Sample records for black-legged kittiwake chicks

  1. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.


    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental evidence of vocal recognition in young and adult black-legged kittiwakes (United States)

    Mulard, Hervé; Aubin, T.; White, J.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.


    Individual recognition is required in most social interactions, and its presence has been confirmed in many species. In birds, vocal cues appear to be a major component of recognition. Curiously, vocal recognition seems absent or limited in some highly social species such as the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla. Using playback experiments, we found that kittiwake chicks recognized their parents vocally, this capacity being detectable as early as 20 days after hatching, the youngest age tested. Mates also recognized each other's long calls. Some birds reacted to their partner's voice when only a part of the long call was played back. Nevertheless, only about a third of the tested birds reacted to their mate's or parents' call and we were unable to detect recognition among neighbours. We discuss the low reactivity of kittiwakes in relation to their cliff-nesting habit and compare our results with evidence of vocal recognition in other larids. ?? 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes (United States)

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.


    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. The black-legged kittiwake preen gland—an overlooked organ for depuration of fat-soluble contaminants?

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    Silje Aakre Solheim


    Full Text Available Most birds preen their feathers with an oily excrete from the uropygial (preen gland. This oily excrete contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs, which make the preen gland a potential route of depuration of POPs in birds. Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla were studied during two periods of high energy demand: incubation and chick-rearing. A rather high concentration of POPs in preen gland tissue indicates that the preen gland secrete is an excretory pathway for POPs in kittiwakes. The similarity in the POP profile detected in this study of liver, preen gland and feathers suggests that POPs found in the feathers are excreted through the preen gland. The finding also indicates that excretion of POPs through the preen gland is compound unspecific. This qualitative study should be followed up by a new quantitative study to determine the importance of excretion of POPs through the preen gland.

  5. Population and productivity studies of black-legged kittiwakes, common murres, and pelagic cormorants at Cape Peirce, Alaska, summer 1988 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cape Peirce, Alaska, was the site of a nesting seabird study from June 16 to August 20, 1988. Three species of nesting seabirds (Black-legged Kittiwakes, Common...

  6. Foraging responses of black-legged kittiwakes to prolonged food-shortages around colonies on the Bering Sea shelf.

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    Rosana Paredes

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008-2010 at two sites in the Pribilof Islands, where the population has either declined (St. Paul or remained stable (St. George. Foraging conditions were assessed from changes in (1 bird diets, (2 the biomass and distribution of juvenile pollock (Theragra chalcogramma in 2008 and 2009, and (3 eddy kinetic energy (EKE; considered to be a proxy for oceanic prey availability. In years when biomass of juvenile pollock was low and patchily distributed in shelf regions, kittiwake diets included little or no neritic prey and a much higher occurrence of oceanic prey (e.g. myctophids. Birds from both islands foraged on the nearby shelves, or made substantially longer-distance trips overnight to the basin. Here, feeding was more nocturnal and crepuscular than on the shelf, and often occurred near anticyclonic, or inside cyclonic eddies. As expected from colony location, birds from St. Paul used neritic waters more frequently, whereas birds from St. George typically foraged in oceanic waters. Despite these distinctive foraging patterns, there were no significant differences between colonies in chick feeding rates or fledging success. High EKE in 2010 coincided with a 63% increase in use of the basin by birds from St. Paul compared with 2008 when EKE was low. Nonetheless, adult nutritional stress, which was relatively high across years at both colonies, peaked in birds from St. Paul in 2010. Diminishing food resources in nearby shelf habitats may have contributed to kittiwake population declines at St Paul, possibly driven by increased adult mortality or breeding desertion due to high foraging effort and nutritional stress.

  7. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes : Effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Roby, DD; Suryan, RM; Irons, DB; Kaufman, AM; Turco, KR; Visser, GH


    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates

  8. Population and productivity surveys of black-legged kittiwakes, common murres, and pelagic cormorants at Cape Peirce, Alaska, summer 1987 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Population of black-legged kittiwakes (4,020) was 1.7 times the number counted in 1986. The number of common murres was comparable to 198, but half the number in...

  9. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

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    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  10. Black-legged kittiwakes as indicators of environmental change in the North Sea: Evidence from long-term studies (United States)

    Wanless, S.; Frederiksen, M.; Daunt, F.; Scott, B. E.; Harris, M. P.


    Top predators, particularly seabirds, have repeatedly been suggested as indicators of marine ecosystem status. One region currently under pressure from human fisheries and climate change is the North Sea. Standardized seabird monitoring data have been collected on the Isle of May, an important seabird colony in the northwestern North Sea, over the last 10-20 years. Over this period oceanographic conditions have varied markedly, and between 1990 and 1999 a major industrial fishery for sandlance ( Ammodytes marinus), the main prey of most seabird species, was prosecuted nearby. Sandlance fishing grounds close to seabird colonies down the east coast of the UK were closed in 2000 in an attempt to improve foraging opportunities for breeding seabirds, particularly black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla). Initially this closure seemed to be beneficial for kittiwakes with breeding success recovering to pre-fishery levels. However, despite the ban continuing, kittiwakes and many other seabird species in the North Sea suffered severe breeding failures in 2004. In this paper, we test the predictive power of four previously established correlations between kittiwake breeding success and climatic/trophic variables to explain the observed breeding success at the Isle of May in 2004. During the breeding season, kittiwakes at this colony switch from feeding on 1+ group to 0 group sandlance, and results up until 2003 indicated that availability of both age classes had a positive effect on kittiwake breeding success. The low breeding success of kittiwakes in 2004 was consistent with the late appearance and small body size of 0 group sandlance, but at odds with the two variables likely to operate via 1 group availability (lagged winter sea surface temperature and larval sandlance cohort strength in 2003). The reason for the discrepancy is currently unknown, but analysis of 1 group sandlance body composition indicated that lipid content in 2004 was extremely low, and thus fish

  11. Estimating true age-dependence in survival when only adults can be observed: an example with Black-legged Kittiwakes

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    Frederiksen, M.


    Full Text Available In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.

  12. Does food availability affect energy expenditure rates of nesting seabirds? A supplemental-feeding experiment with Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Roby, Daniel D.; Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, Verena A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Visser, G. Henk


    We used a supplemental-feeding experiment, the doubly labeled water technique, and a model-selection approach based upon the Akaike Information Criterion to examine effects of food availability on energy expenditure rates of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) raising young. Energy expenditure rates of supplementally fed females (n = 14) and males (n = 16) were 34 and 20% lower than those of control females (n = 14) and males (n = 18), respectively. Energy expenditure rates of females were more responsive to fluctuations in food availability than those of males. Fed males likely expended more energy while off the nest than fed females, possibly because of nest defense. Energy expenditure rates of fed kittiwakes were similar to values reported for kittiwakes that were either not raising young or not foraging. Parent kittiwakes, therefore, adjusted parental effort in response to variation in breeding conditions due to changes in food availability. Adjustments in reproductive effort in response to variable foraging conditions may have significant effects on the survival and productivity of individuals, and thus provide substantial fitness benefits for long-lived seabirds such as Black-legged Kittiwakes.

