨热"。1869年,英国伦敦皇家内科学会正式将其命名为"登革热"(dengue fever,DF)。

  17. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Virus Families Information ... 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  18. Dengue Fever Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Dengue Fever Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dengue Fever Antibodies; Dengue Fever Virus Formal name: Dengue Antibodies ( ...

  19. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, fever-causing viral disease ...

  20. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  2. Drought, floods and water quality: Drivers of a severe hypoxic blackwater event in a major river system (the southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Baldwin, Darren S.; Kerr, Janice L.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryHypoxic blackwater events are characterised by high levels of dissolved organic carbon in the water column, the metabolism of which depletes dissolved oxygen, which can cause fish and crustacean mortality. Understanding the drivers of and controls on hypoxic blackwater events is important in order to reduce the potential for detrimental water quality impacts from both managed and natural flows. After a decade-long drought in south-eastern Australia, a series of spring and summer flood events in 2010-2011 resulted in a large-scale hypoxic blackwater event in the southern Murray-Darling Basin that affected over 2000 km of river channels and persisted for 6 months. We examined the biogeochemistry and hydrology underpinning this extreme event and found that multiple drivers contributed to the development and persistence of hypoxic blackwater. Inundation of both forested and agricultural floodplains that had not been flooded for over a decade mobilised large stores of reactive carbon. Altered flow seasonality, due to a combination of climatic effects and river regulation, not only increased the risk of hypoxic blackwater generation but also shifted the proportion of bioavailable carbon that was returned to the river channels. Hypolimnetic weir discharge also contributed to hypoxia at some sites. These findings highlight the need for a whole-of-system perspective for the management of regulated river systems - especially in the face of a changing climate.

  3. Fever: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  4. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  5. Fate of oestrogens during anaerobic blackwater treatment with micro-aerobic post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mes, T Z D; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Zeeman, G; Lettinga, G

    2007-01-01

    The fate of oestrone (E1), 17beta-oestradiol (E2) and 17alpha-ethynyloestradiol (EE2) was investigated in a concentrated blackwater treatment system consisting of an UASB septic tank, with micro-aerobic post-treatment. In UASB septic tank effluent a (natural) total concentration of 4.02 microg/L E1 and 18.69 microg/L E2, comprising the sum of conjugated (>70% for E1 and >80% for E2) and unconjugated forms, was measured. During post-treatment the unconjugated oestrogens were removed to below 1 microg/L. A percentage of 77% of the measured unconjugated E1 and 82% of E2 was associated with particles >1.2 microm in the final effluent implying high sorption affinity of both compounds. When spiking the UASB septic tank effluent with E1, E2, EE2 and the sulphate conjugate of E2, removal in the micro-aerobic post-treatment was >99% for both E2 and EE2 and 83% for E1. The lower removal value for E1 was a result of (slow) deconjugation during the treatment, and in the final effluent still 40% of E1 and 99% of E2 was present in conjugated form. The latter was the result of incomplete deconjugation of the spiked E2(3S) in the post-treatment system.

  6. Evaluation of a microwave based reactor for the treatment of blackwater sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawioo, Peter M., E-mail: p.mawioo@unesco-ihe.org [Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Rweyemamu, Audax; Garcia, Hector A.; Hooijmans, Christine M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Brdjanovic, Damir [Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-04-01

    A laboratory-scale microwave (MW) unit was applied to treat fresh blackwater sludge that represented fecal sludge (FS) produced at heavily used toilet facilities. The sludge was exposed to MW irradiation at different power levels and for various durations. Variables such as sludge volume and pathogen reduction were observed. The results demonstrated that the MW is a rapid and efficient technology that can reduce the sludge volume by over 70% in these experimental conditions. The concentration of bacterial pathogenic indicator E. coli also decreased to below the analytical detection levels. Furthermore, the results indicated that the MW operational conditions including radiation power and contact time can be varied to achieve the desired sludge volume and pathogen reduction. MW technology can be further explored for the potential scaling-up as an option for rapid treatment of FS from intensively used sanitation facilities such as in emergency situations. - Highlights: • There is lack of fast and efficient fecal sludge treatment options in emergencies. • Microwave treatment is rapid and efficient in sludge volume and pathogen reduction. • Power and contact time can be varied to reach diverse levels of sludge treatment.

  7. Rheumatic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan; Manjarez; Zabriskie

    1999-10-01

    There have been numerous reports stating that treatment of acute rheumatic fever with either aspirin or corticosteroids does not alter the long-term outcome of rheumatic heart disease. Yet, it should be emphasized that most of these studies were carried out with the first generic corticosteroids before the advent of the more active and more potent corticosteroid agents. In spite of this caveat, there is no question that all the clinical and laboratory parameters of inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) return to normal much more rapidly with corticosteroids than with aspirin alone. It is therefore our belief that steroids should be used when clinical and laboratory evidence of carditis exists, and aspirin should be reserved for cases of acute rheumatic arthritis with no evidence of carditis. The incidence of long-term valvular disease in active carditis may be decreased with steroid therapy. For example, the number of valve replacements differs markedly in centers that do use steroids and in those that do not. In Capetown, South Africa, where steroids are routinely used for carditis, valve replacement is quite rare. In contrast, in Johannesburg, where steroids are rarely used, the rate of valve replacement is quite high. The racial backgrounds of both groups of patients are similar, thus eliminating the question of racial differences. Concerning secondary prophylaxis, there is also controversy concerning the best second-line therapy. It is now well known that monthly intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin are really effective for only 20 days. Thus, there is a window in which penicillin coverage is not adequate. To circumvent this problem, some investigators give benzathine penicillin every 3 weeks. These injections are quite painful, however, and it has been our "rule" that compliance with this treatment is inversely proportional to the ratio of the size of the child to the mother. In our own experience over 30 years with the

  8. [Rheumatic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkashin, D V; Kumchin, A N; Shchulenin, S N; Svistov, A S

    2013-01-01

    This lecture-style paper highlights all major problems pertinent to rheumatic fever Definition of acute RF and chronic rheumatic heart disease is proposed and desirability of the use of these terms in clinical practice is explained. Present-day epidemiology of RF is described with reference to marked differences in its prevalence in developed and developing countries. Modern classification of acute RF is described as adopted by the Russian Association of Rheumatologists and recommended for the use in Russian medical facilities. Discussion of etiological issues is focused on such virulence factors as beta-hemolytic streptococcus A and genetic predisposition confirming hereditary nature of RE Its clinical features are described along with laboratory and instrumental methods applied for its diagnostics. Large and small diagnostic criteria of RF are considered. Special attention is given to the treatment of RF and its complications (antibiotic, pathogenetic, and drug therapy). Its primary and secondary prophylaxis is discussed in detail, preparations for the purpose are listed (with doses and duration of application). In conclusion, criteria for the efficacy of therapy are presented along with indications for hospitalization and emergency treatment.

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  10. Fever due to levamisole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Fever is rarely caused by levamisole. We report a 26-year-old woman who repeatedly developed fever 4-12 hrs after taking levamisole. The association was confirmed by repeated provocation tests.

  11. [Acute rheumatic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Kommer, Vera

    2016-03-01

    We report on a young women with acute rheumatic fever. Acute rheumatic fever has become a rare disease in Germany, especially in adults. This carries the risk that it can be missed in the differential diagnostic considerations of acute rheumatic disorders and febrile status. If rheumatic fever is not diagnosed and treated correctly, there is a considerable risk for rheumatic valvular heart disease. In this article diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic fever are discussed extensively.

  12. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  13. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  14. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Scarlet Fever Print A A A What's in this article? ... to Call the Doctor en español Escarlatina Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with group A ...

  15. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A What's in this article? ... are at work. Seasonal allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that ...

  16. Rheumatic fever reappraised

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulrik Baandrup

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rheumatic fever is a complication following an episode of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. It is an acute immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disorder. Acute rheumatic heart disease during the active phase of rheumatic fever sometimes progresses to chronic rheumatic heart disease. Despite its declining importance in industrialised countries rheumatic fever remains the leading cause of death from heart disease in children and young adults in less developed regions. Fifteen to twenty million new cases emerge every year in developing countries.1

  17. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  18. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  19. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  20. Q fever - early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if untreated. Other complications can include: Bone infection ( osteomyelitis ) Brain infection ( encephalitis ) Liver infection (chronic hepatitis) Lung ... 2015:chap 190. Read More Encephalitis Endocarditis Flu Osteomyelitis Pneumonia - adults (community acquired) Q fever Tick bite ...

  1. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is infected with the virus. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main species that spreads this ... especially if you have had dengue fever before. Prevention Because there is no way to prevent dengue ...

  2. Emergence of Q Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Angelakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis with many acute and chronic manifestations caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii. Farm animals and pets are the main reservoirs of infection, and transmission to human beings is mainly accomplished through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Persons at greatest risk are those in contact with farm animals and include farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The organs most commonly affected during Q fever are the heart, the arteries, the bones and the liver. The most common clinical presentation is an influenza-like illness with varying degrees of pneumonia and hepatitis. Although acute disease is usually self-limiting, people do occasionally die from this condition. Endocarditis is the most serious and most frequent clinical presentation of chronic Q fever. Vascular infection is the second most frequent presentation of Q fever. The diagnosis of Q fever is based on a significant increase in serum antibody titers. The treatment is effective and well tolerated, but must be adapted to the acute or chronic pattern with the tetracyclines to be considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy. For the treatment of Q fever during pregnancy the use of long-term cotrimoxazole therapy is proposed.

  3. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  4. The effect of seasonality on the structure of rotifers in a black-water shallow lake in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARICE C. NOVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers have often been used as indicators of sudden changes in physical and chemical features of the aquatic environment. Such features vary greatly during flood pulse events in small lakes connected to major floodplains. However, few are the studies that investigate the consequences of the flood pulse in rotifer species composition, abundance, richness and diversity, especially in Amazonian lakes. We analyzed samples from a small blackwater lake of an “igarapé” connected permanently to the Negro river, in Central Amazonia. Samples were taken twice a year for two years, comprising flooding and receding periods of the flood pulse. Rotifer abundance increased significantly after draught events, and electrical conductivity and turbidity were intrinsically related to such variation. Species composition also changed from flooding to receding periods. Some taxa, such as Brachionus zahniseri reductus and Lecane remanei were restricted to receding periods, while Brachionus zahniseri, Brachionus gillardi and Lecane proiecta were only present during flooding. A shift in the composition of rotifer families was observed from one period to another, showing the effect of renewing waters of the flood pulse. These results suggest that the flood pulse acts as a driving force and stressing condition, considerably altering rotifer community dynamics, either changing species composition or decreasing abundance.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of blackwater from vacuum toilets and kitchen refuse in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, C; Deegener, S; Behrendt, J; Toshev, P; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was mesophilic anaerobic digestion of blackwater from vacuum toilets (BW) and kitchen refuse (KR) in a CSTR within an ecological sanitation system. A detailed investigation of the BW characteristics was carried out. Research on anaerobic digestion was performed with CSTR of 101 volume at HRT of 10, 15 and 20 days. The digestion of BW at 20 days HRT showed stable performance without inhibition effects, in spite of relatively high ammonium concentrations. The removal of total and particulate COD was 61% and 53%, respectively, and the methane yield 10/CH4/cap/day. The addition of kitchen refuse (KR) improved the performance of the CSTR in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane yield. At 20 days HRT the removal of total and particulate COD increased up to 71% and 67%, respectively, and the methane yield to 27/CH4/cap/day. The results at 15 days HRT showed similar performance. At HRT of 10 days, the anaerobic treatment was limited but reached steady state conditions at higher VFA concentrations in the effluent, with a decrease of COD removal of 30 to 33% and of methane yields of 19 to 21%.

  6. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  7. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Torreggiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  8. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-25

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  9. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  10. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H

    2012-10-09

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  11. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Walker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.

  12. [Acute fever in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise

    2015-05-01

    Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.

  13. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  14. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet N°208 January 2013 Key facts ... the principal tick vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of ...

  15. The Blackwater NWR inundation model. Rising sea level on a low-lying coast: land use planning for wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curt; Clark, Inga; Guntenspergen, Glenn; Cahoon, Don; Caruso, Vincent; Hupp, Cliff; Yanosky, Tom

    2004-01-01

    The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR), on the Eastern Shore of Chesapeake Bay (figure 1), occupies an area less than 1 meter above sea level. The Refuge has been featured prominently in studies of the impact of sea level rise on coastal wetlands. Most notably, the refuge has been sited by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as a key example of 'wetland loss' attributable to rising sea level due to global temperature increase. Comparative studies of aerial photos taken since 1938 show an expanding area of open water in the central area of the refuge. The expanding area of open water can be shown to parallel the record of sea level rise over the past 60 years. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) manages the refuge to support migratory waterfowl and to preserve endangered upland species. High marsh vegetation is critical to FWS waterfowl management strategies. A broad area once occupied by high marsh has decreased with rising sea level. The FWS needs a planning tool to help predict current and future areas of high marsh available for waterfowl. 'Wetland loss' is a relative term. It is dependant on the boundaries chosen for measurement. Wetland vegetation, zoned by elevation and salinity (figure 3), respond to rising sea level. Wetlands migrate inland and upslope and may vary in areas depending on the adjacent land slopes. Refuge managers need a geospatial tool that allows them to predict future areas that will be converted to high and intertidal marsh. Shifts in location and area of coverage must be anticipated. Viability of a current marsh area is also important. When will sea level rise make short-term management strategies to maintain an area impractical? The USGS has developed an inundation model for the BNWR centered on the refuge and surrounding areas. Such models are simple in concept, but they require a detailed topographic map upon which to superimpose future sea level positions. The new system of LIDAR mapping of land and

  16. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  17. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  18. Lithotrites and postoperative fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, David I; Lipkin, Michael E; Wang, Agnes J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risks of fever from different lithotrites after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PNL database is a prospective, multi-institutional, international PNL registry. Of 5,803 total pa...

  19. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers.

  20. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-31

    infectious virus was present in this organ at least 440 days after infection. Virus was recovered from kidney and parotid glands from about 15 to 43...beginning 10-15 days after inoculation. This type of host response provides excellent experimental evidence confirming the long-held epidemiological ...30. Vasyuta, Yu, S. The epidemiology of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the E.S.F.S.R.Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunol., 32: 49-56, 1961. 31

  1. Understanding rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Pedro Ming; Pereira, Rosa Rodrigues; Guilherme, Luiza

    2012-05-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the recent findings on rheumatic fever, we intend to propose a new physiopathologic model for this disease. A Medline search was performed for all articles containing the terms rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease in title or abstract from 1970 to 2011. Best evidence qualitative technique was used to select the most relevant. The scientific interest on rheumatic fever has notably diminished throughout the twentieth century as evidenced by the comparison of the proportion of articles in which RF was a subject in 1950 (0.26%) and today (0.03%) [Pubmed]. However, RF remains a major medical and social problem in the developing world and in the so-called hotspots, where it still causes around 500.000 deaths each year, not too different from the pre-antibiotic era. The role of genetic factors in RF susceptibility is discussed. Familiar aggregation, similarity of disease patterns between siblings, identical twin, and HLA correlation studies are evidence for a genetic influence on RF susceptibility. The suspect-involved genes fall mainly into those capable of immunologic mediation. Molecular mimicry explains the triggering of RF, but an intense and sustained inflammation is needed to cause sequels. Also, RF patients vary greatly in terms of symptoms. It is likely that a genetic background directing immune response towards a predominantly Th1 or Th2 pattern contributes to these features. The recent findings on rheumatic fever provide important insight on its physiopathology that helps understanding this prototype post-infectious autoimmune disease giving insights on other autoimmune conditions.

  2. Influence of Vegetation on Sediment Accumulation in Restored Tidal Saltmarshes: Field Evidence from the Blackwater Estuary, Essex, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal saltmarshes in the UK, and especially in the estuaries of southeast England, have been subject to degradation and erosion over the last few decades, primarily caused by sea-level rise and coastal squeeze due to fixed coastal defences. This is of great concern to a range of coastal stakeholders due to the corresponding loss of functions and services associated with these systems. The coastal defence role that saltmarshes play is well established, and the importance of saltmarsh ecosystems as habitats for birds, fish, and other species is evidenced in the fact that a large proportion of saltmarsh in the southeast England is designated for its scientific and conservation significance. Sediment accumulation is critical for the maintenance of marsh elevation within the tidal frame and for delivery of the aforementioned functions and services. Although many studies have examined accumulation processes, key questions have yet to be fully tested through intensive field observations. One such question relates to the role of vegetation in mediating the retention of newly introduced sediment, as recent research has called into doubt the traditional view of halophytes significantly enhancing rates of sedimentation through wave dissipation. This study presents early results from a project designed to advance our understanding of the processes controlling sediment accumulation. The research focuses on the UK's first large-scale experimental managed flood defence realignment at Tollesbury, Blackwater estuary, Essex. The seawall protecting 21ha of reclaimed agricultural land was artificially breached in 1995 and saltmarsh has progressively developed as tidal exchange has introduced fine sediment into the site. Results from a 12 month monitoring campaign involving hierarchical two-week sediment trap deployments indicates that the role of vegetation in marsh development is less clear cut that previously thought. Gross sedimentation rates were generally higher in non

  3. Sadfly fever: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkale, Yasemin; Özkale, Murat; Kiper, Pinar; Çetinkaya, Bilin; Erol, İlknur

    2016-06-01

    Sandfly fever, also known as 'three-day fever' or 'pappataci fever' or 'Phlebotomus fever' is a viral infection that causes self-limited influenza-like symptoms and characterized by a rapid onset. The disease occurs commonly in endemic areas in summer months and especially in August during which sandflies are active. In this article, two siblings who presented with high fever, redness in the eyes, headache, weakness, malaise and inability to walk, who were found to have increased liver function tests and creatine kinase levels and who were diagnosed with sadfly fever with positive sadfly IgM and IgG antibodies are reported because of the rarity of this disease.

  4. Chikungunya fever presenting with protracted severe pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Leonichev, Victoria B; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Travelers returning from the tropics often present with rash/fever. Those with rash/fever and myalgias/arthralgias are most likely due to chikungunya fever, dengue fever, or Zika virus. In these arthropod viral transmitted infections, the rash may be pruritic. The case presented here is that of chikungunya fever remarkable for the intensity and duration of her pruritis.

  5. Typhoid Fever, Below the Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Kamakshi Mahadevan; Viswanathan, Stalin

    2016-01-01

    Genital ulcers occur due to infective, inflammatory, malignant and drug-related causes. In tropical countries such as India, such ulcers are due to parasitic, tubercular, rickettsial and bacterial (sexually transmitted infections) aetiologies. Typhoid fever is endemic in the tropics. Except "rose spots", skin manifestations in typhoid fever are unusual, and they are missed due to pigmented skin. Patients do not often complain of genital ulcers due to shame or fear. Genital examination is not routinely performed in typhoid fever. We describe scrotal ulcers as the presenting symptom of typhoid fever, which subsided with appropriate therapy.

  6. Fever's glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, P A; Boulant, J A

    1996-03-01

    The importance of an upper limit of the febrile response has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the precise temperature defining this limit varies according to the site at which body temperature is measured, human core temperature is almost never permitted to rise above 41 degrees C-42 degrees C during fever. There are compelling physiological reasons for such an upper limit of regulated body temperature. The mechanisms by which the limit is maintained are most likely complex and involve special properties of thermoregulatory neurons themselves, circulating endogenous antipyretics (such as arginine vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), and soluble receptors for the (pyrogenic) cytokine mediators of the febrile response.

  7. Dengue fever presenting as acute acalculus cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Vismit P; Soni, Harshad N; Patel, Nitin R; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2007-06-01

    Classically dengue fever presents as fever with myalgia. A patient of dengue fever presented with classical symptoms and signs of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Serology and ultrasound examination identified dengue as the aetiology. Patient was treated successfully by conservative measures.

  8. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  9. What about My Child and Rheumatic Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What About My Child and Rheumatic Fever? Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction that can occur after ... strep throat infections don’t lead to rheumatic fever. When they do, the time between the strep ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions familial Mediterranean fever familial Mediterranean fever Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in an Area with Zika? Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Resources Resources for ... CE Courses and Training Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow Fever Vaccine Course ...

  12. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Silva, Eliana V P; Carvalho, Valéria L; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim P; Monteiro, Hamilton; Peixoto, Victor S; Chiang, Jannifer O; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2009-11-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

  13. Q fever: The Dutch Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruschke, C.J.M.; Roest, H.I.J.; Coutinho, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010, the Netherlands experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Q fever of more than 4000 human cases. Q fever infections of dairy goats, leading to abortion waves, were considered to be the cause of this outbreak. Measures to combat the outbreak had to be taken based on limited scie

  14. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  15. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www. immunize. org/ vis 1 What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the ... serious cases) 2 How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow ...

  16. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness.

  17. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  18. Q fever in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  19. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic.

  20. Fever, febrile seizures and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most common type of pathological brain activity in infants and children. These febrile seizures and their potential contribution to the mechanisms of limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy have been a topic of major clinical and scientific interest. Key questions include the mechanisms by which fever generates seizures, the effects of long febrile seizures on neuronal function and the potential contribution of these seizures to epilepsy. This revi...

  1. Treatment of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1,2 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Anoja Rajapakse31Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Lincoln County Hospital, United Lincolnshire NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK; 3Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Mansfield, UKAbstract: The endemic area for dengue fever extends over 60 countries, and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. The incidence of dengue has multiplied many times over the last five decades at an alarming rate. In the endemic areas, waves of infection occur in epidemics, with thousands of individuals affected, creating a huge burden on the limited resources of a country's health care system. While the illness passes off as a simple febrile episode in many, a few have a severe illness marked by hypovolemic shock and bleeding. Iatrogenic fluid overload in the management may further complicate the picture. In this severe form dengue can be fatal. Tackling the burden of dengue is impeded by several issues, including a lack of understanding about the exact pathophysiology of the infection, inability to successfully control the vector population, lack of specific therapy against the virus, and the technical difficulties in developing a vaccine. This review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history, management strategies, and future directions for research on dengue, including the potential for development of a vaccine.Keywords: dengue, treatment, fluid resuscitation

  2. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO.

  3. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  4. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  5. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  6. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  7. [Autoinflammatory syndromes/fever syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedel, J; Bach, B; Kümmerle-Deschner, J B; Kötter, I

    2011-05-01

    Hereditary periodic (fever) syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or joint symptoms. Some of these disorders present with organ involvement and serological signs of inflammation without fever. There is a strong serological inflammatory response with an elevation of serum amyloid A (SAA), resulting in an increased risk of secondary amyloidosis. There are monogenic disorders (familial mediterranean fever (FMF), hyper-IgD-syndrome (HIDS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), "pyogenic arthritis, acne, pyoderma gangrenosum" (PAPA), and "pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) where mutations in genes have been described, which in part by influencing the function of the inflammasome, in part by other means, lead to the induction of the production of IL-1β. In "early-onset of enterocolitis (IBD)", a functional IL-10 receptor is lacking. Therapeutically, above all, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is used. In case of TRAPS and PGA, TNF-antagonists (etanercept) may also be used; in FMF colchicine is first choice. As additional possible autoinflammatory syndromes, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis), Schnitzler syndrome, Still's disease of adult and pediatric onset, Behçet disease, gout, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Crohn's disease also are mentioned.

  8. Historical aspects of rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Few diseases have experienced such a remarkable change in their epidemiology over the past century, without the influence of a vaccine, than rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever has all but disappeared from industrialised countries after being a frequent problem in the 1940s and 1950s. That the disease still occurs at high incidence in resource limited settings and in Indigenous populations in industrialised countries, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, is an indication of the profound effect of socio-economic factors on the disease. Although there have been major changes in the epidemiology of rheumatic fever, diagnosis remains reliant on careful clinical judgement and management is remarkably similar to that 50 years ago. Over the past decade, increasing attention has been given to rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease as public health issues, including in Australia and particularly in New Zealand, as well as in selected low and middle income countries. Perhaps the greatest hope for public health control of rheumatic fever is the development of a vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes, and there are encouraging initiatives in this area. However, an effective vaccine is some time away and in the meantime public health efforts need to focus on effective translation of the known evidence around primary and secondary prophylaxis into policy and practice.

