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Sample records for black-throated blue warblers

  1. An inexpensive method for quantifying incubation patterns of open-cup nesting birds, with data for black-throated Blue warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Elizabeth M.; Sillett, T. Scott; Holmes, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Quantifying incubation patterns has often involved long observation periods in the field, video cameras, or the use of other electronic devices that sometimes require the partial destruction of clutches and insertion of artificial eggs. In this study, we used an inexpensive, nondestructive method involving temperature probes combined with data loggers to examine the incubation rhythm of female Black-throated Blue Warblers (Dendroica caerulescens). The method provided detailed records of on–off patterns for females for selected 24-h periods during incubation. Female warblers spent an average (±SE) of 64.0% of daylight hours incubating in bouts lasting 20.5 ± 1.5 min and made 2.4 ± 0.1 departures from the nest/h on trips that lasted 10.6 ± 0.7 min. Incubation bouts were longer and females spent more time incubating per hour in the mornings and late afternoons than at mid-day. Older females had longer incubation bouts and tended to have shorter incubation periods than did yearling females, suggesting that experienced individuals were more effective incubators. Because of its ease of use and because nests with probes were not depredated at a higher rate than controls, we suggest that the temperature probe/data logger method is an efficient and effective way to quantify incubation rhythms for open-cup nesting birds.

  2. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

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    David S. Maehr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  3. Dynamic distributions and population declines of Golden-winged Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Will, Tom; Buehler, David A.; Barker Swarthout, Sara; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Chandler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    With an estimated breeding population in 2010 of 383,000 pairs, the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is among the most vulnerable and steeply declining of North American passerines. This species also has exhibited among the most dynamic breeding distributions, with populations expanding and then contracting over the past 150 years in response to regional habitat changes, interactions with closely related Blue-winged Warblers (V. cyanoptera), and possibly climate change. Since 1966, the rangewide population has declined by >70% (-2.3% per year; latest North American Breeding Bird Survey data), with much steeper declines in the Appalachian Mountains bird conservation region (-8.3% per year, 98% overall decline). Despite apparently stable or increasing populations in the northwestern part of the range (Minnesota, Manitoba), population estimates for Golden-winged Warbler have continued to decline by 18% from the decade of the 1990s to the 2000s. Population modeling predicts a further decline to roughly 37,000 individuals by 2100, with the species likely to persist only in Manitoba, Minnesota, and possibly Ontario. To delineate the present-day distribution and to identify population concentrations that could serve as conservation focus areas, we compiled rangewide survey data collected in 2000-2006 in 21 states and 3 Canadian provinces, as part of the Golden-winged Warbler Atlas Project (GOWAP), supplemented by state and provincial Breeding Bird Atlas data and more recent observations in eBird. Based on >8,000 GOWAP surveys for Golden-winged and Blue-winged warblers and their hybrids, we mapped occurrence of phenotypically pure and mixed populations in a roughly 0.5-degree grid across the species’ ranges. Hybrids and mixed Golden-winged-Blue-winged populations occurred in a relatively narrow zone across Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, and northern New York. Phenotypically pure Golden-winged Warbler populations occurred north of this

  4. Multilocus phylogeography (mitochondrial, autosomal and Z-chromosomal loci) and genetic consequence of long-distance male dispersal in Black-throated tits (Aegithalos concinnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Wang, W; Lei, F

    2013-05-01

    Multilocus data from the different genomes are essential to understand the phylogeographic history of species, particularly when a species has the male-biased dispersal pattern. Although Black-throated tits (Aegithalos concinnus) are socially monogamous and cooperatively breeding birds, limited observational data suggested that males may have the ability of long-distance dispersal. We have previously detected three highly supported mitochondrial populations within two subspecies of Black-throated tits (A. c. concinnus and A. c. talifuensis). Here, we used several genetic markers with different inheritance patterns to gain insights about their phylogeographic history. Phylogenetic and individual-based Bayesian analysis showed weak geographical structure amongst nuclear sequences (autosomal and Z-chromosomal loci). Coalescent analysis revealed high levels of gene flow among mitochondrial populations, even between allopatric populations. These results strongly suggested that male-biased gene flow was responsible for the discordant cytonuclear phylogeographic patterns. Consistent with expectation on the genetic consequence of long-distance male dispersal, mantel tests revealed a significant pattern of isolation by distance for mitochondrial sequences, but failed to provide a similar pattern for nuclear genes within a continuous population; female Black-throated tits showed a stronger but not significantly different relationship of isolation by distance than males when using mitochondrial DNA alone. We discussed the contribution of male juveniles with delayed dispersal to the non-significantly different IBD patterns between sexes. Our results using multilocus genetic data revealed aspects of the complex evolutionary history of Black-throated tits and the important role of long-distance male dispersal in the population structuring.

  5. Hybrid origin of Audubon's warbler.

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    Brelsford, Alan; Milá, Borja; Irwin, Darren E

    2011-06-01

    Several animal species have recently been shown to have hybrid origins, but no avian examples have been documented with molecular evidence. We investigate whether the Audubon's warbler (Dendroica auduboni), one of four visually distinct species in the yellow-rumped warbler complex, has originated through hybridization between two other species in this group, the myrtle warbler (D. coronata) and black-fronted warbler (D. nigrifrons). Analysis of nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sequence markers shows that Audubon's warblers are genetically intermediate and carry a mixture of alleles otherwise found only in one or the other of their putative parental species. Audubon's warblers also carry two deeply divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages, each shared with only one putative parental form. Broad clines between Audubon's and black-fronted warblers in AFLP markers call into question the validity of these two forms as full species; nevertheless, our results suggest that the Audubon's warbler probably originated through hybridization between two long-diverged species. It is likely that more cases of avian species of hybrid origin will be revealed by surveys of variation in nuclear DNA and other traits. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Extensive Rangewide Mitochondrial Introgression Indicates Substantial Cryptic Hybridization in the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera

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    Rachel Vallender

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread population declines of the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera are thought to be due in part to hybridization with the expanding Blue-winged Warbler (V. pinus, which predictably replaces Golden-winged Warblers at breeding sites in which the two species come into contact. However, the mechanism by which this replacement occurs remains unresolved. Recent genetic work has indicated that, even in areas where the two species have been in contact for a short period, introgression of Blue-winged mitochondrial (mtDNA and nuclear genes into Golden-winged individuals is common. To explore this process on a broader scale, we screened more than 750 individuals from nine U.S. states and three provinces to examine geographic patterns of mtDNA introgression. The only population in which all phenotypic Golden-winged Warblers had Golden-winged mtDNA haplotypes, and in which there are no breeding Blue-winged or hybrid individuals, was in the province of Manitoba, near the northwestern edge of the species' breeding distribution. The near ubiquity of mitochondrial introgression suggests that there are far fewer genetically pure populations of Golden-winged Warblers than previously believed, a finding with important implications for this threatened species.

  7. Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae, revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis.

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    Chuanyin Dai

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis-concinnus with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs. We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG, last glacial maximum (LGM and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis-concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory.

  8. Kirtland's Warbler Annual Census - Seney National Wildlife Refuge (Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Adaptation of Kirtland's Warbler Recovery Team census protocol as applied to Seney National Wildlife Refuge and Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area

  9. Research on Golden-winged Warblers: Recent progress and current needs: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Rohrbaugh, Roland W.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.; Vallender, Rachel; King, David I.; Will, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in knowledge about Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) in the past decade. Recent employment of molecular analysis, stable-isotope analysis, telemetry-based monitoring of survival and behavior, and spatially explicit modeling techniques have added to, and revised, an already broad base of published knowledge. Here, we synthesize findings primarily from recent peer-reviewed literature on Golden-winged Warblers, from this volume and elsewhere, and we identify some of the substantial remaining research needs. We have organized this synthesis by stages of the Golden-winged Warbler annual cycle. First, we discuss the relatively well-studied breeding-grounds ecology including nesting and post-fledging ecology and hybridization with closely related Blue-winged Warblers (Vermivora cyanoptera). Second, we discuss the much-less-studied, non-breeding-grounds ecology, including the first empirical studies of non-breeding-grounds cover-type associations and spatial and social behavioral ecology. Third, we address migratory connectivity and migration ecology, for which little is known and research has only just begun. Last, we close with cautious optimism that current knowledge is adequate to inform initial conservation and management plans for Golden-winged Warblers, and with a sobering acknowledgement of the quantity of research still needed.

  10. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

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    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  11. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

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    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, p<0.001) and Site 2 (χ2 = 1896.1, df = 45, p<0.001); however, the preferred habitats differed between the two sites. BTF moved further than expected on the basis of current knowledge, with three individuals being resighted over 15 km from the banding location. However, BTF maintain small home ranges over short time-frames. Occasional long-distance movements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management

  12. Modeling and Mapping Golden-winged Warbler Abundance to Improve Regional Conservation Strategies

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    Wayne E. Thogmartin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation planning requires identifying pertinent habitat factors and locating geographic locations where land management may improve habitat conditions for high priority species. I derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundance for the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera, a species of high conservation concern, using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at multiple spatial scales. My aim was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create a predictive abundance map for purposes of conservation planning for the Golden-winged Warbler. My models indicated a substantial influence of landscape conditions, including strong positive associations with total forest composition within the landscape. However, many of the associations I observed were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents; for instance, I found Golden-winged Warblers negatively associated with several measures of edge habitat. No single spatial scale dominated, indicating that this species is responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. I found Golden-winged Warbler abundance was negatively related with Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera abundance. I also observed a north-south spatial trend suggestive of a regional climate effect that was not previously noted for this species. The map of predicted abundance indicated a large area of concentrated abundance in west-central Wisconsin, with smaller areas of high abundance along the northern periphery of the Prairie Hardwood Transition. This map of predicted abundance compared favorably with independent evaluation data sets and can thus be used to inform regional planning efforts devoted to conserving this species.

  13. Working on behalf of Cerulean Warblers

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    Paul B. Hamel

    2009-01-01

    What was mother nature thinking when she assigned ecological traits to this bird? She should have known that any species sensitive to forest fragmentation was destined to struggle. The cerulean Warbler navigates perhaps the longest migratory path of any North American Neotropical songbird. Why it should breed most effectively in Appalachian habitats where all that coal...

  14. Islands in a desert : breeding ecology of the African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, CM; Komdeur, J; Buys, J; Reemer, M; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The continental African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus, like its relative the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, breeds in isolated patches. We studied the mating system of the African Reed Warbler to see whether this species, like the Seychelles Warbler, shows co-operative breeding

  15. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

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    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  16. Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Habitat Management Plan

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of...

  17. Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for Kirtland’s Warbler Wildlife Management Area (WMA) was signed on September 10, 2009, completing a planning process that...

  18. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Activities on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of test may cause minor cosmetic damage (e.g. broken windows, and cracked plaster) to a structure. Proposed mitigations would require that weather...Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , 49(6): 751-757. Borg, E. 1991. Physiological and pathogenic effects of sound. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 381...breeding black-throated blue warblers. Ecology 73:357-372. Rodriguez, M. 2004. West Nile Virus found on WSMR. Missile Ranger (57)39:1. Rowson, K

  19. Migration, mitochondria, and the yellow-rumped warbler.

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    Toews, David P L; Mandic, Milica; Richards, Jeffrey G; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-01-01

    Discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA has been noted in many systems. Asymmetric introgression of mitochondria is a common cause of such discordances, although in most cases the drivers of introgression are unknown. In the yellow-rumped warbler, evidence suggests that mtDNA from the eastern, myrtle warbler, has introgressed across much of the range of the western form, the Audubon's warbler. Within the southwestern United States myrtle mtDNA comes into contact with another clade that occurs in the Mexican black-fronted warbler. Both northern forms exhibit seasonal migration, whereas black-fronted warblers are nonmigratory. We investigated the link between mitochondrial introgression, mitochondrial function, and migration using novel genetic, isotopic, biochemical, and phenotypic data obtained from populations in the transition zone. Isotopes suggest the zone is coincident with a shift in migration, with individuals in the south being resident and populations further north becoming increasingly more migratory. Mitochondrial respiration in flight muscles demonstrates that myrtle-type individuals have a significantly greater acceptor control ratio of mitochondria, suggesting it may be more metabolically efficient. To our knowledge this is the first time this type of intraspecific variation in mitochondrial respiration has been measured in wild birds and we discuss how such mitochondrial adaptations may have facilitated introgression.

  20. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

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    Steffen Oppel

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days. Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of

  1. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Marczakiewicz, Piotr; Lachmann, Lars; Grzywaczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola), which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days). Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of habitat management.

  2. Age-Ratios and Condition of En Route Migrant Blackpoll Warblers in the British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.

    2014-01-01

    The en route migration ecology of Blackpoll Warblers (Setophaga striata) is poorly understood, yet intriguing. Blackpoll Warblers undertake the longest open water migration of any wood warbler species, traveling from northeastern North America to South America, with the first potential landfall being the West Indies. This migration requires substantial energy reserves and subjects Blackpoll Warblers to unpredictable weather events, which may influence survival. Few studies have examined age ratios or condition of Blackpoll Warblers while the warblers are en route through the Caribbean region. I captured and banded Blackpoll Warblers in the British Virgin Islands over 10 consecutive autumn migrations. Ratios of hatch-year to adult Blackpoll Warblers were variable but averaged lower than the ratios reported at continental departure locations. Average mass of Blackpoll Warblers was less than that reported at continental departure locations, with 26% of adults and 40% of hatch-year birds below the estimated fat free mass; hatch-year birds were consistently in poorer condition than adults. Blackpoll Warblers captured in the British Virgin Islands were also in poorer condition than those reported from the Dominican Republic and Barbados; this may be because of the British Virgin Islands being the first landfall after the transatlantic crossing, whereas Blackpoll Warblers arriving at the other Caribbean study locations may have had opportunities for stopover prior to arrival or have departed from farther south on the continent. However, this suggests that the British Virgin Islands likely provide important stopover habitat as a first landfall location for Blackpoll Warblers arriving from the transatlantic migration route.

  3. Population predictions for Seychelles warblers in novel environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley, Jo; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson,David; Sutherland, William J.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for population ecology is to be able to predict population sizes in novel conditions, as in those following habitat loss or translocation. To do this successfully, we show here that it is necessary to understand the behavioral basis of dispersal decisions as they affect fitness. The Seychelles warbler, like many socially complex species, lives in family groups. This leads to the stable usage of sink habitats through kin competition. Sink usage means that bird density is not ...

  4. Predation risk affects trade-off between nest guarding and foraging in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Kats, RKH

    1999-01-01

    The fitness costs of egg loss for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and no time to lay a successful replacement clutch. On the islands of Cousin and Cousine, with equal densities of Seychelles fodies (Foudia se

  5. Influence of population isolation on genetic variation and demography in Seychelles warblers : a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Kappe, Anique; van de Zande, Louis

    1998-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1968 the entire world population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) comprised only 26-29 individuals entirely confined to Cousin Island (26 ha). Through conservation actions the island population has reached a carrying capacity of ca 320 birds since 1982. The warbler

  6. Gap crossing decisions by reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschieter, L.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    To meet the need for research on the requirements for corridors for marshland birds, this study set out to quantify gap crossing decisions made by reed warblers moving through the landscape. In three experiments, reed warblers were released into landscape situations with different gap sizes and thei

  7. Predation risk affects trade-off between nest guarding and foraging in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Kats, RKH

    1999-01-01

    The fitness costs of egg loss for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and no time to lay a successful replacement clutch. On the islands of Cousin and Cousine, with equal densities of Seychelles fodies (Foudia se

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  9. Estimating golden-cheeked warbler immigration: Implications for the spatial scale of conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A.; Weckerly, F.W.; Schaub, M.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that drive population dynamics is fundamental to species conservation and management. Since the golden-cheeked warbler Setophaga chrysoparia was first listed as endangered, much effort has taken place to monitor warbler abundance, occupancy, reproduction and survival. Yet, despite being directly related to local population dynamics, movement rates have not been estimated for the species. We used an integrated population model to investigate the relationship between immigration rate, fledging rate, survival probabilities and population growth rate for warblers in central Texas, USA. Furthermore, using a deterministic projection model, we examined the response required by vital rates to maintain a viable population across varying levels of immigration. Warbler abundance fluctuated with an overall positive trend across years. In the absence of immigration, the abundance would have decreased. However, the population could remain viable without immigration if both adult and juvenile survival increased by almost half or if juvenile survival more than doubled. We also investigated the response required by fledging rates across a range of immigration in order to maintain a viable population. Overall, we found that immigration was required to maintain warbler target populations, indicating that warbler conservation and management programs need to be implemented at larger spatial scales than current efforts to be effective. This study also demonstrates that by using limited data within integrated population models, biologists are able to monitor multiple key demographic parameters simultaneously to gauge the efficacy of strategies designed to maximize warbler viability in a changing landscape.

  10. Population genetic structure in the paddyfield warbler (Acrocephalus agricola Jerd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel ZEHTINDJIEV, Mihaela ILIEVA, Bengt HANSSON, Olga OPARINA,Mihail OPARIN, Staffan BENSCH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure was studied in paddyfield warblers Acrocephalus agricola breeding in NE Bulgaria, SE Russia and S Kazakhstan. We were particularly interested in the degree of genetic differentiation and gene flow of the Bulgarian population due to its geographical isolation, recent origin and unique migratory strategy. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA showed that there was no divergence between Bulgarian and Russian populations (FST = 0.007, whereas those in Kazakhstan differed significantly from the European breeding populations (Russia: FST = 0.058; Bulgaria: FST = 0.114. The degree of differentiation between populations at nuclear markers (five microsatellite loci; FST ≈ 0 was weaker than for mtDNA. We suggest that this relatively weak differentiation over the range of this species reflects a recent postglacial expansion, and results from mismatch distribution analyses and Fu’s FS tests are in agreement. Preservation of small and geographically isolated populations which may contain individuals with unique adaptive traits, such as the studied Bulgarian population of paddyfield warbler, is valuable for the long-term conservation of expanding migratory bird species [Current Zoology 57 (1: 63–71, 2011].

  11. Population genetic structure in the paddyfield warbler (Acrocephalus agricola Jerd.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavel ZEHTINDJIEV; Mihaela ILIEVA; Bengt HANSSON; Olga OPARINA; Mihail OPARIN; Staffan BENSCH

    2011-01-01

    Population genefc structure was studied in paddyfield warblers Acrocephalus agricola breeding in NE Bulgaria, SE Russia and S Kazakhstan. We were particularly interested in the degree of genetic differentiation and gene flow of the Bulgarian population due to its geographical isolation, recent origin and unique migratory strategy. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed that there was no divergence between Bulgarian and Russian populations (FST = 0.007), whereas those in Kazakhstan differed significantly from the European breeding populations (Russia: FST = 0.058; Bulgaria: Fsr = 0.114). The degree of differentiation between populations at nuclear markers (five microsatellite loci; FsT ≈ 0) was weaker than for mtDNA. We suggest that this relatively weak differentiation over the range of this species reflects a recent postglacial expansion, and results from mismatch distribution analyses and Fu's Fs tests are in agreement. Preservation of small and geographically isolated populations which may contain individuals with unique adaptive traits, such as the studied Bulgarian population of paddyfield warbler,is valuable for the long-term conservation of expanding migratory bird species.

  12. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Komdeur, J

    In cooperative, breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship

  13. Parentage assignment and extra-group paternity in a cooperative breeder : the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Jury, FL; Blaakmeer, K; Komdeur, J; Burke, T

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development and initial application of a semiautomated parentage testing system in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This system used fluorescently labelled primers for 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in two multiplex loading groups to genotype efficiently over 9

  14. Influence of helping and breeding experience on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler : A translocation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproductive success of the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) increases with age. This age effect is not due to differential survival or increased reproductive effort, but to accumulated helping and breeding experience. In their first year of breeding, reproductive

  15. Swainson’s Warbler And the Cowbird In The Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii , is a fairly common breeding bird in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia and North Carolina where it is near the northern limit...

  16. Migratory orientation of sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) in relation to eating and exploratory behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, C.M.; Zehtindjiev, P.

    2009-01-01

    Orientation tests performed with Emlen funnels show much variation. This scatter in responses can be partially explained by considering the birds' personalities. We studied a Passerine migrant, the Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), on autumn passage at Kalimok Biological Station, Bulgaria.

  17. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Komdeur, J

    2003-01-01

    In cooperative, breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship bet

  18. Different timing of the adaptive radiations of North American and Asian warblers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. Price; H. L. Gibbs; L. D. Sousa; A. D. Richman

    1998-01-01

    differ by an average of 10.7% in the same gene sequence. The New Hampshire warblers appear to have undergone a relatively recent burst of speciation and morphological evolution, but there is a detectable slowing of speciation rates...

  19. Can we explain vagrancy in Europe with the autumn migration phenology of Siberian warbler species in East Russia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozó László

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the autumn migration phenology of nine Siberian breeding songbirds: Thick-billed Warbler (Iduna aedon, Black-browed Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella certhiola, Lanceolated Warbler (L. lanceolata, Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus, Arctic Warbler (Ph. borealis, Dusky Warbler (Ph. fuscatus, Radde’s Warbler (Ph. schwarzi, Two-barred Warbler (Ph. plumbeitarsus and compared the migration dynamic characteristics with their European occurrence time. The study was carried out within the Amur Bird Project in the Russian Far East along the river Amur at Muraviovka Park between 2011 and 2014. The birds were caught with mistnets and ringed with individually numbered rings. For the characterization of the migration, we used timing, the intervals and the peaks of the migration, the percentage of the recaptures and the average time between the first and the last captures. The timing of migration in the studied species differed in the timing, the intervals (30-67 days and the migration peaks (14 August - 17 September.

  20. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 1. A review of the russet bush-warbler Bradypterus seebohmi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Round, P.D.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    The bush-warbler Bradypterus mandelli (Brooks, 1875) was described from Sikkim, and numerous specimens from India were identified with it, but it was synonymised with the brown bush-warbler Bradypterus luteoventris (Hodgson, 1845) in 1881. In 1952, east Asian populations were grouped under the name

  1. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 1. A review of the russet bush-warbler Bradypterus seebohmi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Round, P.D.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    The bush-warbler Bradypterus mandelli (Brooks, 1875) was described from Sikkim, and numerous specimens from India were identified with it, but it was synonymised with the brown bush-warbler Bradypterus luteoventris (Hodgson, 1845) in 1881. In 1952, east Asian populations were grouped under the name

  2. Avian response to timber harvesting applied experimentally to manage Cerulean Warbler breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Boves, Than J.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Evans, Andrea; McDermott, Molly E.; Newell, Felicity L.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvesting has been proposed as a management tool to enhance breeding habitat for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining Neotropical–Nearctic migratory songbird that nests in the canopy of mature eastern deciduous forests. To evaluate how this single-species management focus might fit within an ecologically based management approach for multiple forest birds, we performed a manipulative experiment using four treatments (three intensities of timber harvests and an unharvested control) at each of seven study areas within the core Cerulean Warbler breeding range. We collected pre-harvest (one year) and post-harvest (four years) data on the territory density of Cerulean Warblers and six additional focal species, avian community relative abundance, and several key habitat variables. We evaluated the avian and habitat responses across the 3–32 m2 ha−1 residual basal area (RBA) range of the treatments. Cerulean Warbler territory density peaked with medium RBA (∼16 m2 ha−1). In contrast, territory densities of the other focal species were negatively related to RBA (e.g., Hooded Warbler [Setophaga citrina]), were positively related to RBA (e.g., Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]), or were not sensitive to this measure (Scarlet Tanager [Piranga olivacea]). Some species (e.g., Hooded Warbler) increased with time post-treatment and were likely tied to a developing understory, whereas declines (e.g., Ovenbird) were immediate. Relative abundance responses of additional species were consistent with the territory density responses of the focal species. Across the RBA gradient, greatest separation in the avian community was between early successional forest species (e.g., Yellow-breasted Chat [Icteria virens]) and closed-canopy mature forest species (e.g., Ovenbird), with the Cerulean Warbler and other species located intermediate to these two extremes. Overall, our results suggest that harvests within 10–20 m2 ha−1 RBA yield the largest

  3. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is not locally adapted to its reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, J M; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Antonov, A; Moksnes, A; Røskaft, E; Shykoff, J A; Møller, A P; Jensen, H; Procházka, P; Stokke, B G

    2011-02-01

    The obligate avian brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus comprises different strains of females that specialize on particular host species by laying eggs of a constant type that often mimics those of the host. Whether cuckoos are locally adapted for mimicking populations of the hosts on which they are specialized has never been investigated. In this study, we first explored the possibility of local adaptation in cuckoo egg mimicry over a geographical mosaic of selection exerted by one of its main European hosts, the reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. Secondly, we investigated whether cuckoos inhabiting reed warbler populations with a broad number of alternative suitable hosts at hand were less locally adapted. Cuckoo eggs showed different degrees of mimicry to different reed warbler populations. However, cuckoo eggs did not match the egg phenotypes of their local host population better than eggs of other host populations, indicating that cuckoos were not locally adapted for mimicry on reed warblers. Interestingly, cuckoos exploiting reed warblers in populations with a relatively larger number of co-occurring cuckoo gentes showed lower than average levels of local adaptation in egg volume. Our results suggest that cuckoo local adaptation might be prevented when different cuckoo populations exploit more or fewer different host species, with gene flow or frequent host switches breaking down local adaptation where many host races co-occur.

  4. Modelling the winter distribution of a rare and endangered migrant, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Bruno A; Schäffer, Norbert; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2007-01-01

    . Such model predictions may be useful guidelines to focus further field research on the Aquatic Warbler. Given the excellent model predictions in this study, this novel technique may prove useful to model the distribution of other rare and endangered species, thus providing a means to guide future survey......The Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola is one of the most threatened Western Palearctic passerine species, classified as globally Vulnerable. With its breeding grounds relatively secure, a clear need remains for the monitoring and protection of the migration and wintering grounds of this rare...... and endangered migrant. Recent research has shown that the Aquatic Warbler migrates through northwest Africa in autumn and spring. The wintering grounds are apparently limited to wetlands of sub-Saharan West Africa, with records from only about 20 localities in Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and Ghana. Given the lack...

  5. Territory choice during the breeding tenure of male sedge warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech

    2011-12-01

    A territorial male can shift the location of its territory from year to year in order to increase its quality. The male can base its decision on environmental cues or else on its breeding experiences (when territory shift is caused by breeding failure in previous seasons). We tested these possible mechanisms of territory choice in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), a territorial migrating passerine that occupies wetlands. This species bases its territory choices on an environmental cue: tall wetland vegetation cover. We found that the magnitude of territory quality improvement between seasons (measured as the area of tall wetland vegetation) increased throughout the early stages of a male's breeding career as a result of territory shifts dependent on the earliness of arrival. The distance the territory was shifted between seasons depended negatively on the previous year's territory quality and, less clearly, on the previous year's mating success. On the other hand, previous mating or nesting success had no influence on territory quality improvement between seasons as measured in terms of vegetation. The results imply that tall wetland vegetation is a long-term, effective environmental cue and that a preference for territories in which this type of landcover prevails has evolved into a rigid behavioral mechanism, supplemented by short-term individual experiences of breeding failure.

  6. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, Irby J; Pérez-Emán, Jorge L; Sullivan, John P; Banks, Richard C; Fiorentino, Isabella; Córdoba-Córdoba, Sergio; Echeverry-Galvis, María; Barker, F Keith; Burns, Kevin J; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-11-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group.

  7. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, Scott M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2011-08-25

    AIM: Our objective was to identify the distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) in fragmented oak-juniper woodlands by applying a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model to better assist decision-makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection/non-detection surveys of randomly selected (n = 287) patches of potential habitat to evaluate warbler patch-scale presence across the species breeding range. We used a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model with remotely sensed habitat metrics (patch size and landscape composition) to predict patch-scale occupancy of golden-cheeked warblers in the fragmented oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, USA. RESULTS: Our spatially explicit model indicated that golden-cheeked warbler patch occupancy declined from south to north within the breeding range concomitant with reductions in the availability of large habitat patches. We found that 59% of woodland patches, primarily in the northern and central portions of the warbler\\'s range, were predicted to have occupancy probabilities ≤0.10 with only 3% of patches predicted to have occupancy probabilities >0.90. Our model exhibited high prediction accuracy (area under curve = 0.91) when validated using independently collected warbler occurrence data. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a distinct spatial occurrence gradient for golden-cheeked warblers as well as a relationship between two measurable landscape characteristics. Because habitat-occupancy relationships were key drivers of our model, our results can be used to identify potential areas where conservation actions supporting habitat mitigation can occur and identify areas where conservation of future potential habitat is possible. Additionally, our results can be

  9. Long-term fitness benefits of egg sex modification by the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    Sex-ratio theory states that if the fitness costs to the parents of producing one offspring's sex relative to the other are higher, parents should discount these costs by producing fewer individuals of the more costly sex. In the co-operatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

  10. Sex biased natal dispersal is not a fixed trait in a stable population of Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Brouwer, Lyanne; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We observed a change in the sex-specific rate of delayed natal dispersal in a stable population of Seychelles warblers over a period of 20 years. At first, females were more likely to delay dispersal in their first year of life than were males, whereas later there was no sex bias in the rate of dela

  11. Conservation planning and accomplishments for protection of Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) nonbreeding habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Skolnik; David Wiedenfeld; Randy Dettmers; Constantino Aucca; Lina Daza; Heidy Valle; Francisco Sornoza; Javier Robayo; David Diaz; Jane Fitzgerald; Daniel Lebbin; Paul B. Hamel

    2012-01-01

    Vital to the work of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group has been the collaboration among members to evaluate population status and coordinate planning for future activities, principally in conservation implementation. Two plans have been produced, one a general strategy for the conservation and management of the species over its entire range, and a more restricted...

  12. Sex biased natal dispersal is not a fixed trait in a stable population of Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Brouwer, Lyanne; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We observed a change in the sex-specific rate of delayed natal dispersal in a stable population of Seychelles warblers over a period of 20 years. At first, females were more likely to delay dispersal in their first year of life than were males, whereas later there was no sex bias in the rate of

  13. The African migration and wintering grounds of the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Norbert; Walther, Bruno A.; Gutteridge, Kim

    2006-01-01

    the edges of backwaters, flood basins, lagoons, lakes, ponds, rivers and wadis. Recent research suggests that at least some Aquatic Warblers may actually winter further south than the present data suggest, in countries such as The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana...