  13. Toxic and essential elements changed in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during their stay in an Arctic breeding area

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    Øverjordet, Ida Beathe, E-mail: [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Biology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kongsrud, Magnus Brunvoll [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Biology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Gabrielsen, Geir Wing [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Berg, Torunn [NTNU, Department of Chemistry, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Ruus, Anders [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Evenset, Anita [Akvaplan-niva, Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway (Norway); Borgå, Katrine [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo (Norway); Christensen, Guttorm [Akvaplan-niva, Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Jenssen, Bjørn Munro [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Biology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)


    Seasonal fluctuations in mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) concentrations were studied in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79°57′N, 12°12′E). Element concentrations were determined in muscle and liver tissue in kittiwakes collected in May, July and October 2007. Stable isotopes of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) were analysed in muscle tissue to calculate trophic position (TP) and examine the possible influence of carbon source on element accumulation. Metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver, as well as Hg and Cd concentration in size-fractionated liver supernatant were determined to evaluate the association between elements and MT. Mercury concentrations declined from May through July to October in both tissues, while concentrations of Cd were similar in May and July and lower in October. A decline in TP between May and July, indicating a shift from fish-based diet towards an invertebrate-based diet explains the declining Hg concentration. The low Hg and Cd concentrations in October may be a result of an increased elimination, probably related to moulting. Selenium decreased in the same manner as Hg in liver and muscle, possibly related to the formation of Se–Hg complexes. Zinc and Cu did not fluctuate in muscle tissue, whereas hepatic Zn concentrations where highest in May. Hepatic Zn concentrations were higher in females compared to males in May, possibly related to egg production. Hepatic MT concentrations were lower in October compared to July, following the same trend as Hg and Cd. Cadmium was predominantly bound to the MT fraction of proteins in liver tissue, whereas Hg was associated with the larger proteins, indicating that MT was not sequestering Hg in the kittiwakes. - Highlights: • Seasonality of Cd and Hg is closely related to seasonal dietary changes. • Migration patterns influence the accumulation of Hg and Cd. • The seasonality of Se and Hg

  14. Maternal androgens increase sibling aggression, dominance, and competitive ability in the siblicidal black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla.

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    Martina S Müller

    Full Text Available Animals and plants routinely produce more offspring than they can afford to rear. Mothers can favour certain young by conferring on them competitive advantages such as a leading position in the birth sequence, more resources or hormones. Avian mothers create hatching asynchrony within a clutch and at the same time bestow the eggs with different concentrations of androgens that may enhance or counteract the competitive advantage experienced by early-hatching "core" young. In siblicidal birds, core young assume a dominant social position in the nest due to their size advantage and when threatened with starvation fatally attack subdominant later-hatching "marginal" young. A role for maternal androgens in siblicidal aggression has frequently been suggested but never tested. We studied this in the facultatively siblicidal black-headed kittiwake. We found that marginal eggs contain higher instead of lower concentrations of androgens than core eggs. Surprisingly, exposure to experimentally elevated yolk androgens increased sibling aggression and dominance, even though in nature marginal eggs never produce dominant chicks. We propose the "adoption facilitation hypothesis" to explain this paradox. This cliff-nesting colonial species has a high adoption rate: ejected marginal kittiwake chicks frequently fall into other nests containing chicks of similar or smaller size and exposure to yolk androgens might help them integrate themselves into a foster nest.

  15. Kittiwake diets and chick production signal a 2008 regime shift in the Northeast Pacific (United States)

    Hatch, Scott A.


    I examined ~2700 food samples collected from adult and nestling black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla from 1978 through 2011 on Middleton Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The kittiwake diet was composed chiefly of fish, but invertebrates were taken in appreciable quantities in April and May. Upon spring arrival at the colony, adult kittiwakes foraged regularly at night on vertically migrating mesopelagic prey—lanternfishes (Myctophidae), squids, crustaceans, and polychaetes—a behavior they largely discontinued by egg-laying. During incubation and chick-rearing, food samples contained mostly (~85% by weight) Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, capelin Mallotus villosus, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, sablefish Anopoploma fimbria, krill (Euphausiidae), and juvenile salmon Onchorynchus gorboscha and O. keta. A salient finding over the longitudinal study was the emergence, twice, of capelin as a dominant forage species—once in 2000 to 2003, and again in 2008 through 2011. Kittiwakes responded to capelin availability by producing markedly higher numbers of fledged young. The 2000 to 2003 event corresponded to a previously documented shift to cooler conditions in the NE Pacific, which apparently was relatively limited in magnitude or duration. The more recent transition appears stronger and may be more lasting. I submit that 2008 was an important turning point, marking a substantive reversal of warm conditions that began with the well-documented regime shift of 1977. That interpretation is consistent with the existence of a ~60 yr cycle in ocean and atmospheric conditions in the North Pacific. All else being equal, it predicts the next 20 to 30 yr will be favorable for species such as kittiwakes and Steller sea lions, which seemed to respond negatively to the 1977 to 2007 warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  16. Increased adrenal responsiveness and delayed hatching date in relation to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in Arctic-breeding black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Lendvai, Ádám Z; Blévin, Pierre; Herzke, Dorte; Bustamante, Paco; Moe, Børge; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier


    High levels of environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and mercury (Hg) have been reported in some Arctic top predators such as seabirds. Chronic exposure to these contaminants might alter the response to environmental changes through interference with the regulation of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid stress hormone released by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Positive and negative relationships between CORT and environmental contaminants have been reported in polar seabirds. However, patterns appear inconclusive and it is difficult to attribute these relationships to a dysfunction of the HPA axis or to other confounding effects. In order to explore the relationships between the HPA axis activity and contaminants, we tested whether different aspects of the HPA axis of an Arctic seabird, the black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, would be related to blood Hg, PCB and OCP concentrations. Male kittiwakes were caught during the incubation period in Svalbard and were subjected to different stress series: (1) a capture-restraint stress protocol, (2) an injection of dexamethasone (DEX) that enabled to test the efficacy of the HPA negative feedback and (3) an injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that informed on the adrenal responsiveness. The HPA axis activity was unrelated to ΣOCPs and Hg. However, birds with high concentrations of ΣPCBs released more CORT after the ACTH injection. It is suggested that ΣPCBs may increase the number of ACTH-receptors on the adrenals. Additionally, hatching date was delayed in males with higher concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs. This study gives new evidence that PCBs and adrenal activity may be related. Thus high PCB burden may make individuals more prone to other stressors such as ongoing climate change.

  17. Testosterone increases siblicidal aggression in black-legged kittiwake chicks (Rissa tridactyla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Martina S.; Moe, Borge; Groothuis, Ton G. G.


    To compete for parental food deliveries nestling birds have evolved diverse behaviors such as begging displays and sibling aggression. Testosterone has been suggested to be an important mechanism orchestrating such competitive behaviors, but evidence is scarce and often indirect. Siblicidal species

  18. Seabird monitoring 2011: black-legged kittiwakes (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — What we study: We have two broad objectives: 1. Conserve our trust species, 2. Test hypotheses about causes of change to understand ecosystem processes. We don’t...

  19. Are corticosterone levels a good indicator of food availability and reproductive performance in a kittiwake colony? (United States)

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Eens, M.