  9. Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viali, Satupaitea; Saena, Puleiala; Futi, Vailogoua

    2011-02-11

    Rheumatic fever is very common in Samoa. The following paper describes the Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa and looks at the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The incidence of ARF has decreased to 30 per 100,000 in 2005, 12.8 per 100,000 in 2007, 7.3 per 100,000 in 2008, and 9.5 per 100,000 in 2009. The incidence of RHD has decreased to 40.2 per 100,000 in 2007, 34 per 100,000 in 2008, and 31.8 per 100,000 in 2009. Cardiac surgery in New Zealand is expensive, but is cheaper to perform in Samoa. RHD screening with echocardiogram at schools may be the best way to reduce the burden and suffering from RHD.

  10. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  11. Hyperthermia and fever control in brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjatia, Neeraj

    2009-07-01

    Fever in the neurocritical care setting is common and has a negative impact on outcome of all disease types. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that fever at onset and in the acute setting after ischemic brain injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cardiac arrest has a negative impact on morbidity and mortality. Data support that the impact of fever is sustained for longer durations after subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. Recent advances have made eliminating fever and maintaining normothermia feasible. However, there are no prospective randomized trials demonstrating the benefit of fever control in these patient populations, and important questions regarding indications and timing remain. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data surrounding the impact of fever across a range of neurologic injuries to better understand the optimal timing and duration of fever control. Prospective randomized trials are needed to determine whether the beneficial impact of secondary injury prevention is outweighed by the potential risks of prolonged fever control.

  12. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet has Valley fever, please talk to a veterinarian. Coccidioides at my workplace What should I do ... provider says you need it. Is there a vaccine for Valley fever? No. Currently, there is no ...

  13. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection Language: English Español ( ... red rash that feels rough, like sandpaper. Scarlet Fever Podcast A pediatrician explains the cause, treatment, and ...

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick- ...

  15. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  16. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-31

    Meningo- Fever, chills, headache, encepha- stiff neck, myalgia, litis conjunctival infection, back pain, dysuria, facial palsy (died 6 day) 3. Isolation of... Central Africa (23-26) and more recently in Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Fiji, Hawaii, Argentine, Uruguay and Paraguay

  17. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  18. A Case of Olanzapine-Induced Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cho-Hsiang; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Olanzapine, a frequently used second-generation antipsychotic, has rarely been implicated as a cause of drug-induced fever in the absence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. We describe a patient who developed isolated fever following olanzapine monotherapy, which subsided after discontinuation of olanzapine. Blockade of dopaminergic receptors and elevated cytokines concentration are possible mechanisms of fever development during treatment with olanzapine. This case calls for attention to olanzapine-induced fever in clinical practice. PMID:28138204

  19. A timely reminder--rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilic, Nikola; Kumar, Priyanka

    2013-04-19

    Rheumatic fever is a disease diagnosed using the Jones criteria. The Jones criteria were designed using data from areas with a low prevalence of rheumatic fever. In New Zealand there is a high prevalence of rheumatic fever amongst Maori and Pacific peoples. A case is presented where a child of Samoan ethnicity is diagnosed and treated for rheumatic fever without fulfilling the Jones criteria. Evidence supporting the broadening of the diagnostic criteria in high prevalence areas is highlighted.

  20. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  2. Radiological observation in typhoid fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. Y.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S. [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Radiographic findings in plain abdominal films, chest PA and liver scanning are considered to be ancillary diagnostic methods for uncomplicated typhoid fever and a valuable method for detection of complication such as intestinal perforation. 189 cases of clinically proven typhoid fever from Mar. 1973 to Feb. 1979 in this Hospital were reviewed and radiographic findings were analyzed carefully. The results are as follows: 1. Most (73.6%) cases were between 20 and 40 years of age. 2. Three of the most common radiographic findings were as follows: 1) Localized paralytic ileus in RLQ or diffuse paralytic ileus (96.3%). 2) Hepatomegaly (56.5%). 3) Splenomegaly (49.7%). 3. In cases of typhoid fever with intestinal perforation there were additional significant findings such as free air under diaphragm (85%), free fluid in peritoneal cavity (90%) and air fluid levels in RLQ (80%). 4. The most frequent chest x-ray finding was elevation of diaphragm (11.1%). 5. 8 cases of complicated typhoid fever which eventually came to operation were diagnosed only by radiographic method.

  3. [Sacroiliitis in familial Mediterranean fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connemann, B J; Steinhoff, J; Benstein, R; Sack, K

    1991-11-22

    A 15-year-old girl of Turkish descent had for one year complained of severe recurrent fever-associated deep back pains. Since she was three years of age she had suffered from repeated attacks of fever and severe abdominal pain which ceased spontaneously in 1-3 days. On physical examination the sacrum and iliosacral joints were very painful to percussion, and she limped. Radiography revealed symmetric destructive sacroiliitis. Despite the unusual location of the arthritis, the triad of fever, abdominal pain and arthritis, as well as her belonging to an ethnic "at risk" group, pointed to the diagnosis of familial mediterranean fever (FML) or recurrent hereditary polyserositis. This diagnosis was confirmed by a positive metaraminol provocation test in that infusion of metaraminol reproduced the typical pains. Collagen diseases, rheumatic disease, acute porphyria and chronic infectious processes were excluded. The sacroiliitis quickly responded to long-term administration of colchicine, 0.5 mg twice daily. The patient also has Hageman factor deficiency whose significance remains unclear.

  4. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  5. Adult-onset acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Dainari; Ueda, Kohei; Tsukuda, Kyozo; Utsu, Noriaki; Kohki, Shimazu; Fushimi, Hiroaki; Miyakoshi, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was hospitalized for acute rheumatic fever. He had previously suffered from rheumatic fever at 15 years of age. The rheumatic fever was complicated by carditis, which caused valve disease that required surgical treatment. The incidence of rheumatic fever has decreased in most developed countries with improvements in sanitary conditions. The low incidence of this disease makes a timely and accurate diagnosis difficult. Due to the fact that both the first occurrence and recurrence of acute rheumatic fever can occur in the elderly and adults, this potential disease should not be overlooked when making a differential diagnosis.

  6. Research on Blackwater Treatment in External Circulation UASB Reactor%外循环UASB反应器处理黑水试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳春; 袁林江

    2011-01-01

    采用外循环UASB反应器处理学校教学大楼冲厕水(黑水),反应器在中温(35℃)条件下运行,通过改变进水流量和混合液回流量,检测进出水的pH值、COD、SS、氨氮、总氮等指标,考察反应器性能.结果表明,控制进水流量为2.64 L/h,混合液回流量为10.5 L/h,反应器的处理效果达到最佳,对COD的平均去除率达到75%以上,对SS的去除率达到65%以上,反应器内污泥床层膨胀充分,平均产气量为3.545 2 L/d.%The blackwater from classrooms building was treated in external circulation UASB reactor operated at 35 ℃. During the experiment, indexes such as pH value, COD, SS, NH4+ - N, TN and so on in the influent and effluent were measured by changing the influent rate and mixed liquid return rate, and the performance of the reactor was investigated. The results indicate that the system has the optimal treatment efficiency when the influent rate and the mixed liquid return rate are controlled at 2. 64 L/h and 10. 5 L/h respectively. The average removal rates of COD and SS are more than 75% and 65% respectively. Meanwhile, the anaerobic sludge in the reactor is sufficiently expanded, and the average production of biogas is 3. 545 2 L/d.

  7. The use of food waste as a carbon source for on-site treatment of nutrient-rich blackwater from an office block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Simon J C; Clarke, William P

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater from office blocks is typically dominated by blackwater and is therefore concentrated and nutrient-rich. A pilot plant was operated for 260 days, receiving 300 L d(-1) of wastewater directly from an office building to determine whether nutrient removal could be achieved using food waste (FW) as a supplemental carbon source. The pilot plant consisted of a 600 L prefermenter and a 600 L membrane bioreactor that was operated as a sequential batch reactor in order to cycle through anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic phases. The influent wastewater Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/N/P was, on average, 1438/275/40 mg L(-1), considerably higher than typical municipal wastewater. Treatment trials on the wastewater alone showed that the COD was only marginally sufficient to exhaust nitrate, and initiate anaerobic conditions required for phosphate removal. The addition of 15 kg d(-1) of macerated FW increased the average influent COD/N/P concentrations to 20,072/459/66 mg L(-1). The suitability of FW as a carbon source was demonstrated by denitrification to NOx-N concentration of <1 mg L(-1) during the biological nutrient removal (BNR) cycles. N removal was limited by nitrification. FW also induced the anaerobic phase within the BNR cycles necessary for P removal. The final average COD (non-recalcitrant)/N/P effluent concentrations under FW supplementation were 7/50/13 mg L(-1) which equates to 99%, 89% and 80% COD/N/P removal, respectively, meeting the highest nutrient removal efficiency standards stipulated by state jurisdictions for on-site systems in the USA.

  8. [Clinical aspects of viral hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2005-12-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is defined as virus infections that usually cause pyrexia and hemorrhagic symptoms with multiple organ failure. VHF includes following viral infections: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Lassa fever. In particular, the causative agents of EHF, MHF, CCHF, and Lassa fever are Ebola, Marburg, CCHF, Lassa viruses, respectively, and regarded as biosafety level-4 pathogens because of their high virulence to humans. Recently, relatively large outbreaks of EHF and MHF have occurred in Africa, and areas of EHF- and MHF-outbreaks seem to be expanding. Although outbreaks of VHF have not been reported in Japan, there is a possibility that the deadly hemorrhagic fever viruses would be introduced to Japan in future. Therefore, preparedness for possible future outbreaks of VHF is necessary in areas without VHF outbreaks.

  9. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  10. Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments.

  11. Mucocutaneous manifestations of Chikungunya fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya fever (CF is an arboviral acute febrile illness transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. After a quiescence of more than three decades, CF has recently re-emerged as a major public health problem of global scale. CF is characterized by an acute onset of high fever associated with a severe disabling arthritis often accompanied by prominent mucocutaneous manifestations. The disease is usually self-limiting, but the joint symptoms and some of the cutaneous features may persist after the defervescence. A wide range of mucocutaneous changes has been described to occur in association with CF during the current epidemic. Besides a morbilliform erythema, hyperpigmentation, xerosis, excoriated papules, aphthous-like ulcers, vesiculobullous and lichenoid eruptions, and exacerbation of pre-existing or quiescent dermatoses had been observed frequently. These unusual features may help in the clinical differential diagnosis of acute viral exanthems mimicking CF.

  12. Prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Katz; Michael; Frank

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF α was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. We report a case of prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion to treat steroid refractory UC.

  13. Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Suzan; Usak, Esma; Koksal, Tulin; Canbal, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents. Objectives We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children. Patients and Methods A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years. Results Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child. Conclusions Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits. PMID:27781110

  14. Typhoid fever: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza Palma, Natalia Carolina; Farías Molina, Solange; Calzadilla Riveras, Jeannette; Hermoso, Amalia

    2016-06-21

    Typhoid fever remains a major health problem worldwide, in contrast to Chile, where this disease is an isolated finding. Clinical presentation is varied, mainly presenting with fever, malaise, abdominal discomfort, and nonspecific symptoms often confused with other causes of febrile syndrome. We report a six-year-old, male patient presenting with fever of two weeks associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, malaise, hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes. Differential diagnoses were considered and a Widal reaction and two blood cultures were requested; both came back positive, confirming the diagnosis of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi. Prior to diagnosis confirmation, empirical treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole, with partial response; then drug therapy was adjusted according to ciprofloxacin susceptibility testing with a favorable clinical response. We discuss diagnostic methods and treatment of enteric fever with special emphasis on typhoid fever.

  15. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities.

  16. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M

    2016-04-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  17. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  18. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients.

  19. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Manohar MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is increasingly recognized as a cause of sudden cardiac death. Many of these patients do not get diagnosed due its dynamic and often hidden nature. We have come a long way in understanding the disease process, and its electrophysiology appears to be intimately linked with sodium channel mutations or disorders. The cardiac rhythm in these patients can deteriorate into fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This makes it important for the clinician to be aware of the conditions in which arrhythmogenicity of Brugada syndrome is revealed or even potentiated. We present such an instance where our patient’s Brugada syndrome was unmasked by fever.

  20. Fever Through a Jaundiced Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Kennelly MD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA is an important clinical entity to consider in a patient with fever and abdominal pain. Previously, the condition was difficult to diagnose and treat, but with the introduction of widely available and reliable imaging techniques, its diagnosis has become more straightforward. Although uncommon, PLA should especially be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with specific predisposing conditions such as underlying biliary tract disease, whether as a result of chronic inflammatory disease or malignancy. The introduction of percutaneous drainage has revolutionized the management of PLA, and thus, this disease has become largely correctable.

  1. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1, use an oral rehydration solution such as Pedialyte. These solutions contain water and salts proportioned to replenish fluids and electrolytes. Pedialyte ice pops also are available. Rest. You need ...

  2. Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by 1 degree or more. Physical activity, strong emotion, eating, heavy clothing, medicines, high room temperature, and ... and smiling at you Has a normal skin color Looks well when their temperature comes down Take ...

  3. Leptospirosis presenting as honeymoon fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sainte Marie, B; Delord, M; Dubourg, G; Gautret, P; Parola, P; Brouqui, P; Lagier, J C

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of travelers from western countries visit tropical regions, questioning western physicians on the prophylaxis, the diagnosis and the therapeutic management of patients with travel-associated infection. In July 2014, a French couple stayed for an adventure-travel in Columbia without malaria prophylaxis. A week after their return the woman presented with fever, myalgia, and retro-orbital pain. Three days later, her husband presented similar symptoms. In both patients, testing for malaria, arboviruses and blood cultures remained negative. An empirical treatment with doxycycline and ceftriaxone was initiated for both patients. Serum collected from the female patient yielded positive IgM for leptospirosis but was negative for her husband. Positive Real-Time PCR were observed in blood and urine from both patients, confirming leptospirosis. Three lessons are noteworthy from this case report. First, after exclusion of malaria, as enteric fever, leptospirosis and rickettsial infection are the most prevalent travel-associated infections, empirical treatment with doxycycline and third generation cephalosporin should be considered. In addition, the diagnosis of leptospirosis requires both serology and PCR performed in both urine and blood samples. Finally, prophylaxis using doxycycline, also effective against leptospirosis, rickettsial infections or travellers' diarrhea should be recommended for adventure travelers in malaria endemic areas.

  4. FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND HYPERCOAGULABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Furthermore, it may well be that during the acute attack of FMF the procoagulant factors are consumed or used for the purpose of inflammation so that nothing is left for their role in the coagulation pathway. Colchicine may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulabilty

  5. Rheumatic fever in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    Acute rheumatic fever and its sequel rheumatic heart disease remain major unsolved problems in New Zealand, causing significant morbidity and premature death. The disease burden affects predominantly indigenous Māori and Pacific Island children and young adults. In the past decade these ethnic disparities are even widening. Secondary prophylaxis using 28-day intramuscular penicillin has been the mainstay of disease control. In the greater Auckland region, audit shows community nurse-led penicillin delivery rates of 95% and recurrence rates of less than 5%. The true penicillin failure rate of 0.07 per 100 patient years supports 4 weekly penicillin rather than more frequent dose regimens. Landmark primary prevention research has been undertaken supporting sore throat primary prevention programmes in regions with very high rheumatic fever rates. Echocardiographic screening found 2.4% previously undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease in socially disadvantaged children. Combined with secondary prevention, echocardiography screening has the potential to reduce the prevalence of severe rheumatic heart disease.

  6. A model of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a disease which is now endemic in more than 100 countries of Africa, America, Asia and the Western Pacific. It is transmitted to the man by mosquitoes (Aedes and exists in two forms: Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. The disease can be contracted by one of the four different viruses. Moreover, immunity is acquired only to the serotype contracted and a contact with a second serotype becomes more dangerous. Methods The present paper deals with a succession of two epidemics caused by two different viruses. The dynamics of the disease is studied by a compartmental model involving ordinary differential equations for the human and the mosquito populations. Results Stability of the equilibrium points is given and a simulation is carried out with different values of the parameters. The epidemic dynamics is discussed and illustration is given by figures for different values of the parameters. Conclusion The proposed model allows for better understanding of the disease dynamics. Environment and vaccination strategies are discussed especially in the case of the succession of two epidemics with two different viruses.

  7. Dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ricardo Gonzalez Fontal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an atypical complication of dengue fever and is rarely described. We are reporting a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute pancreatitis in a patient with history of diabetes mellitus type 1 and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

  8. Ask Dr. Sue: "Children and Fevers."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1989-01-01

    Considers aspects of children's fevers. Answers questions concerning: (1) the temperature at which a fever is infectious; (2) the point at which a feverish child in care should be sent home; (3) the length of time a parent should wait before returning the child to day care; and (4) the way to take a child's temperature. (RJC)

  9. Biomarkers of fever: from bench to bedside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Limper (Maarten)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis aims to study biomarkers in inflammation and infection, with a special focus on the distinction between infectious and non-infectious fever. The thesis consists of three parts, part I being this introduction, in which the concept of fever in infectious and n

  10. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5% o

  11. The immune response in Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an infection caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. A large outbreak of Q fever occurred in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, in which infected goats and sheep were the source of human infections. In some people, so-called ‘chronic Q fever’ develops, which mainly manifests as end

  12. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  14. Milk fever control principles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Østergaard, S

    2002-01-01

    Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%-60% in terms of milk fever...... prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K......)-(Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle...

  15. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  16. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  17. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftika, L; Maltezou, H C

    2013-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound haemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. VHFs that have the potential for human-to-human transmission and onset of large nosocomial outbreaks include Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever. Nosocomial outbreaks of VHFs are increasingly reported nowadays, which likely reflects the dynamics of emergence of VHFs. Such outbreaks are associated with an enormous impact in terms of human lives and costs for the management of cases, contact tracing and containment. Surveillance, diagnostic capacity, infection control and the overall preparedness level for management of a hospital-based VHF event are very limited in most endemic countries. Diagnostic capacities for VHFs should increase in the field and become affordable. Availability of appropriate protective equipment and education of healthcare workers about safe clinical practices and infection control is the mainstay for the prevention of nosocomial spread of VHFs.

  18. ACUTE UNDIFFERENTIATED FEVER IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Ram Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute undifferentiated fever (AUF is common in tropical regions of the developing world, its specific etiology is often unknown. It’s common causes include malaria, dengue fever, enteric fever, leptospirosis, rickettsial infection. AUF is defined as fever without any localised source of infection, of 14 days or less in duration. The objective of the study was to focus on identifying the causes of AUF in patients admitted to Intensive care units & to determine importance of clinical examination in identifying the cause. It was a prospective study done in our Medical college Hospital at Kolar, Karnataka between 1-11-2010 to 30-11-2011. Cases presenting to hospital aged >18 years with complaints of Fever & admitted in Intensive care units were included in study. A total of 558 cases were enrolled. The clinical findings were noted and subsequent Investigations required were asked for. The study compromised of approximately equal number of Male & Female patients & age varied from 18 – 100 years. There was a clear seasonal variation – More no of cases were admitted between April & November. Majority presented with Fever of Short duration (1-3 days. Certain well defined syndromes were identified like:  Fever with Thrombocytopenia – the most common of all the syndromes.  Fever with Myalgia & Arthralgia,  Fever with Hepatorenal dysfunction,  Fever with Encephalopathy,  Fever with Pulmonary - Renal dysfunction and  Fever with Multiorgan dysfunction (MODS. Out of 558 cases AUF was noted in 339 cases (60.86%. An etiological diagnosis could be made for 218 cases (39.06%. Leptospirosis was the commonest cause with 72 cases (12.9%. The no of cases with Dengue were 48(8.6%, Malaria –25 (4.4%, Viral fever –35 (6.2%, Mixed infections – 12 (2.1%, Pulmonary Tuberculosis -25 ( 4.4% and one case of Rickettsial Infection. MODS was the most common presentation in AUF patients, seen in 108 cases (31.8% and 40 cases expired. A study of AUF

  19. Brugada syndrome unmasked by fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Scott P; Cube, Regino P; Edwards, John A

    2011-08-01

    Brugada syndrome (BS) is a cardiac rhythm disturbance that predisposes patients to sudden cardiac death. Brugada is classically described with specific electrocardiographic (EKG) findings of ST elevation and right bundle branch block in precordial leads and is an often unrecognized contributor to sudden cardiac death. We present a case of BS with cyclic EKG findings in a febrile 20-year-old active duty, Vietnamese male who presented following a witnessed syncopal event. His classic findings of Brugada pattern on EKG demonstrated reversibility with clinical defervescence. In patients with a suggestive history, a normal EKG cannot definitively rule out BS as the Brugada pattern can be unmasked by stress, which in this case was represented by a pneumonia-induced fever.

  20. FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND HYPERCOAGULABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshrat E. Tayer-Shifman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease which is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, or erysipelas-like skin disease. As such, FMF is a prototype of autoinflammatory diseases where genetic changes lead to acute inflammatory episodes. Systemic inflammation – in general - may increase procoagulant factors, and decrease natural anticoagulants and fibrinolytic activity. Therefore, it is anticipated to see more thrombotic events among FMF patients compared with healthy subjects. However, reviewing the current available literature and based upon our personal experience, thrombotic events related purely to FMF are very rare. Possible explanation for this discrepancy is that along with the procoagulant activity during FMF acute attacks, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic changes are also taking place. Furthermore, it may well be that during the acute attack of FMF the procoagulant factors are consumed or used for the purpose of inflammation so that nothing is left for their role in the coagulation pathway. Colchicine may also play a role in reducing inflammation thereby decreasing hypercoagulabilty

  1. Isolated fever induced by mesalamine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Rita; Amara, Joseph; Nasnas, Roy; Honein, Khalil; Jaoude, Joseph Bou; Yaghi, Cesar; Daniel, Fady; Sayegh, Raymond

    2013-02-21

    Adverse reactions to mesalamine, a treatment used to induce and maintain remission in inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis, have been described in the literature as case reports. This case illustrates an unusual adverse reaction. Our patient developed an isolated fever of unexplained etiology, which was found to be related to mesalamine treatment. A 22-year-old patient diagnosed with ulcerative colitis developed a fever with rigors and anorexia 10 d after starting oral mesalamine while his colitis was clinically resolving. Testing revealed no infection. A mesalamine-induced fever was considered, and treatment was stopped, which led to spontaneous resolution of the fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by reintroducing the mesalamine. One year later, this side effect was noticed again in the same patient after he was administered topical mesalamine. This reaction to mesalamine seems to be idiosyncratic, and the mechanism that induces fever remains unclear. Fever encountered in the course of a mesalamine treatment in ulcerative colitis must be considered a mesalamine-induced fever when it cannot be explained by the disease activity, an associated extraintestinal manifestation, or an infectious etiology.

  2. Diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca J; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever is an inflammatory sequela of Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis that affects multiple organ systems. The incidence of acute rheumatic fever has been declining even before the use of antibiotics became widespread, however the disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children, particularly in developing countries and has been estimated to affect 19 per 100,000 children worldwide. Acute rheumatic fever is a clinical diagnosis, and therefore subject to the judgment of the clinician. Because of the variable presentation, the Jones criteria were first developed in 1944 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. The Jones criteria have been modified throughout the years, most recently in 1992 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of initial attacks of acute rheumatic fever and to minimize overdiagnosis of the disease. Diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever is based on the presence of documented preceding Group A Streptococcal infection, in addition to the presence of two major manifestations or one major and two minor manifestations of the Jones criteria. Without documentation of antecedent Group A Streptococcal infection, the diagnosis is much less likely except in a few rare scenarios. Carditis, polyarthritis and Sydenham's chorea are the most common major manifestations of acute rheumatic fever. However, despite the predominance of these major manifestations of acute rheumatic fever, there can be significant overlap with other disorders such as Lyme disease, serum sickness, drug reactions, and post-Streptococcal reactive arthritis. This overlap between disease processes has led to continued investigation of the pathophysiology as well as development of new biomarkers and laboratory studies to aid in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever and distinction from other disease processes.