  14. Long-term fitness benefits of egg sex modification by the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1998-01-01

    Sex-ratio theory states that if the fitness costs to the parents of producing one offspring's sex relative to the other are higher, parents should discount these costs by producing fewer individuals of the more costly sex. In the co-operatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

  15. Direct benefits and the evolution of female-biased cooperative breeding in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Dunn, P.

    2002-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested to be a major selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. We investigated the fitness benefits selecting for cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler, Acroccphalus sechellensis. A microsatellite-based genotyping method was used t

  16. 78 FR 68370 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Kirtland's Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... bird species listed under section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). The change to the List of... as the hooded warbler (Wilsonia citrine), the northern parula (Parula Americana), and the tropical...'' under Birds to read as set forth below: Sec. 17.11 Endangered and threatened wildlife. * * * * *...

  17. Polygyny in the dusky warbler, Phylloscopus fuscatus : the importance of female qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmeier, W; Kuijper, DPJ; Leisler, B

    2001-01-01

    The polygyny threshold model states that secondary females gain benefits from high territory quality that outweigh the costs of sharing a male. We aimed to test this prediction using the dusky warbler as a model species. We first showed that neither the shifted sex ratio hypothesis nor the no-cost m

  18. Reed warbler hosts fine-tune their defenses to track three decades of cuckoo decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host's egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses.

  19. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  20. Conserving the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation : a transfer from Cousin Island to Aride Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Bullock, Ian D.; Rands, Michael R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds. Given the vulnerability of one

  1. Seasonal timing of reproduction in a tropical bird, the Seychelles warbler : A field experiment using translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproduction of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a single-island endemic species living close to the equator, is characterized by a pronounced annual rhythm. The bird usually raises only one or two clutches of one egg each per year. Observational data suggest that seasonal changes

  2. Inter-island transfers and population dynamics of Seychelles Warblers Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950s the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300–360 bir

  3. Grandparent helpers : The adaptive significance of older, postdominant helpers in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Wedell, N.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility that older, often nonreproductive, individuals may engage in kin-directed cooperative behavior has been largely overlooked in the study of cooperative breeding. Here, we describe and investigate the adaptive significance of such "grandparent" helpers in the Seychelles warbler, the fi

  4. Influence of habitat amount, arrangement, and use on population trend estimates of male Kirtland's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanh M. Donner; John R. Probst; Christine A. Ribic

    2008-01-01

    Kirtland's warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii) persist in a naturally patchy environment of young, regenerating jack pine forests (i.e., 5-23 years old) created after wildfires and human logging activities. We examined how changing landscape structure from 26 years of forest management and wildfire disturbances influenced population size and spatial...

  5. Occurrence of the Connecticut Warbler increases with size of patches of coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis) is a rare and declining Neotropical migrant that breeds in north-central United States and south-central Canada. To better understand the habitat needs of this species, we analysed habitat and landscape at three spatial scales (buffer ra...

  6. Basal metabolic rate, food intake, and body mass in cold- and warm-acclimated Garden Warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Oltrogge, M.; Trost, L.

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of whether physiological flexibility in relation to climate is a general feature of the metabolic properties of birds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-raised Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin), long-distance migrants, which normally do not experience great temperature differenc

  7. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  8. Research on golden-winged warblers: recent progress and current needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry M. Streby; Ronald W. Rohrbaugh; David A. Buehler; David E. Andersen; Rachel Vallender; David I. King; Tom. Will

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in knowledge about Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) in the past decade. Recent employment of molecular analysis, stable-isotope analysis, telemetry-based monitoring of survival and behavior, and spatially explicit modeling techniques have added to, and revised, an already broad base of published...

  9. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.

    2012-02-15

    Population abundance estimates using predictive models are important for describing habitat use and responses to population-level impacts, evaluating conservation status of a species, and for establishing monitoring programs. The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is a neotropical migratory bird that was listed as federally endangered in 1990 because of threats related to loss and fragmentation of its woodland habitat. Since listing, abundance estimates for the species have mainly relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species\\' breeding range. We first conducted occupancy surveys to determine range-wide distribution. We then conducted standard point-count surveys on a subset of the initial sampling locations to estimate density of males. Mean observed patch-specific density was 0.23 males/ha (95% CI = 0.197-0.252, n = 301). We modeled the relationship between patch-specific density of males and woodland patch characteristics (size and landscape composition) and predicted patch occupancy. The probability of patch occupancy, derived from a model that used patch size and landscape composition as predictor variables while addressing effects of spatial relatedness, best predicted patch-specific density. We predicted patch-specific densities as a function of occupancy probability and estimated abundance of male warblers across 63,616 woodland patches accounting for 1.678 million ha of potential warbler habitat. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, our approach yielded a range-wide male warbler population estimate of 263,339 (95% CI: 223,927-302,620). Our results provide the first abundance estimate using habitat and count data from a sampling design focused on range-wide inference. Managers can use the resulting model as a tool to support conservation planning

  10. [Brood parasitism and egg mimicry on Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Cettia fortipes) by Lesser Cuckoo (Cuculus poliocephalus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can-Chao; Cai, Yan; Liang, Wei

    2010-10-01

    Nest fate of Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Cettia fortipes) was conducted in breeding seasons from 1999 to 2009 in Kuankuoshui Natural Reserve, Guizhou province. Predation rate, parasitism rate, hatching success, nesting success and reproductive success were surveyed and egg color was quantified using spectrophotometer. Principal component analysis, reflectance spectrum and Robinson Project were used to analyze the egg color of bush warbler and egg mimicry of Lesser Cuckoo (Cuculus poliocephalus) in parasitized nests. Our results indicated that the Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler suffered from high predation rate and relatively high parasitism rate of 49.26% and 9.18%, respectively. Reflectance analysis showed that the hue and chroma of Lesser Cuckoo eggs were highly mimetic but the egg brightness and ultraviolet reflectance were different from the bush warbler.

  11. Experimental evidence for helping and hindering by previous offspring in the cooperative-breeding Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Prebreeding Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) frequently act as helpers on their natal territory, aiding in territory defence, predator mobbing, nest-building, incubation (only females) and feeding dependent young of their parents. In some cases helpers could attain breeding status

  12. The interacting effects of food, spring temperature, and global climate cycles on population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrea K; Cooch, Evan G; Sillett, T Scott; Rodenhouse, Nicholas L; Holmes, Richard T; Webster, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    Although long-distance migratory songbirds are widely believed to be at risk from warming temperature trends, species capable of attempting more than one brood in a breeding season could benefit from extended breeding seasons in warmer springs. To evaluate local and global factors affecting population dynamics of the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens), a double-brooded long-distance migrant, we used Pradel models to analyze 25 years of mark-recapture data collected in New Hampshire, USA. We assessed the effects of spring temperature (local weather) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation index (a global climate cycle), as well as predator abundance, insect biomass, and local conspecific density on population growth in the subsequent year. Local and global climatic conditions affected warbler populations in different ways. We found that warbler population growth was lower following El Niño years (which have been linked to poor survival in the wintering grounds and low fledging weights in the breeding grounds) than La Niña years. At a local scale, populations increased following years with warm springs and abundant late-season food, but were unaffected by spring temperature following years when food was scarce. These results indicate that the warming temperature trends might have a positive effect on recruitment and population growth of black-throated blue warblers if food abundance is sustained in breeding areas. In contrast, potential intensification of future El Niño events could negatively impact vital rates and populations of this species.

  13. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected.

  14. Multiple plumage traits convey information about age and within-age-class qualities of a canopy-dwelling songbird, the Cerulean Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Ben

    2014-01-01

    Colorful plumage traits in birds may convey multiple, redundant, or unreliable messages about an individual. Plumage may reliably convey information about disparate qualities such as age, condition, and parental ability because discrete tracts of feathers may cause individuals to incur different intrinsic or extrinsic costs. Few studies have examined the information content of plumage in a species that inhabits forest canopies, a habitat with unique light environments and selective pressures. We investigated the information content of four plumage patches (blue-green crown and rump, tail white, and black breast band) in a canopy-dwelling species, the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), in relation to age, condition, provisioning, and reproduction. We found that older males displayed wider breast bands, greater tail white, and crown and rump feathers with greater blue-green (435–534 nm) chroma and hue than males in their first potential breeding season. In turn, older birds were in better condition (short and long term) and were reproductively superior to younger birds. We propose that these age-related plumage differences (i.e. delayed plumage maturation) were not a consequence of a life history strategy but instead resulted from constraints during early feather molts. Within age classes, we found evidence to support the multiple messages hypothesis. Birds with greater tail white molted tails in faster, those with more exaggerated rump plumage (lower hue, greater blue-green chroma) provisioned more, and those with lower rump blue-green chroma were in better condition. Despite evidence of reliable signaling in this species, we found no strong relationships between plumage and reproductive performance, potentially because factors other than individual differences more strongly influenced fecundity.

  15. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  16. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (<36.0 m) and shrubs (<7.0 cm) than random locations within the male's territory. Successful nests had significantly more woody cover (≥9%) within 1 m than failed nests. Our results suggest that cattle grazing at 1.2–2.4 ha of forage/animal unit with periodic mowing can create and maintain these characteristics without interfering with the nesting of Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  17. Case study: Prioritization strategies for reforestation of minelands to benefit Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E.; Shumar, Matthew B.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2013-01-01

    The central Appalachian landscape is being heavily altered by surface coal mining. The practice of Mountaintop Removal/Valley Fill (MTRVF) mining has transformed large areas of mature forest to non-forest and created much forest edge, affecting habitat quality for mature forest wildlife. The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative is working to restore mined areas to native hardwood forest conditions, and strategies are needed to prioritize restoration efforts for wildlife. We present mineland reforestation guidelines for the imperiled Cerulean Warbler, considered a useful umbrella species, in its breeding range. In 2009, we surveyed forest predicted to have Cerulean Warblers near mined areas in the MTRVF region of West Virginia and Kentucky. We visited 36 transect routes and completed songbird surveys on 151 points along these routes. Cerulean Warblers were present at points with fewer large-scale canopy disturbances and more mature oak-hickory forest. We tested the accuracy of a predictive map for this species and demonstrated that it can be useful to guide reforestation efforts. We then developed a map of hot spot locations that can be used to determine potential habitat suitability. Restoration efforts would have greatest benefit for Cerulean Warblers and other mature forest birds if concentrated near a relative-abundance hot spot, on north- and east-facing ridgetops surrounded by mature deciduous forest, and prioritized to reduce edges and connect isolated forest patches. Our multi-scale approach for prioritizing restoration efforts using an umbrella species may be applied to restore habitat impacted by a variety of landscape disturbances.

  18. Metabolizable energy in Chinese tallow fruit for Yellow-rumped Warblers, Northern Cardinals, and American Robins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Jeske, C.; Rohwer, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) produces an abundant fruit crop, which is primarily bird-dispersed. The fruit pulp of tallow is lipid-rich, high in saturated fatty acids, and consumed by many bird species. Long-chained fatty acids can be difficult for many birds to digest and we investigated the ability of tallow consumers to assimilate energy in the pulp. We used the total collection method and compared apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of tallow fruit for three species of birds with differing fruit composition in their natural diets. All birds exhibited nitrogen deficits and lost body mass during the trials. Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) lost more mass (8.73%/day) than Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) (5.29%/day) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (5.48%/day), and had larger nitrogen deficits (-120.1 mg N/g diet) than both species as well (-36.4 mg N/g diet and -68.9 mg N/g diet, respectively). Food intake relative to metabolic body mass was highest in Yellow-rumped Warblers (0.70 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Northern Cardinal and American Robin food intake was lower and did not differ from each other (both species: 0.13 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Nitrogen corrected values of AME were used to make species comparisons. Yellow-rumped-Warblers exhibited the highest values of AME (30.00 kJ/g), followed by American Robins (23.90 kJ/g), and Northern Cardinals (14.34 kJ/g). We suggest tallow may be an important winter food source for Yellow-rumped Warblers where their ranges overlap.

  19. Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware River basin in northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Redell, L.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Young, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Avian biodiversity may be at risk in eastern parks and forests due to continued expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic homopteran insect native to East Asia. To assess avian biodiversity, mesohabitat relations, and the risk of species loss with declining hemlock forests in Appalachian park lands, 80 randomly distributed fixed-radius plots were established in which territories of breeding birds were estimated on four forest-terrain types (hemlock and hardwood benches and ravines) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Both species richness and number of territories were higher in hardwood than hemlock forest types and in bench than ravine terrain types. Four insectivorous species, Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), and Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), showed high affinity for hemlock forest type and exhibited significantly greater numbers of territories in hemlock than hardwood sites. These species are hemlock-associated species at risk from continued hemlock decline in the Delaware River valley and similar forests of the mid-Atlantic east slope. Two of these species, the blue-headed vireo and Blackburnian warbler, appeared to specialize on ravine mesohabitats of hemlock stands, the vireo a low-to-mid canopy species, the warbler a mid-to-upper canopy forager. Unchecked expansion of the exotic adelgid and subsequent hemlock decline could negatively impact 3,600 pairs from the park and several million pairs from northeastern United States hemlock forests due to elimination of preferred habitat.

  20. Spatial and temporal migration patterns of Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) in the southwest as revealed by stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, K.L.; van Riper, Charles; Theimer, T.C.; Paxton, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable hydrogen isotopes (??D) to identify the breeding locations of Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) migrating through five sites spanning a cross-section of the species' southwestern migration route during the springs of 2003 and 2004. Determining the temporal and spatial patterns of migration and degree of population segregation during migration is critical to understanding long-term population trends of migrant birds. At all five migration sites, we found a significant negative relationship between the date Wilson's Warblers passed through the sampling station and ??D values of their feathers. These data were consistent with a pattern of "leap-frog" migration, in which individuals that bred the previous season at southern latitudes migrated through migration stations earlier than individuals that had previously bred at more northern latitudes. We documented that this pattern was consistent across sites and in multiple years. This finding corroborates previous research conducted on Wilson's Warbler during the fall migration. In addition, mean ??D values became more negative across sampling stations from west to east, with the mean ??D values at each station corresponding to different geographic regions of the Wilson's Warblers' western breeding range. These data indicate that Wilson's Warblers passing through each station represented a specific regional subset of the entire Wilson's Warbler western breeding range. As a result, habitat alterations at specific areas across the east-west expanse of the bird's migratory route in the southwestern United States could differentially affect Wilson's Warblers at different breeding areas. This migration information is critical for management of Neotropical migrants, especially in light of the rapid changes presently occurring over the southwestern landscape. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  1. Selection of forest canopy gaps by male Cerulean Warblers in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kelly A.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2014-01-01

    Forest openings, or canopy gaps, are an important resource for many forest songbirds, such as Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea). We examined canopy gap selection by this declining species to determine if male Cerulean Warblers selected particular sizes, vegetative heights, or types of gaps. We tested whether these parameters differed among territories, territory core areas, and randomly-placed sample plots. We used enhanced territory mapping techniques (burst sampling) to define habitat use within the territory. Canopy gap densities were higher within core areas of territories than within territories or random plots, indicating that Cerulean Warblers selected habitat within their territories with the highest gap densities. Selection of regenerating gaps with woody vegetation >12 m within the gap, and canopy heights >24 m surrounding the gap, occurred within territory core areas. These findings differed between two sites indicating that gap selection may vary based on forest structure. Differences were also found regarding the placement of territories with respect to gaps. Larger gaps, such as wildlife food plots, were located on the periphery of territories more often than other types and sizes of gaps, while smaller gaps, such as treefalls, were located within territory boundaries more often than expected. The creations of smaller canopy gaps, <100 m2, within dense stands are likely compatible with forest management for this species.

  2. Intersexual and temporal variation in foraging ecology of prothonotary warblers during the breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, L.J.; Petit, D.R.; Petit, K.E.; Fleming, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    We studied foraging ecology of Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) over four breeding seasons to determine if this species exhibited sex-specific or temporal variation in foraging behavior. Significant differences between sexes during the prenestling period were found for foraging height and substrate height (foraging method, plant species/substrate, perch diameter, horizontal location from trunk, and prey location were not significantly different). During the nestling period, this divergence between sexes was evident for foraging height, substrate height, substrate / tree species, and prey location. Additionally, male warblers significantly altered their behavior for all seven foraging variables between the two periods, whereas females exhibited changes similar to those of males for five of the foraging variables. This parallel shift suggests a strong behavioral response by both sexes to proximate factors (such as vegetation structure, and prey abundance and distribution) that varied throughout the breeding season. Sex-specific foraging behavior during the prenestling period was best explained by differences in reproductive responsibilities rather than by the theory of intersexual competition for limited resources. During the nestling period, neither hypothesis by itself explained foraging divergences adequately. However, when integrated with the temporal responses of the warblers to changes in prey availability, reproductive responsibilities seemed to be of primary importance in explaining intersexual niche partitioning during the nestling period. We emphasize the importance of considering both intersexual and intraseasonal variation when quantifying a species' foraging ecology.

  3. Blue Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  4. Effects of stop-level habitat change on cerulean warbler detections along breeding bird survey routes in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.M.; Wood, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat change on Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) populations at stops along Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes in the central Appalachians. We used aerial photographs to compare early (1967/1971), middle (1982/1985), and late (2000/2003) periods and compared 1992 and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD). Mean Cerulean Warbler detections per stop decreased at 68 BBS stops between the early (0.05) and middle (0.01) time periods and their distribution became more restricted (15 vs. 3% of stops), but the amount of deciduous/mixed forest increased. Mean detections at 240 stops decreased from the middle (0.09) to the late (0.06) time periods, but the deciduous/mixed forest land cover and fragmentation metrics did not change. The amounts of deciduous/mixed forest, core forest area, and edge density in the NLCD analysis decreased from 1992 to 2001, whereas the amount of non-forest land cover increased. The number of Cerulean Warbler detections did not change (1992 ?=? 0.08, 2001 ?=? 0.10; P ?=? 0.11). The lack of concordance between Cerulean Warbler detections and broad habitat features suggests that smaller, microhabitat features may be most important in affecting Cerulean Warbler breeding habitat suitability. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  5. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbler...... in the study area. Moreover, breeding evidence was gathered for Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla, Stock Dove Columba oenas, Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina and Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus for the first time in Turkish Thrace. Furthermore, the survey provided some...... cinclus, Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala, Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria and Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva, which require further research on their breeding distributions in the study area....

  6. Effects of habitat change along Breeding Bird Survey routes in the central Appalachians on Cerulean Warbler population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.; Wood, P.W.; Dawson, D.

    2007-01-01

    The cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is one of the highest priority bird species in the eastern United States because populations have declined 4.3% annually during 1966?2005 based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to land use changes is thought to be one of the major factors contributing to the decline. BBS routes, the primary source for monitoring bird population trends, include 50 sampling stops every 0.8 km. Although data from BBS routes are extrapolated to determine regional trends in bird populations, it is important to understand the effects of habitat changes at the stop-level along BBS routes. Route-level analysis of habitat changes may mask important changes that are occurring at a smaller scale particularly for the cerulean warbler which displays several micro-scale habitat preferences. We are examining cerulean warbler habitat and population changes in its core breeding range of the Ohio Hills and Cumberland Plateau physiographic regions. We quantified land cover changes within 300 m of BBS routes in the core cerulean warbler breeding range of Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky by digitizing aerial photographs from two time periods: the 1980s and 2004. We also quantified land cover changes within 300 m of BBS routes with the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) from 1992 and 2001. The hand-digitized aerial photos will be compared with the NLCD to determine how similar the two methods are in quantifying land cover changes. We then compared stop-level land cover changes with stop level changes in cerulean warbler detections within the same time periods along the BBS routes. This will allow for a more detailed analysis of how well habitat changes along BBS routes reflect the changes in cerulean warbler populations.

  7. Spatial variation in breeding habitat selection by Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) throughout the Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Newell, Felicity L.; Evans, Andrea; George, Gregory A.; Wigley, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of habitat selection are often of limited utility because they focus on small geographic areas, fail to examine behavior at multiple scales, or lack an assessment of the fitness consequences of habitat decisions. These limitations can hamper the identification of successful site-specific management strategies, which are urgently needed for severely declining species like Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea). We assessed how breeding habitat decisions made by Cerulean Warblers at multiple scales, and the subsequent effects of these decisions on nest survival, varied across the Appalachian Mountains. Selection for structural habitat features varied substantially among areas, particularly at the territory scale. Males within the least-forested landscapes selected microhabitat features that reflected more closed-canopy forest conditions, whereas males in highly forested landscapes favored features associated with canopy disturbance. Selection of nest-patch and nest-site attributes by females was more consistent across areas, with females selecting for increased tree size and understory cover and decreased basal area and midstory cover. Floristic preferences were similar across study areas: White Oak (Quercus alba), Cucumber-tree (Magnolia acuminata), and Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) were preferred as nest trees, whereas red oak species (subgenus Erythrobalanus) and Red Maple (A. rubrum) were avoided. The habitat features that were related to nest survival also varied among study areas, and preferred features were negatively associated with nest survival at one area. Thus, our results indicate that large-scale spatial heterogeneity may influence local habitat-selection behavior and that it may be necessary to articulate site-specific management strategies for Cerulean Warblers.

  8. Microsatellite DNA markers for delineating population structure and kinship among the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIM L. KING; MICHAEL S. EACKLES; ANNE P. HENDERSON; CAROL I. BOCETTI; DAVE CURRIE; JR WUNDERLE

    2005-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 23 microsatellite DNA markers for the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), a Nearctic/Neotropical migrant passerine. This suite of markers revealed moderate to high levels of allelic diversity (averaging 7.7 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 72%). Genotypic frequencies at 22 of 23 (95%)...

  9. Population distribution, density and habitat preference of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon Curley; Terry Master; Gregory George

    2012-01-01

    The breeding range of the Cerulean Warbler has expanded into second-growth forest and converted agricultural land in the northeastern United States where, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the population is increasing. Despite this expansion in one part of its range, the population as a whole is still in rapid decline implying that habitat quality...

  10. A Kirtland's warbler management at regional, landscape, and local scales; 2009 August 25-26; Odanah, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; John R. Probst

    2009-01-01

    The Kirtland's Warbler breeds in young, densely-stocked jack pine forests of northern Lower Michigan, and more recently limited areas in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Wisconsin and Ontario. Because almost all the known population and potential nesting habitat can be surveyed and monitored, this species provides an outstanding opportunity for research on long-...

  11. Conserving the seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation from Cousin Island to the islands of Aride and Cousine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds. Give

  12. Ecological assessment of the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service’s Kirtland’s Warbler Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kirtland’s Warbler Wildlife Management Area (KWWMA) is an assemblage of 124 stands totaling 6,582 ac (2,264 ha), all located within eight counties of the...

  13. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  14. Experimental evidence that kin discrimination in the Seychelles warbler is based on association and not on genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Richardson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperative breeding systems driven by kin selection, effective kin-recognition cues are important. Recognition could be achieved by the direct assessment of the genetic relatedness of individuals or by learning through association. In the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, female sub

  15. Experimental evidence for helping and hindering by previous offspring in the cooperative-breeding Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Prebreeding Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) frequently act as helpers on their natal territory, aiding in territory defence, predator mobbing, nest-building, incubation (only females) and feeding dependent young of their parents. In some cases helpers could attain breeding status (e.

  16. Radio-transmitters do not affect seasonal productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Gesmundo, Callie; Johnson, Michael K.; Fish, Alexander C.; Lehman, Justin A.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the potential effects of handling and marking techniques on study animals is important for correct interpretation of research results and to effect progress in data-collection methods. Few investigators have compared the reproductive output of radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged songbirds, and no one to date has examined the possible effect of radio-tagging adult songbirds on the survival of their fledglings. In 2011 and 2012, we compared several parameters of reproductive output of two groups of female Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) breeding in Minnesota, including 45 females with radio-transmitters and 73 females we did not capture, handle, or mark. We found no difference between groups in clutch sizes, hatching success, brood sizes, length of incubation and nestling stages, fledging success, number of fledglings, or survival of fledglings to independence. Thus, radio-tags had no measurable impact on the productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers. Our results build upon previous studies where investigators have reported no effects of radio-tagging on the breeding parameters of songbirds by also demonstrating no effect of radio-tagging through the post-fledging period and, therefore, the entire breeding season.

  17. Coping with shifting nest predation refuges by European reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Halupka

    Full Text Available Predation, the most important source of nest mortality in altricial birds, has been a subject of numerous studies during past decades. However, the temporal dynamics between changing predation pressures and parental responses remain poorly understood. We analysed characteristics of 524 nests of European reed warblers monitored during six consecutive breeding seasons in the same area, and found some support for the shifting nest predation refuge hypothesis. Nest site characteristics were correlated with nest fate, but a nest with the same nest-site attributes could be relatively safe in one season and vulnerable to predation in another. Thus nest predation refuges were ephemeral and there was no between-season consistency in nest predation patterns. Reed warblers that lost their first nests in a given season did not disperse farther for the subsequent reproductive attempt, compared to successful individuals, but they introduced more changes to their second nest sites. In subsequent nests, predation risk remained constant for birds that changed nest-site characteristics, but increased for those that did not. At the between-season temporal scale, individual birds did not perform better with age in terms of reducing nest predation risk. We conclude that the experience acquired in previous years may not be useful, given that nest predation refuges are not stable.

  18. Description of nests, eggs, and nestlings of the endangered nightingale reed-warbler on Saipan, Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, S.M.; Fancy, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first verified nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Nightingale Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), an endangered species endemic to the Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Nest composition, nest dimensions, and eggs were studied on the island of Saipan. Nests were located within three habitat types: upland introduced tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) forest, a native mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) wetland, and a native reed (Phragmites karka) wetland. Nesting substrates included five native and two introduced tree species and one native reed species. Nests were composed primarily of dry vine stems, needle-like branchlets of ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), and tangantangan petioles. Nests were compact to bulky in construction and were secured to a forked arrangement of branches or stems. The background color of eggs ranged from white to cream to ivory-buff. Eggs were spotted, speckled, and blotched with gray, brown, black, and rust colored markings. Clutch size was 2-4, with a mode of two. Hatchlings were altricial with closed eyelids and devoid of natal down with dark gray to black skin. Nestlings examined prior to fledging resembled the adult plumage, except for the lack of the yellow supercilium found in adults. The nests and eggs have some characteristics similar to those of other Acrocephaline warblers found throughout Micronesia and Polynesia.

  19. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Duarte,; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack,; Michael R. J. Forstner,; M. Clay Green,; Floyd W. Weckerly,

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  20. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  1. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Per; Alstr?m; Canwei; Xia; Pamela; C; Rasmussen; Urban; Olsson; Bo; Dai; Jian; Zhao; Paul; J; Leader; Geoff; J; Carey; Lu; Dong; Tianlong; Cai; Paul; I; Holt; Hung; Le; Manh; Gang; Song; Yang; Liu; Yanyun; Zhang; Fumin; Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Russet Bush Warbler Locustella(previously Bradypterus) mandelli complex occurs in mountains in the eastern Himalayas, southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The taxonomy has been debated,with one(L. seebohmi) to four(L. seebohmi, L. mandelli, L. montis and L. timorensis) species having been recognised.Methods: We used an integrative approach, incorporating analyses of morphology, vocalizations and a molecular marker, to re-evaluate species limits in the L. mandelli complex.Results: We found that central Chinese L. mandelli differed from those from India through northern Southeast Asia to southeast China in plumage, morphometrics and song. All were easily classified by song, and(wing + culmen)/tail ratio overlapped only marginally. Both groups were reciprocally monophyletic in a mitochondrial cytochrome b(cytb) gene tree, with a mean divergence of 1.0 ± 0.2%. They were sympatric and mostly altitudinally segregated in the breeding season in southern Sichuan province. We found that the Mt Victoria(western Myanmar) population differed vocally from other L. mandelli, but no specimens are available. Taiwan Bush Warbler L. alishanensis was sister to the L. mandelli complex, with the most divergent song. Plumage, vocal and cytb evidence supported the distinctness of the south Vietnamese L. mandelli idonea. The Timor Bush Warbler L. timorensis, Javan Bush Warbler L.montis and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi differed distinctly in plumage, but among-population song variation in L. montis exceeded the differences between some populations of these taxa, and mean pairwise cytb divergences were only 0.5–0.9%. We also found that some L. montis populations differed morphologically.Conclusions: We conclude that the central Chinese population of Russet Bush Warbler represents a new species,which we describe herein, breeding at mid elevations in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces.The taxonomic status of the other allopatric

  2. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Per Alström; Tianlong Cai1; Paul I Holt; Hung Le Manh; Gang Song; Yang Liu; Yanyun Zhang; Fumin Lei; Canwei Xia; Pamela C Rasmussen; Urban Olsson; Bo Dai; Jian Zhao; Paul J Leader; Geoff J Carey; Lu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background:The Russet Bush Warbler Locustel a (previously Bradypterus) mandel i complex occurs in mountains in the eastern Himalayas, southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The taxonomy has been debated, with one (L. seebohmi) to four (L. seebohmi, L. mandel i, L. montis and L. timorensis) species having been recognised. Methods:We used an integrative approach, incorporating analyses of morphology, vocalizations and a molecular marker, to re-evaluate species limits in the L. mandel i complex. Results:We found that central Chinese L. mandel i differed from those from India through northern Southeast Asia to southeast China in plumage, morphometrics and song. All were easily classified by song, and (wing+culmen)/tail ratio overlapped only marginally. Both groups were reciprocally monophyletic in a mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene tree, with a mean divergence of 1.0 ± 0.2%. They were sympatric and mostly altitudinally segregated in the breeding season in southern Sichuan province. We found that the Mt Victoria (western Myanmar) population differed vocally from other L. mandel i, but no specimens are available. Taiwan Bush Warbler L. alishanensis was sister to the L. mandel i complex, with the most divergent song. Plumage, vocal and cytb evidence supported the distinctness of the south Vietnamese L. mandel i idonea. The Timor Bush Warbler L. timorensis, Javan Bush Warbler L. montis and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi differed distinctly in plumage, but among-population song variation in L. montis exceeded the differences between some populations of these taxa, and mean pairwise cytb divergences were only 0.5–0.9%. We also found that some L. montis populations differed morphologically. Conclusions:We conclude that the central Chinese population of Russet Bush Warbler represents a new species, which we describe herein, breeding at mid elevations in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces. The taxonomic status of the other

  3. Magnetic orientation of garden warblers (Sylvia borin) under 1.4 MHz radiofrequency magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavokin, Kirill; Chernetsov, Nikita; Pakhomov, Alexander; Bojarinova, Julia; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Namozov, Barot

    2014-08-01

    We report on the experiments on orientation of a migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin), during the autumn migration period on the Courish Spit, Eastern Baltics. Birds in experimental cages, deprived of visual information, showed the seasonally appropriate direction of intended flight with respect to the magnetic meridian. Weak radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field (190 nT at 1.4 MHz) disrupted this orientation ability. These results may be considered as an independent replication of earlier experiments, performed by the group of R. and W. Wiltschko with European robins (Erithacus rubecula). Confirmed outstanding sensitivity of the birds' magnetic compass to RF fields in the lower megahertz range demands for a revision of one of the mainstream theories of magnetoreception, the radical-pair model of birds' magnetic compass.