    We evaluated the use of corticosterone to gauge forage availability and predict reproductive performance in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding in Alaska during 1999 and 2000. We modeled the relationship between baseline levels of corticosterone and a suite of individual and temporal characteristics of the sampled birds. We also provided supplemental food to a sample of pairs and compared their corticosterone levels with that of pairs that were not fed. Corticosterone levels were a good predictor of forage availability in some situations, although inconsistencies between corticosterone levels and reproductive performance of fed and unfed kittiwakes suggested that this was not always the case. In general, higher corticosterone levels were found in birds that lacked breeding experience and in birds sampled shortly after arriving from their wintering grounds. All parameters investigated, however, explained only a small proportion of the variance in corticosterone levels. We also investigated whether corticosterone, supplemental feeding, year of the study, breeding experience, body weight, and sex of a bird were able to predict laying, hatching, and fledging success in kittiwakes. Here, breeding experience, year of the study, and body weight were the best predictors of a bird's performance. Corticosterone level and supplemental feeding were good predictors of kittiwake reproductive performance in some cases. For example, corticosterone levels of birds sampled during the arrival stage reliably predicted laying success, but were less reliable at predicting hatching and fledging success. Counts of active nests with eggs or chicks may be more reliable estimates of the actual productivity of the colony. Supplemental feeding had strong effects on kittiwake productivity when natural forage was poor, but had little effect when natural forage was plentiful. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  20. Black-legged Kittiwake - Avian Average Annual Abundance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data represent predicted number of individuals of each listed seabird species per standardized survey segment (15 minute travel time at 10 knots = approx. 2.5...

  1. Timing of breeding and reproductive performance in murres and kittiwakes reflect mismatched seasonal prey dynamics (United States)

    Shultz, M.T.; Piatt, J.F.; Harding, A.M.A.; Kettle, Arthur B.; van Pelt, Thomas I.


    Seabirds are thought to time breeding to match the seasonal peak of food availability with peak chick energetic demands, but warming ocean temperatures have altered the timing of spring events, creating the potential for mismatches. The resilience of seabird populations to climate change depends on their ability to anticipate changes in the timing and magnitude of peak food availability and 'fine-tune' efforts to match ('Anticipation Hypothesis'). The degree that inter-annual variation in seabird timing of breeding and reproductive performance represents anticipated food availability versus energetic constraints ('Constraint Hypothesis') is poorly understood. We examined the relative merits of the Constraint and Anticipation Hypotheses by testing 2 predictions of the Constraint Hypothesis: (1) seabird timing of breeding is related to food availability prior to egg laying rather than the date of peak food availability, (2) initial reproductive output (e.g. laying success, clutch size) is related to pre-lay food availability rather than anticipated chick-rearing food availability. We analyzed breeding biology data of common murres Uria aalge and black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla and 2 proxies of the seasonal dynamics of their food availability (near-shore forage fish abundance and sea-surface temperature) at 2 colonies in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from 1996 to 1999. Our results support the Constraint Hypothesis: (1) for both species, egg laying was later in years with warmer sea-surface temperature and lower food availability prior to egg laying, but was not related to the date of peak food availability, (2) pre-egg laying food availability explained variation in kittiwake laying success and clutch size. Murre reproductive success was best explained by food availability during chick rearing. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  2. Modelling the sensitivity of colonially breeding marine birds to oil spills: guillemot and kittiwake populations on the Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea.


    Ford, RG; Wiens, JA; Heinemann, D.; HUNT, GL


    Applications of the model to populations of Brunnich's guillemot Uria lomvia, common guillemot U. aalge, red-legged kittiwake Rissa brevirostris, and black-legged kittiwake R. tridactyla breeding on the Pribilof Islands suggest that guillemot mortality is greatest following perturbations located in shallow inshore areas about the breeding islands, while kittiwakes are less severely affected by localized perturbations but are sensitive to spills occurring over a wider area about the islands. M...

  3. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks. (United States)

    Kitaysky, A S; Kitaiskaia, E V; Piatt, J F; Wingfield, J C


    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages.

  4. Reproductive success of kittiwakes and murres in sequential stages of the nesting period: Relationships with diet and oceanography (United States)

    Renner, Heather M.; Drummond, Brie A.; Benson, Anna-Marie; Paredes, Rosana


    Reproductive success is one of the most easily-measured and widely studied demographic parameters of colonial nesting seabirds. Nevertheless, factors affecting the sequential stages (egg laying, incubation, chick-rearing) of reproductive success are less understood. We investigated the separate sequential stages of reproductive success in piscivorous black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) using a 36-year dataset (1975-2010) on the major Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George), which have recently had contrasting population trajectories. Our objectives were to evaluate how the proportion of successful nests varied among stages, and to quantify factors influencing the probability of nest success at each stage in each island. We modeled the probability of nest success at each stage using General Linear Mixed Models incorporating broad-scale and local climate variables, and diet as covariates as well as other measures of reproduction such as timing of breeding and reproductive output in the previous year and previous stage. For both species we found: (1) Success in previous stages of the breeding cycle and success in the prior year better explained overall success than any environmental variables. Phenology was also an important predictor of laying success for kittiwakes. (2) Fledging success was lower when chick diets contained oceanic fish found farther from the colonies and small invertebrates, rather than coastal fish species. (3) Differences in reproductive variables at St. Paul and St. George islands did not correspond to population trends between the two islands. Our results highlight the potential importance of adult condition and annual survival to kittiwake and murre productivity and ultimately, populations. Adult condition carrying over from the previous year ultimately seems to drive annual breeding success in a cascade effect. Furthermore, condition and survival appear to be important contributors to population

  5. An individual and a sex odor signature in kittiwakes? Study of the semiochemical composition of preen secretion and preen down feathers (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Merkling, Thomas; Raynaud, C.; Giacinti, Géraldine; Bessiere, J.-M.; Hatch, Scott A.; Danchin, Etienne


    The importance of olfaction in birds' social behavior has long been denied. Avian chemical signaling has thus been relatively unexplored. The black-legged kittiwake provides a particularly appropriate model for investigating this topic. Kittiwakes preferentially mate with genetically dissimilar individuals, but the cues used to assess genetic characteristics remain unknown. As in other vertebrates, their body odors may carry individual and sexual signatures thus potentially reliably signaling individual genetic makeup. Here, we test whether body odors in preen gland secretion and preen down feathers in kittiwakes may provide a sex and an individual signature. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, we found that male and female odors differ quantitatively, suggesting that scent may be one of the multiple cues used by birds to discriminate between sexes. We further detected an individual signature in the volatile and nonvolatile fractions of preen secretion and preen down feathers. These results suggest that kittiwake body odor may function as a signal associated with mate recognition. It further suggests that preen odor might broadcast the genetic makeup of individuals, and could be used in mate choice to assess the genetic compatibility of potential mates.

  6. A mechanistic link between chick diet and decline in seabirds? (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.