  3. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever.

  4. Clinical and molecular aspects of malaria fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Miranda S; Gerald, Noel; McCutchan, Thomas F; Aravind, L; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-10-01

    Although clinically benign, malaria fever is thought to have significant relevance in terms of parasite growth and survival and its virulence which in turn may alter the clinical course of illness. In this article, the historical literature is reviewed, providing some evolutionary perspective on the genesis and biological relevance of malaria fever, and the available molecular data on the febrile-temperature-inducible parasite factors that may contribute towards the regulation of parasite density and alteration of virulence in the host is also discussed. The potential molecular mechanisms that could be responsible for the induction and regulation of cyclical malaria fevers caused by different species of Plasmodium are also discussed.

  5. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  6. Clara Maass, yellow fever and human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Carballo, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Clara Louise Maass, a 25-year-old American nurse, died of yellow fever on August 24, 1901, following experimental inoculation by infected mosquitoes in Havana, Cuba. The human yellow fever experiments were initially conducted by MAJ Walter Reed, who first used written informed consent and proved the validity of Finlay's mosquito-vector hypothesis. Despite informed consent form and an incentive of $100 in U.S. gold, human subjects were exposed to a deadly virus. The deaths of Clara Maass and two Spanish immigrants resulted in a public outcry and the immediate cessation of yellow fever human experiments in Cuba.

  7. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Buckle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain important causes of morbidity worldwide. Accurate disease burden estimates are needed to guide policy decisions and prevention and control strategies.

  8. Transfusion support in patients with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a global public health problem in the recent decades. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from dengue fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The disease is characterized by increased capillary permeability, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Thrombocytopenia with hemorrhagic manifestations warrants platelet transfusions. There is lack of evidence-based guidelines for transfusion support in patients with dengue fever. This contributes to inappropriate use of blood components and blood centers constantly face the challenge of inventory management during dengue outbreaks. The current review is aimed to highlight the role of platelets and other blood components in the management of dengue. The review was performed after searching relevant published literature in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and various text books and journal articles.

  9. Subacute fulminant hepatic failure with intermittent fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Xin Chen; Bo Liu; Yong Hu; Joyce E. Johnson; Yi-Wei Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis B accounts for over 80%of acute hepatic failures in China and the patients die mainly of its complications. A patient with hepatic failure and fever is not uncommon, whereas repeated fever is rare. METHODS:A 32-year-old female was diagnosed with subacute hepatic failure and hepatitis B viral infection because of hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, serum anti-HBs-positive without hepatitis B vaccination, and typical intrahepatic pathological features of chronic hepatitis B. Plasma exchange was administered twice and she awoke with hyperbilirubinemia and discontinuous fever. RESULTS:Urethritis was conifrmed and medication-induced fever and/or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (Gram-negative bacillus infection) was suspected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, steroids and a Chinese herbal medicine, matrine, for three months and she recovered. CONCLUSION:The survival rate of patients with hepatic failure might be improved with comprehensive supporting measures and appropriate, timely management of com-plications.

  10. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever) Note: Javascript is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Legionella Home About the Disease Causes, How it Spreads, & ...

  11. A case of ADEM following Chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Pranab; Roy, Pinaki; Basu, Arindam; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2014-05-01

    Chikungunya most often is a self-limiting febrile illness with polyarthritis and the virus is not known to be neurotropic. We are reporting a case of chikugunya fever presenting as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis(ADEM) which is very rare.

  12. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  13. Isolated fever induced by mesalamine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Rita; Amara, Joseph; Nasnas, Roy; Honein, Khalil; Jaoude, Joseph Bou; Yaghi, Cesar; Daniel, Fady; Sayegh, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Adverse reactions to mesalamine, a treatment used to induce and maintain remission in inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis, have been described in the literature as case reports. This case illustrates an unusual adverse reaction. Our patient developed an isolated fever of unexplained etiology, which was found to be related to mesalamine treatment. A 22-year-old patient diagnosed with ulcerative colitis developed a fever with rigors and anorexia 10 d after starting oral...

  14. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years.

  15. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  16. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  17. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  18. Fever and antipyretic use in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Janice E; Farrar, Henry C

    2011-03-01

    Fever in a child is one of the most common clinical symptoms managed by pediatricians and other health care providers and a frequent cause of parental concern. Many parents administer antipyretics even when there is minimal or no fever, because they are concerned that the child must maintain a "normal" temperature. Fever, however, is not the primary illness but is a physiologic mechanism that has beneficial effects in fighting infection. There is no evidence that fever itself worsens the course of an illness or that it causes long-term neurologic complications. Thus, the primary goal of treating the febrile child should be to improve the child's overall comfort rather than focus on the normalization of body temperature. When counseling the parents or caregivers of a febrile child, the general well-being of the child, the importance of monitoring activity, observing for signs of serious illness, encouraging appropriate fluid intake, and the safe storage of antipyretics should be emphasized. Current evidence suggests that there is no substantial difference in the safety and effectiveness of acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the care of a generally healthy child with fever. There is evidence that combining these 2 products is more effective than the use of a single agent alone; however, there are concerns that combined treatment may be more complicated and contribute to the unsafe use of these drugs. Pediatricians should also promote patient safety by advocating for simplified formulations, dosing instructions, and dosing devices.

  19. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity.

  20. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  1. Lost trust: a yellow fever patient response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, John S

    2013-12-13

    In the 19th century, yellow fever thrived in the tropical, urban trade centers along the American Gulf Coast. Industrializing and populated, New Orleans and Memphis made excellent habitats for the yellow fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the virulence they imparted on their victims. Known for its jaundice and black, blood-filled vomit, the malady terrorized the region for decades, sometimes claiming tens of thousands of lives during the near annual summertime outbreaks. In response to the failing medical community, a small, pronounced population of sick and healthy laypeople openly criticized the efforts to rid the Gulf region of yellow jack. Utilizing newspapers and cartoons to vocalize their opinions, these critics doubted and mocked the medical community, contributing to the regional and seasonal dilemma yellow fever posed for the American South. These sentient expressions prove to be an early example of patient distrust toward caregivers, a current problem in clinical heath care.

  2. Fever: suppress or let it ride?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Juliet J; Schulman, Carl I

    2015-12-01

    While our ability to detect and manage fever has evolved since its conceptualization in the 5(th) century BC, controversy remains over the best evidence-based practices regarding if and when to treat this physiologic derangement in the critically ill. There are two basic fields of thought: (I) fever should be suppressed because its metabolic costs outweigh its potential physiologic benefit in an already stressed host; vs. (II) fever is a protective adaptive response that should be allowed to run its course under most circumstances. The latter approach, sometime referred to as the "let it ride" philosophy, has been supported by several recent randomized controlled trials like that of Young et al. [2015], which are challenging earlier observational studies and may be pushing the pendulum away from the Pavlovian treatment response.

  3. Hemophagocytic syndrome in classic dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old previously healthy girl presented with persistent fever, headache, and jaundice. Rapid-test anti-dengue virus IgM antibody was positive but anti-dengue IgG was nonreactive, which is suggestive of primary dengue infection. There was clinical deterioration during empiric antibiotic and symptomatic therapy. Bone marrow examination demonstrated the presence of hemophagocytosis. Diagnosis of dengue fever with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was made according to the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol of the Histiocyte Society. The patient recovered with corticosteroid therapy. A review of literature revealed only a handful of case reports that showed the evidence that this syndrome is caused by dengue virus. Our patient is an interesting case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with classic dengue fever and contributes an additional case to the existing literature on this topic. This case highlights the need for increased awareness even in infections not typically associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

  4. Hemophagocytic syndrome in classic dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sayantan; Kundu, Supratip; Saha, Manjari; Chakrabarti, Prantar

    2011-10-01

    A 24-year-old previously healthy girl presented with persistent fever, headache, and jaundice. Rapid-test anti-dengue virus IgM antibody was positive but anti-dengue IgG was nonreactive, which is suggestive of primary dengue infection. There was clinical deterioration during empiric antibiotic and symptomatic therapy. Bone marrow examination demonstrated the presence of hemophagocytosis. Diagnosis of dengue fever with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was made according to the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol of the Histiocyte Society. The patient recovered with corticosteroid therapy. A review of literature revealed only a handful of case reports that showed the evidence that this syndrome is caused by dengue virus. Our patient is an interesting case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with classic dengue fever and contributes an additional case to the existing literature on this topic. This case highlights the need for increased awareness even in infections not typically associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

  5. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  6. [What is happening to acute rheumatic fever?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéphan, J L

    1994-12-01

    Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease of the heart, joints, central nervous system and subcutaneous tissues that develops after a nasopharyngeal infection by one of the group A beta-haemolytic streptococci. The pathogenesis remains an enigma. As the disease has been less florid and some of the more characteristic manifestations less common in developed countries, it has become more difficult to establish the diagnosis on clinical grounds. Rheumatic fever and its sequellae are still active in developing countries. Carditis is a dominant feature of this social disease. Renewed educational efforts concerning this preventable disorder are needed among both physicians and the public.

  7. [Q fever, a zoonosis often overlooked].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaloye, J; Greub, G

    2013-04-24

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Coxiella burnetii. Animals are the main reservoir and transmission to men generally is occurring by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Acute Q fever generally is benign and usually resolves spontaneously. When symptomatic, the clinical presentation typically includes one of the following three syndromes: a flu-like illness, a granulomatous hepatitis or an atypical pneumonia. Individuals presenting risk factors such as patients with valvular heart diseases and vascular prostheses, as well as pregnant women and immuno-suppressed patients represent a population at risk of chronic infection, with endocarditis as the most common clinical form.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T; Swanepoel, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944-2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed.

  9. Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen Share Tweet ... re in the drug store, looking for a fever-reducing medicine for your children. They range in ...

  10. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air during different times of ...

  11. Mayaro fever in an HIV-infected patient suspected of having Chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Góngora, Delzi Vinha Nunes de; Maia, Irineu Luiz; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses impose a serious threat to public health services. We report a case of a patient returning from a work trip to the Amazon basin with myalgia, arthralgia, fever, and headache. During this travel, the patient visited riverside communities. Both dengue and Chikungunya fevers were first suspected, tested for, and excluded. Mayaro fever was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction. The increased awareness of physicians and consequent detection of Mayaro virus in this case was only possible due a previous surveillance program with specific health personnel training about these neglected arboviruses.

  12. Mayaro fever in an HIV-infected patient suspected of having Chikungunya fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Fernanda Estofolete

    Full Text Available Abstract Arboviruses impose a serious threat to public health services. We report a case of a patient returning from a work trip to the Amazon basin with myalgia, arthralgia, fever, and headache. During this travel, the patient visited riverside communities. Both dengue and Chikungunya fevers were first suspected, tested for, and excluded. Mayaro fever was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction. The increased awareness of physicians and consequent detection of Mayaro virus in this case was only possible due a previous surveillance program with specific health personnel training about these neglected arboviruses.

  13. Nursing experience of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yan ZHANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the nursing methods of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Methods: Through careful nursing, 1 case of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever, summed up the experience. Results: Patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever were 2 days later improved, within 6 months to fully recover. Conclusion: With proper treatment and careful nursing, patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever are able to fully recover.

  14. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.

  15. Dengue fever with unusual thalamic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Asim Kumar; Purkait, Radheshyam; Sinhamahapatra, Tapan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world and is caused by four distinct viruses (type 1 to 4) that are closely related antigenically. Infection by dengue virus may be asymptomatic or may lead to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever or dengue haemorrhagic fever. Recent observations indicate that the clinical profile of dengue is changing and the neurological complications are being reported more frequently. The neurological features includeheadache, seizures, neck stiffness, depressed sensorium, behavioural disorders, delirium, paralysis and cranial nerve palsies. Such neurological symptoms in dengue fever wereattributed to cerebral oedema, haemorrhage, haemoconcentration due to increasing vascular permeability, coagulopathy and release of toxic substances. Cerebral oedema, encephalitis-like changes (oedema and scattered focal lesions), intracranial haemorrhages as well as selective involvement of bilateral hippocampus in dengue infection have been reported previously on selective neuro-imaging but thalamic involvement is rare. We here report a case of a typical presentation of encephalopathy with left sided complete hemiplegia due to thalamic involvement in dengue infection.

  16. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Heterogeneity among Rickettsia tsutsugamushi isolates: A protein analysis. 8. David J. Silverman, Charles L. Wisseman, Jr. and Anna Waddell. Envelopment and...the Conference and are also in press. 10. Paul Fiset, Charles L. Wisseman, Jr., A. Farhang-Azad, Harvey Fischman . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in

  17. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  18. Host-pathogen interactions in typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on host-pathogen interactions in Salmonella Typhi and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections and explores the interplay between these bacteria and the innate immune system. Typhoid fever is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in low-income countries. With adequate

  19. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  20. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-10-28

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.

  1. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever: Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U C Chaturvedi; Rachna Nagar

    2008-11-01

    The relationship of this country with dengue has been long and intense. The first recorded epidemic of clinically dengue-like illness occurred at Madras in 1780 and the dengue virus was isolated for the first time almost simultaneously in Japan and Calcutta in 1943–1944. After the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever along the East Coast of India in 1963–1964, it spread to allover the country. The first full-blown epidemic of the severe form of the illness, the dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome occurred in North India in 1996. Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmission of the disease. Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic degure fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent work in the area of molecular epidemiology, immunopathology and vaccine development. Selected work done in this country on the problems of dengue is presented here.

  2. Cases of typhoid fever in Copenhagen region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrett, Freja Cecille; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2013-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a systemic illness which in high-income countries mainly affects travellers. The incidence is particularly high on the Indian subcontinent. Travellers who visit friends and relatives (VFR) have been shown to have a different risk profile than others. We wished to identify main...

  3. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  4. Imported Lassa fever, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; MacNeil, Adam; McConnell, Ryan; Patel, Ami; Dillon, Katherine E; Hamilton, Keith; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Campbell, Shelley; Knust, Barbara; Cannon, Deborah; Miller, David; Manning, Craig; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of Lassa fever in a US traveler who visited rural Liberia, became ill while in country, sought medical care upon return to the United States, and subsequently had his illness laboratory confirmed. The patient recovered with supportive therapy. No secondary cases occurred.

  5. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  6. Dengue Fever with rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear.

  7. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50-100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy.

  8. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovekesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy.

  9. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K.; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P.; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy. PMID:26167314

  10. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic surveillance protocol, expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient had a complete recovery. The serological tests for hepatitis and yellow fever viruses were negative. MAC-ELISA for dengue was positive.

  11. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.

  12. [Risks and benefits of paracetamol in children with fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Brand, Paul L P; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van Well, Gijs T J; Cals, Jochen W L

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is the most commonly used antipyretic for children and the drug of first choice for reducing fever named in the majority of practice guidelines. However, whether or not it is necessary or desirable to treat fever is questionable. The provision of accurate information on the causes and treatment of fever can decrease the help-seeking behaviour of parents. Paracetamol is both effective and advisable when there is a combination of fever and pain. Fever on its own does not require treatment and doctors should therefore show caution about advising paracetamol for children who have just this symptom. The effect of paracetamol on the general well-being of children with fever on its own has not been unequivocally proven. Treatment with paracetamol for the prevention of febrile convulsions has been proven ineffective. There are indications that inhibiting fever through paracetamol can adversely affect the immune response. The use of paracetamol can produce mild side effects and hepatotoxicity.

  13. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we revi...

  14. DAY 1 DIAGNOSIS OF DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes particularly Aedes aegypti. It is widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics and in a small proportion of cases the virus leads to life threatening complications dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To study the early diagnosis of Dengue on day 1 as there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment available. METHODS: A prospective study of 104 patients was done based on clinical criteria of Dengue. RESULTS: Out of 104 serum samples 46 (44% were positive by NSI Ag MICROELISA, 37 (35% by NSI antigen IMMUNO CHROMATOGRAPHY. 3 (2% samples are positive by IgM IMMUNO CHROMATOGRAPHY and only one sample was positive for IgG IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHY. CONCLUSION: The present study has established the significance of NSI Ag MICROELISA with NSI antigen IMMUNO CHROMATOGRAPHY in increasing the diagnostic efficiency in the day 1 diagnosis of Dengue fever.

  15. Brazilian spotted fever: a reemergent zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Greca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is the most pathogenic species of the spotted-fever rickettsiae group and is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Amblyomma cajennense is the most important tick species involved in the cycle of this zoonosis in Brazil as it presents low host specificity, great number of natural reservoirs and wide geographic distribution. It was first described in the state of São Paulo in 1929 and later in Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Bahia. The number of cases decreased in the 1940's with the development of new plague control techniques and antibiotics. In the last decades, the number of new cases has increased. The current review aimed at reporting some of the epidemiological and public health aspects of this reemergent disease with new foci, mainly in the southeastern region of Brazil.

  16. Chikungunya fever presenting with acute optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Abhijit Anand; Agius-Fernandez, Adriana

    2015-07-28

    Chikungunya fever is a vector borne virus that typically causes a self-limiting systemic illness with fever, skin rash and joint aches 2 weeks after infection. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman presenting with an acute unilateral optic neuropathy as a delayed complication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection contracted during a recent trip to the West Indies. She presented to our ophthalmology department with acute painless visual field loss in the right eye and a recent flu-like illness. She was found to have a right relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) with unilateral optic disc swelling. Serology confirmed recent CHIKV infection. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone was delayed while awaiting MRI scans and serology results. At 5-month follow-up, there was a persistent right RAPD and marked optic atrophy with a corresponding inferior scotoma in the visual field.

  17. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  18. Paratyphoid fever- Emerging problem in South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ragini Bekur; KEVandana; KN Shivashankara; Rohit Valsalan; Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To review the clinical profile and drug susceptibilities ofSalmonella paratyphiA in a tertiary care hospital.Methods: Retrospective analyses of113patients with paratyphoid fever and101 culture provenSalmonella paratyphi A infection were included in the study. The study extended over a period of3 years(2006-2008). Diagnosis of patients were based on clinical features, serology and blood culture. The drug susceptibility testing of the isolates were performed by the disc diffusion method. Clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, susceptibility patterns of isolates, treatment and clinical response were studied.Results: Of the 113 cases, 77 (68.4 %) were males and36 were females(32.8%), which included2 pediatric patients. Fever was the most common symptom(100.0%) followed by loose stools(37.2%), headache(35.4%), myalgia(31.9%), pain abdomen (29.2%), dry cough (19.5%) and vomiting(13.3%). All patients were clinically cured. Majority of the isolates (46%)were resistant to cotrimoxazole in2006, however they became 100% sensitive in2007and2008. whereas the strains became100% sensitive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol only in 2008. In2006 the sensitivity of organisms to ciprofloxacin was89% but in2007and2008there has been an increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin (46% and86%) respectively . Surprisingly3isolates (8.1%) were resistant to ceftriaxone in2006, showed100% sensitivity in2008. Common drugs used were ceftriaxone in100 cases(88.4%) and ciprofloxacin in13cases(11.6%).One patient had relapse of paratyphoid fever after treatment with ciprofloxacin which responded to ceftriaxone.Conclusions:Paratyphoid fever A is one of the emerging infections and a significant problem in India. An increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones is noted. Continuous monitoring of drug susceptibilities is mandatory in instituting appropriate therapy.

  19. Surgical complications of typhoid fever: enteric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, M

    1991-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a prevalent disease in developing nations as the result of adverse socioeconomic factors. The most frequent complication, and principal cause of mortality, is perforation of the terminal ileum. This report presents our experience with 96 patients surgically treated at Cayetano Heredia University Hospital in Lima, Peru from 1972 to 1986. The clinical characteristics and the diverse surgical procedures utilized in the management of these patients are reviewed.

  20. Behavioral fever in anuran amphibian larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casterlin, M.E.; Reynolds, W.W.

    1977-02-15

    Following intraperitoneal injection with killed gram-negative bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila, tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana and of R. pipiens showed significant mean increases in preferred temperature of 2.6/sup 0/C and 2.7/sup 0/C, respectively, in an electronic thermoregulatory shuttlebox device. This ''behavioral fever'' is similar to elevations in preferred temperature previously demonstrated for fishes, reptiles and mammals, although both normal and febrile thermal preferenda vary among vertebrates.

  1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  2. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  3. Fever of unknown origin in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Causes of fever of unknown origin are different. It is considered that it can be caused with over 200 different clinical entities. Aetiological causes differ according to different categories of age. Febricity in the elderly is at most the result of autoimmune processes, malignancies, bacterial infections and vasculitis. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the most common characteristics of fever, the most common laboratory, bacterial and viral tests and to analyze applied therapy in patients with unknown febrile state, and to affirm final diagnosis in elderly patients, as well as younger than 65 years old, and to define outcome of disease in both groups of patients. Methods. Research comprised 100 patients who had been treated at the Infectious Disease Clinic of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, during a three-year period, and in whom fever of unknown origin had been diagnosed. Patients were divided into two homogenous groups of 50 people. The first one (S consisted of patients older than 65 years, and the second, control group (K was constituted of patients younger than the age of 65. All of them were chosen by random sample method. Results. Average results of standard laboratory parameters of infection were obtained, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, fibrinogen, CRP, and especially leukocyte, and those were significantly higher in the group of elderly patients. The cause had not been found in 10% of elderly patient group, and in the younger group, not even in the third of patients. Among known causative agents dominant were infections, usually of respiratory and urinary tract, in both tested groups. Even 28% of the elderly had sepsis, and 10% endocarditis. Malignant diseases were more frequent in group of the elderly patients, and immune i.e. systematic disorders were evenly noticed in both groups of patients. Conclusion. Despite advanced studies in medicine, and existence of modern

  4. Splenic abscess in typhoid fever -Surgical management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Col Prasan Kumar Hota

    2009-01-01

    Splenic abscess is an uncommon clinical presentation in surgical practice,associated with high morbidity and mortality.Mortality may be 100 % if left untreated.Splenic abscess is also rarely encountered as a complica-tion of typhoid fever.We present here a case of multiple splenic abscesses with neuropsychiatric complications due to typhoid fever,which was managed successfully with splenectomy and other supportive therapies.Anoth-er case of single splenic abscess due to enteric fever was treated successfully with CT-guided aspiration and ap-propriate antibiotics.Being a rare entity in clinical practice,splenic abscess has been poorly studied.Haemat-ogenous seeding of the spleen due to typhoid is a common cause of splenic abscess in the tropical countries.In multiple or multiloculated abscesses aspiration usually does not succeed,which happened in our case.Sple-nectomy remains the definitive choice of treatment.However,Ultra sonography (USG)or CT-guided aspira-tion may be tried in selective cases.

  5. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-07

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas.

  6. Cutting edge issues in rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    Although the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease has decreased significantly in regions of the world where antibiotics are easily accessible, there remains a high incidence in developing nations as well as in certain regions where there is a high incidence of genetic susceptibility. These diseases are a function of poverty, low socioeconomic status, and barriers to healthcare access, and it is in the developing world that a comprehensive prevention program is most critically needed. Development of group A streptococcal vaccines has been under investigation since the 1960s and 50 years later, we still have no vaccine. Factors that contribute to this lack of success include a potential risk for developing vaccine-induced rheumatic heart disease, as well as difficulties in covering the many serological subtypes of M protein, a virulence factor found on the surface of the bacterium. Yet, development of a successful vaccine program for prevention of group A streptococcal infection still offers the best chance for eradication of rheumatic fever in the twenty-first century. Other useful approaches include continuation of primary and secondary prevention with antibiotics and implementation of health care policies that provide patients with easy access to antibiotics. Improved living conditions and better hygiene are also critical to the prevention of the spread of group A streptococcus, especially in impoverished regions of the world. The purpose of this article is to discuss current and recent developments in the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.