  4. Allelic variation in a willow warbler genomic region is associated with climate clines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W Larson

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is an important process contributing to population differentiation which can occur in continuous or isolated populations connected by various amounts of gene flow. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus is one of the most common songbirds in Fennoscandia. It has a continuous breeding distribution where it is found in all forested habitats from sea level to the tree line and therefore constitutes an ideal species for the study of locally adapted genes associated with environmental gradients. Previous studies in this species identified a genetic marker (AFLP-WW1 that showed a steep north-south cline in central Sweden with one allele associated with coastal lowland habitats and the other with mountainous habitats. It was further demonstrated that this marker is embedded in a highly differentiated chromosome region that spans several megabases. In the present study, we sampled 2,355 individuals at 128 sites across all of Fennoscandia to study the geographic and climatic variables associated with the allele frequency distributions of WW1. Our results demonstrate that 1 allele frequency patterns significantly differ between mountain and lowland populations, 2 these allele differences coincide with extreme temperature conditions and the short growing season in the mountains, and milder conditions in coastal areas, and 3 the northern-allele or "altitude variant" of WW1 occurs in willow warblers that occupy mountainous habitat regardless of subspecies. Finally these results suggest that climate may exert selection on the genomic region associated with these alleles and would allow us to develop testable predictions for the distribution of the genetic marker based on climate change scenarios.

  5. Seasonal and population variation in male testosterone levels in breeding orange-crowned warblers (Vermivora celata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brent M; Yoon, Jongmin; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Moore, Ignacio T; Scott Sillett, T

    2010-09-15

    Comparative hormone studies can reveal how physiology underlies life history variation. Here, we examined seasonal variation in plasma testosterone concentration between populations of male orange-crowned warblers (Vermivora celata) breeding in Fairbanks, Alaska (V. c. celata) and on Santa Catalina Island, California (V. c. sordida). These populations face different ecological constraints and exhibit different life histories. Alaska birds have a short breeding season, low annual adult survival, and high reproductive rates. In contrast, Catalina Island birds exhibit high adult survival and low reproductive rates despite having a long breeding season. We examined seasonal variation in male testosterone concentrations as a potential mechanism underlying differences in male reproductive strategies between populations. From 2006 to 2008, we sampled males during the pre-incubation, incubation, and nestling stages. Alaska males exhibited a seasonal testosterone pattern typical of northern passerines: testosterone levels were high during pre-incubation and declined during incubation to low levels during nestling provisioning. Testosterone concentrations in Catalina Island males, however, did not vary consistently with breeding stage, remained elevated throughout the breeding season, and were higher than in Alaska males during the nestling stage. We hypothesize that in Alaska, where short seasons and high adult mortality limit breeding opportunities, the seasonal testosterone pattern facilitates high mating effort prior to incubation, but high parental investment during the nestling stage. On Catalina Island, elevated testosterone levels may reflect the extended mating opportunities and high population density facing males in this population. Our results suggest that population variation in seasonal testosterone patterns in orange-crowned warblers may be a function of differences in life history strategy and the social environment.

  6. Color vision: retinal blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  7. Isospora celata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno Pereira; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) collected in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico at 3,000 metres above sea level. Isospora celata n. sp. has subspheroidal oöcysts, measuring 28.4 × 26.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.2 μm thick. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but oöcyst residuum is present as a compact mass. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 18.2 × 12.8 µm. Stieda body knob-like and sub-Stieda body irregular and barely discernible. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the third description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  8. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  9. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  10. Persistent diel melatonin rhythmicity during the Arctic summer in free-living willow warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverin, Bengt; Gwinner, Eberhard; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Schwabl, Ingrid; Fusani, Leonida; Hau, Michaela; Helm, Barbara

    2009-06-01

    Arctic environments are challenging for circadian systems. Around the solstices, the most important zeitgeber, the change between night and day, is reduced to minor fluctuations in light intensities. However, many species including songbirds nonetheless show clear diel activity patterns. Here we examine the possible physiological basis underlying diel rhythmicity under continuous Arctic summer light. Rhythmic secretion of the hormone melatonin constitutes an important part of the songbird circadian system and its experimental suppression, e.g., by constant light, usually leads to behavioral arrhythmia. We therefore studied melatonin patterns in a free-living migratory songbird, the willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), that maintains diel activity during the Arctic summer. We compared melatonin profiles during late spring and summer solstice in two Swedish populations from the south (58 degrees N) and near the Arctic circle (66 degrees N). We found the northern Swedish population maintained clear diel changes in melatonin secretion during the summer solstice, although peak concentrations were lower than in southern Sweden. Melatonin levels were highest before midnight and in good accordance with periods of reduced activity. The maintenance of diel melatonin rhythmicity under conditions of continuous light may be one of the physiological mechanisms that enables continued functioning of the circadian system.

  11. Annual variation in foraging ecology of prothonotary warblers during the breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, L.J.; Petit, D.R.; Petit, K.E.; Fleming, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    We studied foraging ecology of Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) along the Tennessee River in west-central Tennessee during the breeding seasons of 1984-1987. We analyzed seven foraging variables to determine if this population exhibited annual variation in foraging behavior. Based on nearly 3,000 foraging maneuvers, most variables showed significant interyear variation during the four prenestling and three nestling periods we studied. This interyear variation probably was due -to proximate, environmental cues--such as distribution and abundance of arthropods--which, in turn, were influenced by local weather conditions. Researchers should consider the consequences of combining foraging behavior data collected in different years, because resolution of ecological trends may be sacrificed by considering only general patterns of foraging ecology and not the dynamics of those activities. In addition, because of annual variability, foraging data collected in only one year, regardless of the number of observations gathered, may not provide an accurate concept of the foraging ecology in insectivorous birds.

  12. The impact of conservation-driven translocations on blood parasite prevalence in the Seychelles warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced populations often lose the parasites they carried in their native range, but little is known about which processes may cause parasite loss during host movement. Conservation-driven translocations could provide an opportunity to identify the mechanisms involved. Using 3,888 blood samples collected over 22 years, we investigated parasite prevalence in populations of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) after individuals were translocated from Cousin Island to four new islands (Aride, Cousine, Denis and Frégate). Only a single parasite (Haemoproteus nucleocondensus) was detected on Cousin (prevalence = 52%). This parasite persisted on Cousine (prevalence = 41%), but no infection was found in individuals hatched on Aride, Denis or Frégate. It is not known whether the parasite ever arrived on Aride, but it has not been detected there despite 20 years of post-translocation sampling. We confirmed that individuals translocated to Denis and Frégate were infected, with initial prevalence similar to Cousin. Over time, prevalence decreased on Denis and Frégate until the parasite was not found on Denis two years after translocation, and was approaching zero prevalence on Frégate. The loss (Denis) or decline (Frégate) of H. nucleocondensus, despite successful establishment of infected hosts, must be due to factors affecting parasite transmission on these islands. PMID:27405249

  13. Chemical magnetoreception: bird cryptochrome 1a is excited by blue light and forms long-lived radical-pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Liedvogel

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes (Cry have been suggested to form the basis of light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. However, to function as magnetic compass sensors, the cryptochromes of migratory birds must possess a number of key biophysical characteristics. Most importantly, absorption of blue light must produce radical pairs with lifetimes longer than about a microsecond. Cryptochrome 1a (gwCry1a and the photolyase-homology-region of Cry1 (gwCry1-PHR from the migratory garden warbler were recombinantly expressed and purified from a baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system. Transient absorption measurements show that these flavoproteins are indeed excited by light in the blue spectral range leading to the formation of radicals with millisecond lifetimes. These biophysical characteristics suggest that gwCry1a is ideally suited as a primary light-mediated, radical-pair-based magnetic compass receptor.

  14. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  15. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang

    2016-02-01

    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds.

  16. Calleguas Creek Simi Valley to Moorpark Ventura County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Audubon’s warbler Dendroica auduboni Black-throated gray warbler Dendroica nigrescens * YeI lowthroat Geothlypis trichas *House sparrow Passer domesticus ...wood rat N. lepida Meadow mouse Microtus califomnicus Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Coyote Canis latrans Raccoon Proc yon lotor Ring-tailed cat...systematic survey could result in resource identification and form a basis for mitigative action. Therefore, we suggest an area survey be conducted by

  17. Experimentally simulating paternity uncertainty: immediate and long-term responses of male and female reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Hoi

    Full Text Available In many socially monogamous species, both sexes seek copulation outside the pair bond in order to increase their reproductive success. In response, males adopt counter-strategies to combat the risk of losing paternity. However, no study so far has tried to experimentally prove the function of behaviour for paternity assurance. Introducing a potential extra-pair partner during the female fertile period provides a standardised method to examine how pair members respond immediately (e.g. increase mate guarding or copulation frequency or long term (e.g. later parental investment and paternity uncertainty. In this study on a socially monogamous passerine species, we experimentally confronted pairs of reed warblers with a conspecific male (caged male simulating an intruder during egg-laying. Our results revealed that occurrence of an intruder during that period triggered aggression against the intruder, depending on the presence of the female. The male territory owner also attacked the female partner to drive her away from the intruder. Thus territory defence in reed warblers also serves to protect paternity. The increase in paternity uncertainty did not affect later paternal investment. Paternal investment was also independent of the actual paternity losses. In females, the experiment elicited both, immediate and long-term responses. E.g. female copulation solicitations during the intruder experiment were only observed for females which later turned out to have extra-pair chicks in their nest. In relation to long term response females faced with an intruder invested later less in offspring feeding, and had less extra-pair chicks in their nests. Extra-pair paternity also seems to be affected by female quality (body size. In conclusion female reed warblers seem to seek extra-pair fertilizations but we could demonstrate that males adopt paternity assurance tactics which seems to efficiently help them to reduce paternity uncertainty.

  18. Emulating natural disturbances for declining late-successional species: A case study of the consequences for Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Newell, Felicity L.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Evans, Andrea; Beachy, Tiffany A.; McDermott, Molly E.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew; Wigley, T. Bently

    2013-01-01

    Forest cover in the eastern United States has increased over the past century and while some late-successional species have benefited from this process as expected, others have experienced population declines. These declines may be in part related to contemporary reductions in small-scale forest interior disturbances such as fire, windthrow, and treefalls. To mitigate the negative impacts of disturbance alteration and suppression on some late-successional species, strategies that emulate natural disturbance regimes are often advocated, but large-scale evaluations of these practices are rare. Here, we assessed the consequences of experimental disturbance (using partial timber harvest) on a severely declining late-successional species, the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), across the core of its breeding range in the Appalachian Mountains. We measured numerical (density), physiological (body condition), and demographic (age structure and reproduction) responses to three levels of disturbance and explored the potential impacts of disturbance on source-sink dynamics. Breeding densities of warblers increased one to four years after all canopy disturbances (vs. controls) and males occupying territories on treatment plots were in better condition than those on control plots. However, these beneficial effects of disturbance did not correspond to improvements in reproduction; nest success was lower on all treatment plots than on control plots in the southern region and marginally lower on light disturbance plots in the northern region. Our data suggest that only habitats in the southern region acted as sources, and interior disturbances in this region have the potential to create ecological traps at a local scale, but sources when viewed at broader scales. Thus, cerulean warblers would likely benefit from management that strikes a landscape-level balance between emulating natural disturbances in order to attract individuals into areas where current structure is

  19. Annual cycle and migration strategies of a trans-Saharan migratory songbird: a geolocator study in the great reed warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilger W Lemke

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements now allow us to obtain geographical position data for a wide range of animal movements. Here we used light-level geolocators to study the annual migration cycle in great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a passerine bird breeding in Eurasia and wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. We were specifically interested in seasonal strategies in routes and schedules of migration. We found that the great reed warblers (all males, no females were included migrated from the Swedish breeding site in early August. After spending up to three weeks at scattered stopover sites in central to south-eastern Europe, they resumed migration and crossed the Mediterranean Sea and Sahara Desert without lengthy stopovers. They then spread out over a large overwintering area and each bird utilised two (or even three main wintering sites that were spatially separated by a distinct mid-winter movement. Spring migration initiation date differed widely between individuals (1-27 April. Several males took a more westerly route over the Sahara in spring than in autumn, and in general there were fewer long-distance travels and more frequent shorter stopovers, including one in northern Africa, in spring. The shorter stopovers made spring migration on average faster than autumn migration. There was a strong correlation between the spring departure dates from wintering sites and the arrival dates at the breeding ground. All males had a high migration speed in spring despite large variation in departure dates, indicating a time-minimization strategy to achieve an early arrival at the breeding site; the latter being decisive for high reproductive success in great reed warblers. Our results have important implications for the understanding of long-distance migrants' ability to predict conditions at distant breeding sites and adapt to rapid environmental change.

  20. Presence-nonpresence surveys of golden-cheeked warblers: detection, occupancy and survey effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C.A.; Weckerly, F.W.; Hatfield, J.S.; Farquhar, C.C.; Williamson, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Surveys to detect the presence or absence of endangered species may not consistently cover an area, account for imperfect detection or consider that detection and species presence at sample units may change within a survey season. We evaluated a detection?nondetection survey method for the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler (GCWA) Dendroica chrysoparia. Three study areas were selected across the breeding range of GCWA in central Texas. Within each area, 28-36 detection stations were placed 200 m apart. Each detection station was surveyed nine times during the breeding season in 2 consecutive years. Surveyors remained up to 8 min at each detection station recording GCWA detected by sight or sound. To assess the potential influence of environmental covariates (e.g. slope, aspect, canopy cover, study area) on detection and occupancy and possible changes in occupancy and detection probabilities within breeding seasons, 30 models were analyzed. Using information-theoretic model selection procedures, we found that detection probabilities and occupancy varied among study areas and within breeding seasons. Detection probabilities ranged from 0.20 to 0.80 and occupancy ranged from 0.56 to 0.95. Because study areas with high detection probabilities had high occupancy, a conservative survey effort (erred towards too much surveying) was estimated using the lowest detection probability. We determined that nine surveys of 35 stations were needed to have estimates of occupancy with coefficients of variation <20%. Our survey evaluation evidently captured the key environmental variable that influenced bird detection (GCWA density) and accommodated the changes in GCWA distribution throughout the breeding season.

  1. Sex and age differences in site fidelity, food resource tracking, and body condition of wintering Kirtland's Warblers (Setophaga Kirtlandii) in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Patricia K. Lebow; Jennifer D. White; Dave Currie; David N. Ewert

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of nonbreeding migrant birds in relation to variation in food availability has been hypothesized to result from the interaction of dominance hierarchies and variable movement responses, which together may have sex- and age-specific consequences. We predicted that site fidelity, movements, and abundance of Kirtland’s Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii...

  2. Egg discrimination in the Australian reed warbler (Acrocephalus australis) : rejection response toward model and conspecific eggs depending on timing and mode of artificial parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbergen, J; Komdeur, J; Kats, R; Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a coevolutionary arms race between an interspecific brood parasite and its host species, bath are expected to evolve adaptations and counteradaptations. We studied egg discrimination in the Australian warbler (Acrocephalus australis). This species is currently not significantly parasitized by the

  3. Breeding biology of the Three-striped warbler in Venezuela: A contrast between tropical and temperate parulids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    We document reproductive life history traits of the Three-striped Warbler (Basileuterus tristriatus) from 146 nests in Venezuela and compare our results to data from the literature for other tropical and temperate parulid species. Mean (?? SE) clutch size was 1.96 ?? 0.03 eggs (n = 96) and fresh egg mass was 2.09 ?? 0.02 g. The incubation period was 15.8 ?? 0.2 days (n = 23) and the nestling period was 10.5 ?? 0.3 days (n = 12). Males did not incubate and rarely provided food for females during incubation. Females had 57 ?? 2% (n = 49) nest attentiveness (% of time on the nest incubating), which caused egg temperature to commonly become cold relative to development. Both adults fed nestlings and feeding rates increased with nestling age. The growth rate constant for nestlings based on mass was K 0.490, which is slower than for north temperate warblers. Predation was the primary source of nest failure and only 22% of nests were successful based on a Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.048 ?? 0.006. Our literature review indicates parulids differ strongly in life histories between temperate and tropical/subtropical sites with species in the tropics having, on average, smaller clutches, longer incubation periods, lower nest attentiveness, longer off-bouts, and longer nestling periods. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  4. Migratory Reed Warblers Need Intact Trigeminal Nerves to Correct for a 1,000 km Eastward Displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kishkinev

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that experienced night-migratory songbirds can determine their position, but it has remained a mystery which cues and sensory mechanisms they use, in particular, those used to determine longitude (east-west position. One potential solution would be to use a magnetic map or signpost mechanism like the one documented in sea turtles. Night-migratory songbirds have a magnetic compass in their eyes and a second magnetic sense with unknown biological function involving the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1. Could V1 be involved in determining east-west position? We displaced 57 Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus with or without sectioned V1. Sham operated birds corrected their orientation towards the breeding area after displacement like the untreated controls did. In contrast, V1-sectioned birds did not correct for the displacement. They oriented in the same direction after the displacement as they had done at the capture site. Thus, an intact ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve is necessary for detecting the 1,000 km eastward displacement in this night-migratory songbird. Our results suggest that V1 carries map-related information used in a large-scale map or signpost sense that the reed warblers needed to determine their approximate geographical position and/or an east-west coordinate.

  5. Spot-mapping underestimates song-territory size and use of mature forest by breeding golden-winged warblers in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Loegering, John P.; Andersen, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of songbird breeding habitat often compare habitat characteristics of used and unused areas. Although there is usually meticulous effort to precisely and consistently measure habitat characteristics, accuracy of methods for estimating which areas are used versus which are unused by birds remains generally untested. To examine accuracy of spot-mapping to identify singing territories of golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera), which are considered an early successional forest specialists, we used spot-mapping and radiotelemetry to record song perches and delineate song territories for breeding male golden-winged warblers in northwestern Minnesota, USA. We also used radiotelemetry to record locations (song and nonsong perches) of a subsample (n = 12) of males throughout the day to delineate home ranges. We found that telemetry-based estimates of song territories were 3 times larger and included more mature forest than those estimated from spot-mapping. In addition, home ranges estimated using radiotelemetry included more mature forest than spot-mapping- and telemetry-based song territories, with 75% of afternoon perches located in mature forest. Our results suggest that mature forest comprises a larger component of golden-winged warbler song territories and home ranges than is indicated based on spot-mapping in Minnesota. Because it appears that standard observational methods can underestimate territory size and misidentify cover-type associations for golden-winged warblers, we caution that management and conservation plans may be misinformed, and that similar studies are needed for golden-winged warblers across their range and for other songbird species.

  6. Assessment of error rates in acoustic monitoring with the R package monitoR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan; Hafner, Sasha D.; Donovan, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population-scale reactions to climate change and land-use change may require monitoring many sites for many years, a process that is suited for an automated system. We developed and tested monitoR, an R package for long-term, multi-taxa acoustic monitoring programs. We tested monitoR with two northeastern songbird species: black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). We compared detection results from monitoR in 52 10-minute surveys recorded at 10 sites in Vermont and New York, USA to a subset of songs identified by a human that were of a single song type and had visually identifiable spectrograms (e.g. a signal:noise ratio of at least 10 dB: 166 out of 439 total songs for black-throated green warbler, 502 out of 990 total songs for ovenbird). monitoR’s automated detection process uses a ‘score cutoff’, which is the minimum match needed for an unknown event to be considered a detection and results in a true positive, true negative, false positive or false negative detection. At the chosen score cut-offs, monitoR correctly identified presence for black-throated green warbler and ovenbird in 64% and 72% of the 52 surveys using binary point matching, respectively, and 73% and 72% of the 52 surveys using spectrogram cross-correlation, respectively. Of individual songs, 72% of black-throated green warbler songs and 62% of ovenbird songs were identified by binary point matching. Spectrogram cross-correlation identified 83% of black-throated green warbler songs and 66% of ovenbird songs. False positive rates were  for song event detection.

  7. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  8. Cellular blue naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  9. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  10. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3-7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  11. A phylogeographic break and bioacoustic intraspecific differentiation in the Buff-barred Warbler (Phylloscopus pulcher)(Aves:Passeriformes,Phylloscopidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin; P?ckert; Yue-Hua; Sun; Balduin; S; Fischer; Dieter; Thomas; Tietze; Jochen; Martens

    2014-01-01

    Background: According to current taxonomy only three out of 27 Sinohimalayan leaf warbler species(Phylloscopidae) are considered genetically uniform across their entire breeding range along the Southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the Buff-barred Warbler(Phylloscopus pulcher) being one of them. Because marked differentiation among Himalayan and Chinese populations has been recently demonstrated for a number of Phylloscopus species(or sister species) we investigated the intraspecific variation of a mitochondrial gene, songs and morphology of P. pulcher in a phylogeographic approach.Methods: We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b, reconstructed haplotype networks and analyzed DNA polymorphism among Himalayan and Chinese populations. We measured time and frequency parameters of two distinct song types and analyzed among population-differentiation in a principal component analysis and a discriminant analysis. We also compared measurements of body size dimensions taken from museum specimens.Results: The mitochondrial haplotype network(cytb) was divided into two distinct clusters corresponding to geographic origin of samples. Pairwise genetic distances among Himalayan and Chinese mt DNA lineages account for 1.3% which coincides with Pleistocene lineage separation at roughly 650,000 years ago. Genetic diversity is slightly higher in the Chinese part of the species’ range with respect to haplotype and nucleotide diversity while the less diversified Himalayan population lineage shows signs of recent range expansion. The vocal repertoire of P. pulcher comprises two distinct verse types that are combined with short interspersed click notes to long continuous song displays. Trill verse types showed significant differences among regions in almost all measured frequency and time parameters: Chinese males displayed more rapid and more broad-banded trills at a lower pitch. In contrast,warbling verse types showed a distinctively different

  12. Effect of Brood Age on Nestling Diet and Prey Composition in a Hedgerow Specialist Bird, the Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of food provided to nestling birds influence their growth and development and offers key insight into the ecological requirements of birds. One bird species whose feeding ecology is poorly understood is the Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria, which utilizes semi-natural shrubby vegetation in agroecosystems. Because Barred Warbler nestlings vary greatly in body mass we hypothesised that diet and prey properties (size, diversity, taxonomic composition, and chitin content and resulting body hardness and digestibility would differ as the nestlings aged. We quantified the diet based on faecal analysis, sampling faecal sacs from the nestlings pooled into three age classes: 2-3 days old, 4-6 d old, and 7-9 d old. Nestlings were provided a wide diversity of food and a strong relationship existed between food characteristics and nestling age. The youngest nestlings (2-3 d old had the lowest values of each dietary characteristic (diversity, number and total biomass of prey, and individual prey weight, that were significantly lower than the oldest nestlings (7-9 d old. Nestlings aged 4-6 d exhibited intermediate dietary characteristics. Differences in dietary composition of the six major food types showed marked differences between the individual broods and age categories. Percentages of the number and biomass of soft-bodied prey were highest in the diet of 2-3 d and 4-6 d old nestlings, and decreased with increasing age, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the percentage of intermediately and heavily chitinised prey. Parent Barred Warblers probably preferentially select soft-bodied prey for the youngest nestlings, and satisfy the greater energy demands of the older ones by providing them with a greater variety of prey containing more chitin, as well as plant food. The provisioning of less-readily digestible prey to older nestlings suggests that as the quality of food decreases the quantity increases, implying that the

  13. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  14. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  15. Defining the Blue economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith-Godfrey, S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available perspective as the relationship between land and ocean evolves in its role and importance. The “Blue Economy” as a concept finds its origin against this background. A literature review is undertaken to analyse an appropriate definition for the Blue Economy...

  16. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  17. Spatio-temporal variation in territory quality and oxidative status: a natural experiment in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2011-05-01

    1. Fluctuations in the quality of the habitat in which an animal lives can have major consequences for its behaviour and physiological state. In poor-quality habitat with low food availability, metabolically intensive foraging activity is likely to result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, while scarcity of food can lead to a weakening of exogenously derived antioxidant defences. The consequent oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may lead to elevated oxidative stress. 2. Although the link between food availability and oxidative stress has been studied in the laboratory, very little is known about this relationship in the wild. Here, we investigate the association between territory quality (measured through food availability) and oxidative stress in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). 3. Seychelles warblers are insectivorous birds that inhabit a fixed feeding territory year round. Individuals experience profound and rapid local fluctuations in territory quality within these territories, owing to changing patterns of vegetation defoliation resulting from seasonal changes in prevailing wind direction and wind-borne salt spray. 4. As expected, oxidant generation (measured as reactive oxygen metabolites; ROMs) was higher when territory quality was low, but there was no correlation between territory quality and antioxidant capacity (OXY). The negative correlation between territory quality and ROMs was significant between individuals and approached significance within individuals, indicating that the pattern resulted from individual responses to environmental variation. 5. ROMs and OXY levels within individuals were positively correlated, but the relationship between territory quality and ROMs persisted after including OXY as a covariate, implying that oxidative stress occurs in low territory quality conditions. 6. Our results indicate that the oxidative stress balance of an individual is sensitive to relatively short-term changes in territory

  18. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  19. Le blue-jean

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Le Blue-jean: pourquoi la technologie vient en dernier. La plupart des personnes pensent que la technique (ou la technologie) correspond à ce qui vient en amont du produit. Dans cet article, Daniel Miller s’intéresse plutôt à des cas dans lesquels l’ordre de la séquence est renversé et où le produit précède, ou initie, en quelque sorte, la technique. L’auteur commence par décrire les techniques d’usure artificielle des blue jeans  : une technique qui vise à copier les effets du port des blue ...

  20. FROM BLUE JEANS TO BLUE GENES

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel t...

  1. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    OpenAIRE

    Pranav Sikka; Bindra, V. K.; Seema Kapoor; Vivek Jain; Saxena, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg) administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase....

  2. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  3. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  4. Methylene blue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  5. Seasonal and flight-related variation of galectin expression in heart, liver and flight muscles of yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Stefanie S; Dick, Morag F; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2017-06-08

    Galectins, a family of multifunctional glycan-binding proteins, are proposed as biomarkers of cellular stress responses. Avian migration is an energetically challenging physical stress, which represents a physiological model of muscular endurance exercises. This study assesses change in galectin gene expression profiles associated with seasonal variation in migratory state and endurance flight in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Bioinformatics analysis and real-time qPCR were used to analyse the expression of galectins in flight muscle, heart and liver tissues of 15 warblers separated into three groups of winter unflown, and fall migratory flown/unflown birds. Five transcripts similar to chicken and human galectins -1, -2, -3, -4, and -8 were identified in warbler tissues. The expression of these galectins showed no seasonal changes between two experimental groups of birds maintained under unflown winter and fall conditions indicating a minor role of galectins in preparation for migration. However, endurance flight led to a significant elevation of galectin-1 and galectin-3 mRNAs in flight muscles and galectin-3 mRNA in heart tissue while no changes were observed in liver. Different changes were observed for the level of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, which were elevated in flight muscles under winter conditions. These results suggest that secreted galectin-1 and galectin-3 may be active in repair of bird muscles during and following migratory flight and serve as molecular biomarkers of recent arrival from migratory flights in field studies.

  6. Autumn migratory orientation and displacement responses of two willow warbler subspecies (Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula) in South Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Mihaela; Toews, David P L; Bensch, Staffan; Sjöholm, Christoffer; Akesson, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Topography and historical range expansion has formed a so-called migratory divide between two subspecies of willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) in central Scandinavia. The autumn migratory directions of individuals assigned molecularly to both subspecies and possible hybrids were recorded using orientation cage experiments in southwest and southeast Sweden. We found pronounced differences in willow warblers' orientation in respect to genotype. The mean directions registered in the control experiments were in accordance with the ringing recoveries and analyses of stable isotopes for Scandinavian willow warblers. With the same individuals we performed displacement experiments between both sites. They resulted in non-significant orientation, which could be explained by the intermediate distance of the displacement or reactions to housing, transportation and location. On a separate set of birds we tested whether stress following transportation could explain the disorientation and found that orientation before and after transport was unchanged. Experimental studies of effects of intermediate displacements across longitudes and studies of orientation of hybrid individuals in the zones of migratory divides are crucial for understanding the mechanisms underlying orientation behaviour. Our work further stresses the importance of knowing the migration genotype of a particular bird under study, in order to correctly evaluate expected migration routes.

  7. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  8. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  9. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  10. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  11. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  12. After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163731.html After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues Akin ... a danger for people recovering from a debilitating stroke. But new research suggests that tweaking a rehabilitation ...

  13. Dark Blue II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dark Blue II, high fired porcelain, decorated with cobalt chloride, woodfired with salt. 10,5 x 10,5 x 19 cm. Ferdigstilt: 2012. Innkjøpt til Collection of The American Museum of Ceramic Art, Pomona, California, USA.

  14. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  15. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the use of blue-green algae during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. "Auto-immune diseases" such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), pemphigus vulgaris (a skin ...

  16. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  17. Plaque Type Blue Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentamilselvi G

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of plaque type blue naevus was encountered in a Dermatology Clinic in Madras. The various clinical differential diagnoses are discussed, the hitopathological features described and the benign nature of the tumour stressed. The case is reported for its rarity and to create an awareness of this entity.

  18. Blue rubber bleb naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35 year old female had multiple progressive painful, tender, soft, bluish compressible nodules with the feel of rubber nipples. There was no evidence of gastrointestinal haemangiomas or other systemic abnormalities. Histopathologically, cavernous haemangioma with prominent smooth muscle outline proved the clinical diagnosis of blue rubber bleb naevus. Only cutaneous lesions were seen in the patient.