    A climatic regime shift during the mid-1970s in the North Pacific resulted in decreased availability of lipidrich fish to seabirds and was followed by a dramatic decline in number of kittiwakes breeding on the Pribilof Islands. Although production of chicks in the mid-1970s was adequate to sustain kittiwake populations in the early 1980s, the disappearance of birds from breeding colonies apparently exceeded recruitment. No mechanism has been proposed to explain why recruitment would differ among fledglings fed lipid-rich or lipid-poor fish during development. Here we show that diets low in lipids induce nutritional stress and impair cognitive abilities in young red-legged kittiwakes, Rissa brevirostris. Specifically, growth retardation, increased secretion of stress hormones and inferior ability to associate food distribution with visual cues were observed in individuals fed lipid-poor diets. We conclude that lipid-poor diets during development affect the quality of young seabirds, which is likely to result in their increased mortality and low recruitment. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  7. Dynamic heterogeneity and life history variability in the kittiwake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Orzack, Steven Hecht


    differences. We quantify the diversity in life histories by metrics computed from the generating stochastic process. 4. We show how dynamic heterogeneity can be used as a null model and also how it can lead to positive associations between reproduction and survival across the life span. 5. We believe our......1. Understanding the evolution of life histories requires an assessment of the process that generates variation in life histories. Within-population heterogeneity of life histories can be dynamically generated by stochastic variation of reproduction and survival or be generated by individual...... differences that are fixed at birth. 2. We show for the kittiwake that dynamic heterogeneity is a sufficient explanation of observed variation of life histories. 3. The total heterogeneity in life histories has a small contribution from reproductive stage dynamics and a large contribution from survival...

  8. Chick lit, chick magnet, biker chick, hippie chick: metaphorical uses of chick in contemporary american english = Chick lit, chick magnet, biker chick, hippie chick: usos metafóricos de chick no inglês americano contemporâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottin, Lívia Pretto


    Full Text Available Metáforas não são apenas uma ferramenta poética ou retórica, mas fazem parte do nosso sistema conceptual (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980 e nos permitem entender determinado aspecto de um conceito em termos de outro. Este artigo tem o objetivo de desvendar como o lexema chick pode ser usado para referir ao universo feminino. Primeiramente, apresento uma revisão bibliográfica sobre metáforas e, então, verifico como o domínio de animais pode ser usado para melhor explicar o comportamento humano. Em seguida, apresento dados coletados no Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA para identificar e interpretar algumas metáforas de chick através de uma análise baseada em corpus. Em cada subcorpus do COCA, as primeiras 100 linhas de concordâncias aleatórias foram analisadas em contexto a fim de verificar as ocorrências dos usos metafóricos e dos usos literais da palavra de busca. As ocorrências não literais foram examinadas com maior cuidado com o objetivo de verificar o uso metafórico por elas representado, determinar a posição que o lexema pode ocupar em uma frase e verificar que palavras são fortes colocadas de chick. Os resultados mostram que chick é uma metáfora produtiva, usada tanto como substantivo quanto como adjetivo. Além disso, as ocorrências de chick em seu sentido metafórico excedem suas ocorrências em sentido literal

  9. Nocturnal Foraging by Red-Legged Kittiwakes, a Surface Feeding Seabird That Relies on Deep Water Prey During Reproduction. (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kikuchi, Dale M; Kitaysky, Alexander; Takahashi, Akinori


    Narrow foraging specialization may increase the vulnerability of marine predators to climate change. The red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) is endemic to the Bering Sea and has experienced drastic population fluctuations in recent decades, presumably due to climate-driven changes in food resources. Red-legged kittiwakes are presumed to be a nocturnal surface-foraging seabird that feed almost entirely on deep water Myctophidae fishes. However, there is little empirical evidence confirming their nocturnal foraging activity during the breeding season. This study investigated the foraging behavior of red-legged kittiwakes by combining GPS tracking, accelerometry, and dietary analyses at the world's largest breeding colony of red-legged kittiwakes on St. George I. GPS tracking of 5 individuals revealed that 82.5% of non-flight behavior (including foraging and resting) occurred over the ocean basin (bottom depth >1,000 m). Acceleration data from 4 birds showed three types of behaviors during foraging trips: (1) flight, characterized by regular wing flapping, (2) resting on water, characterized by non-active behavior, and (3) foraging, when wing flapping was irregular. The proportions of both foraging and resting behaviors were higher at night (14.1 ± 7.1% and 20.8 ± 14.3%) compared to those during the day (6.5 ± 3.0% and 1.7 ± 2.7%). The mean duration of foraging (2.4 ± 2.9 min) was shorter than that of flight between prey patches (24.2 ± 53.1 min). Dietary analyses confirmed myctophids as the dominant prey (100% by occurrence and 98.4 ± 2.4% by wet-weight). Although the sample size was limited, these results suggest that breeding red-legged kittiwakes concentrated their foraging on myctophids available at the surface during nighttime in deep water regions. We propose that the diel patterns and ephemeral nature of their foraging activity reflected the availability of myctophids. Such foraging specialization may exacerbate the vulnerability of red

  10. Chicks like consonant music. (United States)

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio


    The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments.

  11. Chick heart invasion assay. (United States)

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M


    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture.

  12. Breeding seabirds at Gull Island and Sixty-foot Rock during 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the reproductive success of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and two species of cormorants. Populations...

  13. Field studies at Cape Peirce, Alaska, 1976: Annual report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Colonies of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Pelagic Cormorants (P. pelagicus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Black-legged Kittiwakes...

  14. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middletown Island, Alaska, 14-26 June 1981: Trip report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska from June 14-26 1981. Species covered include Black-legged kittiwakes and...

  15. Breeding seabirds at Gull Island and Sixty-foot Rock, Kachemak Bay, during 1984-86 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Full monitoring of Black- legged kittiwakes, glaucous winged gulls, common murres, and tufted puffins discovered large population increases since a prior survey in...

  16. Widespread mortality of adult seabirds in Alaska, August-September 1983 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A widespread die-off of adult seabirds, affecting primarily the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris),...

  17. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska, 15-24 June 1983: Trip report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Middleton Island harbors the largest colony of Pelagic Cormorants and Black-legged Kittiwakes in the Gulf of Alaska. Goals of the study were to assess the current...

  18. A population study of seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl associated with Constantine Harbor, Hinchinbrook Island, Prince William Sound, 1978 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data on the breeding biology of tufted puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, glaucous-winged gulls, and common murres nesting at Porpoise Rocks were collected during the...

  19. Changes in colony size and reproductive success of seabirds at the Semidi Islands, Alaska, 1977-1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitoring of seabirds at Chowiet Island during the 1990 breeding season to determine if populations and productivity of northern fulmars, black-legged kittiwakes,...

  20. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V


    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND SOCIAL RESEARCH VOL. 4, No. ... increase in the use of feed additives as growth promoters in animal production (Manie .... It could also be due to increased absorptive capacity of the small ... PGD project.

  2. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks (United States)

    Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.


    We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

  3. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Elliott


    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia. Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR. RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  4. Anasarca and myopathy in ostrich chicks. (United States)

    Philbey, A W; Button, C; Gestier, A W; Munro, B E; Glastonbury, J R; Hindmarsh, M; Love, S C


    Twenty ostrich chicks that died at, or within, 1 week after hatching were examined from 7 farms with poor (43 to 75%) hatchability. All chicks had anasarca and 15 had mild, generalised, acute degenerative changes in the complexus and pelvic limb muscles. One had fibrinoid degeneration of arterioles. Biochemical examinations produced no evidence of deficiencies of selenium, vitamin A or vitamin E. The syndrome was related to high relative humidity during incubation. Malpositioning also was a cause of embryo mortality.