  7. Epidemiology of African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated.

  8. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  9. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-10-29

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  10. Pathogenesis of lassa fever in cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Elizabeth A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa virus (LASV infection causes an acute and sometimes fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates; however, little is known about the development of Lassa fever. Here, we performed a pilot study to begin to understand the progression of LASV infection in nonhuman primates. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys were experimentally infected with LASV. Tissues from three animals were examined at an early- to mid-stage of disease and compared with tissues from three animals collected at terminal stages of disease. Results Dendritic cells were identified as a prominent target of LASV infection in a variety of tissues in all animals at day 7 while Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, adrenal cortical cells, and endothelial cells were more frequently infected with LASV in tissues of terminal animals (days 13.5-17. Meningoencephalitis and neuronal necrosis were noteworthy findings in terminal animals. Evidence of coagulopathy was noted; however, the degree of fibrin deposition in tissues was less prominent than has been reported in other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Conclusion The sequence of pathogenic events identified in this study begins to shed light on the development of disease processes during Lassa fever and also may provide new targets for rational prophylactic and chemotherapeutic interventions.

  11. Chikungunya Fever Presenting as a Systemic Disease with Fever. Arthritis and Rash: Our Experience in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanay, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK-F) has been increasingly documented among Western travelers returning from areas with chikungunya virus transmission, which are also popular tourist sites. We present three Israeli travelers who developed fever, maculopapular rash and long-standing arthralgias while visiting northern Indian states not known to be involved in the chikungunya fever epidemic. We also present an epidemiological review of the chikungunya epidemic over the past decades. Rare systemic manifestations of this disorder, like catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) and adult-onset Still's syndrome, are discussed. The present era of international travel poses a new diagnostic and epidemiologic challenge that demands increased awareness to the possibility of an exotic tropical infectious disease.

  12. Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-30

    in East Africa. Dengue virus type 2 has Deen isolated in Coastal Kenya once out with no haemorrhagic manifestations. Marourg virus was initially...virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa virus, Dengue virus, West Nile viruq or fellow Fever virus). Electron...to conduct the proposed field investigations. I. Office of the President 2. Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife 3. Ministry of Research, Science and

  13. Doxycycline-induced drug fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai-Ling; Lu, Ning-Wei; Xie, Hua; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Drug fever is a febrile reaction induced by a drug without additional clinical symptoms. This adverse reaction is not rare but under diagnosed and under reported. Doxycycline is a tetracycline compound with broad-spectrum antibiotic activity. Drug fever induced by doxycycline is rarely reported. In this study, we describe a patient in whom doxycycline induced drug fever after 17 days of therapy for brucellosis.

  14. Rheumatic Fever Associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the clinical associations between rheumatic fever and antiphospholipid syndrome and the impact of coexistence of these two diseases in an individual. Methods. Systematic review in electronics databases, regarding the period from 1983 to 2012. The keywords: “Rheumatic Fever,” “Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” and “Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome” are used. Results. were identified 11 cases described in the literature about the association of rheumatic fever and antiphospho...

  15. Q fever: a case with a vascular infection complication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Labussiere, Anne-Sophie; Guimard, Yves; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The most common clinical presentation of chronic Q fever is endocarditis with infections of aneurysms or vascular prostheses being the second most common presentation. Here, the authors report a case of vascular chronic Q fever. In this patient, a renal artery aneurysm was discovered by abdominal and pelvic CT during a systematic investigation to identify predisposing factors to chronic Q fever because of high antibody titres in a patient with valve disease. PMID:22767654

  16. Haematological Alterations Due to Typhoid Fever in Enugu Urban- Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor, A. I.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific haematological changes that accompany chronic and severe typhoid fever were investigated in an endemic area of Enugu Urban-Nigeria. The results established that typhoid fever infections led to a statistically significant leucopenia (p < 0.05. In acute, chronic cases, leucopenia is accompanied with significant oligocythaemia, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and lowered haematocrit (p < 0.05. The importance of the results in the diagnosis and treatment of typhoid fever are discussed.

  17. Juan-Ron fever: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2015-01-01

    Juan-Ron fever named after Juan Rosai and Ronald Dorfman is the fever associated with Rosai-Dorfman disease also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML). It is a rare disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by abundant macrophages in the lymph nodes throughout the body. Usually patient presents with painless lymphadenopathy. We present a case of a 45-year-old male who presented to us with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and fever, later on diagnosed to have SHML.

  18. Clinical Features and Patient Management of Lujo Hemorrhagic Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Sewlall, Nivesh H.; Guy Richards; Adriano Duse; Robert Swanepoel; Janusz Paweska; Lucille Blumberg; Thu Ha Dinh; Daniel Bausch

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth st...

  19. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  20. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Wasserman; Paul Anantharajah Tambyah; Poh Lian Lim

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivi...

  1. Seir Model for Transmission of Dengue Fever in Selangor Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafruddin, S.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    In this paper, we study a system of differential equations that models the population dynamics of SEIR vector transmission of dengue fever. The model studied breeding value based on the number of reported cases of dengue fever in Selangor because the state had the highest case in Malaysia. The model explains that maximum level of human infection rate of dengue fever achieved in a very short period. It is also revealed that there existed suitability result between theoretical and empirical calculation using the model. The result of SEIR model will hopefully provide an insight into the spread of dengue fever in Selangor Malaysia and basic form for modeling this area.

  2. Fever revealing Behçet's disease: Two new cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmouche, H; Maamar, M; Sahnoune, I; Tazi-Mezalek, Z; Aouni, M; Maaouni, A

    2007-03-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is an uncommon cause of fever of unknown origin. We report two cases, both involving 42-year-old males, who initially presented with prolonged fever and who were ultimately diagnosed as having BD after a delay of 12 and 21 months, respectively. Both patients developed pulmonary aneurysms. Although fevers resolved after therapy, both patients died within the first year after diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware that long-term fever may be an inaugural sign of BD, especially in individuals living in countries along the ancient Silk Road or Mediterranean basin.

  3. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-08

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  4. Anesthesia experience along with familial Mediterranean fever and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sargın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Anesthetic management in patient with Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac Disease Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive transmitted disease which often seen at Mediterranean origin society and it goes by deterioration at inflammation control. Celiac disease is a proximal small intestine disease which develops gluten intolerance by autoimmune mechanism in sensitive people. Association of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac disease is a rare situation. In this article we present our anesthesia experience on a bilateral septic arthritis case who also have Familial Mediterranean Fever and Celiac disease association.

  5. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Andrew E; Kesieme, Emeka B; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Akpede, George O

    2013-04-19

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission.

  6. Sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okokhere Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lassa fever is an acute arena viral haemorrhagic fever with varied neurological sequelae. Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the rare complications which occur usually during the convalescent stage of the infection. Case presentation The cases of two female patients aged 19 and 43 years old, respectively, with clinical features suggestive of Lassa fever and confirmed by immunoserological/Lassa-virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction are presented. Both patients developed severe sensorineural hearing loss at acute phases of the infections. Conclusion Sensorineural hearing loss from Lassa fever infections can occur in both acute and convalescent stages and is probably induced by an immune response.

  7. Chikungunya fever in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Katherine R; Bhatt, Sanjay; Kim, Hyung T; Mallon, William K

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman returning from Haiti, presenting to our emergency department (ED) with fever, rash and arthralgia. Following a broad workup that included laboratory testing for dengue and malaria, our patient was diagnosed with Chikungunya virus, which was then reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for initiation of infection control. This case demonstrates the importance of the ED for infectious disease case identification and initiation of public health measures. This case also addresses public health implications of Chikungunya virus within the United States, and issues related to the potential for local spread and autochthonous cases.

  8. Development of Vaccines for Chikungunya Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Jesse H; Rossi, Shannan L; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-12-15

    Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has reemerged since 2004 to cause millions of cases. Because CHIKV exhibits limited antigenic diversity and is not known to be capable of reinfection, a vaccine could serve to both prevent disease and diminish human amplification during epidemic circulation. Here, we review the many promising vaccine platforms and candidates developed for CHIKV since the 1970s, including several in late preclinical or clinical development. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each, as well as the commercial and regulatory challenges to bringing a vaccine to market.

  9. [Conjugate vaccines against bacterial infections: typhoid fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, J; García, J A; López, C R; González, C R; Isibasi, A; Kumate, J

    1992-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides have been studied as possible vaccines against infectious diseases. However, they are capable to induce only short-run protection because of their T-independent properties and they would not be protective against infection in high-risk populations. The alternative to face this problem is to develop methods to join covalently the polysaccharide and proteins to both increase the immunogenicity of and to confer the property of T-dependence to this antigen. In order to obtain a conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever, in our laboratory we have tried to synthesize a conjugate immunogen between the Vi antigen and porins from Salmonella typhi.

  10. Ciprofloxacin resistant osteomyelitis following typhoid fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeni, Itunuayo V; Calver, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella typi is a rare cause of chronic osteomyelitis in a non-sickle cell patient. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old gentleman with a history of typhoid fever and an infected skin nodule on his left forearm 5 years prior to the diagnosis. He was referred to our orthopaedic colleagues with chronic osteomyelitis and underwent debridement of the bone for which samples grew Salmonella typhi. He was commenced on intravenous ceftriaxone 2 g once daily for 6 weeks followed by oral azi...

  11. A common pathway in periodic fever syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Michael F

    2004-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in pyrin, which normally inhibits pro-interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) cytokine processing to the active form. A novel role for pyrin has been proposed by Shoham et al., who studied patients with an autosomal dominant disease called pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA) syndrome. They demonstrated an interaction between pyrin and proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1), the protein involved in PAPA, and thus revealed a biochemical pathway common to both FMF and PAPA.

  12. [Antigenic diversity of African swine fever viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, A D; Balyshev, V M

    2011-01-01

    Data on the seroimmunotypic and hemadsorbing characteristics of African swine fever virus (ASF) are summarized. According to the results of immunological sampling in pigs and those of hemagglutination inhibition test, the known ASFV strains and isolates were divided into 11 groups, 8 were characterized as seroimmunogroups having their specific reference strains. A 110-140-kD ASFV serotype-specific nonstructural major glycoprotein was identified. It is suggested that it is the glycoprotein that corresponds to the genetic engineering detected virus-specific homolog of lymphocyte membrane protein CD2, gene deletion of which results in the loss of hemadsorbing properties by ASFV.

  13. Fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : relation with extent of hydrocephalus and amount of extravasated blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout Mees, Sanne M; Luitse, Merel J A; van den Bergh, Walter M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with poor outcome. Because hydrocephalus and extravasated blood may influence thermoregulation, we determined whether these factors increase the risk for fever after subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Fever within 14

  14. Differentiation of Acute Q Fever from Other Infections in Patients Presenting to Hospitals, the Netherlands 1

    OpenAIRE

    Keijmel, S.P.; Krijger, E.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprong, T; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating acute Q fever from infections caused by other pathogens is essential. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to evaluate differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and outcomes for 82 patients with acute Q fever and 52 control patients who had pneumonia, fever and lower respiratory tract symptoms, or fever and hepatitis, but had negative serologic results for Q fever. Patients with acute Q fever were younger and had higher C-reactive protein levels but lower leukocyte c...

  15. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations.

  16. Familial Mediterranean fever and cryptogenic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweezer-Zaks, Nurit; Doron-Libner, Anat; Weiss, Perez; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Barshack, Iris; Lidar, Merav; Livneh, Avi

    2007-11-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a febrile disease characterized by acute, spontaneously resolving episodes of fever and pain caused by serosal inflammation and associated with mutations in the FMF gene, MEFV. Prophylaxis is maintained with colchicine. To our knowledge, no study has yet shown an association between FMF and cirrhosis of the liver. We conducted the current study to describe cryptogenic cirrhosis in FMF and to examine the possible relationship between the 2 entities. Patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively identified through a computer search of a registry of 6000 patients with FMF followed in the clinics of the National Center for FMF. Data pertaining to FMF phenotype and genotype and characteristics of the liver disease were abstracted from patients' charts. Cryptogenic cause of cirrhosis was determined by exclusion of known causes of liver disease. Nine patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis were identified, comprising 0.15% of the FMF patient population, a rate significantly higher than the rate of 0.015% of cirrhosis of all types expected in the total population of Israel (p cirrhosis diagnosis, and was classified as A in 4 of them. These findings suggest that MEFV may serve as a modifier gene in cryptogenic cirrhosis. Genetic analysis in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis unrelated to FMF, particularly patients of a Mediterranean origin, may be warranted in future studies.

  17. Phylogeography of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, Alexander S.; Dzagurova, Tamara K.; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gmyl, Anatoly P.

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most severe viral zoonozes. It is prevalent throughout Africa, Asia and southern Europe. Limited availability of sequence data has hindered phylogeographic studies. The complete genomic sequence of all three segments of 14 Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains isolated from 1958–2000 in Russia, Central Asia and Africa was identified. Each genomic segment was independently subjected to continuous Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. The origin of each genomic segment was traced to Africa about 1,000–5,000 years ago. The virus was first introduced to South and Central Asia in the Middle Ages, and then spread to China, India and Russia. Reverse transfers of genomic segments from Asia to Africa were also observed. The European CCHFV genotype V was introduced to Europe via the Astrakhan region in South Russia 280–400 years ago and subsequently gradually spread westward in Russia, to Turkey and the Balkans less than 150 years ago. Only a few recombination events could be suggested in S and L genomic segments, while segment reassortment was very common. The median height of a non-reassortant phylogenetic tree node was 68–156 years. There were reassortment events within the European CCHFV lineage, but not with viruses from other locations. Therefore, CCHFV in Europe is a recently emerged zoonosis that represents a spillover from the global gene pool. PMID:27880794

  18. Ciprofloxacin resistant osteomyelitis following typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Itunuayo V; Calver, Graeme

    2012-07-13

    Salmonella typi is a rare cause of chronic osteomyelitis in a non-sickle cell patient. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old gentleman with a history of typhoid fever and an infected skin nodule on his left forearm 5 years prior to the diagnosis. He was referred to our orthopaedic colleagues with chronic osteomyelitis and underwent debridement of the bone for which samples grew Salmonella typhi. He was commenced on intravenous ceftriaxone 2 g once daily for 6 weeks followed by oral azithromycin 500 mg once daily for a further 6 weeks. The purpose of this case report is to consider the possible mode for antibiotic resistance. In this patient, the authors believe that partial treatment of the typhoid fever 5 years prior to diagnosis of osteomyelitis enabled antibiotic resistance to ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, the authors believe that the infected nodule was the result of direct inoculation with the Salmonella organism which then acted as a focus for further infections.

  19. African swine fever: an epidemiological update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B

    2012-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15 years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (African swine fever -free countries should be aware of the potential risk of ASF incursion and implement risk reduction measures such as trade controls and other sanitary measures. This review will discuss lessons learnt so far about ASF control, current challenges to its control and future studies needed to support global efforts at prevention and control.

  20. Clinical genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Kleiner, Giulio; Tommasini, Alberto; Severini, Giovanni Maria; Monasta, Lorenzo; Crovella, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes (PFSs) are a wide group of autoinflammatory diseases. Due to some clinical overlap between different PFSs, differential diagnosis can be a difficult challenge. Nowadays, there are no universally agreed recommendations for most PFSs, and near half of patients may remain without a genetic diagnosis even after performing multiple-gene analyses. Molecular analysis of periodic fevers' causative genes can improve patient quality of life by providing early and accurate diagnosis and allowing the administration of appropriate treatment. In this paper we focus our discussion on effective usefulness of genetic diagnosis of PFSs. The aim of this paper is to establish how much can the diagnostic system improve, in order to increase the success of PFS diagnosis. The mayor expectation in the near future will be addressed to the so-called next generation sequencing approach. Although the application of bioinformatics to high-throughput genetic analysis could allow the identification of complex genotypes, the complexity of this definition will hardly result in a clear contribution for the physician. In our opinion, however, to obtain the best from this new development a rule should always be kept well in mind: use genetics only to answer specific clinical questions.

  1. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  2. Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Eri; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous circulation of multiple arboviruses presents diagnostic challenges. In May 2016, chikungunya fever was diagnosed in a traveler from Angola to Japan. Travel history, incubation period, and phylogenetic analysis indicated probable infection acquisition in Angola, where a yellow fever outbreak is ongoing. Thus, local transmission of chikungunya virus probably also occurs in Angola. PMID:27983938

  3. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 72 Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal... permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions are necessary to update and clarify the..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  4. Typhoid Fever Complicated by Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non, Lemuel R; Patel, Rupa; Esmaeeli, Amir; Despotovic, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and rhabdomyolysis are rare complications of typhoid fever from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Herein, we describe the clinical features in a 21-year-old female from India who presented to the intensive care unit with fever, severe pancytopenia, and rhabdomyolysis.

  5. Acute transverse myelitis: an unusual complication of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kirtisudha; Kaur, Sharandeep; Basu, Srikanta; Gulati, Praveen; Parakh, Ankit

    2012-08-01

    Typhoid fever is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological complications. Acute transverse myelitis is a rare complication with only a few reports in adults and none in children. A 15-year-old boy with typhoid fever is reported who developed acute transverse myelitis in the 3rd week of illness. He was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and made a complete recovery.

  6. Femoral compressive neuropathy from iliopsoas haematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sneha Ganu; Yesha Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue virus. We reported a case of femoral compression neuropathy due to iliopsoas hematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever. Iliopsoas muscle hematoma can cause femoral neuropathy with resultant pain and paralysis. Such manifestations are not well documented in the literature. The pathogenesis of hematoma and compressive neuropathy with its appropriate management is discussed.

  7. Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Saho; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Nakayama, Eri; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous circulation of multiple arboviruses presents diagnostic challenges. In May 2016, chikungunya fever was diagnosed in a traveler from Angola to Japan. Travel history, incubation period, and phylogenetic analysis indicated probable infection acquisition in Angola, where a yellow fever outbreak is ongoing. Thus, local transmission of chikungunya virus probably also occurs in Angola.

  8. Risk factors for typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, A.M.; Ali, S.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van; Widjaja, S.; Visser, L.G.; Surjadi, C.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The proportion of paratyphoid fever cases to typhoid fever cases may change due to urbanization and increased dependency on food purchased from street vendors. For containment of paratyphoid a different strategy may be needed than for typhoid, because risk factors for disease may not coinci

  9. Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Sohrabi, Amir; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Edalat, Rosita; Alamdari, Mehran; Masoudi, Mohammadhossein; Mostofi, Saied; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.

  10. Towards an improved understanding of African swine fever virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Carvalho Ferreira, H.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease of swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Estimates of virus transmission (direct or indirect) parameters for ASFV are necessary in order to model the spread of the virus, and to design more efficient control measures. Results presented on thi

  11. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.L.; de Vries, P.J.; Nga, T.T.T.; Giao, P.T.; Hung, L.Q.; Binh, T.Q.; Nam, N.V.; Nagelkerke, N.; Kager, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thu

  12. Retinal Hemorrhages in 4 Patients with Dengue Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr; Ang, Brenda; Barkham, Timothy; Laude, Augustinus

    2005-01-01

    We report 4 patients with retinal hemorrhages that developed during hospitalization for dengue fever. Onset of symptoms coincided with resolution of fever and the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Retinal hemorrhages may reflect the rising incidence of dengue in Singapore or may be caused by changes in the predominant serotype of the dengue virus.

  13. Care for patients with vascular chronic Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, J.C.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative and intracellular bacterium. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands was confronted with the world’s largest Q fever outbreak. Dairy goats were identified to be the source. At the end of 2009, the outbreak expanded enormously (with 1000 patients in

  14. Typhoid fever in a South African in-patient population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Mohammad Enayet Hossain

    2004-01-01

    In conclusion, the data presented herein show that no single clinical or paraclinical parameter is reliable in arriving at a correct clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and that bacteriologic confirmation is necessary for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Patients ’ age and sex influence the clinical

  15. Typhoid fever : aspects of environment, host and pathogen interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Soegianto

    2006-01-01

    In a surveillance study in Jakarta, Indonesia, 88 typhoid and 26 paratyphoid fever patients were identified by blood culture. Risk factors for transmission of typhoid fever were mainly intra-household factors (poor hand-washing hygiene, recent household contacts), whereas paratyphoid was mainly cont

  16. The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W

    2012-09-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011.

  17. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

  18. Rheumatic Fever in the Adult: A Forgotten Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Brian; Swanson, Richard; Smith, Stanley

    1987-01-01

    The authors of this article present a case of acute rheumatic fever in an adult and review the diagnostic criteria for this illness. They emphasize the prevention of acute rheumatic fever by the adequate treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin. PMID:21263778

  19. Rationalizing the approach to children with fever in neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammann, Roland A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Phillips, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Fever in neutropenia is the most frequent potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapy in children and adolescents with cancer. This review summarizes recent studies that refine our knowledge of how to manage pediatric fever in neutropenia, and their implications for c

  20. Unilateral lymphocytic pleuritis as a manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenos, Stamatis; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Psathakis, Kostas; Tsintiris, Kostas; Polychronopoulos, Vlassios; Panagou, Panagiotis; Ritis, Kostas; Light, Richard W

    2008-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting predominantly populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin. It is the most prevalent hereditary periodic fever syndrome characterized mainly by recurrent and short attacks of fever and serositis (pleuritis, arthritis, peritonitis). Unilateral polymorphonuclear exudative pleuritis associated with fever has been reported as the solitary manifestation of the first FMF attack, in pleuritis associated with fever. After a thorough workup (clinical criteria and molecular genetic testing identifying homozygosity polymorphisms of the FMF gene), the diagnosis of FMF was established. Treatment with colchicine, 2 mg/d, eliminated FMF attacks. To our knowledge, this is the first well-documented case report of a patient with FMF presenting with a lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion.

  1. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  2. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Andrew C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2009-12-01

    Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease are diseases of socioeconomic disadvantage. These diseases are common in developing countries and in Indigenous populations in industrialized countries. Clinicians who work with Indigenous populations need to maintain a high index of suspicion for the potential diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever, particularly in patients presenting with joint pain. Inexpensive medicines, such as aspirin, are the mainstay of symptomatic treatment of rheumatic fever; however, antiinflammatory treatment has no effect on the long-term rate of progression or severity of chronic valvular disease. The current focus of global efforts at prevention of rheumatic heart disease is on secondary prevention (regular administration of penicillin to prevent recurrent rheumatic fever), although primary prevention (timely treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis to prevent rheumatic fever) is also important in populations in which it is feasible.

  3. Dalteparin-sodium induced drug fever in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackernagel, Dirk; Obaya, Sami; Nydert, Per

    2016-10-13

    Drug fever caused by dalteparin-sodium (DS), a low-molecular-weight derivative of heparin, is neither listed in the official drug information and nor published as a case report until today. A preterm infant, born at 26 weeks of gestation, developed fever 2 days after starting a treatment with DS for an intracardial thrombus. The fever reverses soon after changing the treatment to unfractionated heparin and reappeared after reintroduction of DS. Once again, after discontinuing DS, the infant regained normothermia. Bacterial and viral infections, tissue damage, impaired liver or kidney function, preservative agents and comedications could be ruled out as fever origin. By using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) probability scale and the Liverpool ADR causality assessment tool, this case can be classified as 'probable ADR' and 'definite ADR'. This is the first case report of a drug fever caused by the low-molecular-weight heparin DS in a preterm infant.

  4. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations.

  5. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto de; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  6. Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Vega, Liliana; Pacheco, Oscar; de la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs). The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4) and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9). Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8) for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4) for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4) for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases.

  7. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Laurence

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days. 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]. A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04. Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of

  8. Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Romero-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs. The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4 and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9. Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8 for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4 for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4 for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases.