  19. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  20. Experimental evidence that kin discrimination in the Seychelles warbler is based on association and not on genetic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry

    2004-05-07

    In cooperative breeding systems driven by kin selection, effective kin-recognition cues are important. Recognition could be achieved by the direct assessment of the genetic relatedness of individuals or by learning through association. In the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, female subordinates maximize indirect fitness by preferentially helping genetically related nestlings. Help seems to be based on the continued presence of the primary female who previously fed the subordinate in the nest but it has, so far, been impossible to discount the direct assessment of genetic relatedness. We used a cross-fostering experiment to separate the two possible cues. Adult birds did not discriminate between their own and cross-fostered eggs or nestlings. Cross-fostering resulted in nestlings that were unrelated to the primary female that raised them, but control nestlings were closely related to their primary females. The proportions of cross-fostered and control female offspring that stayed and became helpers on their 'natal' territory were similar. However, for both groups the chance of becoming a subordinate helper was associated with the continued presence of the primary female and not with any other factor tested. Our study provides strong evidence that helping decisions are based on associative-learning cues.

  1. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  2. Faint Blue Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    1997-01-01

    The physical properties of the faint blue galaxy population are reviewed in the context of observational progress made via deep spectroscopic surveys and Hubble Space Telescope imaging of field galaxies at various limits, and theoretical models for the integrated star formation history of the Universe. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the properties of the local population of galaxies, convincing evidence has emerged from several independent studies for a rapid decline in the volume-averaged star formation rate of field galaxies since a redshift z~1. Together with the small angular sizes and modest mean redshift of the faintest detectable sources, these results can be understood in hierarchical models where the bulk of the star formation occurred at redshifts between z~1-2. The physical processes responsible for the subsequent demise of the faint blue galaxy population remains unclear. Considerable progress will be possible when the evolutionary trends can be monitored in the context of independent physical p...

  3. Using a full annual cycle model to evaluate long-term population viability of the conservation-reliant Kirtland's warbler after successful recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald J.; Ribic, Christine; Donner, Deahn M.; Nelson, Mark D.; Bocetti, Carol I.; Deloria-Sheffield, Christie M.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term management planning for conservation-reliant migratory songbirds is particularly challenging because habitat quality in different stages and geographic locations of the annual cycle can have direct and carry-over effects that influence the population dynamics. The Neotropical migratory songbird Kirtland's warbler Setophaga kirtlandii (Baird 1852) is listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and Near Threatened under the IUCN Red List. This conservation-reliant species is being considered for U.S. federal delisting because the species has surpassed the designated 1000 breeding pairs recovery threshold since 2001.To help inform the delisting decision and long-term management efforts, we developed a population simulation model for the Kirtland's warbler that incorporated both breeding and wintering grounds habitat dynamics, and projected population viability based on current environmental conditions and potential future management scenarios. Future management scenarios included the continuation of current management conditions, reduced productivity and carrying capacity due to the changes in habitat suitability from the creation of experimental jack pine Pinus banksiana (Lamb.) plantations, and reduced productivity from alteration of the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater (Boddaert 1783) removal programme.Linking wintering grounds precipitation to productivity improved the accuracy of the model for replicating past observed population dynamics. Our future simulations indicate that the Kirtland's warbler population is stable under two potential future management scenarios: (i) continuation of current management practices and (ii) spatially restricting cowbird removal to the core breeding area, assuming that cowbirds reduce productivity in the remaining patches by ≤41%. The additional future management scenarios we assessed resulted in population declines.Synthesis and applications. Our study indicates that the Kirtland's warbler population

  4. Assessing the cost of helping: the roles of body condition and oxidative balance in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janske van de Crommenacker

    Full Text Available In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis. In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals

  5. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  6. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  7. Atlantic Flyway review: Piedmont-Coastal Plain Region IV - Fall 1997: Robbins Nest, Laurel, MD (390-0765)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    1998-01-01

    The 25th year of fall banding at this back yard station atop the Patuxent River gorge between Laurel and the 1-95 bridge netted more birds of summer and winter resident species than migrants. Myrtle Warbler was the only one of the six commonest species captured that is primarily a transient here. My 5214 net-hours, my fourth highest, were 48% above the 24-year mean of 3512, but the only species to exceed their previous high were Carolina Chickadee and Magnolia Warbler. Part of the reason for my low catch per 100 net-hours in recent years is the dieoff of dogwood from anthracnose and destruction of the shrub layer in my mature woods by an overpopulation of deer. For the first time, deer destroyed three of my nets. We also had the driest summer in decades, which killed some of the shallow-rooted vegetation this year.The greatest declines from last year were in catbird (51 to 32), Hermit Thrush ( 27 to 12 ), and Blackand-white Warbler (11 to 3), and the greatest increases were in Myrtle Warbler (2 to 34), Carolina Chickadee (6 to 36), and Tufted Titmouse (10 to 31). The biggest changes from the mean of the first five years (1973-77) to the most recent five years (1993-97), not corrected for the 147% increase in net-hours, are increases in Rubythroated Hummingbird (1.2 to 7.6 ), Black-throated Blue Warbler (1.8 to 11.6), Common Yellowthroat (5.0 to 17.6), and House Finch (0.2 to 6.0), and decreases in Swainson's Thrush (26.6 to 17.2), Gray-cheeked/Bicknell's Thrush (9.4 to 3.8), Scarlet Tanager (6.6 to 2.2), and American Goldfinch (3.0 to 0.4). The oldest of my 39 returns were a six-year-old Gray Catbird and a five-year-old Carolina Chickadee. Two birds banded here during the fall migration of 1995 were found to the northeast of here in the summer of 1997: a Ruby-throated Hummingbird (8000-85102) in Philadelphia, PA, and a Hermit Thrush (1521-58503) at Wentworth, NH. A Savannah Sparrow was the 121st species banded on our suburban wooded hectare.

  8. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  9. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 24 February 1964 to 11 March 1964 (NODC Accession 6400683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  11. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  12. How a simple and stereotyped acoustic signal transmits individual information: the song of the White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, a common bird of the BrazilianAtlantic forest, emits only one distinct song type in the context of territorial defense. Individual or neighbor-stranger recognition may be more difficult when birds share similar songs. In fact, the analysis of songs of different individuals reveals slight differences in the temporal and the frequency domains. Effectively, a careful examination of the signals of different individuals (21 by 5 complementary methods of analysis reveals first, that one or two gaps in frequency occur between two successive notes at different moments of the song, and second, that their temporal and frequency positions are stereotyped for each individual. Playback experiments confirm these findings. By propagation experiments, we show that this individual information can be only transmitted at short range (O Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, um pássaro comum da Mata Atlântica, emite um único e distintivo tipo de canto para defesa territorial. O reconhecimento individual ou entre vizinho e estranho pode ser mais difícil quando as aves compartilham cantos semelhantes. De fato, a análise dos cantos de diferentes indivíduos revelou ligeiras diferenças nos domínios temporal e das freqüências. Efetivamente, um exame cuidadoso dos sinais de 21 indivíduos diferentes por 5 métodos complementares de análise revelou que, primeiro, um ou dois espaços na série tonal ocorrem entre duas notas sucessivas em determinados momentos do canto e, segundo, ocupam posições em tempo e freqüência estereotipadas para cada indivíduo. Experiências de "play-back" confirmam esses dados. Através de experiências de propagação, mostramos que esta informação individual pode ser transmitida somente a curta distância ( < 100 m na mata. Considerando o tamanho e a repartição dos territórios, este processo de comunicação mostra-se eficiente e bem adaptado.

  13. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  14. Blue Man袭东京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Saeki; 李宝怡

    2008-01-01

    <正>20年前在美国曼克顿风靡一时的Blue Man Group,最近在东京出现,马上成为城中话题。在东京,每年有不少舞台剧演出,但是像Blue Man Group这样备受注目的,近年罕见。Blue Man Group in Tokyo于上年12月开始公演·1个月的门票早在9月中旬

  15. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  16. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  17. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  18. Scale-dependent mechanisms of habitat selection for a migratory passerine: an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M.; Cornell, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection theory predicts that individuals choose breeding habitats that maximize fitness returns on the basis of indirect environmental cues at multiple spatial scales. We performed a 3-year field experiment to evaluate five alternative hypotheses regarding whether individuals choose breeding territories in heterogeneous landscapes on the basis of (1) shrub cover within a site, (2) forest land-cover pattern surrounding a site, (3) conspecific song cues during prebreeding settlement periods, (4) a combination of these factors, and (5) interactions among these factors. We tested hypotheses with playbacks of conspecific song across a gradient of landscape pattern and shrub density and evaluated changes in territory occupancy patterns in a forest-nesting passerine, the Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation structure plays a primary role during presettlement periods in determining occupancy patterns in this species. Further, both occupancy rates and territory turnover were affected by an interaction between local shrub density and amount of forest in the surrounding landscape, but not by interactions between habitat cues and social cues. Although previous studies of this species in unfragmented landscapes found that social postbreeding song cues played a key role in determining territory settlement, our prebreeding playbacks were not associated with territory occupancy or turnover. Our results suggest that in heterogeneous landscapes during spring settlement, vegetation structure may be a more reliable signal of reproductive performance than the physical location of other individuals.

  19. Kirtland Warbler WMA ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  20. Consider the Kirtland's Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Daniel L.; Schwab, Keri A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional wisdom of departments of parks and recreation taking sport management under their "wing." Based on a review of the sport management literature and a polling of sport management and park and recreation educators, we argue that departments of parks and recreation are but temporary refuges for migratory sport…

  1. Consider the Kirtland's Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Daniel L.; Schwab, Keri A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional wisdom of departments of parks and recreation taking sport management under their "wing." Based on a review of the sport management literature and a polling of sport management and park and recreation educators, we argue that departments of parks and recreation are but temporary refuges for migratory sport…

  2. Effects on forest birds of DDT used for gypsy moth control in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Pough, R.H.

    1946-01-01

    1. Systematic censuses of the birds on three 40-acre tracts of forest near Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, were made between May 1 and June 27, 1945, to determine the breeding populations....2. Between May 24 and June 1 a 600-acre area enclosing the first (Mile Square) was sprayed by airplane with DDT in oil solution at 5 pounds per acre. On June 9 a 350-acre area enclosing the second tract (Maple Lake) was sprayed with 1pound of DDT per acre. The third tract (Check) was not treated....3. Within 48 hours after treatment of the Mile Square tract, five sick birds were found with symptoms of DDT poisoning, and all died. Two other dead birds were found, and two nests apparently were abandoned. Species involved were red-eyed vireo (3), black-and-white warbler, black-throated blue warbler (nest abandoned), ovenbird (bird died, nest abandoned), redstart, and scarlet tanager....Within 48 hours after application of DDT to the final portion of the tract (on June 1) the population of living birds appeared to have been much reduced, and this condition continued. Before spraying the population total for all species was 1.6 pairs (3.2 birds) per acre. Three days after spraying had been completed there were only two singing males in the entire area; but on June 13 the estimated population was 0.5 bird per acre.....4. After DDT was applied to the Maple Lake tract, careful watch was kept for changes in the bird population and as to nest conditions there and on the Check tract. The apparent total reduction for all species in the Maple Lake tract was from 2.7 pairs to 2.6 pairs per acre; and in the Check tract from 2.7 pairs to 2.4 pairs per acre. Neither these changes nor the observed abandonment of nests and nestling mortality could be attributed to use of DDT.

  3. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  4. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  5. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  6. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  7. The blue-collar brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    .... This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body...

  8. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increa

  9. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybecker, Martin Bell; Stawowy, Marek; Clausen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular disorder with malformed veins, or blebs, appearing in the skin or internal organs. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is the most common feature and often subject to bleeding, potentially resulting in chronic occult blood loss and iron...

  10. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  11. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  12. QCD-inspired spectra from Blue`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M.A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Papp, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Zahed, I. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-03-01

    We use the law of addition in random matrix theory to analyze the spectral distributions of a variety of chiral random matrix models as inspired from QCD whether by symmetries or models. In terms of the Blue`s functions recently discussed by Zee, we show that most of the spectral distributions in the macroscopic limit and the quenched approximation, follow algebraically from the discontinuity of a pertinent solution to a cubic (Cardano) or a quartic (Ferrari) equation. We use the end-point equation of the energy spectra in chiral random matrix models to argue for novel phase structures, in which the Dirac density of states plays the role of an order parameter. (orig.)

  13. Visual modeling reveals cryptic aspect in egg mimicry of Himalayan Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) on its host Blyth's Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus reguloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can-Chao; Cai, Yan; Liang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Brood parasitism and egg mimicry of Himalayan Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) on its host Blyth's Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus reguloides) were studied in south-western China from April to July 2009. The cuckoo laid a white egg with fine brown markings on the blunt end. The eggs were conspicuously bigger than the host's own, with 2.06 g in mass and 1.91 cm(3) in volume. Visual modeling showed that the cuckoo eggs, which from the human eye appeared to mimic the host eggs to a great extent, were completely different from the host eggs in both hue and chroma. The characters of the Himalayan Cuckoo nestling, reported for the first time, included two triangular and black patches on its gape, which appeared from four days old and became darker with age and growth. While this character also exists in nestlings of Oriental Cuckoo (C. optatus), it has not been found for other Cuculus species. Our results reveal cryptic aspects in the cuckoo-host egg color matching, which are not visible to the naked human eye, and indicate that high mimetic cuckoo eggs rejected by hosts, as determined by human observers in previous studies, might not be mimetic as birds see them.

  14. Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P

    1985-01-01

    The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.

  15. Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P

    The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.

  16. A new rhythm for the Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, C

    1995-03-05

    If 1994 was the year the nation's Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans surpassed their managed care competitors in enrollment, 1995 is shaping up to be the year the Blues lead the stampede to form integrated delivery systems. Plus, a look at the new BC/BS chief, Patrick Hays.

  17. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  18. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  19. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  20. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... be the well suited candidates as feedstock for biofuel production in the future. The aim of our studies is to examine the possibility producing liquid biofuel (ethanol and butanol) from macroalgaes....

  1. Properties of Open Clusters Containing Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Chang, Heon-Young

    2017-06-01

    The presence of blue stragglers pose challenges to standard stellar evolution theory, in the sense that explaining their presence demands a complex interplay between stellar evolution and cluster dynamics. In the meantime, mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions are widely studied as a blue straggler formation channel. We explore properties of the Galactic open clusters where blue stragglers are found, in attempting to estimate the relative importance of these two favored processes, by comparing them with those resulting from open clusters in which blue stragglers are absent as of now. Unlike previous studies which require a sophisticated process in understanding the implication of the results, this approach is straightforward and has resulted in a supplementary supporting evidence for the current view on the blue straggler formation mechanism. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Open clusters in which blue stragglers are present have a broader distribution with respect to the Z-axis pointing towards the North Galactic Pole than those in which blue stragglers are absent. The probability that two distributions with respect to the Z-axis are drawn from the same distribution is 0.2%. (2) Average values of log_{10}(t) of the clusters with blue stragglers and those without blue stragglers are 8.58 ± 0.232 and 7.52 ± 0.285, respectively. (3) The clusters with blue stragglers tend to be relatively redder than the others, and are distributed broader in colors. (4) The clusters with blue stragglers are likely brighter than those without blue stragglers. (5) Finally, blue stragglers seem to form in condensed clusters rather than simply dense clusters. Hence, we conclude that mass transfer in binaries seems to be a relatively important physical mechanism of the generation of blue stragglers in open clusters, provided they are sufficiently old.

  2. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  3. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael

    2016-11-01

    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  4. Physical traits of male Japanese bush warblers (Cettia diphone) in summer and winter: hyperactive aspects of the vocal system and leg muscles in summer males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Akira; Uchida, Hiroshi; Imanishi, Sadao

    2014-11-01

    The Japanese bush warbler has a very distinctive song, shows marked sexual size dimorphism, and has a polygynous mating system. However, the physical traits of males and seasonal variation in such traits have remained unknown. Twenty-five anatomical measurements representing physical traits of males in the breeding (summer, n = 5) and non-breeding (winter, n = 5) seasons were examined morphologically and compared statistically. Differences were evident between summer and winter (P < 0.05, t test) in the following seven items: body mass (19.8 ± 0.7 g vs. 15.6 ± 1.2 g [mean ± SD]), mass of male reproductive organs (184.0 ± 25.7 mg vs. 6.0 ± 1.4 mg), hind limb (3789.2 ± 346.2 mg vs. 3003.4 ± 226.8 mg), leg muscles (883.0 ± 63.5 mg vs. 581.4 ± 33.2 mg in either side), skin around the neck/throat (1280 ± 34.9 mg vs. 287.2 ± 84.7 mg), and syrinx (35.8 ± 2.39 mg vs. 25.0 ± 3.24 mg), and circumference of the neck/throat (52.1 ± 2.3 mm vs. 38.3 ± 2.6 mm). In contrast to winter males, summer males had thickened flabby skin prominently in the neck/throat area and an inflatable esophagus, perhaps a morphological basis for the throat sac as a vocal resonator. Also, the remarkable development of the flexor muscles of the legs of summer males suggests that perching and movement using the legs increases during the breeding season. These distinct characteristics of summer males may be related to the polygynous mating system of this species.

  5. The interaction of stars and magnetic field in the orientation system of night migrating birds. I. Autumn experiments with European Warblers (gen. Sylvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, W; Wiltschko, R

    1975-06-01

    In the autumn migration periods of 1971, 1972, and 1973 the orientation behavior in registration cages of Sylvia communis, S. borin and S. cantillans was analyzed to find out what relative importance the birds assign to information from the stars and from the magnetic field for direction finding. We obtained the following results: 1. Under clear sky in the local earth's magnetic field (Control) the warblers showed directional preferences that corresponded to their expected migratory direction based on ringing recoveries. 2. When magnetic north was turned by 120 degrees to ESE (Test), all three species preferred on clear nights their migratory direction according to the magnetic field, in spite of contradicting information from the stars. 3. In a partly compensated magnetic field, which could not be used for orientation any more, no significant directional preference could be observed, although the stars were visible. Dividing these data into two groups according to whether the birds had been tested in Control or Test previously, we found a tendency for the directions selected here to depend upon the north direction of the magnetic field during the bird's previous tests. From this and from the observation that the concentration of orientation behavior decreases in the absence of stars, we derive the following orientational model: The magnetic field provides the primary directional information for migrating birds. The stars do not contain directional information in themselves, but they can become secondary sources of orientation when information from the magnetic field has been transferred to them previously. The importance of this mechanism lies in making it easier for the birds to maintain their migratory direction. The ecological advantages of such a system are discussed and critically compared to the other models of star orientation.

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  7. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  8. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  9. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  10. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  11. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  12. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2016-11-15

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  13. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Stirpe, G M; Dultzin, D; Del Olmo, A; Martínez-Carballo, M A

    2015-01-01

    [Oiii]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 "blue outliers" -- that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars -- appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate-z sample of 52 sources qualify as blue outliers (i.e., quasars with [OIII] {\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of blue outliers to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  14. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  15. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2015-01-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the work of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  16. Blue Ribbon Panel Report - BRP - Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  17. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7, 2016. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  18. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  19. Afghanistan: Green-on-Blue Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    Afghanistan, December 2012, p 35 15 Yousafzai, Sami and Moreau , Ron, http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2012/08/26/ afghanistan-green-on-blue-killings...spike-insider-attacks- stress-ramadan-fasting, 24 August 2012 37 Yousafzai, Sami and Moreau , Ron, http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2012/08/26...afghanistan-green-on-blue-killings- explained.html, Afghanistan: ‘Green on Blue’ Killings Explained, 27 August 2012 38 Yousafzai, Sami and Moreau , Ron

  20. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  1. Spring leaf phenology, insect abundance and the timing of breeding by birds in a North American temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, N.; Ayres, M. P.; Stange, E.; Sillett, S.; Rodenhouse, N.; Holmes, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    Climate patterns on planet Earth display conspicuous variation among years and the phenology of biological events, when measured by day of the year, shows correspondingly high interannual variation. For many species, survival and reproductive success is influenced by the timing of their annual rhythms relative to that of other species with which they interact. The historically high interannual variation in climate has selected for adaptive plasticity in the phenology of biological populations, but climate change challenges the ability of populations to maintain appropriate phenology. Understanding the physiological mechanisms by which organisms respond to existing variation will help predict situations where the phenological associations among interacting species may break down. We used a 22-year time series of phenological observations of two foundational deciduous tree species at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire USA to develop and parameterize a mechanistic Bayesian model of spring leaf development . The interannual variation in timing of leafout has been high (range of 31 days since 1960, standard deviation = 6.7 days). For both tree species, thermal sum accounts for more than 80% of the variation in day of leafout for both species but a threshold based on photoperiod or early spring soil temperatures also plays a role after which development progresses as a simple linear function of degree days above 4 C. We also analyzed a corresponding time series of the timing of arrival and nesting of a common, migratory, insectivorous bird (Black-Throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica caerulescens) in the same forest. The arrival of these warblers on their breeding grounds was slightly responsive to interannual variation in leafout; the change in the median date of warbler arrival per change in date of leafout is 0.15 ± 0.08 d. Thus, the timing of warbler arrival has only varied by about one week relative to a range of about one month in the timing of

  2. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  3. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  4. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  5. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  6. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  7. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  8. Bump in the blue axion isocurvature spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Upadhye, Amol

    2017-01-01

    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the nonapplicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  9. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Juan; LI; Jiazhi; DENG; Zequn; WANG; Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  10. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  11. Bringing Blue Ocean Strategy to FMCG Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Düsseldorf, S.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging concept in strategic management directed at finding new business and value propositions is the framework coined ‘Blue Ocean Strategy’ (BOS) by Kim and Mauborgne, from INSEAD, Fontainebleau. The authors developed the BOS-framework, which comprises of a set of tools, on the basis of ex post studies of over 150 cases from 30 industries. The results were most extensively covered in the book ‘Blue Ocean Strategy’, published in 2004. The success of their work may be illustrated by, for ...

  12. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  13. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Key Words in China Economic Blue Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Fei

    2009-01-01

    @@ With a fluctuating 2008 comes to an end,nOW new 2009 has approaehed to us.Recently、Analvsis and Forecast of China Economy in 2009(Blue Book of Ckina Economy),by the Economics Department or Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  15. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  16. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  17. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  18. Formation Channels for Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Melvyn B

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we consider two formation channels for blue straggler stars: 1) the merger of two single stars via a collision, and 2) those produced via mass transfer within a binary. We review how computer simulations show that stellar collisions are likely to lead to relatively little mass loss and are thus effective in producing a young population of more-massive stars. The number of blue straggler stars produced by collisions will tend to increase with cluster mass. We review how the current population of blue straggler stars produced from primordial binaries decreases with increasing cluster mass. This is because exchange encounters with third, single stars in the most massive clusters tend to reduce the fraction of binaries containing a primary close to the current turn-off mass. Rather, their primaries tend to be somewhat more massive and have evolved off the main sequence, filling their Roche lobes in the past, often converting their secondaries into blue straggler stars (but more than 1 Gyr or so ag...

  19. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While mol

  20. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  1. Modeling of spectral characteristics of blue LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    2010-01-01

    are expected to vary with current and junction temperature. Commercial high power blue LEDs were measured with respect to spectral distribution and chromaticity and the result was compared with the model predictions. We have found that the models predict significantly different results with respect...

  2. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  3. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  4. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  5. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  6. Blue straggler stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.; Tolstoy, E.; Sigurdsson, S.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.

    2007-01-01

    Blue straggler star (BSS) candidates have been observed in all old dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), however whether or not they are authentic BSSs or young stars has been a point of debate. To both address this issue and obtain a better understanding of the formation of BSSs in different environme

  7. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  8. Blue Rhythms Between GIGANTEA and Phytochromes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Crepy; Jorge J. Casal; Marcelo J. Yanovsky

    2007-01-01

    GIGANTEA (GI) is involved in the promotion of flowering by long days, in light input to the circadian clock, and in seedling de-etiolation under continuous red light or blue light but not under continuous far-red light (FR...

  9. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  10. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  11. Pianure Blues: From the Dialect of the Plains to the English of the Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nadiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe a joint performance project called Pianure Blues, in which poems in Romagnolo dialect are transposed into English and performed as blues songs, and in which songs from the Anglo-American blues/roots/folk tradition are transposed and performed as poems in Romagnolo dialect – a process they have called ‘trans-staging’. A process in which they are writers and performers and, especially, translators; translators of each other’s voices, stories, landscapes, rhythms and sounds as they look for the bond between places, languages and traditions that seem very distant from each other but which find a common mood and poetic language, a common aesthetic, in their performances. The authors reflect on the creative process involved and on the significance of establishing an intersemiotic dialogue between a ‘minority’ dialect such as Romagnolo and a ‘global’ language such as English, and the blues, have become.

  12. Chiral heteropoly blues and controllable switching of achiral polyoxometalate clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhan; Li, Haolong; Wu, Che; Yang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wu, Lixin

    2013-04-22

    Managing the blues: Chiral heteropoly blues of achiral polyoxometalate clusters were created through an intermolecular interaction with a chiral organic compound. Controllable chiroptical switching of the cluster complexes was possible through reversible photochromism of the polyoxometalates (see picture).

  13. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica stems ash. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Abstract. Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk.

  14. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects.

  16. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Kailash; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Wai; Thalappillil, Richard; Florence, F Barry; Kim, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  17. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kapadia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  18. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  19. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  20. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  1. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  2. Growth potential of Yersinia enterocolitica in blue cheese and in blue cheese with probiotic -Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Ogryzek, Marek Patrycjusz

    2015-01-01

    ...) is enumerated as the third most common enteric pathogen responsible for food poisonings. The objective of the paper was to determine the potential for Yersinia enterocolitica growth in blue cheese and in blue cheese with a probiotic...

  3. Blue green component and integrated urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srđan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the hidden potential of blue green components, in a synergetic network, not as separate systems, like used in past. The innovative methodology of the project Blue Green Dream is presented through examples of good practice. A new approach in the project initiate thoughtful planning and remodeling of the settlement for the modern man. Professional and scientific public is looking for way to create more healthy and stimulating place for living. However, offered integrative solutions still remain out of urban and architectural practice. Tested technologies in current projects confirmed measurability of innovative approaches and lessons learned. Scientific and professional contributions are summarized in master's and doctoral theses that have been completed or are in process of writing.

  4. Combination of measurements and the BLUE method

    CERN Document Server

    Lista, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The most accurate method to combine measurement from different experiments is to build a combined likelihood function and use it to perform the desired inference. This is not always possible for various reasons, hence approximate methods are often convenient. Among those, the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is the most popular, allowing to take into account individual uncertainties and their correlations. The method is unbiased by construction if the true uncertainties and their correlations are known, but it may exhibit a bias if uncertainty estimates are used in place of the true ones, in particular if those estimated uncertainties depend on measured values. In those cases, an iterative application of the BLUE method may reduce the bias of the combined measurement.

  5. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  6. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  7. Schumpeter and the Blue Ocean Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wengel, Jan ter; Ferreira-Villegas, Gilma Beatriz; Pérez-Hernández, Gérman; Suárez-Cruz, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate and quantify the Blue Ocean Strategy for the business activities proposed by the Kim and Mauborge model and by Schumpeter´s competitive strategy. It analyzes the importance of innovation and scale economy in Colombia, based on information from 8.000 companies over a period of 12 years. Thisstudy also emphasizes the importance of new product performance, new technologies, innovation, invention, scale economy and production cycles in companies, based on...

  8. Accidental mydriasis from blue nightshade "lipstick".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinfeld, R S; Currie, J N

    1987-03-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with bilaterally dilated pupils, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after head trauma. Pilocarpine pupil testing led to the correct diagnosis of pharmacologic pupillary dilation from an unexpected and unusual source of plant poisoning, Solanum dulcamara (blue nightshade). In patients with internal ophthalmoplegia, awareness of the possibility of pharmacologic mydriasis and correct use of topical pilocarpine testing can preclude the necessity for neuroradiologic and invasive diagnostic studies, even in cases with atypical or complex presentations.

  9. Low-discrepancy blue noise sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Abdalla,; Perrier, Hélène; Coeurjolly, David; Ostromoukhov, Victor; Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dong-Ming; Huang, Hui; Deussen, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We present a novel technique that produces two-dimensional low- discrepancy (LD) blue noise point sets for sampling. Using one- dimensional binary van der Corput sequences, we construct two- dimensional LD point sets, and rearrange them to match a target spectral profile while preserving their low discrepancy. We store the rearrangement information in a compact lookup table that can be used to produce arbitrarily large point sets. We evaluate our tech- nique and compar...

  10. Quasars and the Big Blue Bump

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Zhaohui; Brotherton, Michael S.; Green, Richard F.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Scott, Jennifer; Quijano, Jessica Kim; Blaes, Omer; Hubeny, Ivan; Hutchings, John; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Koratkar, Anuradha; Oegerle, William; Zheng, Wei

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet-to-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 17 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using quasi-simultaneous spectrophotometry spanning 900-9000 Angstrom (rest frame). We employ data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the 2.1-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Taking advantage of the short-wavelength coverage, we are able to study the so-called "big blue bump," the region where the...

  11. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    for her eternal patience and fine editing; and a special acknowl- edgement to the Puget Sound Nearshore Science Team for recognizing the Great Blue...mainland Sunshine Coast offer differing habitat op- portunities and breeding concentrations. Within the inland waters of British Columbia, 62 active...1966 and 1994 based on breeding bird survey results (Downes and Collins 1996). Observa- tions indicate that fewer herons now breed on the Sunshine

  12. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  13. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  14. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  15. Intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Sarfaty, Shlomo; Gavriel, Haim; Kraus, Moshe; Kaplan, Daniel; Puterman, Max

    2010-09-01

    Objective of the study is to investigate usefulness of the methylene blue staining for the operation of tympanoplasty in surgical training process with randomized, controlled trial. Two hospitals were involved: Department of Otolaryngology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, and Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Soroka University Medical Center. Tympanoplasty with graft placement was performed by young surgeons on 30 patients (30 ears) with anterior perforations using intraoperative staining of tympanoplasty grafts with methylene blue (Group 1). The same number of patients/ears was operated by the young surgeons without intraoperative staining (Group 2). 76 patients operated without staining by experienced surgeons served as a control group. Results showed tympanic membrane healing (graft take) in 30 (100%) cases in Group 1 and in 26 (86.66%) cases in Group 2. The pure-tone audiogram testing revealed significant improvement of hearing in all successful cases (p < 0.05). No side immediate or postponed effects were detected. We conclude that intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty simplifies the operation and could assist in better visualization and proper placement of the graft. This technique could be most useful in a training process for resident surgeons.