  5. Ejecting chick cheats: a changing paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grim Tomáš


    Full Text Available Abstract Evolutionary arms-races between avian brood parasites and their hosts have typically resulted in some spectacular adaptations, namely remarkable host ability to recognize and reject alien eggs and, in turn, sophisticated parasite egg mimicry. In a striking contrast to hosts sometimes rejecting even highly mimetic eggs, the same species typically fail to discriminate against highly dissimilar parasite chicks. Understanding of this enigma is still hampered by the rarity of empirical tests - and consequently evidence - for chick discrimination. Recent work on Australian host-parasite systems (Gerygone hosts vs. Chalcites parasites, increased not only the diversity of hosts showing chick discrimination, but also discovered an entirely novel host behavioural adaptation. The hosts do not desert parasite chicks (as in all previously reported empirical work but physically remove living parasites from their nests. Here, I briefly discuss these exciting findings and put them in the context of recent empirical and theoretical work on parasite chick discrimination. Finally, I review factors responsible for a relatively slow progress in this research area and suggest most promising avenues for future research.

  6. Control temperature of young chicks to reduce mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Kuijpers, M.


    Individual chicks may have different environmental temperature demands. The trick is to provide every chick with the right body temperature. By measuring individual chick temperatures, hatchery staff and broiler growers or layer producers are better able to provide the right environmental temperatur

  7. Hydrogen peroxide potentiates organophosphate toxicosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banan K. Al-Baggou


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2 on the acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon and their inhibitoryactions on plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities. Material and Methods: H2O2 was given indrinking water (0.5% v/v for 2 weeks in unsexed day old chicks, a regimen known to induce oxidativestress in this species. A control group received drinking tap water. All experiments were conducted onthe chicks at the age of 15 days after exposure to H2O2. The acute (24 h oral LD50 values of dichlorvosand diazinon in the insecticidal preparations as determined by the up-and-down method in the controlchicks were 9.4 and 15.6 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The poisoned chicks manifested signs ofcholinergic toxicosis within one hour after the dosing including salivation, lacrimation, gasping, frequentdefecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsions and recumbency. The acute (24 h oral LD50 valuesof dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks provided with H2O2 were reduced to 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg, by 63 and58%, respectively when compared to respective control LD50 values. The intoxicated chicks also showedcholinergic signs of toxicosis as described above. Plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities of thechicks exposed to H2O2 were significantly lower than their respective control (H2O values by 25, 28 and27%, respectively. Oral dosing of chicks with dichlorvos at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited cholinesteraseactivities in the plasma, brain and liver of both control (42-67% and H2O2-treated (15-59% chicks.Diazinon at 5 mg/kg, orally also inhibited cholinesterase activities in the plasma, brain and liver of bothcontrol (36-66% and H2O2-treated (15-30% chicks. In the H2O2 groups, dichlorvos inhibition of livercholinesterase activity and diazinon inhibition of liver and brain cholinesterase activities weresignificantly lesser than those of the respective values of

  8. Toxicity of metal mixtures to chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, W.J.; Roberts, O.W.; Black, J.A.


    The toxic effects of mercury/selenium and certain other metal mixtures on the chick embryo are examined to determine whether antagonistic, additive or synergistic interactions occur. White Plymouth Rock chicken eggs were treated by yolk injection with cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, zinc chloride and sodium selenate. Test aliquots were injected prior to incubation using the needle track procedure. Using a sample size of 200, percent survival was determined as hatchability of experimental eggs/controls. Metal mixtures used included mercury/cadmium, mercury/selenium, mercury/zinc, cadmium/selenium, and cadmium/zinc. Except for mercury/selenium, all other metal mixtures gave actual values that were within 5% of those for additive toxic effects. Actual hatchability frequencies for test concentrations of mercury/selenium indicated a moderate degree of synergism. Results indicate that the strong mercury/selenium synergism which affects embryonic development in the carp does not apply for the chick embryo; that most two-way combinations of cadmium, mercury, selenium and zinc exert purely additive effects on chick hatchability; and that these metal mixtures give no discernible antagonistic interactions which affect survival of chick embryos. (MFB)

  9. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks. (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S


    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  10. Chick Noir”: Shopaholic Meets Double Indemnity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Victoria


    Full Text Available In early 2014, several articles appeared proclaiming the rise to prominence of a new subgenre of the crime novel: “chick noir,” which included popular books like Gone Girl, The Silent Wife, and Before We Met. However, there was also resistance to the new genre label from critics who viewed it as belittling to women’s writing and to female-focused narratives. Indeed, the separation of female-centred books - whether “chick lit” or “chick noir” - from mainstream fiction remains highly problematic and reflects the persistence of a gendered literary hierarchy. However, as this paper suggests, the label “chick noir” also reflects the fact that in these novels the crime thriller has been revitalized through cross-pollination with the so-called chick lit novel. I contend that chick lit and chick noir are two narrative forms addressing many of the same concerns relating to the modern woman, offering two different responses: humour and horror. Comparing the features of chick noir to those of chick lit and noir crime fiction, I suggest that chick noir may be read as a manifestation of feminist anger and anxiety - responses to the contemporary pressure to be “wonder women.”

  11. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. (United States)

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Nam, Kyoung-Woo; Lee, Bong-Joo


    It has been suggested that drinking oxygenated water may improve oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improving immune activity. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of oxygenated drinking water in broiler chicks and demonstrated the protective efficacy of oxygenated drinking water against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased serum lysozyme activity, peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) splenocyte ratio in broiler chicks. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, oxygenated drinking water alleviated symptoms and increased survival. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks, and increases survivability against S. Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

  12. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks (United States)

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy


    Aim: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. Results: This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (pneem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (pneem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Conclusion: Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut. PMID:28717305

  13. The antioxidant activity of propofol in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Naser


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the antioxidant effects of propofol in chicks by estimation of glutathione concentration in blood plasma, brain and liver as well as total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant effects of propofol in vitro by using hydrogen peroxide as oxidative stress. Propofol at 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally significantly increased after 4 hours the concentration of glutathione concentration in plasma and brain compared with the control group and with 5 and 10mg propofol groups. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased glutathione concentration in the liver compared with the control group. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased the efflux rate constant by 882, 1031 and 920 %, increased glutathione turnover rate by 880, 1028, and 917 % and decreased the turnover time by 89, 91 and 90% in the liver. In the brain propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased efflux rate constant as 26, 600 and 2826 % and increased glutathione turnover rate by 29, 616 and 2894 % and a decreased in the turnover time by 21, 86 and 96%. propofol at 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased after 20 hours the TAC in the serum of the chick by 38 and 48%, respectively compared with the control group. Propofol at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 micromoles / liter decreased erythrocyte hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro 10 micromoles / liter in a concentration depended manner by 25, 49 and 64 % respectively. In conclusion, propofol have antioxidant effect in vivo and in vitro in the chicks.Propofol have a protection against oxidative stress.