  9. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, G.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Diender, M.G.; Oyen, W.J.; Draaisma, J.M.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with compute

  10. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Draaisma, Jos M. Th.; Geus-Oei, de Lioe-Fee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed

  11. Patogenesis de la fiebre Pathogenesis of fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana García de Olarte

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    La fiebre es una manifestación fundamental de enfermedad que no se presenta en forma aislada sino, casi siempre, asociada a una serle de cambios fisiológicos en el huésped, conocidos como la respuesta de fase aguda. La aparición de la fiebre, así como de muchos otros componentes de tal respuesta, se debe a la producción endógena de varias sustancias, cuya secreción es Inducida por diversos estímulos, tanto propios como ajenos al organismo. Las moléculas más Importantes Involucradas en estas respuestas son la interleuquina 1 y el Factor Necrosante de Tumores, las cuales actúan en forma sinérgica sobre todos los órganos y tejidos. La fiebre se debe al efecto que ejercen estas proteínas sobre el hipotálamo, donde Inducen la producción de Prostaglandina E2 (PGE2 Incrementadota directa del punto de control del termostato corporal. Antes de Intervenir terapéuticamente en un episodio febril, es necesario considerar los diferentes aspectos de la respuesta de fase aguda, ya que algunos de ellos son esenciales para la supervivencia frente a la agresión.

    Fever, a fundamental manifestation of disease, is almost always associated with a series of physiologic changes of the host, collectively known as the acute phase response. Appearance of fever and of many of the other elements of such response is due to the production of several substances, whose secretion is induced by different stimuli both endogenous and exogenous. The most important molecules involved in these processes are Interleukin 1 (IL-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF, which act synergically on every organ and tissue. Fever is due to the effect of these proteins on the hypothalamus, where they Induce production of Prostaglandin E2, the direct elevator of the control point of the body thermo. stat. Before therapeutically acting on a

  12. Hay fever in childhood, traits Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as independent predictors of the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda; Chapman, Benjamin P; Kornilaki, Ekaterina N; Treglown, Luke; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the associations between social and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood and the occurrence of adulthood hay fever in a longitudinal birth cohort study. A total of 5780 participants with data on parental social class, childhood hay fever up to age 7 years, childhood cognitive ability at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels and adult hay fever (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood hay fever identified by medical doctors and traits Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood.

  13. Investigation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-12

    nasal bleeding, hematuria and gross gastrointestinal bleeding. K-- F -6- Up todate 41 HFRS cases have been serologically diagnosed in Greece. The...CCHF in Greece up until April 1987, was discussed and the conclusions drawn are reported. 4 pA. : -3- B. HORAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROKE (HilS) B1...level. Two house rats (Rattus rattus) captured in a slaughter house in Thessaloniki were found to be seropositive (Table 2). _ _ I -9-. Todate

  14. Mean platelet volume in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Ahmet; Aypar, Ebru; Odabas, Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is still an endemic disease, especially among school-aged children in developing countries. Mean platelet volume (MPV), which is commonly used as a measure of platelet size, indicates the rate of platelet production and platelet activation. We aimed to investigate MPV in children with ARF. The study population consisted of 40 children with ARF (32 patients with carditis and 8 patients without carditis) and 40 healthy control subjects. White blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were significantly higher and MPV values were significantly lower in patients with ARF during the acute stage when compared to controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein values significantly decreased in patients with ARF after the treatment when compared to baseline, whereas MPV values increased. MPV values were negatively correlated with ESR and WBC, and platelet counts. In conclusion, during the acute stage of ARF, MPV values were lower when compared to controls.

  15. Comparison between emerging Q fever in French Guiana and endemic Q fever in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Felix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Q fever is an emergent disease in French Guiana. We compared the incidence clinical and serologic profiles between patients from Cayenne, French Guiana and Marseille in metropolitan France during a four-year period. The annual incidence of diagnosed acute Q fever was significantly higher in Cayenne (17.5/100,000) than in Marseille (1.9/100,000) (P = 0.0004), but not the annual incidence of endocarditis (1.29 versus 0.34/100,000). Most patients had fever (97%) and pneumonia (83%) in Cayenne versus 81% and 8% in Marseille (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) but transaminitis was more common in patients from Marseille (54% versus 32%; P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular infections was significantly lower in Cayenne (7%) than in Marseille (17%) (P = 0.017), although they showed a stronger immune response with higher levels of phase I IgG (P = 0.024). The differing epidemiology, clinical, and serologic responses of patients from Cayenne and Marseille suggest a different source of infection and a different strain of Coxiella burnetii.

  16. Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers: A threat to Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katendi Changula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk. Previous studies have indicated bats as potential reservoir hosts for filoviruses. An increasing population with an increasing demand for resources has forced incursion into previously uninhabited land, potentially bringing them into contact with unknown pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or amplifying hosts. The recent discovery of a novel arenavirus, Lujo, highlights the potential that every region, including Zambia, has for being the epicentre or primary focus for emerging and re-emerging infections. It is therefore imperative that surveillance for potential emerging infections, such as viral haemorrhagic fevers be instituted. In order to accomplish this surveillance, rapid detection, identification and monitoring of agents in patients and potential reservoirs is needed. International co-operation is the strategy of choice for the surveillance and fight against emerging infections. Due to the extensive area in which filoviral infections can occur, a regional approach to surveillance activities is required, with regional referral centres. There is a need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. There is also need for optimisation of currently available tests and development of new diagnostic tests, in order to have robust, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used even where there are inadequate laboratories and diagnostic services.

  17. Rheumatic fever in indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaby, Matthew G; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-09-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) caused by acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a disease of poverty, poor hygiene and poor living standards. RHD remains one of the major causes of childhood cardiac disease in developing nations. Within developed nations, there has been a dramatic drop in the prevalence of RHD because of the improvement of living standards, access to health care and the widespread availability of penicillin-based drugs. Despite a dramatic reduction of RHD in Australia overall, it continues to be a major contributor to childhood and adult cardiac disease in Indigenous communities throughout northern and central Australia. Currently, Australia has among the highest recorded rates of ARF and RHD in the world. The most accurate epidemiological data in Australia come from the Northern Territory's RHD control programme. In the Northern Territory, 92% of people with RHD are Indigenous, of whom 85% live in remote communities and towns. The incidence of ARF is highest in 5-14-year-olds, ranging from 150 to 380 per 100,000. Prevalence rates of RHD since 2000 have steadily increased to almost 2% of the Indigenous population in the Northern Territory, 3.2% in those aged 35-44 years. Living in remote communities is a contributing factor to ARF/RHD as well as a major barrier for adequate follow-up and care. Impediments to ARF/RHD control include the paucity of specialist services, rapid turnover of health staff, lack of knowledge of ARF/RHD by health staff, patients and communities, and the high mobility of the Indigenous population. Fortunately, the recently announced National Rheumatic Fever Strategy, comprising recurrent funding to the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia for control programmes, as well as the creation of a National Coordination Unit suggest that RHD control in Australia is now a tangible prospect. For the disease to be eradicated, Australia will have to address the underpinning determinants of poverty, social and living conditions.

  18. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4. The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected host and then feeds on a person who is uninfected. There is no vaccine or cure for dengue fever. Dengue fever is a growing cause for concern in The Bahamas. This year the incidence of dengue fever reached epidemic proportions in The Bahamas. This article will explore the etiology and epidemiology of dengue fever, and offer some insight into how future the Bahamas can begin to develop strategies for the eradication of dengue fever.

  19. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  20. EPIDEMIOL O GY OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER IN SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT

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    Arunasree

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chikungunya fever is a self - limiting viral fever spread by mosquito bite and has become an epidemic. The proportion of cases has increased in Andhra Pradesh. We report a prospective analysis of cases of c hikungunya fever referred from various primary health centers of rural, tribal and semiurban areas of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. AIMS OF STUDY: To analyse the burden of C hikungunya fever in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh . MATERIAL AND METHODS : A prospective descriptive study was under taken between January - 2013 to December - 2014 by testing clinically suspected c hikungunya fever patients attending tertiary care centre in the Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The blood collected from suspected patients was analyzed for CHIK specific IgM antibodies by ELISA method using Nivchik kit. The data was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period the total number of samples screened with clinical suspicion of c hikungunya fever was 127, out of which 23(18.11% were positive for IgM antibodies. The number of seropositive cases referred from rural area was 3 in number and from tribal areas 20. The seasonal distribution of cases was variable. CONCLUSION: Chikungunya fever is self limiting disease . Efforts have to be made through community awareness and early institution of supportive therapy. Vector control measures should be in full swing

  1. Risk factors for shock in children with dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Pothapregada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate and analyze the clinical and laboratory parameters that were predictive of the development of shock in children with dengue fever. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective study carried out from August 2012 to July 2014 at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. Results: Two hundred and fifty-four children were admitted with dengue fever and among them dengue fever without shock was present in 159 children (62.5% and dengue fever with shock was present in 95 cases (37.4%. Various clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression between the two groups and a P value of 20% with concomitant platelet count 6 years, hepatomegaly, pain in the abdomen, and oliguria were the most common risk factors associated with shock in children with dengue fever. There were six deaths (2.4% and out of them four presented with impaired consciousness (66.6% at the time of admission. Conclusion: Age >6 years, hepatomegaly, abdomen pain, and oliguria were the most common risk factors for shock in children with dengue fever. Impaired consciousness at admission was the most ominous sign for mortality in dengue fever. Hence, these features should be identified early, monitored closely, and managed timely.

  2. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  3. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  4. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  5. Serological Evidence of Dengue Fever Among Refugees, Hargeysa, Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    AD-A24 1 179 Q O0T!119910 j •___ C PUBLICATION REPORT 1602 84/89-90 SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF DENGUE FEVER AMONG REFUGEES, HARGEYOA, SOMALIA BY Boulos...of Dengue Fever Among Refugees, Hargeysa, Somalia Boulos A.M. Botros, Douglas M. Watts, Atef K. Soliman, Adel W. Salib, Mahmoud I. Moussa, H. Mursal...Tukei PM 1982). Epidemic Dengue fever caused by Dengue tion, antibody demonstrated by the EIA, IFA, and HI type-2 virus in Kenya: Preliminary results

  6. Fundus Findings in Dengue Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahan, Berna; Tatlıpınar, Sinan; Marangoz, Deniz; Çiftçi, Ferda

    2015-10-01

    Dengue fever is a flavivirus infection transmitted through infected mosquitoes, and is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Pacific, Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region. A 41-year-old male patient had visual impairment after travelling to Thailand, which is one of the endemic areas. Cotton wool spots were observed on fundus examination. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed minimal vascular leakage from areas near the cotton wool spots and dot hemorrhages in the macula. Dengue fever should be considered in patients with visual complaints who traveled to endemic areas of dengue fever.

  7. Triage nurse's assessment of a child with a fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Fever in children is a common presentation to the emergency department and in most instances has no adverse consequences. The role of the triage nurse is to have thorough knowledge of up to date practices in caring for the child with fever, and to accurately assess and manage the child. Using evidence based practice to apply appropriate triage categories, effective care including accurate and informed education of parents. Every nurse working on triage should maintain current knowledge and have continuous education concerning the child with fever and the unwell child to promote best patient outcomes and maintain best practice standards.

  8. [Periodic fever in children: keep in mind the PFAPA syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M; Rossetti, G

    2008-02-27

    The autoinflammatory diseases should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent fever in childhood. These diseases are characterized by inflammatory episodes without an evident cause. Some of these diseases, like the Familial Mediterranean Fever, have a genetic origin and need a chronic treatment to avoid severe complications on the long term. PFAPA syndrome is the most frequent cause of recurrent fever and is diagnosed based on unspecific criteria. The treatment is still controversial. One dose of Prednisone is able to interrupt the flare and tonsillectomy may induce a remission in the majority of the cases.

  9. Typhoid fever with caecal ulcer bleed: managed conservatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Vinoth; Periyasamy, Sivakumar; Alexander, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Padhmini

    2014-03-31

    Typhoid fever is caused by enteroinvasive Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhi. The well-known complications of typhoid fever are intestinal haemorrhage and perforation. In the pre-antibiotic era, these complications were quite common, but in the current antibiotic era the incidence of these complications is on the decline. We report a case of a patient with typhoid fever who developed haematochezia during the hospital stay and was found to have caecal ulcer with an adherent clot on colonoscopy. He was managed successfully with conservative measures without endotherapy and there was no rebleed.

  10. Spotted fever rickettsiosis in Coronel Fabriciano, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Márcio Antônio Moreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Coronel Fabriciano Municipality of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cases occurred in May and June of 2000. During this period there were two deaths among children from an area named Pedreira in a periurban area of this municipality. In a boy who died with clinical manifestations of Brazilian spotted fever, a necropsy revealed the presence of a spotted fever group Rickettsia. The serological results confirm the difficulty in the differential diagnosis of patients with symptoms of rickettsial diseases.

  11. STUDY OF SIGNIFICANCE OF PLATELET COUNT IN FEVER CASES

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    Vasavilatha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the significance of platelet count in various fevers and also identify the common causes of fever with thrombocytopenia . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 69 patients who were admitted with fever over 2 months of period from 15th October to15th December 2014 in King George Hospital AMC Visakhapatnam studied retrospectively. RESULTS: INCIDENCE: More than half of the cases (52.2% admitted with fever have thrombocytopenia. SEX: The study reveals that irrespective of sex and size of the sample the presentation of fever with/ without thromb ocytopenia could not found any significant difference . Degree of thrombocytopenia in various etiologies: in the present study it is found that out of 15 cases of falciparum malaria 10 cases had thrombocytopenia. Out of 12 undiagnosed cases 8 cases had thro mbocytopenia. Out of 4 cases of gastro intestinal system 3 cases had thrombocytopenia. In the present study it is significantly found that the highest difference is noticed in the presentation of dengue cases. Out of total sample (69 cases it is found tha t 5cases (7.2% of thrombocytopenia with dengue fever were found against 1case (1.4% of dengue fever with normal plate let count. The present study reveals that there is significant difference among various diseases such as malaria 14 (16.6%, dengue feve r 5 (13.9%, Urinary tract infection 2 (5.6%, undiagnosed cases 8 (22.2%. However severe thrombocytopenia (platelets less than 50,000 is seen in14 cases (38.8%out of 36 cases of fever with thrombocytopenia. Further this study reveals that in the cases of malaria 50% of cases reported as severe thrombocytopenia 7cases (19.4% followed by dengue fever3 cases (8.3%. CONCLUSION: Not only malaria, dengue fever and urinary tract infection can also cause severe thrombocytopenia. Fever cases especially with th rombocytopenia show seasonal variations, they are seen commonly in early winter. Febrile thrombocytopenia still presents as atypical and occult forms making

  12. Inflammation and Epidural-Related Maternal Fever: Proposed Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Pervez; David, Anna L; Fernando, Roshan; Ackland, Gareth L

    2016-05-01

    Intrapartum fever is associated with excessive maternal interventions as well as higher neonatal morbidity. Epidural-related maternal fever (ERMF) contributes to the development of intrapartum fever. The mechanism(s) for ERMF has remained elusive. Here, we consider how inflammatory mechanisms may be modulated by local anesthetic agents and their relevance to ERMF. We also critically reappraise the clinical data with regard to emerging concepts that explain how anesthetic drug-induced metabolic dysfunction, with or without activation of the inflammasome, might trigger the release of nonpathogenic, inflammatory molecules (danger-associated molecular patterns) likely to underlie ERMF.

  13. Marburg hemorrhagic fever associated with multiple genetic lineages of virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bausch, D G; Nichol, S T; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J

    2006-01-01

    Background An outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever was first observed in a gold-mining village in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo in October 1998. Methods We investigated the outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever most intensively in May and October 1999. Sporadic cases and short...... genetically distinct lineages of virus in circulation during the outbreak. Conclusions Marburg hemorrhagic fever can have a very high case fatality rate. Since multiple genetic variants of virus were identified, ongoing introduction of virus into the population helped perpetuate this outbreak. The findings...

  14. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  15. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated.

  16. Periodic fevers with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Giulia; Zulian, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    PFAPA syndrome (acronym of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis) is the most common cause of periodic fever in childhood. Nowadays, it is considered part of the wide family of the autoinflammatory diseases, but a genetic or molecular marker hasn't been identified yet, therefore, its etiology is still unknown. Diagnosis is essentially based on clinical criteria but, especially in younger children, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate it from other hereditary periodic fever syndromes. Fever attacks in PFAPA have a spontaneous resolution and in a high rate of patients the syndrome ends spontaneously over time. Treatment is still a matter of debate. Usually a single administration of oral corticosteroids aborts attacks. Tonsillectomy may be an alternative option but its role remains to be clarified.

  17. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): History and Disease Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever) Note: Javascript is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Legionella Home About the Disease Causes, How it Spreads, & ...

  18. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Causes and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever) Note: Javascript is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Legionella Home About the Disease Causes, How it Spreads, & ...

  19. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Signs and Symptoms

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    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever) Note: Javascript is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Legionella Home About the Disease Causes, How it Spreads, & ...

  20. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Treatment and Complications

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    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever) Note: Javascript is ... Please update your bookmarks https://www.cdc.gov/legionella/about/diagnosis.html Legionella Home About the Disease ...

  1. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever) Note: Javascript is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Legionella Home About the Disease Causes, How it Spreads, & ...

  2. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Its Transmission Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryu Candra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease resulting spectrum of clinical manifestations that vary from the lightest, dengue fever, hemorrhagic fever and dengue fever are accompanied by shock or dengue shock syndrome. Its caused by dengue virus, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The case is spread in the tropics, especially in Southeast Asia, Central America, America and the Caribbean, many causes of death in children 90% of them attacking children under 15 years old. Until now pathogenesis is unclear. There are two theories or hypotheses immuno-patogenesis DHF and DSS is still controversial which secondary infections (secondary heterologus infection and antibody-dependent enhancement. Risk factors for dengue transmission are rapid urban population growth, mobilization of the population because of improved transportation facilities and disrupted or weakened so that population control. Another risk factor is poverty which result in people not has the ability to provide a decent home and healthy, drinking water supply and proper waste disposal.

  3. Typhoid fever & vaccine development: a partially answered question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Sandhya A; Lahiri, Amit; Negi, Vidya Devi; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2012-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a systemic disease caused by the human specific Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The extra-intestinal infections caused by Salmonella are very fatal. The incidence of typhoid fever remains very high in impoverished areas and the emergence of multidrug resistance has made the situation worse. To combat and to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by typhoid fever, many preventive measures and strategies have been employed, the most important being vaccination. In recent years, many Salmonella vaccines have been developed including live attenuated as well as DNA vaccines and their clinical trials have shown encouraging results. But with the increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of potent vaccine candidate for typhoid fever is a need of the hour. This review discusses the latest trends in the typhoid vaccine development and the clinical trials which are underway.

  4. [A case of Chikungunya fever in the Primorye Territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, A I; Popov, A F; Sokotun, S A; Sokotun, O A; Petukhova, S A

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze a case of Chikungunya fever imported to Vladivostok. The disease was severe and resulted in disability in a female patient for more than 6 months. There were difficulties in its differential diagnosis with rheumatic diseases.

  5. Determining fever in children: the search for an ideal thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Body temperature measurement is most commonly taken to confirm the presence or absence of fever. Many decisions concerning the investigation and treatment of children are based on the results of temperature measurement alone. Determining the presence of fever in young children is particularly important. A missed fever is serious, but a false-positive fever reading can result in unnecessary septic workups. The axillary, rectal, oral and tympanic membrane sites are most commonly used to record body temperature, and electronic and infrared thermometers are the devices most commonly used. Each site and device has numerous advantages and disadvantages, which are described in this article. The search for the means of measuring body temperature that best combines accuracy, speed, convenience, safety and cost-effectiveness goes on. The infrared thermometer and the tympanic site appear to offer such a combination. Electronic thermometers are also suitable when used orally or at the axilla in newborn babies.

  6. Streptococcal Infections, Rheumatic Fever and School Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Milton

    1979-01-01

    Because rheumatic fever is a potentially serious complication of a streptococcal sore throat which can lead to permanent heart disease, this article advocates the expansion of school health services in medically underserved areas. (JMF)

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or...

  9. Relapsing Fever: Diagnosis Thanks to a Vigilant Hematology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Inbal; Tarabin, Salman; Kafka, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Three cases of relapsing fever from southern Israel were diagnosed promptly thanks to vigilance of the hematology laboratory technicians. In this region of Israel, patients presenting with prolonged fever and leukopenia without localizing symptoms are generally suspected of having brucellosis or a rickettsial disease. Pediatric patients with prolonged fever, cytopenias, and negative aforementioned serologies are often hospitalized for further work-up. Because of the policy of performing a manual blood smear when results of the automated blood count demonstrate severe anemia and abnormal platelet and/or white blood cell counts, a diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever was confirmed and promptly relayed to the physician. This routine prevented unnecessary examinations and hospitalization days and provided important information to regional epidemiology and public health authorities.

  10. Dengue fever presenting as acute liver failure- a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajat Jhamb; Bineeta Kashyap; Ranga GS; Kumar A

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever(DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever(DHF) are important mosquito-borne viral diseases of humans and recognized as important emerging infectious diseases in the tropics and subtropics. Compared to nine reporting countries in the 1950s, today the geographic distribution includes more than100 countries worldwide. Dengue viral infections are known to present a diverse clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic illness to fatal dengue shock syndrome. Mild hepatic dysfunction in dengue haemorrhagic fever is usual. However, its presentation as acute liver failure(ALF)is unusual. We report a patient with dengue shock syndrome who presented with acute liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy in a recent outbreak of dengue fever in Delhi, India.

  11. Abdominal lymphadenopathy:An atypical presentation of enteric fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nayla Ahmed; Zeb I Saeed; Muhammad Tariq

    2012-01-01

    This is a case report of a patient who presented to the Aga Khan University Hospital with generalized abdominal lymphadenopathy and high-grade fever. Due to ambiguous clinical findings, which were suggestive of either abdominal tuberculosis, or a lymphoma, the patient was started on empirical anti-tuberculous treatment due to the endemicity of tuberculosis in this region. The blood culture reports, however, were reported to grow colonies of Salmonellaparatyphi A; thus the diagnosis of the patient was changed to enteric fever, and the patient improved on the subsequently started therapy of ceftriaxone 2 000 mg bid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient suffering from enteric fever whose primary clinical findings were abdominal lymphadenopathy and fever.

  12. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history.

  13. Association of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tümgör

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive,short, acute, self-limiting disease characterized by attacksof fever and polyserositis, which is common in countriesaround the Mediterranean. Inflammatory bowel diseaseis a term used to describe Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’sdisease that associated with chronic idiopathic inflammatory.The patient had FMF but she had been well untilapproximately 20 days before admission, when malaise,fever, abdominal pain, right knee and ankle edema developed.She was taking colchicine. The patient diagnosedas Crohn Disease by endoscopy and histopathology. Thiscase report is presented to emphasize the association oftwo diseases.Key words: Familial Mediterranean Fever, inflammatorybowel disease, Crohn’s disease, childhood

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  16. Neurogenic fever after traumatic brain injury: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, H; Pinto-Martin, J; Bullock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of neurogenic fever (NF) in a population of patients in the acute phase following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); to identify factors associated with the development of NF following severe TBI in adults.

  17. [Acute rheumatic fever in children, a diagnostic problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, J W; Ramaker, C; Wolf, B H M

    2006-05-20

    Three girls of Moroccan descent, aged 9, 10 and 7 years, presented with fever, joint pain and other symptoms. After Streptococcus infection and carditis were confirmed and the Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever were met, the patients were treated with penicillin and acetylsalicylic acid. All 3 patients recovered. However, the second girl presented 2 months later with cardiac decompensation caused by valve disorders, after which aortic and mitral valvuloplasty was performed. The third girl developed joint pain again after 3 weeks and was diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis; treatment was adjusted accordingly. The prevalence of rheumatic heart diseases is 10-20 times higher in developing countries than in industrialised nations. The diagnosis 'acute rheumatic fever' should be considered in children of school age with unexplained fever, also when the Jones criteria have not yet been met. This may apply to migrant children in particular.