  16. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  17. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  18. Blue light does not inhibit nodulation in Sesbania rostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hayashi, Makoto; Maymon, Maskit; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2017-01-02

    Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A. caulinodans proliferation was not affected by blue light irradiation, bacterial survival was decreased. Therefore, blue light appears to impose different responses depending on the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

  19. Mock Observations of Blue Stragglers in Globular Cluster Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sills, Alison; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A

    2013-01-01

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters, and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will choose approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates the lifetime of collision products. Because our observationally-motivated s...

  20. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  1. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  2. Photometric monitoring of Luminous Blue Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Buemi, Carla; Leto, Paolo; Schilliro', Francesco; Trigilio, Corrado; Umana, Grazia; Bernabei, Stefano; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from our program of intensive near-infrared photometric monitoring of a sample of confirmed and candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Clear long-term variability has been observed for Wray 17-96 and V481 Sct, with overall brightness variation greater than 1 mag in the J band. Other sources, such as LBV 1806-20 showed detectable variability with amplitudes of few tenths of a magnitude with time-scale of about 60 days.

  3. Photometric monitoring of Luminous Blue Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Carla; Distefano, Elisa; Leto, Paolo; Schillirò, Francesco; Trigilio, Corrado; Umana, Grazia; Bernabei, Stefano; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from our program of intensive near-infrared photometric monitoring of a sample of confirmed and candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Clear long-term variability has been observed for Wray 17-96 and V481 Sct, with overall brightness variation greater than 1 mag in the J band. Other sources, such as LBV 1806-20 showed detectable variability with amplitudes of few tenths of a magnitude with a time-scale of about 60 days.

  4. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  5. The Blue Straggler Population in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Momany, Yazan

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter I review the recent developments regarding the study of Blue Stragglers (BSS) in dwarf galaxies. The loose density environment of dwarf galaxies resembles that of the Galactic Halo, hence it is natural to compare their common BSS properties. At the same time, it is unescapable to compare with the BSS properties in Galactic Globular clusters, which constitute the reference point for BSS studies. Admittedly, the literature on BSS in dwarf galaxies is not plentiful. The limitation is mostly due to the large distance to even the closest dwarf galaxies. Nevertheless, recent studies have allowed a deeper insight on the BSS photometric properties that are worth examining.

  6. THE BABY BLUES AND POSTNATAL DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryati Suryati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baby Bluesadalah depresi ringan yang terjadi pada ibu-ibu dalam masa beberapa jam setelah melahirkan, sampai beberapa hari setelah melahirkan, dan kemudian dia akan hilang dengan sendirinya jika diberikan pelayanan psikologis yang baik. Banyak para ibu-ibu setelah melahirkan mengalami emosi yang berlebihan dan merasa sangat sedih sekali, dan diiringi tangisan tanpa alasan yang jelas. Dalam masa ini tidak mungkin lagi kita akan melihat ibu tersenyum atau tertawa. Sebagian ibu merasa sangat khawatir, cemas, dan tegang. Masalah – masalah kecil saja jika tidak cepat diatasi pada masa hamil, atau sebelum melahirkan dapat menimbulkan Baby Blues.

  7. QCD-inspired spectra from Blue's functions

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, M A; Zahed, I; Nowak, Maciej A; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail

    1996-01-01

    We use the law of addition in random matrix theory to analyze the spectral distributions of a variety of chiral random matrix models as inspired from QCD whether through symmetries or models. In terms of the Blue's functions recently discussed by Zee, we show that most of the spectral distributions in the macroscopic limit and the quenched approximation, follow algebraically from the discontinuity of a pertinent solution to a cubic (Cardano) or a quartic (Ferrari) equation. We use the end-point equation of the energy spectra in chiral random matrix models to argue for novel phase structures, in which the Dirac density of states plays the role of an order parameter.

  8. QCD-inspired spectra from Blue's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gábor; Zahed, Ismail

    1996-02-01

    We use the law of addition in random matrix theory to analyze the spectral distributions of a variety of chiral random matrix models as inspired from QCD whether through symmetries or models. In terms of the Blue's functions recently discussed by Zee, we show that most of the spectral distributions in the macroscopic limit and the quenched approximation, follow algebraically from the discontinuity of a pertinent solution to a cubic (Cardano) or a quartic (Ferrari) equation. We use the end-point equation of the energy spectra in chiral random matrix models to argue for novel phase structures, in which the Dirac density of states plays the role of an order parameter.

  9. Blue twilight in a simple atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    2002-09-01

    Assuming a curved exponential atmosphere with beam attenuation and isotropic scattering both proportional to density, we model three regimes that each become dominant in turn as the sun sets. This drastic simplification of the earth's real atmosphere both provides insight to guide system design and is able to fit over an irradiance range exceeding nine decades a set of narrowband measurements of blue light intensity made in the natural environment on clear days. The single-scattering regime involves only overall illumination (or cloudiness) as an adjustable parameter and appears especially relevant to animal geolocation based on measurement of diffuse irradiance.

  10. Rhythm & Blues de sans papiers parisiens

    OpenAIRE

    Fogel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Le sans papiers (ici parisien) est l’une des figures, plurielles, du migrant immobilisé. Le temps qui passe lui ouvre des possibilités de régulariser sa situation. Il lui faut donc patienter, s’adapter dans la contrainte au "rhythm" défini par l’administration, tantôt lent, tantôt rapide. Et trouver aussi son propre rythme en posant des actes. Il lui faut faire avec le blues, qui survient souvent par la prise de conscience du décalage entre l’espoir d’une vie meilleure qui avait déclenché le ...

  11. "Big Blue Marble" Fact Sheet and "Big Blue Marble" Program Content (Shows 1 through 78).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., New York, NY.

    This booklet describes the content of 78 programs presented in the "Big Blue Marble" series, an international series of children's television shows sponsored by the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. The major sequence of subjects is given, as well as a description of each program's folktale adaptation (a regular feature) and…

  12. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. METHODS: A retrospective...... analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. RESULTS: The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p ... observed among blue-collar workers (19.6%) than among controls (23.9%) (p = 0.005). Allergens with a statistically significant association with the occupational group of blue-collar workers were epoxy resins, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate...

  13. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  14. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades.

  15. The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2011-12-01

    Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4'-O-glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure

  16. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  17. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  18. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications. PMID:27666663

  19. BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY (BOS) SEBAGAI PARADIGMA BARU MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article is to describe the Blue Ocean Strategy as a new paradigm of Islamic education management. the author seeks to elaborate on how the adoption of the Blue Ocean strategy of the business world to the world of education and answered the principles of what is accepted and rejected away from the theory. Adoption of blue ocean strategy is done by applying the universal principles are : among others reconstruct market boundaries, focus on the b...

  20. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Ming Yan; Jian-Wei Guo; Bin Wang; Xiao-Peng Zhang; Peter Wonka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  1. Federal Blue-Collar Employees: A Workforce in Transistion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    should include example, a GAO study of the Mare Island explicit consideration of the needs of the blue-collar downsizing in 1990 noted that the layoff ...setting personnel policies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES Federal Government, blue-collar workforce, downsizing , performance managem pg...Federal BIW-Colar Emp£lo .: A Workforn in Transition v contents Downsizing in the Blue-Collar W orkforce

  2. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  3. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales (LSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales ...sensors, or both. The goal of this research is to develop and implement a new method for estimating blue and fin whale density that is effective over...develop and implement a density estimation methodology for quantifying blue and fin whale abundance from passive acoustic data recorded on sparse

  4. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  5. The BLUR (Blues Lyrics Collected at the University of Regensburg Corpus: Blues Lyricism and the African American Literary Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miethaner, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The BLUR corpus, a computerized collection of more than 8,000 transcripts of pre-World War II blues recordings, is a powerful research tool which facilitates investigations into various aspects of the blues. This paper illustrates how an analysis of BLUR might deepen our insights into structural aspects of blues poetry and and its contribution to the African American literary tradition.

  6. Ultrasound promoted synthesis of Nile Blue derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, B Rama; Sampaio, Diogo M F; Silva, M M; Coutinho, Paulo J G; Gonçalves, M Sameiro T

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was used for the first time towards the synthesis of new Nile Blue related benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides possessing isopentylamino, (2-cyclohexylethyl)amino and phenethylamino groups at 5-position of the heterocyclic system. The efficacy of sonochemistry was investigated with some of our earlier reported synthesis of benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides. This newer protocol proved competent in terms of reaction times and enhanced yields. Photophysical studies carried out in ethanol, water and simulated physiological conditions, revealed that emission maxima occurred in the range 644-656 nm, with high fluorescent quantum yields. Other attractive feature exhibited by these materials includes good thermal stability. These properties might be useful in the development of fluorescent probes for biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron–phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map...

  8. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  9. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  10. Many-Task Computing and Blue Waters

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Daniel S; Zhang, Zhao; Wilde, Michael; Wozniak, Justin M

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses many-task computing (MTC) generically and in the context of the proposed Blue Waters systems, which is planned to be the largest NSF-funded supercomputer when it begins production use in 2012. The aim of this report is to inform the BW project about MTC, including understanding aspects of MTC applications that can be used to characterize the domain and understanding the implications of these aspects to middleware and policies. Many MTC applications do not neatly fit the stereotypes of high-performance computing (HPC) or high-throughput computing (HTC) applications. Like HTC applications, by definition MTC applications are structured as graphs of discrete tasks, with explicit input and output dependencies forming the graph edges. However, MTC applications have significant features that distinguish them from typical HTC applications. In particular, different engineering constraints for hardware and software must be met in order to support these applications. HTC applications have tradition...

  11. Lidemburgo blues, a palavra para o ausente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Moreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem por objetivo trabalhar com o livro de poesias Lidemburgo blues, de Luís Carlos Patraquim, publicado em 1997 na cidade de Lisboa. A partir dessa obra, procurar-se-á se refletir sobre a produção poética do autor, destacando-se a sua condição de exercício imaginário que perpetra certa crise da representação. Ao verificar-se a vizinhança estabelecida pelos poemas com a temática da morte, percebe-se a ênfase no aspecto de falência que contamina a imagem poética, o que se revela como um estado de fendimento da escrita.Palavras-chave: Poesia contemporânea; Poesia de língua portuguesa; Poesia moçambicana; Ruína; Representação.

  12. Polycarbazoles microcavities: towards plastic blue lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castex, M.C.; Olivero, C.; Fischer, A.; Mousel, S.; Michelon, J.; Ades, D.; Siove, A

    2002-09-30

    With the aim of developing a plastic blue laser emitting around 400 nm, we have investigated the luminescence and lasing possibilities of recently designed new polymeric materials based on carbazole chromophores. Our carbazole compounds are used either as doping organic dyes in usual polymer cast films (e.g. PMMA) or as thin layers deposited onto a quartz substrate. In both cases, by using different interferometric methods, periodic patterning of surfaces has been realised and compared. Efficient relief gratings are produced by laser irradiation at 193 nm of a phase mask ({lambda}=1090 nm) in con onto carbazolic films. We demonstrate that such patterning allows photopumping of doped PMMA films in a planar waveguide configuration with distributed feedback (DFB) even for high Bragg grating order (m=6). Monomode stimulated emission is observed for rhodamine doped PMMA film. Preliminary results concerning UV photopumping of carbazolic films are presented.

  13. Polycarbazoles microcavities: towards plastic blue lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, M. C.; Olivero, C.; Fischer, A.; Mousel, S.; Michelon, J.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    2002-09-01

    With the aim of developing a plastic blue laser emitting around 400 nm, we have investigated the luminescence and lasing possibilities of recently designed new polymeric materials based on carbazole chromophores. Our carbazole compounds are used either as doping organic dyes in usual polymer cast films (e.g. PMMA) or as thin layers deposited onto a quartz substrate. In both cases, by using different interferometric methods, periodic patterning of surfaces has been realised and compared. Efficient relief gratings are produced by laser irradiation at 193 nm of a phase mask ( Λ=1090 nm) in contact onto carbazolic films. We demonstrate that such patterning allows photopumping of doped PMMA films in a planar waveguide configuration with distributed feedback (DFB) even for high Bragg grating order ( m=6). Monomode stimulated emission is observed for rhodamine doped PMMA film. Preliminary results concerning UV photopumping of carbazolic films are presented.

  14. The BlueGene/L Supercomputer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanot, G V; Gara, A; Vranas, P M; Bhanot, Gyan; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Vranas, Pavlos

    2002-01-01

    The architecture of the BlueGene/L massively parallel supercomputer is described. Each computing node consists of a single compute ASIC plus 256 MB of external memory. The compute ASIC integrates two 700 MHz PowerPC 440 integer CPU cores, two 2.8 Gflops floating point units, 4 MB of embedded DRAM as cache, a memory controller for external memory, six 1.4 Gbit/s bi-directional ports for a 3-dimensional torus network connection, three 2.8 Gbit/s bi-directional ports for connecting to a global tree network and a Gigabit Ethernet for I/O. 65,536 of such nodes are connected into a 3-d torus with a geometry of 32x32x64. The total peak performance of the system is 360 Teraflops and the total amount of memory is 16 TeraBytes.

  15. Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finoli, C; Vecchio, A; Galli, A; Dragoni, I

    2001-02-01

    Several strains of Penicillium are used for the production of mold-ripened cheeses, and some of them are able to produce mycotoxins. The aims of the research were the determination of roquefortine C and PR toxin in domestic and imported blue cheeses, the identification of the penicillia used as starter, and the investigation of their capacity for producing toxins in culture media. Roquefortine C was always found in the cheeses at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 mg/kg, whereas the PR toxin was never found. The identification of the fungal strains present in the domestic cheeses included Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium roqueforti, and Penicillium cyclopium in the Gorgonzola "dolce" and Penicillium roqueforti in the Gorgonzola "naturale"; in one case, the presence of Penicillium crustosum was observed. The strains isolated from the foreign cheeses belonged to P. roqueforti. The strains were able to produce between 0.18 and 8.44 mg/liter of roquefortine in yeast extract sucrose medium and between 0.06 and 3.08 mg/liter and less than 0.05 mg/liter when inoculated in milk at 20 degrees C for 14 days and 4 degrees C for 24 days, respectively. Linear relations between production of roquefortine in culture media and cheeses did not emerge. PR toxin ranged from less than 0.05 to 60.30 mg/liter in yeast extract sucrose medium and was produced in milk at 20 degrees C from only one strain. The low levels and the relatively low toxicity of roquefortine make the consumption of blue cheese safe for the consumer.

  16. Recognizing blue emission in artificial aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, H.; Kaila, K.; Jussila, J.; Kosch, M.; Rietveld, M.

    On 12th November 2001, during the EISCAT UK/GE artificial aurora campaign, the optical group of University of Oulu performed the optical measurements at the EISCAT site in Ramfjordmoen. That campaign was the first successful attempt of inducing blue emission in artificial aurora at high latitudes. Optical instruments were monitoring emis-sions and they included a photometer, a real speed TV camera and a digital camera. The emissions measured by the photometer are 557.7 nm (OI), 630.0 nm (OI) and 427.8 nm (N2+). The threshold energies for these emissions to arise are 2 eV, 4 eV and 19 eV, re-spectively. In the natural aurora the blue emission at around 427 nm is always highly dominated by N2+ 1NG (0,1) rotational band. However, there are two weak emissions lying under this strong emission. These bands are N2 VK(4,15) (threshold energy 6 eV) and N2 2P(1,5) (threshold 11 eV). These energies are remarkably lower and could obviously have stronger intensity in the spectrum of artificial aurora than in natural aurora that is domi-nated by harder electron bombardment. The auroral photometer of the university of Oulu has been designed for investigating natural aurora, which results some limitations regarding the artificial aurora, to the data that has been obtained. The photometer was equipped with two channels measuring two close wavelength bands around 427 nm. These channels were aimed to be used to de-termine rotational temperature from the ratio of the intensities through the channels. Now they will be used to estimate the intensities of the three overlapping emission bands instead.

  17. Underwater Chaotic Lidar using Blue Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Luke K.

    The thesis proposes and explores an underwater lidar system architecture based on chaotic modulation of recently introduced, commercially available, low cost blue laser diodes. This approach is experimentally shown to allow accurate underwater impulse response measurements while eliminating the need for several major components typically found in high-performance underwater lidar systems. The proposed approach is to: 1. Generate wideband, noise-like intensity modulation signals using optical chaotic modulation of blue-green laser diodes, and then 2. Use this signal source to develop an underwater chaotic lidar system that uses no electrical signal generator, no electro-optic modulator, no optical frequency doubler, and no large-aperture photodetector. The outcome of this thesis is the demonstration of a new underwater lidar system architecture that could allow high resolution ranging, imaging, and water profiling measurements in turbid water, at a reduced size, weight, power and cost relative to state-of-the-art high-performance underwater lidar sensors. This work also makes contributions to the state of the art in optics, nonlinear dynamics, and underwater sensing by demonstrating for the first time: 1. Wideband noise-like intensity modulation of a blue laser diode using no electrical signal generator or electro-optic modulator. Optical chaotic modulation of a 462 nm blue InGaN laser diode by self-feedback is explored for the first time. The usefulness of the signal to chaotic lidar is evaluated in terms of bandwidth, modulation depth, and autocorrelation peak-to-sidelobe-ratio (PSLR) using both computer and laboratory experiments. In laboratory experiments, the optical feedback technique is shown to be effective in generating wideband, noise-like chaotic signals with strong modulation depth when the diode is operated in an external-cavity dominated state. The modulation signal strength is shown to be limited by the onset of lasing within the diode's internal

  18. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  19. Blue light effects on rose photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, F; Girault, T; Douillet, O; Guillemain, G; Sintes, G; Laffaire, M; Ben Ahmed, H; Smiti, S; Huché-Thélier, L; Leduc, N

    2013-01-01

    Through its impact on photosynthesis and morphogenesis, light is the environmental factor that most affects plant architecture. Using light rather than chemicals to manage plant architecture could reduce the impact on the environment. However, the understanding of how light modulates plant architecture is still poor and further research is needed. To address this question, we examined the development of two rose cultivars, Rosa hybrida'Radrazz' and Rosa chinensis'Old Blush', cultivated under two light qualities. Plants were grown from one-node cuttings for 6 weeks under white or blue light at equal photosynthetic efficiencies. While plant development was totally inhibited in darkness, blue light could sustain full development from bud burst until flowering. Blue light reduced the net CO(2) assimilation rate of fully expanded leaves in both cultivars, despite increasing stomatal conductance and intercellular CO(2) concentrations. In 'Radrazz', the reduction in CO(2) assimilation under blue light was related to a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, while in both cultivars, the chl a/b ratio increased. Surprisingly, blue light could induce the same organogenetic activity of the shoot apical meristem, growth of the metamers and flower development as white light. The normal development of rose plants under blue light reveals the strong adaptive properties of rose plants to their light environment. It also indicates that photomorphogenetic processes can all be triggered by blue wavelengths and that despite a lower assimilation rate, blue light can provide sufficient energy via photosynthesis to sustain normal growth and development in roses.

  20. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  1. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  2. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Adaptation Partnership was developed to identify climate change issues relevant to resource management in the Blue Mountains region, to find solutions that can minimize negative effects of climate change, and to facilitate transition of diverse ecosystems to a warmer climate. Partnering organizations included three national forests (Malheur, Umatilla...

  3. On Equalities for BLUEs under Misspecified Gauss-Markov Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ge TIAN

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies relationships between the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) of an estimable parametric functions Kβ under the Gauss-Markov model {y, Xβ, σ~22∑} and its misspecified model {y, X_0β, σ~2∑_0}. In addition, relationships between BLUEs under a restricted Ganss-Markov model and its misspecified model are also investigated.

  4. Effects of fire and browsing on regeneration of blue oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bartolome; Mitchel P. McClaran; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz; Jim Dunne; Lawrence D. Ford; Richard B. Standiford; Neil K. McDougald; Larry C. Forero

    2002-01-01

    Blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) are not regenerating well over much of California. The roles of fire and browsing in regeneration are probably significant, but poorly understood. We burned two foothill blue oak woodland sites which contained significant numbers of small trees between 40 and 70 cm tall, then compared height growth over 14 years among 48...

  5. A review of blue carbon in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, J.E.; Foekema, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Blue carbon (the carbon stored in marine and coastal ecosystems – in biomass, buried in sediments and sequestered from the atmosphere and ocean) is considered as an issue of interest regarding its potential as a climate change mitigation measure in the OSPAR maritime area (OSPAR, 2015). Because blue

  6. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  7. OBSTACLES TO BLUE-COLLAR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT

    WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…

  8. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display.

  9. Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Knigge, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores how we might use the observed {\\em statistics} of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the cor...

  10. BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY (BOS SEBAGAI PARADIGMA BARU MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Fuad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to describe the Blue Ocean Strategy as a new paradigm of Islamic education management. the author seeks to elaborate on how the adoption of the Blue Ocean strategy of the business world to the world of education and answered the principles of what is accepted and rejected away from the theory. Adoption of blue ocean strategy is done by applying the universal principles are : among others reconstruct market boundaries, focus on the big picture rather than numbers, reach beyond existing demand, perform a series of strategies with appropriate, efforts to overcome organizational constraints and integrate execution into strategy. The principles of Blue Ocean Strategy Indicators that can be absorbed is an indicator that focuses gave excellent service and were not absorbed is a strong indicator of economic motivation. Generally, Blue Ocean Strategy quite well applied as a management paradigm of Islamic education.

  11. Toward the Graphics Turing Scale on a Blue Gene Supercomputer

    CERN Document Server

    McGuigan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate raytracing performance that can be achieved on a class of Blue Gene supercomputers. We measure a 822 times speedup over a Pentium IV on a 6144 processor Blue Gene/L. We measure the computational performance as a function of number of processors and problem size to determine the scaling performance of the raytracing calculation on the Blue Gene. We find nontrivial scaling behavior at large number of processors. We discuss applications of this technology to scientific visualization with advanced lighting and high resolution. We utilize three racks of a Blue Gene/L in our calculations which is less than three percent of the the capacity of the worlds largest Blue Gene computer.

  12. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  13. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  14. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  15. Serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration during cardiothoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christina J; Wang, Dorothy; Sgambelluri, Anna; Kramer, Robert S; Gagnon, David J

    2015-04-01

    Despite its favorable safety profile, there have been reports of methylene blue-induced encephalopathy and serotonin syndrome in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy. We report a case of serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration in a cardiothoracic surgery patient. A 59-year-old woman taking preoperative venlafaxine and trazodone was given a single dose of 2 mg/kg methylene blue (167 mg) during a planned coronary artery bypass and mitral valve repair. Postoperatively, she was febrile to 38.7°C and developed full-body tremors, rhythmic twitching of the perioral muscles, slow conjugate roving eye movements, and spontaneous movements of the upper extremities. Electroencephalography revealed generalized diffuse slowing consistent with toxic encephalopathy, and a computed tomography scan showed no acute process. The patient's symptoms were most consistent with a methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome. Her motor symptoms resolved within 48 hours and she was eventually discharged home. Only 2 cases of methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome during cardiothoracic surgery have been described in the literature, with this report representing the third case. Methylene blue and its metabolite, azure B, are potent, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A which is responsible for serotonin metabolism. Concomitant administration of methylene blue with serotonin-modulating agents may precipitate serotonin syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-09-24

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases.

  17. DisBlue+: A distributed annotation-based C# compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. AbdelRahman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many programming languages utilize annotations to add useful information to the program but they still result in more tokens to be compiled and hence slower compilation time. Any current distributed compiler breaks the program into scattered disjoint pieces to speed up the compilation. However, these pieces cooperate synchronously and depend highly on each other. This causes massive overhead since messages, symbols, or codes must be roamed throughout the network. This paper presents two promising compilers named annotation-based C# (Blue+ and distributed annotation-based C# (DisBlue+. The proposed Blue+ annotation is based on axiomatic semantics to replace the if/loop constructs. As the developer tends to use many (complex conditions and repeat them in the program, such annotations reduce the compilation scanning time and increases the whole code readability. Built on the top of Blue+, DisBlue+ presents its proposed distributed concept which is to divide each program class to its prototype and definition, as disjoint distributed pieces, such that each class definition is compiled with only its related compiled prototypes (interfaces. Such concept reduces the amount of code transferred over the network, minimizes the dependencies among the disjoint pieces, and removes any possible synchronization between them. To test their efficiencies, Blue+ and DisBlue+ were verified with large-size codes against some existing compilers namely Javac, DJavac, and CDjava.

  18. Preparation of Methylene Blue-Silica Composite Microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Hideo. [Nihon Millipore Corp., Yamagata (Japan); Takahashi, Koji. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    1999-06-01

    Silica microcapsules comprising methylene blue (MB-SiO{sub 2}) of mean diameter 4.0 {mu}m were prepared by solgel and water-in-oil emulsion techniques where water pools are use as microreactors in which methylene blue is dissolved at a high water to surfactant molar ratio. It is confirmed that the cationic methylene blue is incorporated in the silica microcapsule wall during hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane. Fixation of methylene blue in the silica wall is examined by passing water or acetic acid aq. soln. (pH 2-4) through a cartridge in which MB-SiO{sub 2} is packed and then measuring the fractions using UV-VIS analysis. The elution behavior is affected drastically by the pH value of the eluent. Methylene blue tends to stay in the wall when the pH value of eluent is above the isoelectric point (IEP) of the silica microcapsules. However, release of methylene blue cation occurs when it is below the IEP. These results reveal that coulomb interaction has an important role to fix methylene blue in the silica microcapsule. (author)

  19. Modeling blue stragglers in young clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Lu; Li-Cai Deng; Xiao-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A grid of binary evolution models are calculated for the study of a blue straggler (BS) population in intermediate age (log Age =7.85 - 8.95) star clusters.The BS formation via mass transfer and merging is studied systematically using our models.Both Case A and B close binary evolutionary tracks are calculated for a large range of parameters.The results show that BSs formed via Case B are generally bluer and even more luminous than those produced by Case A.Furthermore,the larger range in orbital separations of Case B models provides a probability of producing more BSs than in Case A.Based on the grid of models,several Monte-Carlo simulations of BS populations in the clusters in the age range are carried out.The results show that BSs formed via different channels populate different areas in the color magnitude diagram (CMD).The locations of BSs in CMD for a number of clusters are compared to our simulations as well.In order to investigate the influence of mass transfer efficiency in the models and simulations,a set of models is also calculated by implementing a constant mass transfer efficiency,β =0.5,during Roche lobe overflow (Case A binary evolution excluded).The result shows BSs can be formed via mass transfer at any given age in both cases.However,the distributions of the BS populations on CMD are different.

  20. Blue straggler formation at core collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2016-01-01

    Among the most striking feature of blue straggler stars (BSS) is the presence of multiple sequences of BSSs in the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of several globular clusters. It is often envisaged that such a multiple BSS sequence would arise due a recent core collapse of the host cluster, triggering a number of stellar collisions and binary mass transfers simultaneously over a brief episode of time. Here we examine this scenario using direct N-body computations of moderately massive star clusters (of order 10^4 Msun ). As a preliminary attempt, these models are initiated with approx. 8-10 Gyr old stellar population and King profiles of high concentrations, being "tuned" to undergo core collapse quickly. BSSs are indeed found to form in a "burst" at the onset of the core collapse and several of such BS-bursts occur during the post-core-collapse phase. In those models that include a few percent primordial binaries, both collisional and binary BSSs form after the onset of the (near) core-collapse. However, t...

  1. Peculiar Type II Supernovae from Blue Supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiser, Io K W; Kasen, Daniel; Young, Timothy R; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Challis, Peter; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Nugent, Peter E; Silverman, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of Type II supernovae (SNe) are produced by red supergiants (RSGs), but SN 1987A revealed that blue supergiants (BSGs) can produce members of this class as well, albeit with some peculiar properties. This best studied event revolutionized our understanding of SNe, and linking it to the bulk of Type II events is essential. We present here optical photometry and spectroscopy gathered for SN 2000cb, which is clearly not a standard Type II SN and yet is not a SN 1987A analog. The light curve of SN 2000cb is reminiscent of that of SN 1987A in shape, with a slow rise to a late optical peak, but on substantially different time scales. Spectroscopically, SN 2000cb resembles a normal SN II but with ejecta velocities that far exceed those measured for SN 1987A or normal SNe II, above 18000 km/s for H-alpha at early times. The red colours, high velocities, late photometric peak, and our modeling of this object all point toward a scenario involving the high-energy explosion of a small-radius star, most ...

  2. GPAW on Blue Gene/P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nichols; Enkovaara, Jussi; Dulak, Marcin; Glinsvad, Christian; Larsen, Ask; Mortensen, Jens; Shende, Sameer; Morozov, Vitali; Greeley, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    Density function theory (DFT) is the most widely employed electronic structure method due to its favorable scaling with system size and accuracy for a broad range of molecular and condensed-phase systems. The advent of massively parallel supercomputers have enhanced the scientific community's ability to study larger system sizes. Ground state DFT calculations of systems with O (103) valence electrons can be routinely performed on present-day supercomputers. The performance of these massively parallel DFT codes at the scale of 1 - 10K execution threads are not well understood; even experienced DFT users are unaware of Amdahl's Law and the non-trivial scaling bottlenecks that are present in standard O (N3) DFT algorithms. The GPAW code was ported an optimized for the Blue Gene/P. We present our algorithmic parallelization strategy and interpret the results for a number of benchmark tests cases. Lastly, I will describe opportunities for computer allocations at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. This work has been supported by the Academy of Finland (Project 110013), Tekes MASI-program, Danish Center for Scientific Computing, Lundbeck Foundation, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  3. Blue Sky Birds Come to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bura Sabiha Kelek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Supply System comes to all fields for logistics.Drone is an unmanned vehicle for loading and unloading packages.Perhaps we can imagine it as a ‘’blue sky bird’’. This new trend has three important impacts that are determined by technoligical capabilities, ,regularity pressure, and public acceptance so that it will be dealed within current powers and circumstances. This kind of vehicles are used in different capacities, such as multicopter,drone or robot.Logistics’ issues are interested in short-term delivery systems for customer satisfaction but all developments go through GPS so it is based on 21st century technological developments, which have been tested on a short-term basis and will be expected to be of use in 2 years. The purpose of this research is to give lead to researchers information about risk and the advantages of using the technology in this manner.Some advantages and disadvantages ,schedules’ problems in the system will be identifed.