  14. Killing day-old chicks? Public opinion regarding potential alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.; Munnichs, G.M.; Beekman, V.; Vromans, E.; Aramyan, L.; Woelders, H.


    Throughout the world, male chicks from layer breeds are killed just after hatching, as they are not profitable as regards the production of meat. The Dutch and European parliaments have insisted on research into possible alternatives to the killing of day-old chicks. In the present study we have inv

  15. Measuring the style of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.


    This paper examines to what extent the distribution of the hundred most frequent function words of two novelistic genres (chick lit and literature) gives insight into the genre styles. The results shows that the literary style is more descriptive and informational, whereas the style of the chick-lit

  16. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  17. Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks. (United States)

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko


    Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico


    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple deleterious effects of experimentally aged sperm in a monogamous bird (United States)

    White, J.; Wagner, R.H.; Helfenstein, F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Mulard, Hervé; Naves, L.C.; Danchin, E.


    Sperm aging is known to be detrimental to reproductive performance. However, this apparently general phenomenon has seldom been studied in an evolutionary context. The negative impact of sperm aging on parental fitness should constitute a strong selective pressure for adaptations to avoid its effects. We studied the impact of sperm aging on black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a monogamous seabird. Kittiwakes comprise a model system because (i) of evidence that females eject their mates' sperm to prevent fertilization by sperm that would be old and degraded by the time of fertilization and result in reduced reproductive performance and (ii) the lack of extra-pair fertilization in this species makes cryptic female choice an unlikely explanation of postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. We experimentally manipulated the age of the sperm fertilizing kittiwake eggs by fitting males with anti-insemination rings for variable periods of time preceding egg-laying. We found evidence that sperm aging negatively affected four sequential stages of reproduction: fertilization potential, rate of embryonic development, embryonic mortality, and chick condition at hatching. These results may be produced by a continuum of a single process of sperm aging that differentially affects various aspects of development, depending on the degree of damage incurred to the spermatozoa. The marked impact of sperm age on female fitness may thus drive postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. These results provide experimental evidence of deleterious effects of sperm aging on a nondomestic vertebrate, underlining its taxonomic generality and its potential to select for a wide array of adaptations. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  20. Effects of heat stress on day-old broiler chicks. (United States)

    Ernst, R A; Weathers, W W; Smith, J


    Short-term heat stress can occur when chicks are transported from the hatchery to growing facilities. Two experiments were conducted to determine the possible effects of short-term heat stress on growth and feed conversion of broiler (Hubbard X Hubbard) chicks. The heat stress was accomplished by placing chicks in Jamesway 252 incubators at dry bulb temperatures ranging from 40 to 45 C for variable times. Growth, feed consumption, and mortality were measured for 16 days following the heat stress. Short sublethal heat stress significantly reduced growth rate to 16 days in these experiments without any effect on feed conversion ratio. The results indicate that the hatchery industry should avoid overheating chicks even for periods as short as 1 hr.

  1. Effect of refuge supplement on Audouin's gull chick survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Prieto


    Full Text Available One of the main threats to Audouin´s gull (Larus audouinii at Chafarinas Islands is predation on eggs and chicks by the yellow-legged gull (Larus cachinnans. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons we tested the effects of supplementary refuge availability on chick survival. Well before the laying period, nine adjacent enclosures were erected inside Audouin´s gull´s breeding grounds and some of them were supplied with artificial refuges. Our results showed significantly greater chick survival in the enclosures with artificial refuges than in control ones. In 2000, an overall lower breeding success of Audouin´s gull and a dilution of the refuge effect were observed. These results were probably related to food-shortage that year. We suggest that, along with other factors, an increase in refuge availability may significantly enhance Audouin´s gull chick survival.

  2. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  3. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.


    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  4. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.


    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  5. Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick. (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P


    Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Spontaneous generalization of abstract multimodal patterns in young domestic chicks. (United States)

    Versace, Elisabetta; Spierings, Michelle J; Caffini, Matteo; Ten Cate, Carel; Vallortigara, Giorgio


    From the early stages of life, learning the regularities associated with specific objects is crucial for making sense of experiences. Through filial imprinting, young precocial birds quickly learn the features of their social partners by mere exposure. It is not clear though to what extent chicks can extract abstract patterns of the visual and acoustic stimuli present in the imprinting object, and how they combine them. To investigate this issue, we exposed chicks (Gallus gallus) to three days of visual and acoustic imprinting, using either patterns with two identical items or patterns with two different items, presented visually, acoustically or in both modalities. Next, chicks were given a choice between the familiar and the unfamiliar pattern, present in either the multimodal, visual or acoustic modality. The responses to the novel stimuli were affected by their imprinting experience, and the effect was stronger for chicks imprinted with multimodal patterns than for the other groups. Interestingly, males and females adopted a different strategy, with males more attracted by unfamiliar patterns and females more attracted by familiar patterns. Our data show that chicks can generalize abstract patterns by mere exposure through filial imprinting and that multimodal stimulation is more effective than unimodal stimulation for pattern learning.

  7. Hypoxia adaptation and hemoglobin mutation in Tibetan chick embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Xiao; LI Ning; LIAN Linsheng; YAN Dawei; ZHANG Hao; WU Changxin


    Tibetan chick lives at high altitudes between 2600 and 4200 m with a high hatchability and low land breeds survive rarely with a hatchability of 3.0% under hypoxia of simulated 4200 m. Under hypoxia of whole 21 d, the hatchability of Tibetan chick and Recessive White Feather broiler differed with a greatest disparity from day 4 to 11 and also significantly in other stages except from day 1 to 3. Hypoxia in each stage did not reduce significantly survival rate of this stage except hatchability. These two results indicated that the hypoxia in the early stage had an adverse effect on the later stage. All exons encoding chick hemoglobins were sequenced to analyze gene polymorphism. The functional mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu, related with hypoxia, was found in αD globin chain and the mutation frequency increased with increased altitude. In addition, under hypoxic conditions, the population with higher mutation frequency had a higher hatchability. The automated homology model building was carried out using crystal structure coordinates of chick HbD. The results indicated that the substitution Met-32(B13)-Leu provides a more hydrophobic environment which leads to higher stability of heme and oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The occurrence of the mutation Met-32(B13)-Leu is related to the origin of Tibetan chick.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hussain


    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  9. Modeling chick to assess diabetes pathogenesis and treatment. (United States)

    Datar, Savita P; Bhonde, Ramesh R


    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. Copyright © by Lab & Life Press/SBDR

  10. Cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model. (United States)

    Salmeto, Amy L; Hymel, Kristen A; Carpenter, Erika C; Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa; Sufka, Kenneth J


    Cognitive bias is a phenomenon that presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals tend to adopt a more pessimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli whereas depressed individuals tend to adopt a less optimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. To further validate the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation we sought to quantify this cognitive endophenotype. Chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5m to induce an anxiety-like or 60 m to induce a depressive-like state were then tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. In non-isolated controls, runway start and goal latencies generally increased as a function of greater amounts of aversive characteristics in the cues. In chicks in the anxiety-like state, runway latencies were increased to aversive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like behavior. In chicks in the depression-like state, runway latencies were increased to both aversive and appetitive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like behavior, respectively.