  18. Chronic Q fever: An ongoing challenge in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Q fever is a potentially fatal disease. The current difficulty in the diagnosis of this condition is discussed in the present article. A 51-year-old woman with a history of aortic valve replacement presented with complaints of feeling generally unwell, pyrexia and occasional unproductive cough over a period of several weeks. Phase 1 immunoglobulin G titre to Coxiella burnetii was initially detected at a low level (1:320, detected using immunofluorescence and was not considered to be significant according to the modified Duke criteria. Later in the course of her illness, the patient’s antibody titre rose to a high level (1:1280. The issues regarding current laboratory diagnosis and management of Q fever are discussed. Chronic Q fever can be associated with an inadequate serological response. Close follow-up of cases is essential. The recommended serological criteria for the diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis needs to be revisited.

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  20. [African swine fever in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I; Grebennikova, T A; Verkhovskiĭ, O A; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Mur, Lina; Nepoklonov, E A; L'vov, D K

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious viral disease that causes high economic losses due to the necessity of depopulation of pigs in affected areas, sanitary measures, trade restrictions, etc. The virus (ASFV) is relatively stable in the unprocessed meat products and environment. Thus, large areas are at risk due to free movement of people and products. The ASFV does not affect people and animals, except the wild and domestic pigs. Some ticks can become infected and carry the virus for years. Adaptation of the virus by changing into the less virulent form would mean the threat of an endemic situation to the area. The disease is endemic in domestic and wild pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia, Italy. There is no treatment for ASF, and no vaccine has been developed. In case of infection with less virulent ASFV strains, the recovered pigs could spread the virus as long as their live. In terms of clinical symptoms, ASF is very similar to Classical Swine Fever. The methods of laboratory diagnostics are well developed and efficient for identification of ASFV and virus-specific antibodies. Experience of eradication of ASF in Spain suggests the importance of serological monitoring of pigs. In the spring of 2007, the ASF was detected in the Caucasus region. Same virus was detected in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia. The ASFV circulating in the Caucasus and the Russian Federation is a highly virulent virus. No reduction of the virulence was observed since the first outbreak in Georgia. In the last years, the ASF remained in the Caucasus, southern parts of Russia and appeared occasionally as far as St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg region, and in the area of Nizhny Novgorod. Domestic pigs play an important role in the ASFV spread; they transfer the virus to the wild boars. The virus circulates in the population of wild boars depending on their density in the area. Occasionally, the disease is spread from wild to domestic pigs. There is no evidence of

  1. Q Fever in US Military Returning from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    defervesced within 24 ours after starting empiric doxycycline, and his Q fever erology later returned positive. Both soldiers noted goats andering through the... Brucella , Ehrlichia, nd several Rickettsia species. Although it is endemic in Iraq, only 3 cases of Q fever ere reported during the Gulf War (1990-1991).3...most likely associated with the goats in the nvironment. In addition, although rheumatoid factor, ntiphospholipid antibodies, and smooth muscle

  2. Q fever diagnosis and control in domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; Bossers, A; Rebel, J M J

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, a highly infectious agent that can survive in the environment. Therefore, Q fever has a major public health impact when outbreaks occur. Small ruminants are identified as the source in the majority of outbreaks in humans. Accurate diagnosis and effective control strategies are necessary to limit the zoonotic and veterinary impact of Q fever. For this, knowledge of the pathogenesis of Q fever and excretion routes of C. burnetii from infected animals is crucial. Abortions as well as normal parturitions in infected small ruminants are the most important excretion routes of C. burnetii. Excretion of C. burnetii via faeces and vaginal mucus has also been suggested. However, contamination of these samples by bacteria present in the environment may influence the results. This hampers the accurate identification of infected animals by these samples; however, the detection of C. burnetii in milk samples seems not to be influenced by environmental contamination. Q fever in animals can be detected by direct (immunohistochemistry and PCR) and indirect (complement fixation test (CFT), enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) methods. A combination of both direct and indirect methods is recommended in current protocols to detect Q fever on herd level. For the control of Q fever in domestic animals, vaccination with a phase 1 C. burnetii whole cell inactivated vaccine is reported to be effective in preventing abortion and reducing bacterial shedding, especially after several years of administration. Vaccination might not be effective in already infected animals nor in pregnant animals. Furthermore, the complicated vaccine production process, requiring biosafety level 3 facilities, could hamper vaccine availability. Future challenges include the development of improved, easier to produce Q fever vaccines.

  3. Fever of undetermined etiology after cleaning of steam turbine condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, D C; Gilliam, D K

    1977-01-01

    Two outbreaks of a febrile syndrome marked by chills, headaches, myalgia, nausea, and malaise occurred in workers who had cleaned the steam condensers of electric power turbines. Mean incubation period was 38 hours. Twenty-two of twenty-three exposed men became ill. Clinical and environmental investigation failed to reveal the etiology of the outbreaks. The circumstances and clinical syndrome have points of similarity to fever following inhalation of metal fumes and low-grade, stained cotton dust, and to Pontiac fever.

  4. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) due to Legionnaire's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sigridh; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-01-01

    Fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) may be due to any of over 200 different disorders. We present a most unusual case of an FUO in a returning traveler from the Dominican Republic. Work-up for Q fever, Brucellosis, Bartonella, malaria and HIV were negative, but very highly elevated ESRs and ferritin levels suggested possible Legionnaire's disease. This is the third reported case of Legionnaire's disease presenting as an FUO.

  5. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TOSV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV), and Punta Toro virus (Tesh 1988, Alkan et al. 2013). These viruses pose a...SFFVA against arthropod- borne phleboviruses that are not members of the SF virus group (Heartland viruses ) or are members of the SF virus group but not...less virus in wild infected flies. The proprietary grinding solution provided with the kit will inactivate most arbo- viruses , preventing them

  6. An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Tariq; Latif, Hina; Shabbir, Bilquis

    2014-07-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile viral disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical areas including South East Asia and Pakistan. In the past few years, dengue fever has been endemic in Northern Punjab. Physicians managing dengue fever come across varied and uncommon complications of dengue fever. We report a case of dengue fever that developed severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain and induration after extreme retching and vomiting for 2 days. A rectus sheath hematoma was confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Rectus sheath hematoma as a complication of dengue fever has rarely been reported before and never from this part of the world. Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric artery or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle. It can mimic almost any abdominal condition (See Fig.) (See Table).

  7. Meteorological factors and dengue fever transmission in South Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    The variations in meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in weekly basis in south Taiwan. Several extreme and average index of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study applies the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to reveal the significant meteorological variables and their temporal lag effects to the dengue fever epidemic by analyzing the dengue fever records from 1998-2011. Results show that the weekly minimum temperature (minT) and 1-hr maximum rainfall (maxR) are significantly important to the dengue fever spread. Among them, once minT is higher than 20°C, the relative risk of dengue fever of nine-fourteen week later will be significantly elevated. On the other hand, the incidences of maxR higher than 80mm can also increase the relative risk of dengue fever occurrences around nine-fourteen weeks afterwards.

  8. A Case of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Pejman; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Ahmadi, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Background. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition where there is a dense infiltration of eosinophils typically exceeding fifteen cells per high power field. Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brief, acute, and self-limited episodes of fever and polyserositis that recur at irregular intervals. Case Presentation. A three-year-and-nine-month-old Iranian girl was admitted to our center. The patient's parents complained of a history of abdominal pain, poor appetite, and poor weight gain from 1.5 years ago and episodes of food impaction after starting solid foods. Eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed based on histology. Because of continuing abdominal pain after treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, the episodic nature of disease, and the presence of fever with pain, screening for familial Mediterranean fever mutation was performed and the patient was found to be heterozygote for Mediterranean fever. Conclusion. We have reported a case of eosinophilic esophagitis coexisting with familial Mediterranean fever which has not been described previously. PMID:28255474

  9. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  10. Mathematical modeling of Chikungunya fever control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Chikungunya fever is a global concern due to the occurrence of large outbreaks, the presence of persistent arthropathy and its rapid expansion throughout various continents. Globalization and climate change have contributed to the expansion of the geographical areas where mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia) remain. It is necessary to improve the techniques of vector control in the presence of large outbreaks in The American Region. We derive measures of disease control, using a mathematical model of mosquito-human interaction, by means of three scenarios: a) a single vector b) two vectors, c) two vectors and human and non-human reservoirs. The basic reproductive number and critical control measures were deduced by using computer algebra with Maple (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada). Control measures were simulated with parameter values obtained from published data. According to the number of households in high risk areas, the goals of effective vector control to reduce the likelihood of mosquito-human transmission would be established. Besides the two vectors, if presence of other non-human reservoirs were reported, the monthly target of effective elimination of the vector would be approximately double compared to the presence of a single vector. The model shows the need to periodically evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures.

  11. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapetis, Jonathan R; Beaton, Andrea; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Guilherme, Luiza; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Mayosi, Bongani M; Sable, Craig; Steer, Andrew; Wilson, Nigel; Wyber, Rosemary; Zühlke, Liesl

    2016-01-14

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is the result of an autoimmune response to pharyngitis caused by infection with group A Streptococcus. The long-term damage to cardiac valves caused by ARF, which can result from a single severe episode or from multiple recurrent episodes of the illness, is known as rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor settings around the world. Although our understanding of disease pathogenesis has advanced in recent years, this has not led to dramatic improvements in diagnostic approaches, which are still reliant on clinical features using the Jones Criteria, or treatment practices. Indeed, penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for decades and there is no other treatment that has been proven to alter the likelihood or the severity of RHD after an episode of ARF. Recent advances - including the use of echocardiographic diagnosis in those with ARF and in screening for early detection of RHD, progress in developing group A streptococcal vaccines and an increased focus on the lived experience of those with RHD and the need to improve quality of life - give cause for optimism that progress will be made in coming years against this neglected disease that affects populations around the world, but is a particular issue for those living in poverty.

  12. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledovic, Z B; Jeknic, A S; Grgurevic, A D; Rakocevic, B B; Bozovic, B R; Mugosa, B V

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the epidemiological features of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Montenegro. The study included 169 cases of HFRS diagnosed in the period between 1995 and 2005 according to the clinical symptoms and serological confirmation. For the analysis of the demographic characteristics of the cases, as well as of the chronological and topographical features of the disease, a descriptive epidemiological method was employed. The average incidence rate in the observed period was 2.6 per 100,000. In the observed period, 8 people died; the average case fatality rate was 4.8% (range: 0.1-15%). Among the diseased persons, 116 were males and 53 were females; most of the cases were adults. The greatest number of HFRS cases occurred during the summer months. The highest incidence rates were registered in the northeastern, rural part of the country. The most frequent type of hantaviruses in Montenegro were Dobrava-Belgrade and Hantaan, carried by rodent species, i.e., the yellow-neck mouse and the striped-field mouse. It is likely that HFRS in Montenegro will become more common in the near future, unless public health control measures are taken.

  13. Hantavirus Fever without Pulmonary Syndrome in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions. PMID:23836565

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serkan (O)ncü

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral infection that is a serious threat to humans.The disease is widely distributed in Africa,Asia,and Europe and has developed into a serious public health concern.Humans become infected through the bites of ticks,by contact with a patient with CCHF,or by contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock.Microvascular instability and impaired hemostasis are the hallmarks of the infection.Infection in human begins with nonspecific febrile symptoms,but may progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with high mortality rates.Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the most used and specific tests for the diagnosis.The mainstay of treatment is supportive.Although definitive studies are not available,ribavirin is suggested to be effective especially at the earlier phase of the infection.Uses of universal protective measures are the best way to avoid the infection.In this review,all aspects of CCHF are overviewed in light of the current literature.

  15. Towards a Vaccine Against Rheumatic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guilherme

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic fever (RF is an autoimmune disease which affects more than 20 million children in developing countries. It is triggered by Streptococcus pyogenes throat infection in untreated susceptible individuals. Carditis, the most serious manifestation of the disease, leads to severe and permanent valvular lesions, causing chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD. We have been studying the mechanisms leading to pathological autoimmunity in RF/RHD for the last 15 years. Our studies allowed us a better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of RHD, paving the way for the development of a safe vaccine for a post-infection autoimmune disease. We have focused on the search for protective T and B cell epitopes by testing 620 human blood samples against overlapping peptides spanning 99 residues of the C-terminal portion of the M protein, differing by one amino acid residue. We identified T and B cell epitopes with 22 and 25 amino acid residues, respectively. Although these epitopes were from different regions of the C-terminal portion of the M protein, they showed an identical core of 16 amino acid residues. Antibodies against the B cell epitope inhibited bacterial invasion/adhesion in vitro. Our results strongly indicated that the selected T and B cell epitopes could potentially be protective against S. pyogenes.

  16. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  17. Encapsulating peritonitis and familial Mediterranean fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Resat Dabak; Oya Uygur-Bayrami(c)li; Didem K1l1(c) Ayd1n; Can Dolap(c)1oglu; Cengiz Gemici; Turgay Erginel; Cem Turan; Nimet Karaday1

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between encapsulating peritonitis and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed one year ago for cholelithiasis. Eleven months after the operation she developed massive ascites. Biochemical evaluation revealed hyperglycemia, mild Fe deficiency anemia, hypoalbuminemia and a CA-125 level of 2 700 IU. Ascitic evaluation showed characteristics of exudation with a cell count of 580/mm3. Abdominal CT showed omental thickening and massive ascites. At exploratory laparotomy there was generalized thickening of the peritoneum and a laparoscopic clip encapsulated by fibrous tissue was found adherent to the uterus. Biopsies were negative for malignancy and a prophilactic total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy were performed. RESULTS: The histopathological evaluation was compatible with chronic nonspecific findings and mild mesothelial proliferation and chronic inflammation at the uterine serosa and liver biopsy showed inactive cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: The patient was evaluated as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis induced by the laparoscopic clip acting as a foreign body. Due to the fact that the patient had FMF the immune response was probably exaggerated.

  18. Clinical Genetic Testing of Periodic Fever Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marcuzzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic fever syndromes (PFSs are a wide group of autoinflammatory diseases. Due to some clinical overlap between different PFSs, differential diagnosis can be a difficult challenge. Nowadays, there are no universally agreed recommendations for most PFSs, and near half of patients may remain without a genetic diagnosis even after performing multiple-gene analyses. Molecular analysis of periodic fevers’ causative genes can improve patient quality of life by providing early and accurate diagnosis and allowing the administration of appropriate treatment. In this paper we focus our discussion on effective usefulness of genetic diagnosis of PFSs. The aim of this paper is to establish how much can the diagnostic system improve, in order to increase the success of PFS diagnosis. The mayor expectation in the near future will be addressed to the so-called next generation sequencing approach. Although the application of bioinformatics to high-throughput genetic analysis could allow the identification of complex genotypes, the complexity of this definition will hardly result in a clear contribution for the physician. In our opinion, however, to obtain the best from this new development a rule should always be kept well in mind: use genetics only to answer specific clinical questions.

  19. A Patient with Microcytic Anemia and Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Bhatia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old man with a history of mechanical aortic valve insertion and ascending aorta replacement in 1997 presented to his family doctor in August 2004 with a two-week history of melena after recently returning from a six-month vacation in Mexico. The patient had no other abdominal complaints. He took warfarin but did not take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetylsalicylic acid or alcohol. The patient had no history of liver or peptic ulcer disease. He had lost 7 kg over the past month, but did not complain of fever or night sweats. On physical examination, vital signs were normal, the second heart sound was mechanical, and there were no abnormal findings. Laboratory investigations showed a borderline microcytic anemia (hemoglobin 76 g/L; mean corpuscular volume 79 fL; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 323 g/L, a therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.6 and an elevated creatinine level (112 µmol/L. His stool was positive for occult blood, although the ferritin level was high (623 µg/L. Other routine blood work was normal. The patient was admitted to hospital for investigation of the anemia.

  20. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2013-10-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country's 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease.

  1. The 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: characteristics of notified acute Q fever patients and the association with dairy goat farming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.; Hoek, W. van der; Wijers, N.; Schimmer, B.; Rietveld, A.; Wijkmans, C.J.; Vellema, P.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands with emphasis on the epidemiological characteristics of acute Q fever patients and the association with veterinary factors. Data from 3264 notifications for acute Q fever in the period from 2007 through 2009 were analysed. The patients most affecte

  2. Eagles at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memo is a letter from Frederick Schmid of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to the Regional Director of Region 4 in Atlanta, Georgia. The author describes his...

  3. [Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers--pathogens, epidemiology and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are severe, systemic viral diseases affecting humans and non-human primates. They are characterized by multiple symptoms such as hemorrhages, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, chills, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Elevated liver-associated enzyme levels and coagulopathy are also associated with these diseases. Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are caused by (Lake victoria) Marburg virus and different species of Ebola viruses, respectively. They are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family of filoviridae. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, ranging from 25 to 90% or more. Outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fever occur in certain regions of equatorial Africa at irregular intervals. Since 2000, the number of outbreaks has increased. In 2014, the biggest outbreak of a filovirus-induced hemorrhagic fever that has been documented so far occurred from March to July 2014 in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. The outbreak was caused by a new variant of Zaire Ebola-Virus, affected more than 2600 people (stated 20 August) and was associated with case-fatality rates of up to 67% (Guinea). Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers is symptomatic and supportive, licensed antiviral agents are currently not available. Recently, BCX4430, a promising synthetic adenosine analogue with high in vitro and in vivo activity against filoviruses and other RNA viruses, has been described. BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase activity and protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. Nucleic acid-based products, recombinant vaccines and antibodies appear to be less suitable for the treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers.

  4. T cell responses and dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screaton, Gavin; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip

    2006-01-01

    The enhancement of severe disease upon secondary infection makes dengue almost unique among infectious pathogens and presents a serious challenge to vaccine design. Several key observations have been made which shed light onto this phenomenon particularly that antibodies can enhance Fc receptor-dependent uptake of virus into macrophages thereby increasing virus replication. Furthermore there seems to be a relationship between the peak virus load and disease severity. However, a second key feature of dengue is that the life-threatening symptoms do not correlate with the period of high viraemia; instead they occur at a time when the virus load is in steep decline. The coincidence of severe disease manifestations with defervescence and virus control suggests that the symptoms may be a consequence of the immune response to the virus rather than virus induced cytopathology. One of the key elements in the immune response to viruses are T cells which can both secrete a host of inflammatory cytokines and also be directly cytotoxic to infected cells. There are a number of experimental models of T cell-induced immunopathology including in responses to viruses. Particularly interesting in this respect are models of RSV-induced immunopathology, which have direct relevance to vaccine design as a formalin-inactivated vaccine to RSV actually enhanced disease in children when they became naturally infected with RSV, an echo of the disease enhancement seen in dengue. We will present an analysis of CD8+ T cell responses to a number of novel T cell epitopes during dengue infection and also analyse the function and cytokine secretion of these cells. We suggest that an exaggerated and partially misdirected T cell response seen in secondary dengue infection may be part of the complex series of events leading to dengue haemorrhagic fever and shock.

  5. Is fever a predictive factor in the autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megremi, Amalia S F

    2013-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display such a marked increase in recent decades that researchers speak of "epidemic outbreak" of the disease. Although the diagnostic framework has been expanded and thus more disorders now fall within the autistic spectrum, no one disputes the increased incidence of autism in modern societies, making it a major public health problem. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a major feature of the disorder, both in terms of the etiopathogenesis as well as to the phenotypic expression, natural history and evolution. Consequently, there is considerable research interest in determining factors which are etiopathogenetically, prognostically, preventively or/and therapeutically associated with the disorder. Literature data indicate that probably there are differences in susceptibility to various infections between normal and autistic children. In addition, some autistic children show improvement in the characteristics of their autistic behavior during febrile incident and repression of fever (through antipyretics) might be associated with the onset of autistic disorder. Since fever has been associated with mental illness since the time of Hippocrates already and the presence of fever is associated with a favorable outcome in various pathologic conditions, it is assumed that there are probably two subgroups of autistic children: those who have the possibility to develop acute febrile incidents and those who develop acute incidents without fever. If this is the case, it is important to know whether there are differences between the two subgroups in various biological markers (cytokines/chemokines, autoantibodies), neuroimaging findings, personal and family history of these children (use of drugs, vaccinations, history of autoimmunity, etc.) and, if the first subgroup consists of autistic people of higher functionality and better outcome, or not. If such a classification is real, is there a possibility for the fever to be used as a predictor of

  6. [Two cases of acute hepatitis associated with Q fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Murat; Kılıç, Selçuk; Gürsoy, Bensu; Celebi, Bekir; Yerer, Mehmet

    2012-07-01

    Q fever which is caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a worldwide zoonosis. Many species of wild and domestic mammals, birds, and arthropods, are reservoirs of C.burnetii in nature, however farm animals are the most frequent sources of human infection. The most frequent way of transmission is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The clinical presentation of Q fever is polymorphic and nonspecific. Q fever may present as acute or chronic disease. In acute cases, the most common clinical syndromes are selflimited febrile illness, granulomatous hepatitis, and pneumonia, but it can also be asymptomatic. Fever with hepatitis associated with Q fever has rarely been described in the literature. Herein we report two cases of C.burnetii hepatitis presented with jaundice. In May 2011, two male cases, who inhabited in Malkara village of Tekirdag province (located at Trace region of Turkey), were admitted to the hospital with the complaints of persistent high grade fever, chills and sweats, icterus, disseminated myalgia and headache. Physical examination revealed fever, icterus and the patient appeared to be mildly ill but had no localizing signs of infection. Radiological findings of the patients were in normal limits. Laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis, increased hepatic and cholestatic enzyme levels, and moderate hyperbilirubinemia- mainly direct bilirubin, whereas serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were found normal. Blood and urine cultures of the patients yielded no bacterial growth. Serological markers for acute viral hepatitis, citomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections, brucellosis, salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis were found negative. Acute Q fever diagnosis of the cases were based on the positive results obtained by C.burnetii Phase II IgM and IgG ELISA (Vircell SL, Spain) test, and the serological diagnosis were confirmed by Phase I and II immunofluorescence (Vircell SL, Spain) method. Both cases were treated with

  7. Fever control and its impact on outcomes: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyagari, Venkatesh; Diringer, Michael N

    2007-10-15

    Fever is common in a variety of neurological disorders. There is abundant experimental evidence suggesting that fever leads to, or exacerbates, neuronal injury in conditions such as cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. However, conclusive evidence linking control of fever to improved outcomes is lacking. It has been difficult to design studies looking at the impact of fever control on outcome, in part because traditional methods of fever control are ineffective. Recently, several new devices to control temperature have become available. These devices appear to be more effective than conventional means and might allow us to design studies that definitively answer the question: "Does controlling fever improve outcome?"

  8. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. [Radboud University Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Draaisma, Jos M.T. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in children with FUO and in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. All FDG-PET/(CT) scans performed in the Radboud university medical center for the evaluation of FUO or unexplained fever during immune suppression in the last 10 years were reviewed. Results were compared with the final clinical diagnosis. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 31 children with FUO. A final diagnosis was established in 16 cases (52 %). Of the total number of scans, 32 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in these patients was 80 % and 78 %, respectively. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 12 children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. A final diagnosis was established in nine patients (75 %). Of the total number of these scans, 58 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression was 78 % and 67 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT appears a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of children with FUO and in the diagnostic process of children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. Prospective studies of FDG-PET/CT as part of a structured diagnostic protocol are warranted to assess the additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

  9. [Dengue fever--not just a tropical infectious disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, i. e., A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Other species are rarely involved. The disease is caused by dengue virus, an enveloped RNA virus which belongs to the family of flaviviridae. Although most infections are asymptomatic, in 20 to 30 percentages all cases infections are accompanied with high fever and other influenza-like signs of illness. Serious medical conditions with lethal complications also occur. During the last decades, the incidence of dengue fever rose sharply in many tropical and subtropical countries. In some of these regions, dengue is one of the leading causes of death in children. In Europe, since a few years a strong clustering of dengue fever cases has been registered in travelers returning from certain tropical or subtropical regions. Recently, autochthonous outbreaks have been observed on the Atlantic island of Madeira and in a few other regions of South Europe. Treatment of dengue fever is supportive and symptomatic, a specific therapy does not exist. For prevention of disease, vector control is of crucial importance.