  4. Blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarnaphaet, Phitsini; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wetcharungsri, Jutaphet; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara; Ajayan, Pulickel Madhavapanicker; Tang, I-Ming; Asanithi, Piyapong

    2016-12-01

    Carbon-based photoluminescent nanodot has currently been one of the promising materials for various applications. The remaining challenges are the carbon sources and the simple synthetic processes that enhance the quantum yield, photostability and biocompatibility of the nanodots. In this work, the synthesis of blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade via a single-step hydrothermal carbonization process is presented. Lime carbon nanodot (L-CnD), whose the quantum yield exceeding 50% for the 490nm emission in gram-scale amounts, has the structure of graphene core functionalized with the oxygen functional groups. The micron-sized flake of the as-prepared L-CnD powder exhibits multicolor emission depending on an excitation wavelength. The L-CnDs are demonstrated for rapidly ferric-ion (Fe(3+)) detection in water compared to Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) ions. The photoluminescence quenching of L-CnD solution under UV light is used to distinguish the Fe(3+) ions from others by naked eyes as low concentration as 100μM. Additionally, L-CnDs provide exceptional photostability and biocompatibility for imaging yeast cell morphology. Changes in morphology of living yeast cells, i.e. cell shape variation, and budding, can be observed in a minute-period until more than an hour without the photoluminescent intensity loss.

  5. Age determination of blue-winged teal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.

    1968-01-01

    Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

  6. Blue diffuse dwarf galaxies: a clearer picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.

    2017-03-01

    The search for chemically unevolved galaxies remains prevalent in the nearby Universe, mostly because these systems provide excellent proxies for exploring in detail the physics of high-z systems. The most promising candidates are extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), i.e. galaxies with population. In 2014, we reoriented this search using only morphological properties and uncovered a population of ∼150 'blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies', and published a sub-sample of 12 BDD spectra. Here, we present optical spectroscopic observations of a larger sample of 51 BDDs, along with their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric properties. With our improved statistics, we use direct-method abundances to confirm that BDDs are chemically unevolved (7.43 population synthesis models and estimated to be in the range log (M*/M⊙) ≃ 5-9. Unlike other low-metallicity star-forming galaxies, BDDs are in agreement with the mass-metallicity relation at low masses, suggesting that they are not accreting large amounts of pristine gas relative to their stellar mass. BDD galaxies appear to be a population of actively star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies which fall within the class of low-surface-brightness dIrr galaxies. Their ongoing star formation and irregular morphology make them excellent analogues for galaxies in the early Universe.

  7. Chemical Evolution of Blue Compact Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Shi; Xu Kong; Fu-Zhen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Based on a sample of 72 Blue Compact Galaxies (BCGs) observed with the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and about 4000 strong emission line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,we analyzed their chemical evolution history using the revised chemical evolution model of Larsen et al. Our sample covers a much larger metallicity range (7.2<12+log(O/H) <9.0). We found that, in order to reproduce the observed abundance pattern and gas fraction over the whole metallicity range, a relatively continuous star formation history is needed for high metallicity galaxies, while assuming a series of instantaneous bursts with long quiescent periods (some Gyrs) for low metallicity galaxies. Model calculations also show that only the closed-box model is capable of reproducing the observational data over the whole metallicity range. Models that consider the ordinary winds and/or inflow can only fit the observations in the low metallicity range, and a model with enriched wind cannot fit the data in the whole metallicity range. This implies that the current adopted simple wind and inflow models are not applicable to massive galaxies, where the underlying physics of galactic winds or inflow could be more complicated.

  8. Why aye-ayes see blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis.

  9. Modeling the Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2012-10-01

    Blue stragglers {BS} have been extensively observed in Galactic globular clusters {GGC}. primarily with HST. Many theoretical studies have identified BS formation channels and it is understood that dynamics in GCs modifies formation and distribution of the BSs. Despite the wealth of observational data, comprehensive theoretical models including all relevant physical processes in dynamically evolving GCs do not exist. Our dynamical cluster modeling code, developed over the past decade, includes all relevant physical processes in a GC including two-body relaxation, strong scattering, physical collisions, and stellar-evolution {single and binary}. We can model GCs with realistic N and provide star-by-star models for GCs directly comparable with the observed data. This proposed study will create realistic GC models with initial conditions from a grid spanning a large range in the multidimensional parameter space including cluster mass, binary fraction, concentration, and Galactic position. Our numerical models combined with observational constraints from existing HST data will for the first time provide explanations for the observed trends in the BS populations in GGCs, the dominant formation channel for these BSs, typical dynamical ages of the BSs, and find detailed dynamical histories of the BSs in GGCs. These models will yield valuable insight on the correlations between the BS properties and a number of cluster dynamical properties {central density, binary fraction, and binary orbital properties} which will potentially help constrain a GC's past evolutionary history. As a bonus a large set of realistic theoretical GC models will be constructed.

  10. Quasars and the Big Blue Bump

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Z; Green, R F; Kriss, G A; Scott, J; Quijano, J K; Blaes, Omer M; Hubeny, I; Hutchings, J B; Kaiser, M E; Koratkar, A; Oegerle, W; Zheng, W; Shang, Zhaohui; Brotherton, Michael S.; Green, Richard F.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Scott, Jennifer; Quijano, Jessica Kim; Blaes, Omer; Hubeny, Ivan; Hutchings, John; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Koratkar, Anuradha; Oegerle, William; Zheng, Wei

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet-to-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 17 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using quasi-simultaneous spectrophotometry spanning 900-9000 Angstrom (rest frame). We employ data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the 2.1-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Taking advantage of the short-wavelength coverage, we are able to study the so-called ``big blue bump,'' the region where the energy output peaks, in detail. Most objects exhibit a spectral break around 1100 Angstrom Although this result is formally associated with large uncertainty for some objects, there is strong evidence in the data that the far-ultraviolet spectral region is below the extrapolation of the near-ultraviolet-optical slope, indicating a spectral break around 1100 Angstrom We compare the behavior of our sample to those of non-LTE thin-disk models covering a range in black-hole mass, Eddington ratio, disk inclination, and othe...

  11. Blue diffuse dwarf galaxies: a clearer picture

    CERN Document Server

    James, Bethan L; Stark, Daniel P; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W; McQuinn, Kristen B W

    2016-01-01

    The search for chemically unevolved galaxies remains prevalent in the nearby Universe, mostly because these systems provide excellent proxies for exploring in detail the physics of high-z systems. The most promising candidates are extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), i.e., galaxies with <1/10 solar metallicity. However, due to the bright emission line based search criteria traditionally used to find XMPs, we may not be sampling the full XMP population. In 2014 we reoriented this search using only morphological properties and uncovered a population of ~150 `blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies', and published a sub-sample of 12 BDD spectra. Here we present optical spectroscopic observations of a larger sample of 51 BDDs, along with their SDSS photometric properties. With our improved statistics, we use direct-method abundances to confirm that BDDs are chemically unevolved (7.43<12+log(O/H)<8.01), with ~20% of our sample classified as being XMP galaxies, and find they are actively forming stars at rates ...

  12. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  13. Blue-shifted photoluminescence of Alq3 dispersed in PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J G Mahakhode; S J Dhoble; C P Joshi; S V Moharil

    2011-12-01

    Alq3 is known to emit bright green light under UV excitation. Blue shift of the emission was reported in recent literature. This was ascribed to the presence of various isomers/crystallographic modifications obtained through train sublimation. Here a blue shift was reported for Alq3 dispersed in PMMA. No isomers/phases, which were reponsible for blue-shift, separated and yet the emission maxima shift to shorter wavelengths as the concentration of Alq3 in PMMA decreases. The results were interpreted on the basis of cross relaxation between interacting Alq3 molecules.

  14. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  15. Blue-light emitting triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium salts

    KAUST Repository

    Carboni, Valentina

    2017-01-27

    Compounds that emit blue light are of interest for applications that include optoelectronic devices and chemo/biosensing and imaging. The design and synthesis of small organic molecules that can act as high-efficiency deep-blue-light emitters in the solid state and can be easily processed from solutions represents a significant challenge. Herein we present the preparation and photophysical, photochemical and electrochemical properties of a series of triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium compounds. The compounds are soluble in water or polar organic solvents and exhibit photoluminescence in the blue region of the spectrum in fluid solution, in the solid state and in a frozen matrix.

  16. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  17. [Seven cases of parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism using methylene blue: suggestion for the method of methylene blue infusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Kinoshita, Yuki; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Suetsugu, Keiko

    2014-08-01

    Intraoperative staining of the parathyroid glands with intravenously administered methylene blue is well described and has been demonstrated as an effective and safe method to facilitate parathyroidectomy. However, there have been several literatures of the development of postoperative neurological toxicity in patients who received methylene blue infusion during parathyroidectomy. We report the method of methylene blue infusion during parathyroidectomy at our institution. Seven adult patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure were included in this study. Methylene blue was administered at a constant rate of 4 mg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) with a 1% solution just before the start of operation. The infusion was stopped after the first parathyroid gland was identified. The mean dose of methylene blue used was 2.2 +/- 0.8 mg x kg(-1). Consequently, the dose of methylene blue by this method could be decreased to less than half of the previously administered dose (6 mg x kg(-1)) at our institution. The dose of methylene blue used should be kept to the minimum required to identify the parathyroid glands in each case.

  18. Karner blue butterfly: Annual summary for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses research being conducted on the Karner blue butterfly and historic landscape changes in Necedah National Wildlife Refuge.

  19. Turnbull Blue Gel (TBG) evaluation as optical dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borguezan Neto, E.; Batistuti, M. R.; Pavoni, J. F.; Bachmann, L.

    2017-05-01

    The radiochromic Turnbull Blue Gel (TBG) is sensitive to X- and γ-rays. When exposed to high-energy radiation, TBG can simulate biological tissues, so this gel has potential use in ionizing radiation dosimetry. After irradiation, the yellow TBG changes to the blue Turnbull Blue dye. This work aims to evaluate how TBG responds to exposure to ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation from the sun. The gel was irradiated with a solar simulator, which sensitized TBG and transformed it into the Turnbull Blue dye; a change in the optical absorption ensued. The fluence values delivered by the source did not provide a linear response, but it was still possible to use TBG as an optical dosimeter. In conclusion, TBG can be applied to detect solar radiation because it is sensitive enough to measure sun exposure values at time intervals of few minutes.

  20. Light and anoxia fading of Prussian blue dyed textiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gervais, Claire; Languille, Marie-Angélique; Reguer, Solenn; Garnier, Chantal; Gillet, Martine

    2014-01-01

    .... Its stability upon exposure to light and anoxia remains difficult to apprehend. The present paper focuses on the relative influences of light, anoxia and type of substrate on the discoloration of Prussian blue dyed textiles...

  1. Adsorption Kinetics of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions onto Palygorskite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Shuchuan; WANG Shisheng; CHEN Tianhu; JIANG Shaotong; HUANG Chuanhui

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption kinetics of methylene blue from aqueous solutions on purified palygorskite was investigated. The kinetics data related to the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions are in good agreement with the pseudo-second order equation in ranges of initial concentration of 120-210 mg/L, oscillation speed of 100-200 r/min and temperature of 298-328K. The experimental results show that methylene blue is only adsorbed onto the external surface of purified palygorskite,and the apparent adsorption activation energy is 13.92 k J/mol. The relatively low apparent adsorption activation energy suggests that the adsorption of methylene blue involves in not only a chemical, but also a physical adsorption process, and it is controlled by the combination of chemical adsorption and liquid-film diffusion.

  2. The role of a blue ocean strategy on performance evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mojtaba Tabari; Mehrdad Ziabari; Mona Radmard; Mahdiyeh Radmard

    2014-01-01

    .... In this way, an experimental test is conducted in the Resorts of Ramsar Green City located in the north of Iran, in which the factors of a blue ocean strategy influence on the dimensions of the BSC...

  3. THE PITFALLS OF THE BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY CANVAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe; Clemmensen, Suberia

    2009-01-01

    Numerous authors have developed a list of tactics and analyticaltechniques to discover new business or new business models (Markides2008)(Johnson 2008). The Blue Ocean strategy (Kim & Mauborgne 2005)have been one of these - probably one of the most important analyticaltechniques related to the area...... - it is important tounderstand the very foundation and construction of the strategy canvas -namely value.This paper addresses the question on How is value defined, measured andfrom which viewed in the Blue Ocean theory and framework. How is valuedefined and used by companies using the Blue Ocean strategy...... canvasframework? Moreover, when addressing this, what are the pitfalls relatedto these definitions of value and use of the strategy canvas. What is theimplications of the strategy canvas in the process of developing a new BMon the basis of a Blue Ocean Strategy?...

  4. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-12

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts.

  5. Color Enhancement by Diffusion of Beryllium in Dark Blue Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyungj in Kim; Yongkil Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of beryllium was performed on dark blue sapphire from China and Australia.The samples were heated with beryllium as a dopant in a furnace at 1 600 ℃ for 42 h in air.After beryllium diffusion,sam-ples were analyzed by UV-Vis,FTIR,and WD-XRF spectroscopy.After heat-treatment with Be as a catalyst, the irons of the ferrous state were changed to the ferric state.Therefore,reaction of Fe2+/Ti4+ IVCT was de-creased.The absorption peaks at 3 309 cm-1 attributed to OH radical were disappeared completely due to carry out heat treatment.Consequently,the intensity of absorption band was decreased in the visible region.Espe-cially,decreased absorption band in the vicinity of 570 nm was responsible for the lighter blue color.There-fore,we confirmed that the dark blue sapphires from China and Australia were changed to vivid blue.

  6. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(6), pp. ... Key words: Aspergillus wentii, dye, methylene blue, biosorption, desorption, isotherm. INTRODUCTION. Wastewaters from textile, cosmetics, printing, dying, food coloring ...

  7. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  8. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left–right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green

  9. Golf Blue-e-Motion. The electric Volkswagen; Golf Blue-e-Motion. Der elektrische Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadler, Jens; Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Jelden, Hanno; Lueck, Peter; Tousen, Jonas [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The particular challenges of our time require a consistent focus on the development activities of powertrain technologies with continuously reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The past years have seen many technological milestones by Volkswagen's Powertrain Development as illustrated by the exceptional success of the TSI and TDI engines as well as the double clutch transmissions. As a part of this comprehensive list of powertrain strategy, the development of drivetrains for alternative fuels, such as CNG, has also been included. With particular emphasis Volkswagen is pressing forward the electrification of the drivetrain with the goal of appealing to more customers through these new technologies. A milestone of the electrification activity is the Golf Blue-e-Motion, in which the comfort and especially the city driving performance are improved compared with the conventional vehicle. This driving performance is achieved by an electric drivetrain which consists of a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor together with associated power electronics and a Li-Ion battery. This presentation will pay particular attention to the characteristics of the drivetrain system and its components. The efficient powertrain including the recovering of braking energy (recuperation) as well as the attention paid on optimising all system components, has increased the driving range of the vehicle. Environmental awareness and driving pleasure - the electric drivetrain of the Golf Blue-e-Motion shows that these both requirements are possible to be realised by an electric drivetrain. (orig.)

  10. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, two alkali earth copper silicate-based pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T

    2014-04-24

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form.

  11. In vitro lethal photosensitization of S. mutans using methylene blue and toluidine blue O as photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Patrícia V; Teixeira, Karina I R; Lanza, Lincoln D; Cortes, Maria E; Poletto, Luiz T A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans (A TCC 25175) suspensions, using a red laser for one minute in combination with toluidine blue O (TBO) or methylene blue (MB). Both photosensitizers were used in three concentrations (25, 10 and 5 mg/L). The activity ofphotosensitizers and laser irradiation were tested separately on the bacteria, as well as the irradiation of this light source in the presence of the TBO or MB. These groups were compared to a control group, in which the microorganism did not receive any treatment. The activity of both TBO and MB or laser irradiation, alone, were not able to reduce the number of S. mutans. In the groups of lethal photosensitization, a bacterial reduction of 70% for TBO and 73% for MB was observed when these photosensitizers were used at 25 mg/L and a reduction of 48% was observed for MB at 5mg/L. In other concentrations there were no significant differences in comparison to the control group. Both the TBO and the MB at 25 mg/L associated with a red laser had an excellent potential for use in PDT in lethal sensitization of S. mutans.

  12. Blue Ocean versus Competitive Strategy: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew; Stel, André; Thurik, Roy

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBlue ocean strategy seeks to turn strategic management on its head by replacing ‘competitive advantage’ with ‘value innovation’ as the primary goal where firms must create consumer demand and exploit untapped markets. Empirical analysis has been focused on case study evidence and so lacks generality to resolve the debate. We provide a methodological synthesis of the theories enabling us to bring statistical evidence to the debate. Our analysis finds that blue ocean and competitive...

  13. Combatant Eye Protection: An Introduction to the Blue Light Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    energy distribution curves are becoming increasingly relevant to our daily lives, as a result of their use in mobile phones, modern televisions ...input for various nonvisual 7 behavior and physiological functions. The nonvisual photoreceptor melanopsin absorbs blue light and triggers the...Sekharan, Wei, and Batista, 2012; Berson, Dunn, and Takao, 2002; Wolf, 2002). Consequently, it is possible that blue light filters may disrupt sleep

  14. Incidentally Detected Blue Nevus of Endocervix: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shaila Talengala; Shivamurthy, Archana; Kini Rao, Anuradha Calicut

    2015-01-01

    Blue nevi are uncommon, asymptomatic lesions of the uterine cervix. These lesions are not often detected clinically or on colposcopy. Careful histopathological examination is required. The nevus cells are said to originate from the immature melanoblasts of the neural crest. These lesions need to be differentiated from malignant melanoma and melanosis of the cervix. We present here a case report of incidentally detected cervical blue nevus in a 52 year old lady. PMID:26351493

  15. Blue and fin whale acoustics and ecology off Antarctic Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) in the Southern Ocean were subjects of extensive whaling industry during the twentieth century. Their current population numbers remain low, making population monitoring using traditional visual surveys difficult. Both blue and fin whales produce low frequency, regularly repeated calls and are suitable for acoustic monitoring. Eight, continuously recording acoustic recorders were deployed off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) betwe...

  16. Methylene blue inhibits lumefantrine-resistant Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Victor Irungu; Mumo, Ruth Mwende; Kiboi, Daniel Muthui; Omar, Sabah Ahmed; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah Waithera; Ozwara, Hastings Suba

    2016-06-30

    Chemotherapy still is the most effective way to control malaria, a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The large-scale use of the combination therapy artemether-lumefantrine for malaria treatment in Africa predisposes lumefantrine to emergence of resistance. There is need to identify drugs that can be used as substitutes to lumefantrine for use in combination therapy. Methylene blue, a synthetic anti-methemoglobinemia drug, has been shown to contain antimalarial properties, making it a candidate for drug repurposing. The present study sought to determine antiplasmodial effects of methylene blue against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant strains of P. berghei. Activity of methylene blue was assessed using the classical four-day test on mice infected with lumefantrine-resistant and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei. A dose of 45 mg/kg/day was effective for testing ED90. Parasitemia and mice survival was determined. At 45 mg/kg/day, methylene blue sustained significant parasite inhibition, over 99%, for at least 6 days post-treatment against lumefantrine-resistant and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei (p = 0.0086 and p = 0.0191, respectively). No serious adverse effects were observed. Our results indicate that methylene blue at a concentration of 45 mg/kg/day confers over 99% inhibition against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei for six days. This shows the potential use methylene blue in the development of antimalarials against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant parasites.

  17. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREJO, W H; BENNETT, R E

    1963-03-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676-690. 1963.-The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level.

  18. Hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savedoff Aaron D

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-hypnosis has been taught routinely at the SUNY Upstate Medical University for treatment of pulmonary symptoms thought to be amenable to psychological therapy. While using hypnosis for relaxation, four individuals, including a patient with cystic fibrosis, reported development of blue-tinted vision. Based on a search of the literature, we believe this is the first published report of hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision. Case presentation The patient reported blue-tinted vision when he used hypnosis on an almost daily basis for seven years. The visual change typically occurred when he was relaxed. Moreover, a concurrent erection in the absence of sexual thoughts usually was present. The other three individuals reported blue-tinted vision after learning how to use hypnosis for relaxation as part of a group hypnosis instruction. Conclusion The blue-tinted vision experienced by the individuals in this report may be the result of an hypnosis-induced primary change in cognitive processing. Additionally, as the relaxing effect of hypnosis can be associated with a reduction in blood pressure and increased blood flow, hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision also may be related to retinal vasodilation.

  19. International, prospective haemovigilance study on methylene blue-treated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noens, L; Vilariño, Ma D; Megalou, A; Qureshi, H

    2017-05-01

    Methylene blue is a phenothiazine dye, which in combination with visible light has virucidal and bactericidal properties, disrupting the replication of a broad range of enveloped viruses and some non-enveloped viruses. The study objective was to collect data on adverse reactions occurring with methylene blue plasma administered in a routine clinical practice environment and document their characteristics and severity. This was an open label, multicentre, non-controlled, non-randomized, non-interventional study. Patients who receive a methylene blue plasma transfusion were observed for any signs and symptoms (adverse reactions) within 24 h safter the start of the transfusion, in different hospitals for a study duration of at least 1 year. A total of 19 315 methylene blue plasma units were transfused. There were eight patients with adverse reactions recorded during the study, one of them serious. Two had more than one reaction (two and four, respectively). Three patients had previous transfusions with methylene blue plasma only. Methylene blue plasma has a very acceptable safety profile with a rate of serious adverse reactions of 0·5/10 000 units. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Differential photodynamic response of cultured cells to methylene blue and toluidine blue: role of dark redox processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Stockert, Juan C; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Zamarrón, Alicia; Juarranz, Angeles

    2009-03-01

    Cultured cells treated with equal concentrations of thiazine photosensitizers methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue (TB) showed a distinct photodynamic lethality, with TB being much more effective, when exposed to red light from a LED source. This effect is accounted for because of the differences in the chemical reduction of MB and TB in the intracellular environment. While TB accumulates as blue granular structures, MB does not give such a localization pattern. However, upon exposure of MB-treated cells to oxidant agents, the dye becomes clearly localized in the cytoplasm as blue granules. We propose that massive reduction of MB to its leuco form inside the cell inhibits most of the photodynamic damage, while no such reduction occurs with TB.

  1. Fast Blue RR—Siloxane Derivatized Materials Indicate Wound Infection Due to a Deep Blue Color Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Schiffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need for simple and fast methods for wound infection determination. Myeloperoxidase, an immune system-derived enzyme was found to be a suitable biomarker for wound infection. Hence, alkoxysilane-derivatized Fast Blue RR was immobilized via simple hydrolytic polymerization. The resulting enzyme-responsive siloxane layers were incubated with myeloperoxidase, wound fluid or hemoglobin. The reaction was monitored via HPLC measurements and the color development quantified spectrophotometrically. Myeloperoxidase was indeed able to oxidize immobilized Fast Blue RR leading to a blue colored product. No conversion was detected in non-infected wound fluids. The visible color changes of these novel materials towards blue enable an easy distinction between infected and non-infected wound fluids.

  2. Red, White, and the Blues Part 3 of 4: The New Beat of the Blues: R&B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinos-Carr, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    When rhythm & blues--or, as it is more commonly called, R&B, was first born, it did not even have a name. Prior to 1949, all black popular music, including jazz, blues, and gospel, was known as "race music." But by the end of the 1940s, the music had become so successful that it gained a new-found respect--and Billboard magazine, realizing that…

  3. 76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard...

  4. Leaf Positioning of Arabidopsis in Response to Blue Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shin-ichiro Inoue; Toshinori Kinoshita; Atsushi Takemiya; Michio Doi; Ken-ichiro Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Appropriate leaf positioning is essential for optimizing photosynthesis and plant growth. However, it has not been elucidated how green leaves reach and maintain their position for capturing light. We show here the regulation of leaf positioning under blue light stimuli. When 1-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings grown under white light were transferred to red light (25 μmol m-2s-t) for 5 d, new petioles that appeared were almost horizontal and their leaves were curled and slanted downward. However, when a weak blue light from above (0.1 μmol m-2s-1) was superimposed on red light, the new petioles grew obliquely upward and the leaves were flat and horizontal. The leaf positioning required both phototropin1 (phot1) and nonphototropic hypocotyl 3 (NPH3), and resulted in enhanced plant growth. In an nph3 mutant, neither optimal leaf positioning nor leaf flattening by blue light was found, and blue light-induced growth enhancement was drastically reduced. When blue light was increased from 0.1 to 5 μmol m-2s-1, normal leaf positioning and leaf flattening were induced in both phot1 and nph3 mutants, suggesting that phot2 signaling became functional and that the signaling was independent of phot1 and NPH3 in these responses. When plants were irradiated with blue light (0.1 μmol m-2s-1) from the side and red light from above, the new leaves became oriented toward the source of blue light. When we transferred these plants to both blue light and red light from above, the leaf surface changed its orientation to the new blue light source within a few hours, whereas the petioles initially were unchanged but then gradually rotated, suggesting the plasticity of leaf positioning in response to blue light. We showed the tissue expression of NPH3 and its plasma membrane localization via the coiled-coil domain and the C-terminal region. We conclude that NPH3-mediated phototropin signaling optimizes the efficiency of light perception by inducing both optimal leaf positioning and leaf

  5. Five generations of peace operations: from the "thin blue line" to "painting a country blue"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Michael Kenkel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article combines both international practice and analytical contributions into a systematic and synthetic presentation of the evolution of peace operations from their modern inception in 1948 to the present. It seeks to serve a didactic purpose in proposing a basic structure for Brazilian scholars' burgeoning debate on peace operations and intervention, rather than a definitive characterization of blue helmet practice. Peace operations' progression is traced through five analytical "generations," each adding a crucial factor distinguishing it from its predecessors. Each generation is placed in relation to changes in the nature of conflict and in the interpretation of the foundational principles of peace operations, and links to broader theoretical issues in International Relations are made explicit at each stage.

  6. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

  7. Methylene blue is associated with poor outcomes in vasoplegic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Menachem M; Lin, Hung-Mo; Danforth, Dennis; Rao, Srikar; Hosseinian, Leila; Fischer, Gregory W

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients who received methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass had decreased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective analysis. Single tertiary care university hospital. Adult patients who suffered from vasoplegia and underwent all types of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at this institution between 2007 and 2008. With IRB approval, the authors reviewed the charts of the identified patients and divided them into 2 groups based on whether they had received methylene blue. Two hundred twenty-six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria for the study. Fifty-seven of these patients had received methylene blue for vasoplegia. The authors collected data on preoperative and intraoperative variables as well as outcomes. The patients who received methylene blue had higher rates of in-hospital mortality, a compilation of morbidities, as well as renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that receiving methylene blue was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (p value: 0.007, OR 4.26, 95% CI: 1.49-12.12), compilation of morbidities (p value: 0.001, OR 4.80, 95% CI: 1.85-12.43), and hyperbilirubinemia (p value:methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia to be independently associated with poor outcomes. While further studies are required, a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be applied before using methylene blue and, perhaps, it should be relegated to rescue use and not as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blue Guardian: open architecture intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Russell G.; Borntrager, Luke A.; Soine, Andrew T.; Green, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Blue Guardian has adopted the core concepts and principles of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) Open Mission Systems (OMS) initiative to implement an open Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform architecture. Using this new OMS standard provides a business case to reduce cost and program schedules for industry and the Department of Defense (DoD). Blue Guardian is an early adopting program of OMS and provides much needed science and technology improvements, development, testing, and implementation of OMS for ISR purposes. This paper presents results and lessons learned under the Blue Guardian Project Shepherd program which conducted Multi-INT operational demonstrations in the Joint Interagency Task Force - South (JIATF-S) and USSOUTHCOM area of operations in early 2016. Further, on-going research is discussed to enhance Blue Guardian Multi-INT ISR capabilities to support additional mission sets and platforms, including unmanned operations over line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS) datalinks. An implementation of additional OMS message sets and services to support off-platform sensor command and control using OMS/UCI data structures and dissemination of sensor product data/metadata is explored. Lastly, the Blue Guardian team is working with the AgilePod program to use OMS in a full Government Data Rights Pod to rapidly swap these sensors to different aircraft. The union of the AgilePod (which uses SOSA compliant standards) and OMS technologies under Blue Guardian programs is discussed.

  9. Blue-blocking IOLs decrease photoreception without providing significant photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Violet and blue light are responsible for 45% of scotopic, 67% of melanopsin, 83% of human circadian (melatonin suppression) and 94% of S-cone photoreception in pseudophakic eyes (isoilluminance source). Yellow chromophores in blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) eliminate between 43 and 57% of violet and blue light between 400 and 500 nm, depending on their dioptric power. This restriction adversely affects pseudophakic photopic luminance contrast, photopic S-cone foveal threshold, mesopic contrast acuity, scotopic short-wavelength sensitivity and circadian photoreception. Yellow IOL chromophores provide no tangible clinical benefits in exchange for the photoreception losses they cause. They fail to decrease disability glare or improve contrast sensitivity. Most epidemiological evidence shows that environmental light exposure and cataract surgery are not significant risk factors for the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, the use of blue-blocking IOLs is not evidence-based medicine. Most AMD occurs in phakic adults over 60 years of age, despite crystalline lens photoprotection far greater than that of blue-blocking IOLs. Therefore, if light does play some role in the pathogenesis of AMD, then 1) senescent crystalline lenses do not prevent it, so neither can blue-blocking IOLs that offer far less photoprotection, and 2) all pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments. Pseudophakes have the freedom to remove their sunglasses for optimal photoreception whenever they choose to do so, provided that they are not encumbered permanently by yellow IOL chromophores. In essence, yellow chromophores are placebos for prevention of AMD that permanently restrict a pseudophake's dim light and circadian photoreception at ages when they are needed most. If yellow IOLs had been the standard of care, then colorless UV-blocking IOLs could be advocated now as "premium" IOLs because they offer dim light and circadian photoreception roughly 15

  10. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  11. Similarity Analysis of the Streamer Zone of Blue Jets and Gigantic Blue Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennady, M.; Popov, N. A.; Shneider, M.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple observations of Blue Jets (BJ) and Gigantic Blue Jets (GBJ) show that BJ emits a fan of streamers similar to a laboratory leader. Moreover, in the exponential atmosphere those long streamers grow preferentially upward, producing a narrow cone confined by the aperture angle. Petrov and Petrova [1999] and Pasko and George [2002] noticed that BJ are similar to the streamer zone of a leader (streamer corona) and conducted modeling studies based on the streamers fractal structure. Objective of this paper is to study the fractal dimension of the bunch of streamer channels emitted by BJ, at different altitude and under the varying reduced electric field. This similarity analysis has been done in three steps: First we described the dendritic structure of streamers in corona discharge applying the fractal theory by Popov [2002]. Then using this model and the data from existing laboratory experiments we obtained that the fractal dimension of the branching streamer channels D=2. We estimated next the packing factor of the streamers using the kinetic simulations that describe development of a group of streamers that propagate in a discharge gap while interact with each other. Finally the model was used to analyze some GBJ images available from the literature. The model output includes evaluation of the total number of streamer channels in the GBJs along with estimates of the aperture angle and of the average distance between the brunches. In addition the analysis allows us to obtain the mean streamer velocity for the studied GBJs and check the velocity against the observations. V.P. Pasko and J.J. George, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1458, 2002 N.I. Petrov and G.N. Petrova, Tech Phys. Lett., 44, 472, 1999 N.A. Popov, Plasma Phys. Reports, 28, 615, 2002.