  11. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity. (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi


    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  12. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior


    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S.; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro


    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated change...

  13. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.


    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  14. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects (United States)

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.


    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Effects of continuous and over dosage of salinomycin was studied experimentally in layer chicks.Salinomycin was given to layers @ 60, 120 and 180 ppm in feed up to the age of 12 weeks. During the courseof trial, the birds of all groups were active and did not show any clinical signs. Body weight started decreasingsignificantly (P<0.001 in chicks receiving 60, 120 and 180 ppm salinomycin compared to the control groupfrom the 11th, 5th and 3rd week onward, respectively. Feed conversion ratio at 12th week was 3.537 in the controlcompared with 3.701, 4.250 and 4.465 in layer chicks given salinomycin at the rate of 60, 120 and 180 ppm,respectively. Absolute weight of liver at 12th week and absolute weight of kidneys throughout the experimentdecreased significantly (P<0.001 in chicks receiving 180 ppm salinomycin. Concentrations of AST, ALT,blood urea and creatinine were higher in layers receiving 180 ppm salinomycin, while serum total bilirubinconcentration was increased significantly (P<0.001 in layers receiving 120 and 180 ppm salinomycin. No grosslesions were observed in liver and kidneys of layers receiving various doses of salinomycin. Microscopically,there was congestion of liver sinusides and vacuolization of hepatocytes in chicks receiving 180 ppmsalinomycin. There was hydropic degeneration of tubular epithelium, degeneration and desquamation of most ofcells of Bowman’s capsule epithelium of kidneys in birds receiving 180 ppm salinomycin. Higher doses ofsalinomycin seem to alter liver and kidney functions subclinically in layer chicks.

  16. Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light. (United States)

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard


    In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of 'normal' eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 +/- 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg +/- 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P < or = 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 +/- 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 +/- 0.018 (SE) mm(2) day(-1) for normal chicks, P < or = 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 +/- 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2) in the central cornea and 393 +/- 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2 )peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P < or = 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth.

  17. Immunization of young chicks using graded dose of wild strain of Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Kimbita


    Full Text Available A wild strain of Eimeria tenella was isolated and utilized for immunization studies. Its optimal sporulation was attained at room temperature 24-25 °C after 24-48 h. Two groups of chicks were immunized by dosing a graded dose of five oocysts/chick/day for 6 days followed by 50 oocysts/chick/day for 7 days. A third group was not immunized and served as a negative control. Immunized chicks gained mass at the same rate as unimmunized ones, but when challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick, mass gains declined in the unimmunized group. The growth rate of immunized chicks was not affected by challenge (P > 0.05. Upon challenge, unimmunized chicks produced significantly more oocysts than immunized chicks (P < 0.005. Immunized chicks withstood a challenged with 200 000 oocysts/chick without developing any clinical signs whereas the unimmunized chicks developed typical clinical signs of coccidiosis. Unimmunized chicks had significantly more severe lesions in the caecum than any other group (P > 0.005 and also produced significantly more oocysts than any other group (P > 0.005.

  18. Interpreting variation in growth of Eurasian Spoonbill chicks: disentangling the effects of age, sex and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.


    Chick body condition can be a sensitive indicator of local environmental conditions and has been shown to be correlated with chick survival. Designing a reliable index of chick body condition for a given species from a single measurement point requires knowledge about the extent of variation in body

  19. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)


    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  20. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius. (United States)

    Silva, Tereza C; Gorniak, Silvana L; Oloris, Silvia C S; Raspantini, Paulo C; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Dagli, Maria L Z


    Senna occidentalis (L) Link (formerly called Cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the S. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. S. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. This is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by S. occidentalis seeds. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of the treatment with seeds and its fraction external tegument (TE) on the development of chicks and their lymphoid organs bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Chicks that received a commercial ration with 1% TE had reduced body and lymphoid organ weights. The bursa of Fabricius presented reduction in the diameters of the follicles, and in the thickness of the cortical and medullary regions. The spleen presented depleted lymphoid tissue in the white pulp. These results indicate that the active principle of S. occidentalis is more concentrated on its TE fraction, and that it can cause weight loss as well as alterations in the lymphoid organs in chicks. The consequences of these alterations should be further investigated.

  1. Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing Differently Processed ... A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of ... The first batch was soaked in 3% Ca(OH)2 for 48 hours. ... performance of the birds in terms of feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio.

  2. Neurotoxic effect of the dithiocarbamate tecoram on the chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, G. van; Logten, M.J. van


    Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts

  3. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Folk, Martin J.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.


    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  4. Effects of begging on growth rates of nestling chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, MA; Zuniga, JM; Redondo, T


    We investigated whether an increase in begging levels delays growth of chicks. In experiment 1, we hand-reared nine pairs of ring dove squabs, divided into a control and a begging group. All squabs received similar amounts of food, but those in the begging group had to beg for a prolonged period in

  5. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development (United States)

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.


    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  6. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.


    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  7. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks. (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic


    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  8. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin


    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  9. Effects of begging on growth rates of nestling chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, MA; Zuniga, JM; Redondo, T


    We investigated whether an increase in begging levels delays growth of chicks. In experiment 1, we hand-reared nine pairs of ring dove squabs, divided into a control and a begging group. All squabs received similar amounts of food, but those in the begging group had to beg for a prolonged period in

  10. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi). (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L


    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  11. Development of Experimental Myopia in Chicks in a Natural Environment (United States)

    Stone, Richard A.; Cohen, Yuval; McGlinn, Alice M.; Davison, Sherrill; Casavant, Susan; Shaffer, James; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Iuvone, P. Michael


    Purpose The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. Methods Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather. Control chicks were reared indoors with incandescent lighting. Besides ocular refraction and ultrasound, we determined dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content in retina and vitreous and measured mRNA expression levels of selected clock and circadian rhythm-related genes in the retina/RPE. Results Myopia developed in the goggled eyes of all cohorts. Whereas outdoor rearing lessened myopia by 44% at 4 days, a protective effect was no longer evident at 11 days. Outdoor rearing had no consistent effect on retinal or vitreous content of dopamine or DOPAC. Conforming to prior data on form-deprivation myopia, retina and vitreous levels of DOPAC were reduced in goggled eyes. Compared with contralateral eyes, the retinal expression of clock and circadian rhythm-related genes was modestly altered in myopic eyes of chicks reared indoors or outdoors. Conclusions Outdoor rearing of chicks induces only a partial decrease of goggle-induced myopia that is not maintained, without evidence that retinal dopamine metabolism accounts for the partial myopia inhibition under these outdoor conditions. Although modest, alterations in retinal gene expression suggest that studying circadian signals might be informative for understanding refractive mechanisms. PMID:27618415

  12. Glutamine synthetase localization in cortisol-induced chick embryo retinas



    We report here for the first time, in chick retina, Muller cell localization of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity by an immunohistochemical technique, in agreement with previous reports of glial localization of this enzyme in rat brain and retina. Age- dependent changes in the endogenous enzyme activity as well as cortisol- induced changes in GS activity, both in ovo and in vitro, measured biochemically, reflect the changes observed by staining.