  10. Status of paratyphoid fever vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura B; Simon, Raphael; MacLennan, Calman A; Tennant, Sharon M; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) A and B cause enteric fever in humans. Of the paratyphoid group, S. Paratyphi A is the most common serovar. In 2000, there were an estimated 5.4 million cases of S. Paratyphi A worldwide. More recently paratyphoid fever has accounted for an increasing fraction of all cases of enteric fever. Although vaccines for typhoid fever have been developed and in use for decades, vaccines for paratyphoid fever have not yet been licensed. Several S. Paratyphi A vaccines, however, are in development and based on either whole cell live-attenuated strains or repeating units of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen (O:2) conjugated to different protein carriers. An O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A conjugated to tetanus toxoid (O:2-TT), for example, has been determined to be safe and immunogenic after one dose in Phase I and Phase II trials. Two other conjugated vaccine candidates linked to diphtheria toxin and a live-attenuated oral vaccine candidate are currently in preclinical development. As promising vaccine candidates are advanced along the development pipeline, an adequate supply of vaccines will need to be ensured to meet growing demand, particularly in the most affected countries.

  11. Nested polymerase chain reaction for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Alam, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Kabir, M R; Haque, N; Yesmin, T; Kayes, M T; Maruf, A A; Kobayashi, N

    2012-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of S. typhi is essential for early diagnosis. This was a study to prospectively evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the S. typhi using flagellin gene related primers. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July, 2010 and June, 2011, including 82 individuals of different age and sex. Of them, 62 were clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever and remaining 20 were apparently healthy controls. Cultures as well as PCR of blood specimens were performed for each of the cases. Among the 62 suspected typhoid fever cases, 8(12.9%) were blood culture positive and 55(88.7%) were PCR positive for S. typhi. All culture positive cases were positive by PCR and among 54 culture negative cases, 47(87%) were positive by PCR. Neither of the healthy controls was positive by PCR or blood culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR using blood culture as gold standard were 88.7%, 100%, 100% and 74% respectively for typhoid fever. In this study, the PCR appears highly specific, very sensitive and superior to blood culture for the early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  12. Simultaneous Onset of Chickenpox and Scarlet Fever: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chickenpox is a contagious febrile illness with rash that is caused by varicella zoster virus. Most children up to age 15 are infected with the virus. Scarlet fever is caused by erythrogenic toxin of streptococcus group A and usually causes skin reactions such as fine red and often itchy papules on the trunk and extremities as well as skin redness, especially on the groin and forearm. Case: Patient is a 3-year-old girl that two days after chickenpox while she had active lesions of the chickenpox, was infected with scarlet fever. Skin lesions at different stages along with the clinical symptoms confirmed the diagnosis of chickenpox. Chickenpox is a febrile illness, more contagious and associated with the rash, which rarely has been reported with scarlet fever. Macular lesions spreading all over the body especially the trunk, with strawberry red tongue and exudative lesions of tonsils with good response to penicillin confirmed the complication of scarlet fever following chickenpox. Rarely scarlet fever is a complication of chickenpox and symptoms of both conditions may be seen simultaneously. Considering that diagnosis of both diseases are based on clinical findings, so physicians should start the appropriate treatment if they have clinical suspicion.

  13. Once weekly azithromycin in secondary prevention of rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Rakesh; Harikrishnan, S; Sivasankaran, S; Ajithkumar, V K; Titus, T; Tharakan, J M

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are still important problems in developing countries. Secondary prophylaxis which is the most cost-effective method in preventing recurrences of rheumatic fever is fraught with problems of drug compliance. The utility of 500 mg once weekly azithromycin (AZT), an orally effective long-acting antibiotic was evaluated against oral penicillin (phenoxy methyl penicillin 250 mg twice daily) in this study. Forty-eight consecutive patients (44% males, mean age 29.4 years) with established RHD were randomised into two groups-26 patients received AZT and 22 received oral penicillin. Patients were evaluated at randomisation, at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, clinically, serologically and by throat swab culture. End points were absence of streptococcal colonisation, infection or fever at the end of 6 months. During the study, 4 patients (15.4%) in the AZT group developed sore throat and fever, had positive throat culture and positive serology indicating streptococcal infection. None satisfied the criteria for rheumatic fever reactivation. None in the oral penicillin group developed streptococcal infection. In conclusion, weekly 500 mg of AZT is not effective in the prevention of streptococcal throat infection compared to oral penicillin therapy in adult patients with established RHD.

  14. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  15. Poverty and fever vulnerability in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Oyindamola B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa, where widespread poverty also contribute to the burden of the disease. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of childhood fever and socioeconomic factors including poverty in Nigeria, and to examine these effects at the regional levels. Methods Determinants of fever in the last two weeks among children under five years were examined from the 25004 children records extracted from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data set. A two-level random effects logistic model was fitted. Results About 16% of children reported having fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. The prevalence of fever was highest among children from the poorest households (17%, compared to 15.8% among the middle households and lowest among the wealthiest (13% (p6months, whereas the effect of wealth no longer reached statistical significance. Conclusion While, overall bednet possession was low, less fever was reported in households that possessed bednets. Malaria control strategies and interventions should be designed that will target the poor and make an impact on poverty. The mechanism through which wealth may affect malaria occurrence needs further investigation.

  16. Dengue encephalitis-A rare manifestation of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Madi; Basavaprabhu Achappa; John T Ramapuram; Nityananda Chowta; Mridula Laxman; Soundarya Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of dengue fever ranges from asymptomatic infection to dengue shock syndrome. Dengue is classically considered a non-neurotropic virus. Neurological complications are not commonly seen in dengue. The neurological manifestations seen in dengue are encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy, stroke and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dengue encephalitis is a rare disease. We report an interesting case of dengue encephalitis from Southern India. A 49-year-old gentleman presented with fever, altered sensorium and seizures. Dengue NS-1 antigen test was reactive. Dengue IgM was also positive. CSF PCR was negative for herpes simplex 1 & 2. Dengue encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever with altered sensorium, especially in countries like India where dengue is rampant.

  17. Host genetic diversity enables Ebola hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Angela L; Okumura, Atsushi; Ferris, Martin T; Green, Richard; Feldmann, Friederike; Kelly, Sara M; Scott, Dana P; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; LaCasse, Rachel; Thomas, Matthew J; Sova, Pavel; Carter, Victoria S; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Miller, Darla R; Shaw, Ginger D; Korth, Marcus J; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G

    2014-11-21

    Existing mouse models of lethal Ebola virus infection do not reproduce hallmark symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, neither delayed blood coagulation and disseminated intravascular coagulation nor death from shock, thus restricting pathogenesis studies to nonhuman primates. Here we show that mice from the Collaborative Cross panel of recombinant inbred mice exhibit distinct disease phenotypes after mouse-adapted Ebola virus infection. Phenotypes range from complete resistance to lethal disease to severe hemorrhagic fever characterized by prolonged coagulation times and 100% mortality. Inflammatory signaling was associated with vascular permeability and endothelial activation, and resistance to lethal infection arose by induction of lymphocyte differentiation and cellular adhesion, probably mediated by the susceptibility allele Tek. These data indicate that genetic background determines susceptibility to Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

  18. Serological Evidence Of Seasonal Variation Of Enteric Fevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damle A S

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to find out seasonal variation of enteric fever in this rural part of Maharastra. Diagnostic rise in antibodies against Salmonellae and clinical correlation was used to label the febrile cases as enteric fever cases over a period of six years. 4042 Samples were tested by Nidal reaction for rise in anti Salmonella antibodies. Of these 1236 (30% showed significant (diagnostic rise in antibody levels. Season wise study of these cases over the six years indicates that maximum number of enteric fever cases occur in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chi-square test has been applied to find out statistical significance of these findings.

  19. Fever during pregnancy and motor development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine how fever during pregnancy is associated with motor development in the child. METHOD: This cohort study was based on data from females and their children, from the Danish National Birth Cohort, who took part in an 18-month and/or 7-year follow-up study....... Information regarding fever (number of episodes, temperature, duration, and pregnancy week) was obtained around gestation week 12 and at the end of pregnancy. Assessments of motor development in early childhood were based on the ages at which the motor milestones 'sitting unsupported' (n=44,256) and 'walking...... unassisted' (n=53,959) were attained. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07) was used to identify children with indication of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at age 7 years (n=29,401). Any associations between the exposure to fever during pregnancy and motor...

  20. [The nitroblue tetrazolium test in scarlet fever (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, I; Weippl, G

    1975-04-18

    The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test was originally used to diagnose chronic granulomatous disease in childhood. Now it is applied in the diagnosis of acute bacterial infectious diseases, too. The NBT reduction of neutrophils was tested in 27 children with scarlet fever using the modified technique described by K i m et al. The tests were performed in 24 patients between the second and fourth day of illness, before starting antibiotic treatment. In accordance with the results obtained by Humbert et al. in a series of patients with various infectious diseases, 83% of the investigated children showed NBT values of between 41% and 95% (mean value 72%). The percentage of NBT-positive cells was likewise raised in cases of recurrent scarlet fever. Children with scarlet fever complications had highly elevated NBT-reduction values. The control group, consisting of children without infectious diseases, showed values of between 28% and 66% (mean value 33%).

  1. Kikuchi's Disease: A Rare Cause of Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal-ud-din, Mir; Noor, Muhammad Munir; Ali, Shadab; Ali, Rashid

    2015-04-01

    Kikuchi Fujimoto Disease (KFD) or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis can present with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy. It is often mistaken for more serious conditions like malignant lymphoma or tuberculosis. First case was described by Kikuchi in Japan, very few cases have been reported in Pakistan. A middle aged female presented with fever and body aches for one month. She was investigated extensively for pyrexia of unknown origin, all of which came out to be normal except a raised ESR. Anti-tuberculous drugs were started on clinical suspicion, with no improvement after a month. Later, a detailed physical examination revealed cervical lymphadenopathy. One of the lymph nodes was excised and biopsied. The histopathology suggested Kikuchi's disease. Oral Prednisolone was started showing improvement. Her fever subsided and lymph nodes disappeared at the follow-up visit. No relapse was encountered in the subsequent visits.

  2. Revisiting the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever and carditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajendra; Sharma, Meenakshi; Chandrashekhar, Y; Kotb, Malak; Yacoub, Magdi H; Narula, Jagat

    2013-03-01

    Rheumatic fever is one of the most-neglected ailments, and its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The major thrust of research has been directed towards cross-reactivity between streptococcal M protein and myocardial α-helical coiled-coil proteins. M protein has also been the focus of vaccine development. The characteristic pathological findings suggest that the primary site of rheumatic-fever-related damage is subendothelial and perivascular connective tissue matrix and overlying endothelium. Over the past 5 years, a streptococcal M protein N-terminus domain has been shown to bind to the CB3 region in collagen type IV. This binding seems to initiate an antibody response to the collagen and result in ground substance inflammation. These antibodies do not cross-react with M proteins, and we believe that no failure of immune system and, possibly, no molecular mimicry occur in rheumatic fever. This alternative hypothesis shares similarity with collagen involvement in both Goodpasture syndrome and Alport syndrome.

  3. Acute Rheumatic Fever: Global Persistence of a Preventable Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono-Neri, Francine

    2016-10-21

    The persistence of acute rheumatic fever continues to be seen globally. Once thought to be eradicated in various parts of the world, the disease came back with a vengeance secondary to a lack of diligence on the part of providers. Today, the global burden of group A streptococcal infection, the culprit of the numerous sequelae manifested in acute rheumatic fever, is considerable. Although a completely preventable disease, rheumatic fever continues to exist. It is a devastating disease that involves long-term, multisystem treatment and monitoring for patients who were unsuccessful at eradicating the precipitating group A streptococcal infection. Prevention is the key to resolving the dilemma of the disease's global burden, yet the method to yield its prevention still remains unknown. Thus, meticulous attention to implementing proper treatment is the mainstay and remains a top priority.

  4. A Case of Pediatric Q Fever Osteomyelitis Managed Without Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Sparks, Rebecca T; Marais, Ben J

    2015-12-01

    Q fever osteomyelitis, caused by infection with Coxiella burnetti, is rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of children with culture-negative osteomyelitis, particularly if there is a history of contact with farm animals, and/or granulomatous change on histologic examination of a bone biopsy specimen. We describe a case of Q fever osteomyelitis in a 6-year-old boy in which a decision was made not to treat the patient with combination antimicrobial agents, balancing possible risks of recurrence against potential side effects of prolonged antibiotic treatment. The patient had undergone surgical debridement of a single lesion and was completely asymptomatic after recovery from surgery. This case suggests that a conservative approach of watchful waiting in an asymptomatic patient with chronic Q fever osteomyelitis may be warranted in select cases when close follow-up is possible.

  5. Q Fever in Dogs: An Emerging Infectious Disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rezaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is an important widespread reemerging zoonosis. The presence of Coxiellaburnetii in 100 tick-infested dogs was assessed in this study.Methods: The blood samples from 100 referred dogs were acquired and evaluated by nested-PCR.Results: C. burnetii was detected in 11 out of 100 (11% blood samples. Most of the positive dogswere kept outdoor and fed on raw diet. Based on our findings, Q fever should be considered as anemerging disease in dogs in Iran; so, zoonotic importance of this population must be notified. To betterunderstanding the role and pathogenic importance of dogs in Q fever outbreak and to determine whetherthis organism can be transmitted directly from dogs to human further in-depth studies are necessary.Conclusion: It is determined that C. burnetii is present in dogs in southeast of Iran and people who arein contact with this population, especially asymptomatic ones are at increased risk of infection.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards spotted fever group rickettsioses and Q fever in Laikipia and Maasai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ndeereh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many factors contribute to misdiagnosis and underreporting of infectious zoonotic diseases in most sub-Saharan Africa including limited diagnostic capacity and poor knowledge. We assessed the knowledge, practices and attitudes towards spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR and Q fever amongst local residents in Laikipia and Maasai Mara in Kenya. A semistructured questionnaire was administered to a total of 101 respondents including 51 pastoralists, 17 human health providers, 28 wildlife sector personnel and 5 veterinarians. The pastoralists expressed no knowledge about SFGR and Q fever. About 26.7% of the wildlife sector personnel in Laikipia expressed some knowledge about SFGR and none in Maasai Mara. None of these respondents had knowledge about Q fever. About 45.5 and 33.3% of the health providers in Laikipia and Maasai Mara respectively expressed knowledge about SFGR and 9.1% in Laikipia expressed good knowledge on Q fever and none in Maasai Mara. The diseases are not considered amongst potential causes of febrile illnesses in most medical facilities except in one facility in Laikipia. Majority of pastoralists practiced at least one predisposing activity for transmission of the diseases including consumption of raw milk, attending to parturition and sharing living accommodations with livestock. Education efforts to update knowledge on medical personnel and One-Health collaborations should be undertaken for more effective mitigation of zoonotic disease threats. The local communities should be sensitized through a multidisciplinary approach to avoid practices that can predispose them to the diseases.

  7. Geriatric Fever Score: a new decision rule for geriatric care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsien Chung

    Full Text Available Evaluating geriatric patients with fever is time-consuming and challenging. We investigated independent mortality predictors of geriatric patients with fever and developed a prediction rule for emergency care, critical care, and geriatric care physicians to classify patients into mortality risk and disposition groups.Consecutive geriatric patients (≥65 years old visiting the emergency department (ED of a university-affiliated medical center between June 1 and July 21, 2010, were enrolled when they met the criteria of fever: a tympanic temperature ≥37.2°C or a baseline temperature elevated ≥1.3°C. Thirty-day mortality was the primary endpoint. Internal validation with bootstrap re-sampling was done.Three hundred thirty geriatric patients were enrolled. We found three independent mortality predictors: Leukocytosis (WBC >12,000 cells/mm3, Severe coma (GCS ≤ 8, and Thrombocytopenia (platelets <150 10(3/mm3 (LST. After assigning weights to each predictor, we developed a Geriatric Fever Score that stratifies patients into two mortality-risk and disposition groups: low (4.0% (95% CI: 2.3-6.9%: a general ward or treatment in the ED then discharge and high (30.3% (95% CI: 17.4-47.3%: consider the intensive care unit. The area under the curve for the rule was 0.73.We found that the Geriatric Fever Score is a simple and rapid rule for predicting 30-day mortality and classifying mortality risk and disposition in geriatric patients with fever, although external validation should be performed to confirm its usefulness in other clinical settings. It might help preserve medical resources for patients in greater need.

  8. Clinico-epidemiologicalfeatures of dengue fever in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.

  9. Transient cutaneous hyperpigmentation of extremities following dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikiran Aroor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 14 year old boy presented with fever and generalized flushing of skin of 1 week duration. His vital signs were normal. Examination revealed generalized blanching macular erythematous rash. Systemic examination was unremarkable except for tender hepatomegaly. Investigations revealed leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and normal hemoglobin with mildly elevated liver transaminases. NS 1 (Non-structural protein-1 antigen and IgM antibody titer for Dengue ELISA was positive suggesting dengue fever. He was managed symptomatically and he recovered. During his follow up after 2 weeks he presented with brownish discoloration of dorsum of both hands and feet.

  10. Outcome of surgical treatment of intestinal perforation in typhoid fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziz; Sümer; zgür; Kemik; Ahmet; Cumhur; Dülger; Aydemir; Olmez; Ismail; Hasirci; Erol; Kisli; Vedat; Bayrak; Gulay; Bulut; etin; Kotan

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To represent our clinical experience in the treatment of intestinal perforation arising from typhoid fever.METHODS:The records of 22 surgically-treated patients with typhoid intestinal perforation were evaluated retrospectively.RESULTS:There were 18 males and 4 females,mean age 37 years(range,8-64 years).Presenting symptoms were fever,abdominal pain,diarrhea or constipation.Sixteen cases were subjected to segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis,while 3 cases received 2-layered primary repair foll...

  11. Model of Break-Bone Fever via Beta-Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the new derivative called beta-derivative, we modelled the well-known infectious disease called break-bone fever or the dengue fever. We presented the endemic equilibrium points under certain conditions of the physical parameters included in the model. We made use of an iteration method to solve the extended model. To show the efficiency of the method used, we have presented in detail the stability and the convergence of the method for solving the system (2. We presented the uniqueness of the special solution of system (2 and finally the numerical simulations were presented for various values of beta.

  12. Model of Break-Bone Fever via Beta-Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Oukouomi Noutchie, Suares Clovis

    2014-01-01

    Using the new derivative called beta-derivative, we modelled the well-known infectious disease called break-bone fever or the dengue fever. We presented the endemic equilibrium points under certain conditions of the physical parameters included in the model. We made use of an iteration method to solve the extended model. To show the efficiency of the method used, we have presented in detail the stability and the convergence of the method for solving the system (2). We presented the uniqueness of the special solution of system (2) and finally the numerical simulations were presented for various values of beta. PMID:25295263

  13. Transverse Myelitis as an Unusual Complication of Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Zini, Nathalia; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Gongora, Delzi Vinha Nunes; Maia, Irineu Luiz; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2017-02-08

    Dengue fever is the most common arbovirus disease, and presents with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic disease through to the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever. These extreme cases can lead to dengue shock syndrome, and sometimes death. Spinal cord involvement in dengue virus (DENV) infections is rare. Here, we report a case in which the patient developed acute transverse myelitis (TM) without paraparesis following a DENV infection. This case highlights the importance of physicians' awareness of the possible link between DENV and TM in endemic areas.

  14. [Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkova, S N; Bogdanov, E I; Zaĭkova, F M; Morozova, E A; Aiupova, V A; Zabbarova, A T; Shaĭmardanova, R M

    2013-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy of school-age children is a rare epileptic syndrome that causes difficulties in diagnosis at the initial stage of disease. It is characterized by sudden onset with multifocal refractory status epilepticus in previously healthy children with normal development. Later, children suffer from resistant focal epilepsy in the combination with cognitive deficit and behavioral difficulties. Authors describe a clinical case of fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy of school-age children in a child of 7 years old. Aspects of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease are discussed.

  15. Clinical Features and Patient Management of Lujo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewlall, Nivesh H.; Richards, Guy; Duse, Adriano; Swanepoel, Robert; Paweska, Janusz; Blumberg, Lucille; Dinh, Thu Ha; Bausch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth study of their clinical manifestations, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis, or response to treatment options typically available in industrialized countries. Methods and Findings We describe the clinical features of five cases of Lujo hemorrhagic fever and summarize their clinical management, as well as providing additional epidemiologic detail regarding the 2008 outbreak. Illness typically began with the abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, and myalgias followed successively by sore throat, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, minor hemorrhage, subconjunctival injection, and neck and facial swelling over the first week of illness. No major hemorrhage was noted. Neurological signs were sometimes seen in the late stages. Shock and multi-organ system failure, often with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, ensued in the second week, with death in four of the five cases. Distinctive treatment components of the one surviving patient included rapid commencement of the antiviral drug ribavirin and administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), N-acetylcysteine, and recombinant factor VIIa. Conclusions Lujo virus causes a clinical syndrome remarkably similar to Lassa fever. Considering the high case-fatality and significant logistical impediments to controlled treatment efficacy trials for viral hemorrhagic fever, it is both logical and ethical to explore the use of the various compounds used in the treatment of the surviving case reported here

  16. [Antibiotic prophylaxis of immediate and late complications of scarlet fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlău, A; Cucuruz, L

    1979-01-01

    Patients with scarlet fever were followed by clinical and laboratory investigation (bacteriologic and immunologic reactions, etc.), in relation with the early application, and the duration of penicillin therapy. The patients were also followed for a period of 30 days after discharge from the hospital. The results show a decrease in the number of early and late complications, as well as a reduction in the number of carriers of beta-haemolytic streptococcus in those patients in whom penicillin treatment was applied early, and when it was prolonged in the recovery period. The clinical and statistical data stress the pathologic morphology of scarlet fever, and the restructuration of complications when penicillin treatment is applied.

  17. The ying and yang of fever in rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James; Cope, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Fevers are relatively common in rheumatic disease, largely due to the fact that the inflammatory process is driven by inflammatory mediators that function as endogenous pyrogens. Since the immune system's sensors cannot accurately distinguish between endogenous and exogenous (pathogen-derived) pyrogens a major challenge for physicians and rheumatologists has been to decipher patterns of clinical signs and symptoms to inform clinical decision making. Here we describe some of the common pitfalls and clinical challenges, and highlight the importance of a systematic approach to investigating the rheumatic disease patient presenting with fever.

  18. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is im......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  19. Persistent Classical Swine Fever infection in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Lohse, Louise; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets is antic......Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets...

  20. Clinical features and patient management of Lujo hemorrhagic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivesh H Sewlall

    Full Text Available In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth study of their clinical manifestations, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis, or response to treatment options typically available in industrialized countries.We describe the clinical features of five cases of Lujo hemorrhagic fever and summarize their clinical management, as well as providing additional epidemiologic detail regarding the 2008 outbreak. Illness typically began with the abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, and myalgias followed successively by sore throat, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, minor hemorrhage, subconjunctival injection, and neck and facial swelling over the first week of illness. No major hemorrhage was noted. Neurological signs were sometimes seen in the late stages. Shock and multi-organ system failure, often with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, ensued in the second week, with death in four of the five cases. Distinctive treatment components of the one surviving patient included rapid commencement of the antiviral drug ribavirin and administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, N-acetylcysteine, and recombinant factor VIIa.Lujo virus causes a clinical syndrome remarkably similar to Lassa fever. Considering the high case-fatality and significant logistical impediments to controlled treatment efficacy trials for viral hemorrhagic fever, it is both logical and ethical to explore the use of the various compounds used in the treatment of the surviving case reported here in future outbreaks

  1. Acute glomerulonephritis in dengue hemorrhagic fever: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Meena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male child presented with fever, bodyache, swelling over the whole body, and oliguria. He had hypertension. Urine microscopy showed hematuria and glomerular casts. Renal functions were deranged and had low complement C3 level. Chest X-ray showed plural effusion and ultrasonography abdomen showed mild ascitis. The immunoglobulin (IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent essay for dengue virus were positive. Diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever with acute glomerulonephritis was made. He was managed with maintenance fluid, antihypertensive medicine and supportive care. He recovered gradually and was discharged 12 days after admission.