  12. Blue-Light Filtering Spectacle Lenses: Optical and Clinical Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tsz Wing; Li, Roger Wing-Hong; Kee, Chea-Su

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the optical performance of blue-light filtering spectacle lenses and investigate whether a reduction in blue light transmission affects visual performance and sleep quality. Experiment 1: The relative changes in phototoxicity, scotopic sensitivity, and melatonin suppression of five blue-light filtering plano spectacle lenses were calculated based on their spectral transmittances measured by a spectrophotometer. Experiment 2: A pseudo-randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of two blue-light filtering spectacle lenses (BF: blue-filtering anti-reflection coating; BT: brown-tinted) with a regular clear lens (AR) serving as a control. A total of eighty computer users were recruited from two age cohorts (young adults: 18-30 yrs, middle-aged adults: 40-55 yrs). Contrast sensitivity under standard and glare conditions, and colour discrimination were measured using standard clinical tests. After one month of lens wear, subjective ratings of lens performance were collected by questionnaire. All tested blue-light filtering spectacle lenses theoretically reduced the calculated phototoxicity by 10.6% to 23.6%. Although use of the blue-light filters also decreased scotopic sensitivity by 2.4% to 9.6%, and melatonin suppression by 5.8% to 15.0%, over 70% of the participants could not detect these optical changes. Our clinical tests revealed no significant decrease in contrast sensitivity either with (95% confidence intervals [CI]: AR-BT [-0.05, 0.05]; AR-BF [-0.05, 0.06]; BT-BF [-0.06, 0.06]) or without glare (95% CI: AR-BT [-0.01, 0.03]; AR-BF [-0.01, 0.03]; BT-BF [-0.02, 0.02]) and colour discrimination (95% CI: AR-BT [-9.07, 1.02]; AR-BF [-7.06, 4.46]; BT-BF [-3.12, 8.57]). Blue-light filtering spectacle lenses can partially filter high-energy short-wavelength light without substantially degrading visual performance and sleep quality. These lenses may serve as a supplementary option for protecting the retina from potential

  13. Sustainable Life on the Blue Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvarg, D.

    2002-05-01

    the 1950s suggest we now have the technological capacity for a new energy transition to non-carbon systems including photovoltaics, wind-turbines, biofuels and hydrogen fuel-cells. A (largely) hydrogen based economy could also lead to a decentralized power grid less vulnerable to terrorism and the increased natural disasters we can expect in the coming greenhouse century. Sustainable development of limited resources and the shift to renewable forms of agriculture, water-planning, energy and other technologies will ultimately depend not simply on earth science, but on a highly political process which will (hopefully) combine the best-available science, and society's values to determine public policy that benefits the long-term interests of our blue planet's varied residents, recognizing that our economy is a fully owned subsidiary of our environment.

  14. Blue light-mediated inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Giorgio; Wataha, John C; Girard, Myriam; Grad, Iwona; Schrenzel, Jacques; Lange, Norbert; Bouillaguet, Serge

    2013-05-01

    In dentistry, residual infection remains a major cause of failure after endodontic treatment; many of these infections involve Enterococcus faecalis. In the current study, we explored the possibility that blue light activated photosensitizers could be used, in principle, to inactivate this microbe as an adjunct disinfection strategy for endodontic therapy. Three blue light absorbing photosensitizers, eosin-Y, rose bengal, and curcumin, were tested on E. faecalis grown in planktonic suspensions or biofilms. Photosensitizers were incubated for 30 min with bacteria then exposed to blue light (450-500 nm) for 240 s. Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as a control. After 48 h, the viability of E. faecalis was estimated by measuring colony-forming units post-exposure vs. untreated controls (CFU/mL). Blue light irradiation alone did not alter E. faecalis viability. For planktonic cultures, blue light activated eosin-Y (5 μM), rose bengal (1 μM), or curcumin (5 μM) significantly (pfaecalis viability compared to exposure to the unirradiated photochemicals. For biofilm cultures, concentrations of light-activated eosin-Y, rose bengal, and curcumin of 100, 10, and 10 μM respectively, completely suppressed E. faecalis viability (pendodontic treatment.

  15. Blue whale habitat and prey in the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Reilly, Stephen B.; Hewitt, Roger P.; Demer, David; Philbrick, Valerie A.; Smith, Susan; Armstrong, Wesley; Croll, Donald A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Mate, Bruce R.

    1998-08-01

    Whale Habitat and Prey Studies were conducted off southern California during August 1995 (WHAPS95) and July 1996 (WHAPS96) to (1) study the distribution and activities of blue whales and other large whales, (2) survey the distribution of prey organisms (krill), and (3) measure physical and biological habitat variables that influence the distribution of whales and prey. A total of 1307 cetacean sightings included 460 blue whale, 78 fin whale and 101 humpback whale sightings. Most blue whales were found in cold, well-mixed and productive water that had upwelled along the coast north of Point Conception and then advected south. They were aggregated in this water near San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands, where they fed on dense, subsurface layers of euphausiids both on the shelf and extending off the shelf edge. Two species of euphausiids were consumed by blue whales, Thysanoessa spinifera and Euphausia pacifica, with evidence of preference for the former, a larger and more coastal species. These krill patches on the Channel Island feeding grounds are a resource exploited during summer-fall by the world's largest stock of blue whales.

  16. The BlueTides Simulation: First Galaxies and Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu; Croft, Rupert A; Bird, Simeon; Battaglia, Nicholas; Wilkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the BlueTides simulation and report initial results for the luminosity functions of the first galaxies and AGN, and their contribution to reionization. BlueTides was run on the BlueWaters cluster at NCSA from $z=99$ to $z=8.0$ and includes 2$\\times$7040$^3$ particles in a $400$Mpc/h per side box, making it the largest hydrodynamic simulation ever performed at high redshift. BlueTides includes a pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, gas cooling, star formation (including molecular hydrogen), black hole growth and models for stellar and AGN feedback processes. The star formation rate density in the simulation is a good match to current observational data at $z\\sim 8-10$. We find good agreement between observations and the predicted galaxy luminosity function in the currently observable range $-18\\le M_{\\mathrm UV} \\le -22.5$ with some dust extinction required to match the abundance of brighter objects. BlueTides implements a patchy reionization model that produces a fluct...

  17. Blue light dosage affects carotenoids and tocopherols in microgreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuolienė, Giedrė; Viršilė, Akvilė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Jankauskienė, Julė; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Vaštakaitė, Viktorija; Novičkovas, Algirdas; Viškelienė, Alina; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas

    2017-08-01

    Mustard, beet and parsley were grown to harvest time under selected LEDs: 638+660+731+0% 445nm; 638+660+731+8% 445nm; 638+660+731+16% 445nm; 638+660+731+25% 445nm; 638+660+731+33% 445nm. From 1.2 to 4.3 times higher concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, α- and β-carotenes, lutein, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin was found under blue 33% treatment in comparison to lower blue light dosages. Meanwhile, the accumulation of metabolites, which were not directly connected with light reactions, such as tocopherols, was more influenced by lower (16%) blue light dosage, increasing about 1.3 times. Thus, microgreen enrichment of carotenoid and xanthophyll pigments may be achieved using higher (16-33%) blue light intensities. Changes in metabolite quantities were not the result of changes of other carotenoid concentration, but were more influenced by light treatment and depended on the species. Significant quantitative changes in response to blue light percentage were obtained for both directly and not directly light-dependent metabolite groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibelli, Samantha [Burnt Hills-Ballston Lake High School, 88 Lake Hill Road, Ballston, NY 12027 (United States); Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Yanny, Brian, E-mail: heidi@rpi.edu [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  19. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brilliant blue G attenuates lipopolysaccharidemediated microglial activation and inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Lu; Jue Wang; Bin Hu; Xiaolei Shi; Junyi Zhou; Yamei Tang; Ying Peng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that oxidized adenosine triphosphate, a P2X7 receptor antagonist, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-mediated microglial activation and inflammatory expression following neuronal damage in rat brain. NaCl and temperature may affect the potency of oxidized adenosine triphosphate. Brilliant blue G is a derivative of a widely used food additive and has little toxicity. This study explored the effects of brilliant blue G, a selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, on microglial activation and inflammation. Results demonstrated that brilliant blue G inhibited the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. Immunofluorescence displayed that brilliant blue G could suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation. This study used RNA interference to block P2X7 receptor expression and found that small interfering RNA also suppressed the release of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 in BV2 cells. These results suggested that downregulation of the P2X7 receptor by brilliant blue G was involved in the inhibition of microglial activation and inflammation.

  1. Effects of blue light on pigment biosynthesis of Monascus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Xue, Chunmao; Chen, Mianhua; Wu, Shufen; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Changlu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of different illumination levels of blue light on the growth and intracellular pigment yields of Monascus strain M9 was investigated. Compared with darkness, constant exposure to blue light of 100 lux reduced the yields of six pigments, namely, rubropunctatamine (RUM), monascorubramine (MOM), rubropunctatin (RUN), monascorubrin (MON), monascin (MS), and ankaflavin (AK). However, exposure to varying levels of blue light had different effects on pigment production. Exposure to 100 lux of blue light once for 30 min/day and to 100 lux of blue light once and twice for 15 min/day could enhance RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production and reduce RUN and MON compared with non-exposure. Exposure to 100 lux twice for 30 min/day and to 200 lux once for 45 min/day decreased the RUM, MOM, MS, and AK yields and increased the RUN and MON. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pigment biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that gene MpPKS5, mppR1, mppA, mppB, mmpC, mppD, MpFasA, MpFasB, and mppF were positively correlated with the yields of RUN and MON, whereas mppE and mppR2 were associated with RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production.

  2. Compete or Leapfrog: Creating Blue Ocean through Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the role of entrepreneurial orientation with mediating effect of knowledge creation process to creating Blue Ocean in corporate sector in Pakistan There is an increasing competition among companies due to globalization and technological advancements. Thus, it requires a study to measure the multifaceted influence of entrepreneurial orientation on knowledge creation process and Blue Ocean besides the actual paradigm of this terminology. This concept has been well discussed in this research arena since its inception in 2005. Numerous such initiatives have already been taken, however this concept invites a lot more addition, related companies are still in pursuit to materialize the research concepts. We highlight the contingencies in the shift from a red ocean to Blue Ocean. The study uses exploratory approach; primary data is collected from 391 professionals working in different sectors of Pakistan. The study uses structural equation model (SEM technique to test the hypotheses. The study found a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and Blue Ocean, entrepreneurial orientation, knowledge creation process, and Blue Ocean. The study throws light on the importance of entrepreneurial orientation and knowledge creation process to head on this fast-paced competition.

  3. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  4. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  5. Blue-noise remeshing with farthest point optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for surface sampling and remeshing with good blue-noise properties. Our approach is based on the farthest point optimization (FPO), a relaxation technique that generates high quality blue-noise point sets in 2D. We propose two important generalizations of the original FPO framework: adaptive sampling and sampling on surfaces. A simple and efficient algorithm for accelerating the FPO framework is also proposed. Experimental results show that the generalized FPO generates point sets with excellent blue-noise properties for adaptive and surface sampling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our remeshing quality is superior to the current state-of-the art approaches. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337

  7. Velocidad radial de Blue Stragglers en cúmulos abiertos

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Se presentan observaciones espectroscópicas de 32 blue stragglers en 6 cúmulos abiertos. Un mínimo de 4 espectros por objeto fueron obtenidos en base a los cuales se determina tipo espectral, velocidad radial y velocidad de rotación proyectada. La comparación con la velocidad media de los cúmulos aseguraría una alta probabilidad de pertenencia para la mayoría de los objetos estudiados. Un análisis de variabilidad conduce a la detección de un nuevo blue straggler binario en el cúmulo NGC 6530 además de otras probables binarias. En base a la frecuencia de binaridad y a la distribución de velocidades rotacionales se discuten los probables mecanismos de formación de los blue stragglers.

  8. The development of corannulene-based blue emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, James; Vogel, Philip; Jones, Derek; Kaval, Necati; Sutton, Art

    2007-08-01

    Novel blue emitters were synthesized based on the fullerene fragment corannulene. 1,2- bis(corannulenylethynyl)benzene and 1,4-bis(corannulenylethynyl)benzene were designed, synthesized, and shown to exhibit significant red shifts in their absorption spectra as compared to that of the parent corannulene. Photoluminescence studies show both 1,2- bis(corannulenylethynyl)benzene and 1,4- bis(corannulenylethynyl)benzene gives enhanced blue luminescence compared to the parent corannulene structure. 1,4-bis(corannulenylethynyl)benzene was observed to give intense blue luminescence when excited at 400 nm. DFT and TD-DFT calculations were performed and shown to be consistent with the observed experimental results.

  9. Split-second escape decisions in blue tits (Parus caeruleus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Johan; Kaby, Ulrika; Jakobsson, Sven

    2002-07-01

    Bird mortality is heavily affected by birds of prey. Under attack, take-off is crucial for survival and even minor mistakes in initial escape response can have devastating consequences. Birds may respond differently depending on the character of the predator's attack and these split-second decisions were studied using a model merlin (Falco columbarius) that attacked feeding blue tits (Parus caeruleus) from two different attack angles in two different speeds. When attacked from a low attack angle they took off more steeply than when attacked from a high angle. This is the first study to show that escape behaviour also depends on predator attack speed. The blue tits responded to a high-speed attack by dodging sideways more often than when attacked at a low speed. Escape speed was not significantly affected by the different treatments. Although they have only a split-second before escaping an attack, blue tits do adjust their escape strategy to the prevailing attack conditions.

  10. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  11. A Bump in the Blue Axion Isocurvature Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2016-01-01

    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well-motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the non-applicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  12. Platinum blue staining of cells grown in electrospun scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Millas, Ana Luiza G; Estandarte, Ana Katrina C; Bhella, Gurdeep K; McKean, Robert; Bittencourt, Edison; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast cells grown in electrospun polymer scaffolds were stained with platinum blue, a heavy metal stain, and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Good contrast on the cells was achieved compared with samples that were gold sputter coated. The cell morphology could be clearly observed, and the cells could be distinguished from the scaffold fibers. Here we optimized the required concentration of platinum blue for imaging cells grown in scaffolds and show that a higher concentration causes platinum aggregation. Overall, platinum blue is a useful stain for imaging cells because of its enhanced contrast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the future it would be useful to investigate cell growth and morphology using three-dimensional imaging methods.

  13. Blue noise sampling method based on mixture distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongxing; Hong, XiaoYang; Xiao, Bin; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Guoyin

    2014-11-01

    Blue noise sampling is a core component for a large number of computer graphic applications such as imaging, modeling, animation, and rendering. However, most existing methods are concentrated on preserving spatial domain properties like density and anisotropy, while ignoring feature preserving. In order to solve the problem, we present a new distance metric called mixture distance for blue noise sampling, which is a combination of geodesic and feature distances. Based on mixture distance, the blue noise property and features can be preserved by controlling the ratio of the geodesic distance to the feature distance. With the intention of meeting different requirements from various applications, an adaptive adjustment for parameters is also proposed to achieve a balance between the preservation of features and spatial properties. Finally, implementation on a graphic processing unit is introduced to improve the efficiency of computation. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by the results of image stippling, surface sampling, and remeshing.

  14. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...... results on the abundance, size distribution and bacterial colonization of ABSP therefore reflect general patterns of TEP. The abundance of ABSP in the size range 3-162 urn and retained by 3 um pore size filters averaged 3.6 ± 2.49 x 10s ml"1 (± SD), which is among the highest concentrations reported...... for comparable size spectra of TEP. On average, 35 % of ABSP (by number) were colonized by bacteria and 8.6 x 105 bacteria ml"1 lake water were attached to ABSP, which corresponds to 7% of the total bacterial abundance....

  15. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  16. [Methylene blue therapy for vasoplegia after cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Katarzyna; Chmielniak, Sergiusz; Dziuk, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Ewa; Pawlak, Szymon; Knapik, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) may be associated with critically decreased vascular resistance (vasoplegia syndrome) and become resistant to noradrenaline. Such a condition may be successfully treated with intravenous methylene blue. A 73-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock was admitted to our centre after failed percutaneous coronary interventions to the left anterior descending coronary artery and underwent emergency coronary revascularisation. After surgery, his ejection fraction was 25%. X-ray revealed pulmonary oedema. The patient became severely hypotensive with marked vasoplegia and metabolic acidosis, despite incremental doses of adrenaline and noradrenaline. 2 mg kg(-1) of methylene blue was administered, which quickly stabilized the patient's general condition. Methylene blue applied to vasoplegic patients can effectively increase systemic vascular resistance and restore satisfactory organ perfusion.

  17. Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. Murray (ANL)

    2003-10-15

    Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  18. Cerulean Warbler Occurrence Atlas for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Army Ammuniton Plant (Closed) IN NO 2009 Army IOWA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT IA UNCERTAIN 2009 USACE J. Percy Priest Lake TN UNCERTAIN 2009 USACE J...Stonewall Jackson Lake WV UNCERTAIN 2009 USACE Summersville Lake WV no POC Army Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant KS no POC USACE Sutton Lake WV UNCERTAIN

  19. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  20. Water security assessment using blue and green water footprint concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2016-11-01

    The quantitative assessment of water security using the concept of blue and green water footprints can improve water resources management at local to regional scale. We developed an integrated modeling framework by considering both climatic and anthropogenic factors to investigate spatio-temporal variability of blue and green water availability and to quantify the water security in a river basin. The proposed modeling framework can be useful for providing an overview of the water security within the watershed and to identify water stress (hot spots) regions within the river basin. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to quantify the availability of fresh water (blue water and green water) in Savannah River Basin (SRB), USA. The anthropogenic factors (e.g., water demand) and Environmental Flow Requirement (EFR) information are incorporated to quantify the water security in terms of scarcity and vulnerability indices. A higher amount of blue water was observed for counties located in the upper part of SRB and higher green water flow was observed for counties that has the presence of intensive agriculture and large water bodies (e.g., reservoir). A time lag exists between the maximum rainfall during June-September and the maximum blue water observed in December-March. The study also analyzed the monthly variation of blue and green water flow for counties located in SRB. We expect that the water security assessment can provide useful information for understanding the emerging hot spots within a river basin (eco-system) due to the abstraction of water for human activities, such as irrigation, industrial use, energy production and domestic use.

  1. pH influences the biocompatibility of methylene blue solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, David Jonathan Rodrigues; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Matheus, Henrique Rinaldi; de Araujo, Nathália Januario; de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi

    2017-05-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of methylene blue at different pH levels through the method of implantation in subcutaneous tissue. Eighty-four sterilized polyethylene tubes were allocated in the subcutaneous tissue of 28 rats, each one receiving four tubes, set into four groups: group tube (G-T)-empty tube, fibrin group (G-F)-tube filled with fibrin sponge, group methylene blue pH 7 (G-MB/pH 7)-tube filled with fibrin sponge soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 7.0, and group methylene blue pH 1 (G-MB/pH 1)-tube filled with fibrin sponge and soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 1.0. After 7, 15, and 30 days, seven animals from each group were euthanized, and the tubes involved by the surrounding tissue were removed and fixed with 4% buffered formaldehyde solution. The collected pieces were processed and histological sections (4 μm) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to analysis of histopathologic parameters. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05). At 7 and 30 days, the G-MB/pH 1 group showed no significant difference in the G-T control group, while G-MB/pH 7 had a significant increase on tissue reaction, also when compared to G-T. At 15 days, there was no statistical difference between the groups. Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that methylene blue at pH 1.0 provides better biocompatibility than at pH 7.0.

  2. Sediment balances in the Blue Nile River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasir SAALI; Alessandra CROSATO; Yasir AMOHAMED; Seifeldin HABDALLA; Nigel GWRIGHT

    2014-01-01

    Rapid population growth in the upper Blue Nile basin has led to fast land-use changes from natural forest to agricultural land. This resulted in speeding up the soil erosion process in the highlands and increasing sedimentation further downstream in reservoirs and irrigation canals. At present, several dams are planned across the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia and the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is currently under construction near the border with Sudan. This will be the largest hydroelectric power plant in Africa. The objective of this paper is to quantify the river flows and sediment loads along the Blue Nile River network. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate the water flows from un-gauged sub-basins. To assess model performance, the estimated sediment loads were compared to the measured ones at selected locations. For the gauged sub-basins, water flows and sediment loads were derived from the available flow and sediment data. To fill in knowledge gaps, this study included a field survey in which new data on suspended solids and flow discharge were collected along the Blue Nile and on a number of tributaries. The comparison between the results of this study and previous estimates of the sediment load of the Blue Nile River at El Deim, near the Ethiopian Sudanese border, show that the sediment budgets have the right order of magnitude, although some uncertainties remain. This gives confidence in the results of this study providing the first sediment balance of the entire Blue Nile catchment at the sub-basin scale.

  3. Code Blue Emergencies: A Team Task Analysis and Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Price

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify factors that have a positive or negative influence on resuscitation team performance during emergencies in the operating room (OR and post-operative recovery unit (PAR at a major Canadian teaching hospital. This information was then used to implement a team training program for code blue emergencies. Methods: In 2009/10, all OR and PAR nurses and 19 anesthesiologists at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH were invited to complete an anonymous, 10 minute written questionnaire regarding their code blue experience. Survey questions were devised by 10 recovery room and operation room nurses as well as 5 anesthesiologists representing 4 different hospitals in British Columbia. Three iterations of the survey were reviewed by a pilot group of nurses and anesthesiologists and their feedback was integrated into the final version of the survey. Results: Both nursing staff (n = 49 and anesthesiologists (n = 19 supported code blue training and believed that team training would improve patient outcome. Nurses noted that it was often difficult to identify the leader of the resuscitation team. Both nursing staff and anesthesiologists strongly agreed that too many people attending the code blue with no assigned role hindered team performance. Conclusion: Identifiable leadership and clear communication of roles were identified as keys to resuscitation team functioning. Decreasing the number of people attending code blue emergencies with no specific role, increased access to mock code blue training, and debriefing after crises were all identified as areas requiring improvement. Initial team training exercises have been well received by staff.

  4. Simulating and Characterizing the Pale Blue Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.

    The goal of this work is to develop and validate a comprehensive model of Earth's disk-integrated spectrum. Earth is our only example of a habitable planet, or a planet capable of maintaining liquid water on its surface. As a result, Earth typically serves as the archetypal habitable world in conceptual studies of future exoplanet characterization missions, or in studies of techniques for the remote characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets. Using spacecraft to obtain disk-integrated observations of the distant Earth provides an opportunity to study Earth as might an extrasolar observer. However, such observations are rare, and are often limited in wavelength range, spectral resolution, temporal coverage, and viewing geometry. As a result, modeled observations of the distant Earth provide the best means for understanding the appearance of the Pale Blue Dot across a wide range of wavelengths, times, and viewing geometries. In this work, I discuss a generalized approach to modeling disk-integrated spectra of planets. This approach is then used to develop a model capable of simulating the appearance of Earth to a distant observer| the Virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) three-dimensional, line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model incorporates absorption and scattering by the atmosphere, clouds, and surface, including specular re ectance from the ocean, and direction-dependent scattering by clouds. Data from Earth-observing satellites are used to specify the time- and location-dependent state of the surface and atmosphere. Following the description of this tool, I validate the model against several datasets: visible photometric and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth from NASA's EPOXI mission, mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite, and broadband visible observations of Earth's brightness from Earthshine observations

  5. GPAW optimized for Blue Gene/P using hybrid programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Ruben Burgdorff; Happe, Hans Henrik; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present optimizations of a Grid-based projector-augmented wave method software, GPAW for the Blue Gene/P architecture. The improvements are achieved by exploring the advantage of shared and distributed memory programming also known as hybrid programming. The work focuses on optimi......In this work we present optimizations of a Grid-based projector-augmented wave method software, GPAW for the Blue Gene/P architecture. The improvements are achieved by exploring the advantage of shared and distributed memory programming also known as hybrid programming. The work focuses...

  6. Diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Shuaijia; Su, Yikai

    2016-09-01

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has been attractive for display and photonic applications for its sub-millisecond response time, no need for surface alignment, and an optically isotropic dark state. Because of these advantages, diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals have great potential for wide applications. In this work, we present several BPLC diffractive devices. The operation principles, fabrication and experimental measurements will be discussed in details for two BPLC gratings realized by holographic method and a BPLC Fresnel lens using a spatial light modulator projector. All of these devices exhibit several attractive features such as sub-millisecond response, relatively high spatial resolution and polarization-independence.

  7. Damaged Blue Papers : Optimising Consolidation while Preserving Original Colour

    OpenAIRE

    Messager, Marie; Rouchon, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article presents the case of blue paper in a sample book that once belonged to Victor Poterlet, a French wallpaper designer operating in Paris in the 19th century. Prussian blue is the main colourant used to dye the paper. The condition of the paper is very poor, probably due to the presence of free iron ions. However the paper could not be replaced or chemically treated because it supports 954 samples, which could not be dismantled due to time considerations. Mor...

  8. Blue-shift photoluminescence from porous InAlAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Liu, F. Q.; Wang, L. J.; Yin, W.; Wang, Z. G.

    2010-11-01

    A porous InAlAs structure was first obtained by electrochemical etching. Nano-pore arrays were formed when the In0.52Al0.48As membrane was anodized at constant voltages in an HF aqueous solution. These self-assembled structures showed evident blue-shift photoluminescence emissions. While a quantum size effect alone underestimates the blue-shift energy for a sample with a relatively large average pore wall thickness, a novel effect caused by the asymmetric etching is proposed to account for this phenomenon. The results inferred from the x-ray double crystal diffraction are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. How the ``Blues'' reveals the intimacy of music and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2013-03-01

    Little do most people know when they hear blues piano - and you'll hear some live in this talk - that physics permeates the style, as it does all of music. Why should you care? By deconstructing blues piano the intimacy of physics, mathematics and music will be revealed in its glory.[1] The exercise says something about how the brains of the music composer and of the listener must be intimately linked to the physical principles of acoustics. And it provides a great vehicle to explain physical phenomena to non-scientists - everything from quantum mechanics to protein structure.

  10. The role of a blue ocean strategy on performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tabari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a balanced scorecard (BSC in order to prepare a comprehensive tool for performance evaluation. In this way, an experimental test is conducted in the Resorts of Ramsar Green City located in the north of Iran, in which the factors of a blue ocean strategy influence on the dimensions of the BSC. The sample number of this study consists of 90 managers and experts of the employees who work for Resorts of Ramsar Green City. The acquired data are analyzed with using the t-test. The obtained results show that the blue ocean strategy changes in the objects and the scales of the BSC.

  11. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 .

  12. The Blue Obelisk—Interoperability in Chemical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Rajarshi; Howard, Michael T.; Hutchison, Geoffrey R.; Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry; Wegner, Jörg; Willighagen, Egon L.

    2006-01-01

    The Blue Obelisk Movement (http://www.blueobelisk.org/) is the name used by a diverse Internet group promoting reusable chemistry via open source software development, consistent and complimentary chemoinformatics research, open data, and open standards. We outline recent examples of cooperation in the Blue Obelisk group:  a shared dictionary of algorithms and implementations in chemoinformatics algorithms drawing from our various software projects; a shared repository of chemoinformatics data including elemental properties, atomic radii, isotopes, atom typing rules, and so forth; and Web services for the platform-independent use of chemoinformatics programs. PMID:16711717

  13. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  14. Cryptochromes--bringing the blues to circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, P F; Kay, S A

    1999-08-01

    Cryptochromes are blue/UV-A-absorbing photoreceptor proteins discovered originally in plants and so named because their nature proved elusive in over a century of research. Now we know that the photoreceptor essential for proper seedling establishment in blue light has homologues in the animal kingdom - in insects, in mice and in humans. In recent months, evidence has emerged pointing to a common role for cryptochromes in all of these organisms in entraining the circadian clock, a biochemical timing mechanism running within cells, synchronizing metabolism to the daily light-dark cycle and having consequences on a much larger scale in the regulation of behaviour such as the sleep-wake cycle.

  15. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  16. Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Fitzpatrick, Brian D. Fairbank

    2005-04-01

    The report documents the drilling of well Deep Blue No.2, the second deep geothermal test hole at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The well was drilled by Noramex Corp, a Nevada company, with funding support from the US Department of Energy, under the DOE’s GRED II Program. Deep Blue No.2 was drilled as a ‘step-out’ hole from Deep Blue No.1, to further evaluate the commercial potential of the geothermal resource. Deep Blue No.2 was designed as a vertical, slim observation test hole to a nominal target depth of 1000 meters (nominal 3400 feet). The well tests an area of projected high temperatures at depth, from temperature gradients measured in a group of shallow drill holes located approximately one kilometer to the northeast of observation hole Deep Blue No.1. The well is not intended for, or designed as, a commercial well or a production well. Deep Blue No.2 was spudded on March 25, 2004 and completed to a total depth of 1127.76m (3700 ft) on April 28, 2004. The well was drilled using conventional rotary drilling techniques to a depth of 201.17 m (660 ft), and continuously cored from 201.17m (660 ft) to 1127.76m (3700 ft). A brief rig-on flow-test was conducted at completion to determine basic reservoir parameters and obtain fluid samples. A permeable fracture zone with measured temperatures of 150 to 167°C (302 to 333°F) occurs between 500 to 750m (1640 to 2461ft). The well was left un-lined in anticipation of the Phase III - Flow and Injection Testing. A further Kuster temperature survey was attempted after the well had been shut in for almost 3 weeks. The well appears to have bridged off at 439m (1440ft) as the Kuster tool was unable to descend past this point. Several attempts to dislodge the obstruction using tube jars were unsuccessful. Deep Blue No.2 encountered variably fractured and veined, fine-grained rocks of the Singas Formation, and intruded by minor strongly altered fine-grained felsic dikes, and less altered

  17. Geology along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mark W.; Southworth, C. Scott; Tollo, Richard P.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Wagner, Sara; Lazor, Ava; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping and new SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) U-Pb zircon, Ar/Ar, Lu-Hf, 14C, luminescence (optically stimulated), thermochronology (fission-track), and palynology reveal the complex Mesoproterozoic to Quaternary geology along the ~350 km length of the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia. Traversing the boundary of the central and southern Appalachians, rocks along the parkway showcase the transition from the para-autochthonous Blue Ridge anticlinorium of northern and central Virginia to the allochthonous eastern Blue Ridge in southern Virginia. From mile post (MP) 0 near Waynesboro, Virginia, to ~MP 124 at Roanoke, the parkway crosses the unconformable to faulted boundary between Mesoproterozoic basement in the core of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium and Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic cover rocks on the western limb of the structure. Mesoproterozoic basement rocks comprise two groups based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology: Group I rocks (1.2-1.14 Ga) are strongly foliated orthogneisses, and Group II rocks (1.08-1.00 Ga) are granitoids that mostly lack obvious Mesoproterozoic deformational features.Neoproterozoic to Cambrian cover rocks on the west limb of the anticlinorium include the Swift Run and Catoctin Formations, and constituent formations of the Chilhowee Group. These rocks unconformably overlie basement, or abut basement along steep reverse faults. Rocks of the Chilhowee Group are juxtaposed against Cambrian rocks of the Valley and Ridge province along southeast- and northwest-dipping, high-angle reverse faults. South of the James River (MP 64), Chilhowee Group and basement rocks occupy the hanging wall of the nearly flat-lying Blue Ridge thrust fault and associated splays.South of the Red Valley high-strain zone (MP 144.5), the parkway crosses into the wholly allochthonous eastern Blue Ridge, comprising metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks assigned to the Wills Ridge, Ashe, and Alligator

  18. Beyond blue pico laser: development of high power blue and low power direct green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierheilig, Clemens; Eichler, Christoph; Tautz, Sönke; Lell, Alfred; Müller, Jens; Kopp, Fabian; Stojetz, Bernhard; Hager, Thomas; Brüderl, Georg; Avramescu, Adrian; Lermer, Teresa; Ristic, Jelena; Strauss, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    There is a big need on R&D concerning visible lasers for projection applications. The pico-size mobile projection on the one hand awaits the direct green lasers with sufficiently long lifetimes at optical powers above 50mW. In this paper we demonstrate R&D-samples emitting at 519nm with lifetimes up to 10.000 hours. The business projection on the other hand requires high power operation and already uses blue lasers and phosphor conversion, but there is a strong demand for higher power levels. We investigate the power limits of R&D laser structures. In continuous wave operation, the power is limited by thermal roll-over. With an excellent power conversion efficiency of up to 29% the thermal roll-over is as high as 2.5W for a single emitter in TO56 can. We do not observe significant leakage at high currents. Driven in short pulse operation to prevent the laser from self heating, linear laser characteristics of optical power versus electrical current are observed up to almost 8W of optical power.

  19. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ω Centauri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Monaco, L. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ω Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ∼40 km s{sup –1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ∼200 km s{sup –1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup –1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup –1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ω Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ω Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  20. Blue Nevus with a Dermoscopic Appearance of Peripheral Streaks with Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Sakamoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blue nevi are dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations presenting as papules, nodules or plaques of blue, blue-gray or blue-brown color. Dermoscopic appearance commonly shows global patterns as homogeneous mono/dichromatic pigmentation and multichromatic pigmentation. Here, we report the case of a blue nevus with the dermoscopic feature of peripheral streaks with branches. With histopathologic deep sections, we confirmed that dermal dendritic melanocytes were distributed in the direction of the streaks. We emphasize that streaks are a rare but important sign of blue nevi.

  1. 76 FR 49408 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered, and Proposed Listing of the Cassius Blue, Ceraunus Blue, and Nickerbean Blue Butterflies as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance to the Miami Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for public...

  2. [Phycobiliproteins of blue-green, red and cryptophytic algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichuk, I N; Gusev, M V

    1979-04-01

    The present-day concepts on phycobiliproteins, the protein pigments of blue-green, red and cryptophyte algae are reviewed. The functions, distribution, localization, physico-chemical, spectral and immunochemical properties of phycobiliproteins are described. The properties of the polypeptide protein subunits and the composition and chemical structure of chromophores as well as their binding to the apoprotein molecules are discussed.

  3. European lessons for Green and Blue Services in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink - Petersen, J.; Buizer, I.M.; Santiago Ramos, J.

    2008-01-01

    Green and Blue Services were developed in The Netherlands to reward farmers for the environmental services they provide to society. Especially the first initiatives were area specific, developed together with farmers and different from the national Agri-environmental scheme. In the PLUREL case study

  4. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2017-10-04

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  5. Sequential serotonin and noradrenalin associated processes involved in postpartum blues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, B.; Fekkes, D.; Tanke, M.A.; de Jonge, P.; Korf, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether postpartum blues was related to changes in parameters of noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning. Methods: From 26 healthy pregnant women blood was collected at the End of pregnancy and 5 days and 6 weeks postpartum. Serotonergic parameters were: platelet

  6. Intraoperatively Testing the Anastomotic Integrity of Esophagojejunostomy Using Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, S; Almalı, N; Aras, A; Yılmaz, Ö; Kızıltan, R

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative testing of gastrointestinal anastomosis effectively ensures anastomotic integrity. This study investigated whether the routine use of methylene blue intraoperatively identified leaks to reduce the postoperative proportion of clinical leaks. This study retrospectively analyzed consecutive total gastrectomies performed from January 2007 to December 2014 in a university hospital setting by a general surgical group that exclusively used the methylene blue test. All surgeries were performed for gastric or junctional cancers (n = 198). All reconstructions (Roux-en Y esophagojejunostomy) were performed using a stapler. The methylene blue test was used in 108 cases (group 1) via a nasojejunal tube. No test was performed for the other 90 cases (group 2). Intraoperative leakage rate, postoperative clinical leakage rate, length of hospitalization, and mortality rate were the outcome measures. The intraoperative leakage rate was 7.4% in group 1. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 8.6%. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 3.7% in group 1 and 14.4% in group 2 (p = 0.007). There were no postoperative clinical leaks when an intraoperative leak led to concomitant intraoperative repair. The median length of hospital stay was 6 days in group 1 and 8 days in group 2 (p methylene blue test for esophagojejunostomy is a safe and reliable method for the assessment of anastomosis integrity, especially in cases with difficult esophagojejunostomic construction.

  7. Spatial interaction of methylene blue stained soil pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we compare different types of patterns that emerge when applying methylene blue dye as a tracer on soils to detect preferential flow paths as a result of large cracks. Patterns on channels, vughs and cracks are analyzed with the J-function and with indicator variograms. By means of a

  8. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  9. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  10. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  11. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  12. Spatial interaction of methylene blue stained soil pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we compare different types of patterns that emerge when applying methylene blue dye as a tracer on soils to detect preferential flow paths as a result of large cracks. Patterns on channels, vughs and cracks are analyzed with the J-function and with indicator variograms. By means of a

  13. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... lodging accommodations, food and beverage, retail sales, boat rentals, and other services at Crabtree... Doc No: 2011-15060] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0511-7182; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...

  14. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Arpad A.

    2004-09-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography.As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc.Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity.Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care.

  15. The Blue Pony Lacrosse Program: Embracing the Spirit of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    An offshoot of a Denver, Colorado, alcohol and drug abuse prevention program, Blue Pony reclaims lacrosse as a Native American sport, and uses it to bridge tribal differences and promote cultural awareness, self-empowerment, and healthy lifestyles among urban Native American children. Discusses the game's history, a literacy program utilizing…

  16. COS Spectroscopy of White Dwarf Companions to Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Geller, Aaron M.; Knigge, Christian; Mathieu, Robert D.; Sills, Alison; Leiner, Emily; Leigh, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Complete membership studies of open stellar clusters reveal that 25% of the evolved stars follow alternative pathways in stellar evolution, meaning something in the history of these stars changed their composition or mass (or both). In order to draw a complete picture of stellar evolution we must include these canonically "strange" stars in our definition of standard stellar populations. The formation mechanism of blue straggler stars, traditionally defined to be brighter and bluer than the main sequence turnoff in a star cluster, has been an outstanding question for almost six decades. Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) far-ultraviolet (far-UV) observations directly reveal that the blue straggler stars in the old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188 are predominantly formed through mass transfer. We will present HST far-UV COS spectroscopy of white dwarf companions to blue stragglers. These white dwarfs are the remnants of the mass transfer formation process. The effective temperatures and surface gravities of the white dwarfs delineate the timeline of blue straggler formation in this cluster. The existence of these binaries in a well-studied cluster environment provides an unprecedented opportunity to observationally constrain mass transfer models and inform our understanding of many other alternative pathway stellar products.

  17. MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN TINGGI ISLAM DALAM SPEKTRUM BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia Mardia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Islamic higher educations are undergoing important changes involving the development of missions and reorganization of management, with implications for their quality education in the midst of complexity. The main study of this article highlights the importance of governance quality in Islamic higher education in the face of complexity from the perspective of Blue Ocean Strategy. It can be concluded that to win in the future, Islamic higher educations must stop competing each other. The only way to beat the competition is to stop trying to beat the competition. Blue Ocean Strategy to be one of the alternatives in the management of educational institutions to create distinctive adavantage and competitiveness based graduates. Abstrak:  Pendidikan tinggi Islam mengalami perubahan signifikan pada pengembangan misi dan reorganisasi manajemen yang mempengaruhi kualitas pendidikan di era kompleksitas. Kompleksitas tersebut tidak dapat diprediksi dan mempengaruhi munculnya gejala disorientasi nilai, disharmoni sosial, dan peran disfungsional. Pokok kajian tulisan ini menyorot pentingnya tatakelola pendidikan tinggi Islam bermutu dalam perspektif Blue Ocean Strategy dalam menghadapi kompleksitas. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif teoritis dan praktis. Temuan penelitian adalah untuk berdaya saing di masa depan, pendidikan tinggi Islam harus berhenti bersaing satu sama lain. Satu-satunya cara untuk mengalahkan kompetisi adalah berhenti berusaha memenangi kompetisi. Blue Ocean Strategy menjadi salah satu alternatif dalam pengelolaan lembaga pendidikan dalam mencetak lulusan yang kompetitif dan unggul.

  18. Observational Constraints on Red and Blue Helium Burning Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Holtzman, Jon; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F

    2011-01-01

    We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z=0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applying isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically we find: (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than M_V ~ -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2...

  19. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) population paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointin, Fabien; Payne, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827)) populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  20. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou population paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pointin

    Full Text Available We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827 populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  1. China's First Blue Book on Human Rights Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2011-01-01

    The China Society for the Studies of Human Rights and the Social Sciences Documentation Press held a joint press conference on September 8,2011,officially launching the publication of China's first blue book,the China Human Rights Development Report No.1 (2011 ).

  2. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... color removals from industrial effluents including ion exchange, adsorption ... efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes from effluents. (Malik, 2002). ... biosorbent Ulva lactuca and Saragassum as a natural, renewable ... Stock solution of 1 × 10-3 M of methylene blue dye was prepared in double distilled ...

  3. Blue Bottle Experiment: Learning Chemistry without Knowing the Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Areekul, Cherprang; Montriwat, Punchalee; Rajchakit, Urawadee

    2017-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment is a popular chemical demonstration because of its simplicity and visual appeal. Most papers on the topic focus on a new formulation or a new presentation, but only a few discuss pedagogical application for a full lab session. This article describes the use of this experiment in the first session of undergraduate…

  4. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) population paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pointin, Fabien; Payne, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We...

  5. Blue Darts: Award-Winning OP-EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    DARPA) in the area of mobile ad-hoc networks ( MANET ), but these only address a portion of the challenges faced by a mobile network core. Commercial...predator drones , and more real-time battlefield information using tools like Blue Force Tracking are all contributing to a great rise in bandwidth

  6. Detection of naphthalene by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.H.; Olla, B.L.

    1979-03-01

    Increases in the antennular flicking rate indicated that blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, detected the petroleum hydrocarbon naphthalene. A low incidence of aggressive displays but no food searching or gathering followed naphthalene detection. The results suggest that the chemosensory abilities of decapod crustaceans cover a broader range of substances than previously supposed.

  7. INTERACTION MODE BETWEEN METHYLENE BLUE-Sm(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe ... Thermodynamic function computation demonstrates ... By combination analysis of the Scatchard method, circular dichroism.

  8. The Blue Stragglers of the Old Open Cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188 has yielded a wealth of astrophysical insight into its rich blue straggler population. Specifically, the NGC 188 blue stragglers are characterized by: A binary frequency of 80% for orbital periods less than $10^4$ days;Typical orbital periods around 1000 days;Typical secondary star masses of 0.5 M$_{\\odot}$; At least some white dwarf companion stars; Modestly rapid rotation; A bimodal radial spatial distribution; Dynamical masses greater than standard stellar evolution masses (based on short-period binaries); Under-luminosity for dynamical masses (short-period binaries). Extensive $N$-body modeling of NGC 188 with empirical initial conditions reproduces the properties of the cluster, and in particular the main-sequence solar-type binary population. The current models also reproduce well the binary orbital properties of the blue stragglers, but fall well short of producing the observed number of blue stragglers. This deficit could be resolved by reducing the frequency of co...

  9. Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Shawkey, Matthew D; Blackledge, Todd A

    2015-11-01

    Slight shifts in arrangement within biological photonic nanostructures can produce large color differences, and sexual selection often leads to high color diversity in clades with structural colors. We use phylogenetic reconstruction, electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and optical modeling to show an opposing pattern of nanostructural diversification accompanied by unusual conservation of blue color in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae). In contrast to other clades, blue coloration in phylogenetically distant tarantulas peaks within a narrow 20-nm region around 450 nm. Both quasi-ordered and multilayer nanostructures found in different tarantulas produce this blue color. Thus, even within monophyletic lineages, tarantulas have evolved strikingly similar blue coloration through divergent mechanisms. The poor color perception and lack of conspicuous display during courtship of tarantulas argue that these colors are not sexually selected. Therefore, our data contrast with sexual selection that typically produces a diverse array of colors with a single structural mechanism by showing that natural selection on structural color in tarantulas resulted in convergence on similar color through diverse structural mechanisms.

  10. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on pottery making is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of pottery, including terms to know; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and…

  11. Blue Ocean versus Competitive Strategy: Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBlue ocean strategy seeks to turn strategic management on its head by replacing ‘competitive advantage’ with ‘value innovation’ as the primary goal where firms must create consumer demand and exploit untapped markets. Empirical analysis has been focused on case study evidence and so

  12. Blue Ocean versus Competitive Strategy: Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBlue ocean strategy seeks to turn strategic management on its head by replacing ‘competitive advantage’ with ‘value innovation’ as the primary goal where firms must create consumer demand and exploit untapped markets. Empirical analysis has been focused on case study evidence and so lack

  13. Experiencing Cultural Geography in the Birthplace of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John

    2014-01-01

    Over time, fewer and fewer geography scholars have the opportunity to actually engage in fieldwork. This article summarizes a field experience shared by a group of geography faculty and students who traveled through the Mississippi Delta endeavoring to study the dynamic nature of the region's blues music and culture. This endeavor entailed…

  14. BLUES from Music: BLind Underdetermined Extraction of Sources from Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use an instantaneous ICA method (BLUES) to separate the instruments in a real music stereo recording. We combine two strong separation techniques to segregate instruments from a mixture: ICA and binary time-frequency masking. By combining the methods, we are able to make...

  15. Sequential serotonin and noradrenalin associated processes involved in postpartum blues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, B.; Fekkes, D.; Tanke, M.A.; de Jonge, P.; Korf, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether postpartum blues was related to changes in parameters of noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning. Methods: From 26 healthy pregnant women blood was collected at the End of pregnancy and 5 days and 6 weeks postpartum. Serotonergic parameters were: platelet seroto

  16. nonlinear kinetics and mechanism of nile blue reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. S.B. Jonnalagadda

    under varied oxidative and reducing media is pivotal in their applications as ... communication, we report the complex mechanism of the reaction between nile blue ... Both the instruments were interfaced for data storage and have ..... The authors acknowledge the financial support received from the University of Durban-.

  17. Nobel Prize in Physics: The birth of the blue LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanishi, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    The development of practical blue LEDs required great perseverance by several Japanese scientists who had to learn how to fabricate high-quality films of GaN and effectively dope them to create light-emitting p-n junctions.

  18. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  19. Development of blue rose; Aoi bara wa sakuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshida, K.

    1998-06-01

    Precise crystalline structures of pigments in petals have been elucidated by structural analysis of the blue pigment in Commelinaceae petals using X-ray analysis. It is found that the Mg ion is coordinated with the oxygen atom on the B-nucleus in the base nucleus of delphinidin (belonging to anthocyanidine, a pigment obtained by separating sugar from anthocyanin by hydrolysis) to develop a blue color, and that the complex is a stable supermolecule in which 6 pigment molecules are associated regularly with 6 flavone molecules. The similar mechanisms are responsible for development of blue color for flowers, and widely occurring in nature. Biosynthesis of anthocyanin, beginning with phenylalanine, undergoes virtually common processes; cyclization of the flavonoide skeleton, reduction to the anthocyanidine nucleus, hydroxylation of the B-nucleus in the base nucleus and glycoside formation at the 3-site. It will be possible to shift rose color to blue, if anthocyanin belonging to anthocyanidine could be bio-synthesized by introducing the gene of enzyme for 3`, 5`-hydroxylation on the base nucleus, which the rose lacks. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Pseudo-cryptanalysis of the Original Blue Midnight Wish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The hash function Blue Midnight Wish (BMW) is a candidate in the SHA-3 competition organized by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). BMW was selected for the second round of the competition, but the algorithm was tweaked in a number of ways. In this paper we describe cr...

  1. Blue-Yellow Vision Deficits in Patients With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bessman, Alice N.; Rockett, Melissa; Anderle, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Home blood glucose monitoring has been introduced as a means to achieve good control in patients with diabetes mellitus. Many patients use color-reagent strips and color comparisons to determine blood glucose levels. Intact color vision in the blue-yellow range is necessary for accurately interpreting these strips.

  2. Sequential serotonin and noradrenalin associated processes involved in postpartum blues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, B.; Fekkes, D.; Tanke, M.A.; de Jonge, P.; Korf, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether postpartum blues was related to changes in parameters of noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning. Methods: From 26 healthy pregnant women blood was collected at the End of pregnancy and 5 days and 6 weeks postpartum. Serotonergic parameters were: platelet seroto

  3. Blue light does not impair wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Meyers, Daniela Santos; Bumah, Violet Vakunseh; Enwemeka, Chukuka Samuel

    2016-07-01

    Irradiation with red or near infrared light promotes tissue repair, while treatment with blue light is known to be antimicrobial. Consequently, it is thought that infected wounds could benefit more from combined blue and red/infrared light therapy; but there is a concern that blue light may slow healing. We investigated the effect of blue 470nm light on wound healing, in terms of wound closure, total protein and collagen synthesis, growth factor and cytokines expression, in an in vitro scratch wound model. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured for 48h until confluent. Then a linear scratch wound was created and irradiated with 3, 5, 10 or 55J/cm(2). Control plates were not irradiated. Following 24h of incubation, cells were fixed and stained for migration and fluorescence analyses and the supernatant collected for quantification of total protein, hydroxyproline, bFGF, IL-6 and IL-10. The results showed that wound closure was similar for groups treated with 3, 5 and 10J/cm(2), with a slight improvement with the 5J/cm(2) dose, and slower closure with 55J/cm(2) plight at low fluence does not impair in vitro wound healing. The significant decrease in IL-6 suggests that 470nm light is anti-inflammatory.

  4. Blue light inhibits the growth of B16 melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Masayuki; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Kawashima, Yuzo [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc., Naruto, Tokushima (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine the biological effects of radiation and ultraviolet radiation (UV), little is known concerning the effects of visible light. In the present study, exposure of B16 melanoma cells to blue light (wavelength 470 nm, irradiance 5.7 mW/cm{sup 2}) from a light-emitting diode (LED) inhibited cell growth in proportion to the period of exposure, with no increase observed in the number of dead cells. The number of B16 melanoma colonies that formed after exposure to blue light for 20 min was only slightly less than that in non-exposed controls, but the colony size as assessed by the area covered by colonies and cell counts per colony were markedly decreased. The percentages of G0/G1 and G2/M phase cells were markedly increased, with a reduction in S phase cells as determined by flow cytometry after exposure to blue light. Furthermore, analysis of the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA also showed a reduction in the percentage of S phase cells after exposure. These results indicate that blue light exerts cytostatic effects, but not a cytocidal action, on B16 melanoma cells. (author)

  5. A Preliminary Analysis of Early Rhythm and Blues Musical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information on the evolution of rhythm and blues (R & B) from the 1940s to the 1960s: the origin and naming of selected R & B groups, role of instruments in R & B orchestras, soloist/group vocal practices, and the role that independent record labels played in artists' successes and failures. (Author/ML)

  6. Wiring of heme enzymes by methylene-blue labeled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh; Ferapontova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    - and molibdopterin-containing sulfite oxidase (SOx), wired to gold by the methylene blue (MB)-labeled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The enzymes’ electrochemical transformation and bioelectrocatalytic function could be followed at both unlabeled and MB-labeled dendrimer-modified electrodes with the formal redox...

  7. On the formation of blue ice on Byrd Glacier, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Scambos, T.

    2014-01-01

    Blue-ice areas (BIAs) cover ⇠1% of the East Antarctic ice sheet and are visual evidence of persistent ablation. In these regions, more snow is sublimated and/or eroded than is accumulated. The physical processes driving the formation of BIAs are poorly understood. Here we combine a firndensification

  8. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  9. Experiencing Cultural Geography in the Birthplace of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John

    2014-01-01

    Over time, fewer and fewer geography scholars have the opportunity to actually engage in fieldwork. This article summarizes a field experience shared by a group of geography faculty and students who traveled through the Mississippi Delta endeavoring to study the dynamic nature of the region's blues music and culture. This endeavor entailed the…

  10. Greater food availability reduces tarsus assymmetry in nestling Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the quantity or quality of food affects the degree of asymmetry in bilateral body traits in adult birds, but so far there is no evidence that this is the case in early phases of growth too. I studied asymmetry of tarsus length of nestling Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) in r

  11. Entropy calculations for a supercooled liquid crystalline blue phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, U [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, PO Box 64, Bridgetown (Barbados)

    2007-01-15

    We observed, using polarized light microscopy, the supercooling of the blue phase (BPI) of cholesteryl proprionate and measured the corresponding liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures. From these temperatures and additional published data we have provided, for the benefit of undergraduate physics students, a nontraditional example involving entropy calculations for an irreversible transition.

  12. Hole transport in blue and white emitting polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parshin, Mikhail A.; Ollevier, Jeroen; Van der Auweraer, Mark; de Kok, Margreet M.; Nicolai, Herman T.; Hof, Andre J.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Hole transport in a blue emitting polyspirobifluorene polymer and in a white emitting polymer consisting of a polyspirobifluorene backbone and two dyes (green and red) was studied. The hole mobility was measured using the time-of-flight method as a function of the electric field and temperature in t

  13. Organic/Inorganic Complex Pigments: Ancient Colors Maya Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polette-Niewold, L.A.; Manciu, F.S.; Torres, B.; Alvarado, M.; Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2009-06-04

    Maya Blue is an ancient blue pigment composed of palygorskite clay and indigo. It was used by the ancient Maya and provides a dramatic background for some of the most impressive murals throughout Mesoamerica. Despite exposure to acids, alkalis, and chemical solvents, the color of the Maya Blue pigment remains unaltered. The chemical interaction between palygorskite and indigo form an organic/inorganic complex with the carbonyl oxygen of the indigo bound to a surface Al{sup 3+} in the Si-O lattice. In addition indigo will undergo an oxidation to dehydroindigo during preparation. The dehydro-indigo molecule forms a similar but stronger complex with the Al{sup 3+}. Thus, Maya Blue varies in color due to the mixed indigo/dehydroindigo complex. The above conclusions are the result of application of multiple techniques (X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy) to the characterization of the organic/inorganic complex. A picture of the bonding of the organic molecule to the palygorskite surface forming a surface complex is developed and supported by the results of density functional theory calculations. We also report that other organic molecules such as thioindigo form similar organic/inorganic complexes thus, opening an entirely new class of complex materials for future applications.

  14. The Missing Luminous Blue Variables and the Bistability Jump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Smith; J.S. Vink; A. de Koter

    2004-01-01

    We discuss an interesting feature of the distribution of luminous blue variables (LBVs) on the H-R diagram, and we propose a connection with the bistability jump seen in the winds of early-type supergiants. There appears to be a deficiency of quiescent LBVs on the S Doradus instability strip at lumi

  15. Intradiskal methylene blue treatment for diskogenic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, David S; Horn, Scott; Walko, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of pain and disability. The intervertebral disk has been identified as the most common source of chronic low back pain. Although prior treatments directed at intervertebral disks have been disappointing, recent studies show promising improvement of pain and function after a single intradiskal injection of methylene blue. To assess changes in pain and function in patients with diskogenic low back pain, diagnosed by diskography, after an intradiskal injection of methylene blue. Prospective trial. Patients diagnosed with diskogenic pain by diskography underwent a single treatment of intradiskal injection of methylene blue, determined by prior provocation diskography. Pain and function measurements were completed at baseline and 1, 2, and 6 months after treatment. Treatment was considered a categorical success based on a 30% improvement in pain according to a visual analog scale (VAS) and function on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Treatment was considered a categorical failure if less than 30% improvement in pain and function was achieved or if the patient pursued other invasive treatment options during the trial period. Sixteen patients received the intradiskal methylene blue injection. Eleven patients received a single-level injection, 4 patients received a 2-level injection, and one patient received injections at 3 levels. For the VAS, at 1, 2, and 6 months after the injection, the categorical success rates were 25%, 21%, and 25%, respectively. For the ODI, at 1, 2 and 6 months after the injection, the categorical success rates were 25%, 21%, and 33%, respectively. The overall categorical success rates at 1, 2, and 6 months after the injection were 19%, 21%, and 25%, respectively. This small trial did not demonstrate overall clinical success of intradiskal methylene blue injection for patients diagnosed with diskogenic pain by diskography. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by

  16. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  17. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  18. Anti-cytomegalovirus activity of the anthraquinone atanyl blue PRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Zohaib; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Zhu, Yali; McKee, Zachary; Parris, Deborah S; Parikh, Hardik I; Kellogg, Glen E; Kuchta, Alison; McVoy, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes significant disease in immunocompromised patients and serious birth defects if acquired in utero. Available CMV antivirals target the viral DNA polymerase, have significant toxicities, and suffer from resistance. New drugs targeting different pathways would be beneficial. The anthraquinone emodin is proposed to inhibit herpes simplex virus by blocking the viral nuclease. Emodin and related anthraquinones are also reported to inhibit CMV. In the present study, emodin reduced CMV infectious yield with an EC50 of 4.9μM but was cytotoxic at concentrations only twofold higher. Related anthraquinones acid blue 40 and alizarin violet R inhibited CMV at only high concentrations (238-265μM) that were also cytotoxic. However, atanyl blue PRL inhibited infectious yield of CMV with an EC50 of 6.3μM, significantly below its 50% cytotoxic concentration of 216μM. Atanyl blue PRL reduced CMV infectivity and inhibited spread. When added up to 1h after infection, it dramatically reduced CMV immediate early protein expression and blocked viral DNA synthesis. However, it had no antiviral activity when added 24h after infection. Interestingly, atanyl blue PRL inhibited nuclease activities of purified CMV UL98 protein with IC50 of 4.5 and 9.3μM. These results indicate that atanyl blue PRL targets very early post-entry events in CMV replication and suggest it may act through inhibition of UL98, making it a novel CMV inhibitor. This compound may provide valuable insights into molecular events that occur at the earliest times post-infection and serve as a lead structure for antiviral development.

  19. Silicomolybdenum Blue Colorimetric Determination of Available Si in Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUGUOHUA; ZHENGWENJUAN; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the determination of available Si content in calcareous soils with Mo blue colorimetric analysis method.The experimental results showed that two acid reagents of sodium acetate buffering solution (pH 4) and 0.025 mol/L citric acid generally had a strong ability of extracting soil available Si,and theri soil filtrates were colorless,On the contrary,two alkaline extractants of 20 mg/mL sodium carbonate and 0.5 mol/L sodium bicarbonate only got a relevantly lower soil avaiable Si and theri extracts appeared deep color of organic and other pigments,which could be decolorized by adding certain amounts of P-free activated charcoal (about 0.1g/g soil),Int the procedure of Mo blue colorimetry,adding proper amount of oxalic acid and K(SbO)C4H4O6 could eliminate the interference of P to Si and Si to P,respectively.The concentration of acids was not the major factor suppressing the interferences between P and Si in the colorimetric analysis.In the medium of 0.2-0.8mole H×+/L sulfuric acid,the intensity of the silicomolybdate blue color did not vary with acidity,no matter whether(NH4)2 Fe(SO4)2 or ascorbic acid was used as reductive reagent.About 10 minutes was needed to from a fully blue complex at 20-25°C,After 30 minutes,the blue color would slowly change into light one,and hence,the colorimetric process should be finished within a short time.

  20. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm withoutgreen), and green (490-590 nm) LED irradiation for 24h. The effects of phototherapy are expressed as ratios of serum total (TB) and unbound (UB) bilirubin before and after exposure to each LED. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured by HPLC before and after exposure to each LED to determine photo-oxidative stress. Values green LED, respectively. In contrast, urinary 8-OHdG increased to 2.03, 1.25, 0.96, 1.36, 1.31, and 1.23 after exposure to blue, filtered blue, FB50, mixed, green LED, and control, indicating side-effects (> 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.