  2. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet; David John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the peri...

  3. Florence Nightingale: her Crimean fever and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale's Crimean fever and chronic illness have intrigued historians for more than a century and a half. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to discuss the facts that point to the cause of Nightingale's Crimean fever as brucellosis, (b) to show that her debilitating illness for 32 years (1855-1887) was compatible with the specific form of chronic brucellosis, and (c) to present new evidence that she was still having severe symptoms in December 1887, when it was previously felt that she had no severe symptoms after 1870.

  4. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  5. U.S. Medical Experts Issue Warning on Yellow Fever's Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 164012.html U.S. Medical Experts Issue Warning on Yellow Fever's Advance Brazil outbreak has officials worried, and transmission ... another potential mosquito-borne health threat to Americans -- yellow fever. In an essay published Wednesday in the New ...

  6. The first case of Lassa fever imported from Mali to the United Kingdom, February 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, S; Anaraki, S; Gothard, P; Walsh, A; Brown, D; Gopal, R; Hand, J; Morgan, D

    2009-03-12

    This is the first case of Lassa fever to be imported from Mali to the United Kingdom. This paper discusses the investigations, the virological analysis, the surveillance and management of contacts undertaken following a case of Lassa fever.

  7. [Periodic fever: a description of twelve patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cunto, Carmen; Britos, María; Eymann, Alfredo; Deltetto, Noelia; Liberatore, Diana

    2010-10-01

    PFAPA is a periodic fever syndrome characterized by: fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis. It is one of the autoinflammatory syndromes, but yet of unknown etiology. Our aim is to report our experience, describe clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, relapses occurrence and response to treatment. We present 12 PFAPA patients. Median age at onset: 1.15 years, mean duration of febrile episodes: 4 days, and relapses at regular intervals. All children received prednisone (1-2 mg/kg/dose) one to two doses, 9 patients responded immediately after the first dose and all experienced a lower periodicity of attacks. PFAPA is the most frequent periodic fever syndrome. To our knowledge, there are no other local series of PFAPA patients published. Recognizing this syndrome will prevent from ordering unnecessary studies and will favor family coping.

  8. Rheumatic fever: a forgotten but still existing cause of fever of unknown origin detected on FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathekge, Mike; Stoltz, Anton; Gheysens, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of heterogeneous and strongly increased myocardial and valvular 18F-FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT in an HIV-positive patient with productive cough, fever, weight loss, and progressive dyspnea for 6 months. Contrast-enhanced CT did not reveal the cause of fever, but hyperechogenic valvular lesions on echocardiography in combination with PET/CT findings are suggestive of endocarditis/myocarditis. Postmortem histology 3 weeks after PET/CT showed Aschoff bodies with Anitschkow cells, pathognomonic for rheumatic carditis. This case illustrates that rheumatic heart disease can be detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT and demonstrates the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with fever of unknown origin.

  9. Familial Mediterranean fever in which Crohn’s disease was suspected: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Urayoshi, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial Mediterranean fever is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease, mainly characterized by periodic fever and serositis. The level of awareness about familial Mediterranean fever is far from sufficient, and it is assumed that there may be many patients with this disease who are under observation without an accurate diagnosis. Case presentation A 30-year-old Japanese man presented to us with a few years’ history of recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea. He oft...

  10. Fever and the use of paracetamol during IL-2-based immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køstner, Anne Helene; Ellegaard, Mai-Britt Bjørklund; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2015-01-01

    Fever is frequently observed in conjunction with interleukin-2 (IL-2)-based immunotherapy. Traditionally, fever has been regarded as an undesirable side effect and treated with fever-lowering drugs. However, new insights in tumor immunology suggest that elevated temperature may facilitate a more......-reducing drugs during immunotherapy can therefore be questioned. More studies are needed to evaluate the role of fever and the use of antipyretics during cytokine-based immunotherapy....

  11. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  12. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  13. Rainfall and sloth births in may, Q fever in July, Cayenne, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Djossou, Felix; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Q fever in French Guiana is correlated with the rainy season. We found a 1- to 2-month lagged correlation between Q fever incidence and the number of births of three-toed sloth. This result strengthens the hypothesis that the three-toed sloth is the wild reservoir of Q fever in French Guiana.

  14. Rainfall and Sloth Births in May, Q Fever in July, Cayenne, French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Djossou, Felix; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Q fever in French Guiana is correlated with the rainy season. We found a 1- to 2-month lagged correlation between Q fever incidence and the number of births of three-toed sloth. This result strengthens the hypothesis that the three-toed sloth is the wild reservoir of Q fever in French Guiana.

  15. Increased urinary leukotriene E(4) during febrile attacks in the hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Dorland, L.; Mayatepek, E.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome is a hereditary periodic fever, caused by deficiency of the enzyme mevalonate kinase. It is unclear how this defect leads to recurrent fever episodes. AIM: To assess the involvement of cysteinyl leukotrienes in the pathogenesis o

  16. Genetic and environmental contributions to hay fever among young adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Kyvik, KO;

    2006-01-01

    effects accounted for 29% of the individual susceptibility to hay fever. The same genes contributed to the susceptibility to hay fever both in males and in females. In families with asthma, the susceptibility to develop hay fever was, in addition to genes, to a great extent ascribable to family...

  17. Differentiation of Acute Q Fever from Other Infections in Patients Presenting to Hospitals, the Netherlands(1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijmel, S.P.; Krijger, E.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprong, T.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating acute Q fever from infections caused by other pathogens is essential. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to evaluate differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and outcomes for 82 patients with acute Q fever and 52 control patients who had pneumonia, fever and lower respir

  18. Long-term follow-up of acute Q fever patients after a large epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielders, CCH

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, one of the largest Q fever epidemics documented worldwide occurred in the Netherlands. This epidemic originated from dairy goat farms and resulted in over 3,500 notified human acute Q fever cases. After an episode of acute Q fever, the causative bacterium Coxiella burnetii may

  19. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.9 Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine...

  20. 77 FR 68783 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Rift Valley Fever Virus Utilizing Reverse Genetics,'' US Provisional Application 61/ ] 042,987, filed 4/7/2008, entitled ``Recombinant Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Viruses and Method of Use,'' PCT...

  1. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND...

  2. DMPD: Cytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15967158 Cytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. Blatteis CM, Li S, L... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Cytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. PubmedID 15967158 Title C...ytokines, PGE2 and endotoxic fever: a re-assessment. Authors Blatteis CM, Li S, L

  3. Evidence-based provisional clinical classification criteria for autoinflammatory periodic fevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federici, Silvia; Sormani, Maria Pia; Ozen, Seza; Lachmann, Helen J; Amaryan, Gayane; Woo, Patricia; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Dewarrat, Natacha; Cantarini, Luca; Insalaco, Antonella; Uziel, Yosef; Rigante, Donato; Quartier, Pierre; Demirkaya, Erkan; Herlin, Troels; Meini, Antonella; Fabio, Giovanna; Kallinich, Tilmann; Martino, Silvana; Butbul, Aviel Yonatan; Olivieri, Alma; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Neven, Benedicte; Simon, Anna; Ozdogan, Huri; Touitou, Isabelle; Frenkel, Joost; Hofer, Michael; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Gattorno, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and validate a set of clinical criteria for the classification of patients affected by periodic fevers. Patients with inherited periodic fevers (familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD); tumour necrosis factor receptor-associate

  4. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  5. Malignant catarrhal fever: understanding molecular diagnostics in context of epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal disease, primarily of ruminants, caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Due to complexities of pathogenesis and epidemiology in various species which are either clinically-susceptible or reservoir hosts, veterinary clinicians face significant ...

  6. Rift Valley fever Entomology, Ecology, and Outbreak Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants and humans in Africa. The disease is most severe in cattle, sheep, and goats, and it causes high mortality in young animals and abortion in adults. Exotic aanimal breeds from areas where RVF is not endemic tend to be ...

  7. Burden of typhoid fever in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dworkin

    2014-10-01

    Discussion: Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp.

  8. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nora S; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, the most common periodic disorder of childhood, presents with the cardinal symptoms of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis typically before age 5. This review presents the recent literature on PFAPA and summarizes key findings in the pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment of the disease. Theories surrounding the pathogenesis of PFAPA include a faulty innate immunologic response in conjunction with dysregulated T-cell activation. A potential genetic link is also under consideration. Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene variants have been implicated and appear to modify disease severity. In individuals with the heterozygous variant, PFAPA episodes are milder and shorter in duration. Diagnostic criteria include the traditional clinical signs, in addition to the following biomarkers: elevated C-reactive protein in the absence of elevated procalcitonin, vitamin D, CD64, mean corpuscular volume, and other nonspecific inflammatory mediators in the absence of an infectious explanation for fever. Treatment of PFAPA includes tonsillectomy, a single dose of corticosteroids, and, most recently, interleukin 1 blockers such as anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab. Tonsillectomy remains the only permanent treatment modality.

  9. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Paul; Patel, Rajendrakumar; Patel, Niki

    2010-01-01

    Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971). George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily) fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990). Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). PMID:20811570

  10. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Persad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971. George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990. Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF.

  11. Response to imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timen, A.; Koopmans, M.P.; Vossen, A.C.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Gunther, S.; Berkmortel, F. van den; Verduin, K.M.; Dittrich, S.; Emmerich, P.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Dissel, J.T. van; Coutinho, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinar

  12. Response to imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, the Netherland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timen, A.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Vossen, A.C.T.M.; van Doornum, G.J.J.; Günther, S.; van den Berkmortel, F.; Verduin, K.M.; Dittrich, S.; Emmerich, P.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; van Dissel, J.T.; Coutinho, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinar

  13. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  14. Quantification of airborne African Swine Fever virus after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Weesendorp, E.; Quak, S.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim

  15. One health approach to Rift Valley fever vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1930s, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) spread across the African continent and invaded the Arabian Peninsula and several islands off the coast of Southeast Africa. The virus causes recurrent outbreaks in these regions, and its continued spread is of global concern. Next-gen

  16. Vaccination for typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, Rachel B; Date, Kashmira A; Mintz, Eric D

    2013-04-01

    Emerging data on the epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic aspects of typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa call for new strategies and new resources to bring the regional epidemic under control. Areas with endemic disease at rates approaching those in south Asia have been identified; large, prolonged and severe outbreaks are occurring more frequently; and resistance to antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones is increasing. Surveillance for typhoid fever is hampered by the lack of laboratory resources for rapid diagnosis, culture confirmation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nonetheless, in 2010, typhoid fever was estimated to cause 725 incident cases and 7 deaths per 100,000 person years in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts for prevention and outbreak control are challenged by limited access to safe drinking water and sanitation and by a lack of resources to initiate typhoid immunization. A comprehensive approach to typhoid fever prevention including laboratory and epidemiologic capacity building, investments in water, sanitation and hygiene and reconsideration of the role of currently available vaccines could significantly reduce the disease burden. Targeted vaccination using currently available typhoid vaccines should be considered as a short- to intermediate-term risk reduction strategy for high-risk groups across sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Microscopic haematuria: A rare presentation of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisahan, Balasingam; Thirunavukarasu, Kumanan; Selvaratnam, Gowry

    2015-04-01

    Typhoid fever can cause a number of renal manifestations heretofore dubbed 'nephrotyphoid'. Haematuria in the absence of renal impairment is extremely rare among typhoid patients. We report a case of an adult who presented with a prolonged febrile illness and microscopic haematuria. Blood culture confirmed the diagnosis of typhoid and the patient was treated successfully with ceftriaxone.

  18. Chikungunya fever: epidemiology, clinical syndrome, pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Moyen, Nanikaly; Dupuis-Maguiraga, Laurence; Nougairede, Antoine; Gould, Ernest A; Roques, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the aetiological agent of the mosquito-borne disease chikungunya fever, a debilitating arthritic disease that, during the past 7years, has caused immeasurable morbidity and some mortality in humans, including newborn babies, following its emergence and dispersal out of Africa to the Indian Ocean islands and Asia. Since the first reports of its existence in Africa in the 1950s, more than 1500 scientific publications on the different aspects of the disease and its causative agent have been produced. Analysis of these publications shows that, following a number of studies in the 1960s and 1970s, and in the absence of autochthonous cases in developed countries, the interest of the scientific community remained low. However, in 2005 chikungunya fever unexpectedly re-emerged in the form of devastating epidemics in and around the Indian Ocean. These outbreaks were associated with mutations in the viral genome that facilitated the replication of the virus in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since then, nearly 1000 publications on chikungunya fever have been referenced in the PubMed database. This article provides a comprehensive review of chikungunya fever and CHIKV, including clinical data, epidemiological reports, therapeutic aspects and data relating to animal models for in vivo laboratory studies. It includes Supplementary Tables of all WHO outbreak bulletins, ProMED Mail alerts, viral sequences available on GenBank, and PubMed reports of clinical cases and seroprevalence studies.

  19. Children with fever without apparent source: diagnosis and dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Bleeker (Sacha)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTills thesis describes the results of diagnostic research in young children presenting with fever without apparent source at the emergency department. The study was conducted at the Sophia Children's University Hospital in Rotterdam and the Juliana Children's Hospital in The Hague, both

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection and typhoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, A.M.; Verspaget, H.W.; Ali, S.; Visser, L.G.; Veenendaal, R.A.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van; Widjaja, S.; Surjadi, C.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the association between typhoid fever and Helicobacter pylori infection, as the latter microorganism may influence gastric acid secretion and consequently increase susceptibility to Salmonella typhi infection. Anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA antibody titres (ELISA) and gastrin concentration

  1. Molecular confirmation of Lassa fever imported into Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H.K. Bonney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports have shown an expansion of Lassa virus from the area where it was first isolated in Nigeria to other areas of West Africa. Two Ghanaian soldiers on a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Liberia were taken ill with viral haemorrhagic fever syndrome following the death of a sick colleague and were referred to a military hospital in Accra, Ghana, in May 2013. Blood samples from the soldiers and five asymptomatic close contacts were subjected to laboratory investigations.Objective: We report the results of these investigations to highlight the importance of molecular diagnostic applications and the need for heightened awareness about Lassa fever in West Africa.Methods: We used molecular assays on sera from the two patients to identify the causativeorganism. Upon detection of positive signals for Lassa virus ribonucleic material by two differentpolymerase chain reaction assays, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed.Results: The presence of Lassa virus in the soldiers’ blood samples was shown by L-gene segment homology to be the Macenta and las803792 strains previously isolated in Liberia, with close relationships then confirmed by phylogenetic tree construction. The five asymptomatic close contacts were negative for Lassa virus.Conclusions: The Lassa virus strains identified in the two Ghanaian soldiers had molecular epidemiological links to strains from Liberia. Lassa virus was probably responsible for the outbreak of viral haemorrhagic fever in the military camp. These data confirm Lassa fever endemicity in West Africa.

  2. Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Prins, J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were i

  3. An outbreak of scarlet fever in a primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamden, K H

    2011-04-01

    Scarlet fever, due to infection with an erythrogenic toxin-producing Group A streptococcus, is an uncommon and generally mild illness, although serious sequelae do occur. In March 2009, 57 of the 126 (45%) pupils in a primary school in Lancashire, UK developed scarlet fever over a 4-week period. Infection was transmitted via direct contact between pupils, particularly among the youngest pupils. A significant degree of transmission also occurred between siblings. The median number of days absent from school was 3 (range 1-10 days). No children were hospitalised. Control measures, including hygiene advice to the school and exclusion of pupils for 24h while initiating penicillin treatment, were ineffective. The outbreak occurred against a background of an unusually high incidence of invasive Group A streptococcal infection. While there are national guidelines for the control of invasive disease, none exist for the control of scarlet fever outbreaks. This prolonged outbreak of scarlet fever highlights the need for an evidence based approach to outbreak management.

  4. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Roermund, H J W van; Bergevoet, R H M

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reactive strategies were initiated after PCR positive bulk tank milk or after an abortion storm (abortion percentage in the herd of 5% or more). Preventive vaccination eradicates Q fever in a herd on average within 2 and 7 years (depending on breeding style and vaccination strategy). Economic outcomes reveal that preventive vaccination is always the preferred Q fever control strategy on infected farms and this even holds for a partial analysis if only on-farm costs and benefits are accounted for and human health costs are ignored. Averted human health costs depend to a large extend on the number of infected human cases per infected farm or animal. Much is yet unknown with respect to goat-human transmission rates. When the pathogen is absent in both livestock and farm environment then the "freedom of Q fever disease" is achieved. This would enable a return to non-vaccinated herds but more insight is required with respect to the mechanisms and probability of re-infection.

  5. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reacti

  6. Epidemic Q fever in humans in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W. van der; Morroy, G.; Renders, N.H.; Wever, P.C.; Hermans, M.H.; Leenders, A.C.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, Q fever was diagnosed on two dairy goat farms and 2 years later it emerged in the human population in the south of the Netherlands. From 2007 to 2010, more than 4,000 human cases were notified with an annual seasonal peak. The outbreaks in humans were mainly restricted to the south of the c

  7. MMPI Profiles of Rheumatic Fever Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehbens, James A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Showed that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores for adolescent and adult victims of rheumatic fever (N=162) were generally lower than Mayo Clinic norms. Significant age effects confirm findings that adolescents score higher on the MMPI. Found patients without carditis scored higher than carditis patients, contrary to…

  8. Rhythm and conduction analysis of patients with acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, Sevket; Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Ece, Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Various rhythm and conduction abnormalities can develop in acute rheumatic fever. This study investigated rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram and 24-h rhythm Holter recordings. This multicenter retrospective study, performed between August 2011 and March 2012, enrolled 73 consecutive children with acute rheumatic fever. Standard electrocardiography was used to measure PR and corrected QT intervals. Holter recordings were evaluated for all the patients, and 52 of the patients (71.2 %) had carditis that was either isolated or together with other major criteria. A positive correlation was detected between carditis and the mean PR interval on standard electrocardiography, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). Standard electrocardiography showed a significant positive correlation between PR and corrected QT intervals (p = 0.03; r = 0.55). Standard electrocardiography showed only three patients (4.2 %) with premature contractions, whereas 24-h electrocardiography showed 26 patients (35.6 %) with premature contractions. Carditis was positively correlated with premature contractions (p rheumatic fever are more common than previously thought.

  9. Rheumatic Fever Associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the clinical associations between rheumatic fever and antiphospholipid syndrome and the impact of coexistence of these two diseases in an individual. Methods. Systematic review in electronics databases, regarding the period from 1983 to 2012. The keywords: “Rheumatic Fever,” “Antiphospholipid Syndrome,” and “Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome” are used. Results. were identified 11 cases described in the literature about the association of rheumatic fever and antiphospholipid syndrome. Clinical presentation of rheumatic fever was characterized by the predominance of carditis (11/11 and chorea (7/11. Regarding the manifestations of APS, the stroke was observed in 7/11 (63.6%, with one of them having probable embolic origin. Conclusion. The present study brings the information that the association between APS and RF is quite rare, however, is of great clinical importance. Doctors who deal with the RF should include in their differential diagnosis the APS, especially in the presence of stroke in patients with RF and whose echocardiogram does not show intracavitary thrombi.

  10. Transmission rate of African swine fever virus under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Backer, J.A.; Weesendorp, E.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal, viral disease of swine. No vaccine is available, so controlling an ASF outbreak is highly dependent on zoosanitary measures, such as stamping out infected herds and quarantining of affected areas. Information on ASF transmission parameters could allow fo

  11. Comparative analysis of African swine fever virus genotypes and serogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malogolovkin, Alexander; Burmakina, Galina; Titov, Ilya; Sereda, Alexey; Gogin, Andrey; Baryshnikova, Elena; Kolbasov, Denis

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes highly lethal hemorrhagic disease among pigs, and ASFV's extreme antigenic diversity hinders vaccine development. We show that p72 ASFV phylogenetic analysis does not accurately define ASFV hemadsorption inhibition assay serogroups. Thus, conventional ASFV genotyping cannot discriminate between viruses of different virulence or predict efficacy of a specific ASFV vaccine.

  12. Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timen, Aura; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; van Doornum, Gerard J. J.; Guenther, Stephan; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Verduin, Kees M.; Dittrich, Sabine; Emmerich, Petra; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2009-01-01

    On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinar

  13. Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.

    2003-01-01

    There are two types of classical swine fever vaccines available: the classical live and the recently developed E2 subunit vaccines. The live Chinese strain vaccine is the most widely used. After a single vaccination, it confers solid immunity within a few days that appears to persist lifelong. The E

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Lunyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sarah; Horton, Daniel L; Marston, Denise A; Johnson, Nicholas; Ellis, Richard J; Fooks, Anthony R; Hewson, Roger

    2016-04-14

    Using next-generation sequencing technologies, the first complete genome sequence of Rift Valley fever virus strain Lunyo is reported here. Originally reported as an attenuated antigenic variant strain from Uganda, genomic sequence analysis shows that Lunyo clusters together with other Ugandan isolates.

  15. Acute meningoencephalitis as the sole manifestation of Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M; Gutierrez, J; Carnero, C; Gonzalez-Maldonado, R; Maroto, C

    1993-01-01

    The case of a 25-year old man who presented with meningoencephalitis as the sole clinical manifestation of Q fever is described. Serological studies revealed the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. The patient responded favourably to a ten-day course of i.v. ceftriaxone and was discharged without any neurological sequelae.

  16. Autoinflammatory syndromes behind the scenes of recurrent fevers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Donato

    2009-08-01

    Many children experience recurrent fevers with no easily identifiable source and only a careful follow-up helps in the early identification of other presenting symptoms of other defined conditions which require medical intervention. Autoinflammatory syndromes are rare childhood-onset disorders of the innate immunity in which recurrent flares of fever and inflammation affecting skin, joints, the gastrointestinal tube, or serous membranes are the most striking signs, without any evidence of autoantibody production or underlying infections. Among the pediatric conditions belonging to this group we can consider hereditary recurrent fevers (familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency syndrome, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes), pyogenic disorders (PAPA syndrome, CRMO syndrome, Majeed syndrome), immune-mediated granulomatous diseases (Blau syndrome, Crohn's disease), and idiopathic febrile syndromes (systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, PFAPA syndrome, Behçet syndrome). Their genetic background has only been partially elucidated and advances in their molecular pathogenesis are shedding new light on the innate immune system, whilst more and more diseases are being reconsidered at a pathogenetic level and included in this new chapter of postgenomic medicine. The diagnosis of most autoinflammatory syndromes relies on clinical history, demonstration of an increased acute-phase response during inflammatory attacks, and, possibly, genetic confirmation, which is still elusive especially for idiopathic febrile syndromes. This astonishing progress in the awareness and knowledge of autoinflammatory syndromes has anticipated the actual possibilities of medical intervention and rationalized treatment with targeted biologic agents.

  17. Viral hemorrhagic fevers of animals caused by DNA viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we outline serious diseases of food and fiber animals that cause damaging economic effect on products all over the world. The only vector-borne DNA virus is included here, such as African swine fever virus, and the herpes viruses discussed have a complex epidemiology characterized by outbreak...

  18. Edith Wharton's "Roman Fever": A Rune of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Dale M.

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that "Roman Fever" responds to a reactionary political climate, demonstrating an anti-reactionary thrust to Edith Wharton's fiction. Argues that Wharton deserves credit for articulating the destructive character of a cultural misogyny that led quickly to what she saw in 1933 as "a world whizzing ... crazily to the…

  19. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham J.

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, the nucleotides 47 to 427, including the IRES region of the wt CSFV strain Paderborn, were amplified...

  20. Reconstructing the highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus strain Koslov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Jens

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) may be highly virulent in pigs with a mortality rate close to 100%. The CSFV “Koslov strain” is known to be one of the most virulent CSFV, but so far a functional cloned cDNA of this strain has not been described. We suggest that this may be due to the error...