  13. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.


    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  14. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays]. (United States)

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P


    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish.

  15. Introduction of DT40 cells into chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariko Toba; Fumio Ebara; Hiroki Furuta; Yuichi Matsushimal; Yasuo Kitagawa; Noboru Fujihara


    To examine the transfection of exogenous genes into chick embryos, applying the characteristics of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced chicken B cell line DT40 to the production of chimeric birds. Methods: The DT40cells incorporated with exogenous gene (lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli β-galactosidase: β-gal) were introduced into chick embryos by the injection of cells into stage X blastoderm. Manipulated eggs were incubated for 3 (trial 1 ) or 6 (trial 2) days, and the expression of lacZ DNA was detected by a histochemical staining method of β-galactosidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The survival rates of the manipulated embryos incubated for 3 days (stage 18-20: trial 1) and 6 days (stage 28, 30: trial 2) were about 42% and 38%, respectively.The expression rates of the lacZ gene in the embryos in the trials 1 and 2 were about 60% and 23%, respectively, for the survived embryos. Conclusio: The rate of embryonic viability and expression rate of introduced genes were not so high, but it suggested the possibility of utilizing the DT40 cells as a vector for carrying exogenous genes into chick embryos.

  16. Central administration of neuromedin U suppresses food intake in chicks. (United States)

    Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Sugahara, Kunio; Hasegawa, Shin


    The appetite-suppressive action of brain-gut peptides is similar in both chickens and mammals. In mammals, the brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) suppresses food intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. In chickens, central administration of CRF, oxytocin, or arginine-vasotocin (AVT, a nonmammalian equivalent of arginine-vasopressin) suppresses food intake. However, the anorexigenic action of NMU in chickens has not yet been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the central administration of NMU on food intake and hypothalamic mRNA levels of CRF, AVT and mesotocin (a nonmammalian equivalent of oxytocin) in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of NMU in chicks significantly suppressed food intake and induced wing-flapping behavior. NMU also significantly upregulated mRNA expression of CRF and AVT, but did not influence mRNA expression of mesotocin in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that NMU functions as an appetite-suppressive peptide via CRF and AVT in the central nervous system in chicks.

  17. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong


    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  18. Kidney alkaline phosphatase in mercuric chloride injected chicks resistant and susceptible to leukosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; McIntyre, J.A.; Bearse, G.E.


    Two strains of chickens were selected for resistance and susceptibility to avian leukosis. Researchers found that the resistant chicks retained two to four times as much mercury in the liver and kidneys as did the susceptible chicks following injection of mercuric chloride or phenylmercuric acetate. Differences in alkaline phosphatase in the kidneys of the resistant and susceptible chicks, and the effect of the mercuric chloride injection on the alkaline phosphatase activity were reported in this paper. 19 references, 2 tables.

  19. Correlation between plasma steroids and chick visits by nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies. (United States)

    Tarlow, Elisa M; Wikelski, Martin; Anderson, David J


    Nonbreeding adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti) often approach unattended chicks and perform parental and/or aggressive behaviors toward the chicks. Earlier descriptions of these encounters included sexual behaviors as well. We studied hormonal correlates of chick visits by such nonbreeding boobies during the breeding season. We compared the hormonal status of chick-visiting adults with that of nonvisiting adults in the colony. We determined levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T), androstendione, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol as potential candidate hormones controlling parental, aggressive, or sexual behavior. Only T and CORT differed between chick-visiting and nonvisiting adults. Chick-visiting adults had higher CORT levels after the interaction than nonvisiting adults randomly caught in the colony. To the contrary. T levels after interactions were lower in chick-visiting compared to random nonvisiting adults. T levels, however, did not vary with level of aggression among chick-visiting adults. We suggest that chick-visiting behavior may be permitted by low T levels and activated by, or resulting in, high CORT levels.

  20. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks (United States)

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.


    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  1. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E


    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P heat-stressed chicks modulated (P heat-stress-induced growth retardation in broiler chicks. Moreover, supplemental CrMet modulated suppressive effects of heat stress on cellular and humoral immune responses.

  2. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks (United States)

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis


    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  3. A study on the growth curve of and maximum profit from layer-type cockerel chicks. (United States)

    Gang, F Y; Zhen, Y S


    1. 2900 commercial layer-type cockerel chicks were reared on the floor from 1-day-old to 9 weeks of age. 2. The growth curve of the cockerel chicks was [formula see text] 3. The feeding costs (US$) of layer-type cockerel chicks were described by the equation Y = a + bx + cx2 = 0.0657 - 0.0091x + 0.0069x2. 4. When the layer-type cockerel chicks' marketing price was US$0.82 per kg. (6.8 Renminbi per kg), the optimum marketing age for maximum profit margin was 5.9 weeks (41 to 42 d).

  4. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole


    .... After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays...

  5. Protracted treatment with corticosterone reduces breeding success in a long-lived bird. (United States)

    Nelson, Bethany F; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat; Wanless, Sarah; Butler, Adam; Heidinger, Britt J; Newell, Mark; Dawson, Alistair


    Determining the physiological mechanisms underpinning life-history decisions is essential for understanding the constraints under which life-history strategies can evolve. In long-lived species, where the residual reproductive value of breeders is high, adult survival is a key contributor to lifetime reproductive success. We therefore expect that when adult survival is compromised during reproduction, mechanisms will evolve to redirect resources away from reproduction, with implications for reproductive hormones, adult body mass, nest attendance behaviour and breeding success. We investigated whether manipulating corticosterone, to simulate exposure to an environmental stressor, affected the secretion of prolactin and breeding success in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We used implanted Alzet® osmotic pumps to administer corticosterone to incubating kittiwakes at a constant rate over a period of approximately 8days. Manipulated birds were compared with sham implanted birds and control birds, which had no implants. There was no significant difference in the body mass of captured individuals at the time of implantation and implant removal. Corticosterone-implanted males showed lower nest attendance during the chick rearing period compared to sham-implanted males; the opposite pattern was found in females. Corticosterone treated birds showed a marginally significant reduction in breeding success compared to sham-implanted individuals, with all failures occurring at least 1week after implant removal. However, prolactin concentrations at implant removal were not significantly different from initial values. We were unable to measure the profile of change in corticosterone during the experiment. However, our results suggest a delayed effect of elevated corticosterone on breeding success rather than an immediate suppression of prolactin concentrations causing premature failure.

  6. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window. (United States)

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A


    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  7. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior. (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro


    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain. The feeding behavior of chicks was recorded continuously for 6 h. The next day, brain and blood samples were collected when the chicks either attempted to have food (hungry group) or turned food down (satiated group), in order to analyze the concentrations of the free amino acids and monoamines. We confirmed that the feeding behavior of neonatal chicks was characterized by short resting periods between very brief times spent on food intake. Several free amino acids in the mesencephalon were significantly lower in the satiated group than in the hungry group, while l-histidine and l-glutamine were significantly higher. Notably, there was no change in the free amino acid concentrations in other brain regions or plasma. As for monoamines, serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly lower in the mesencephalon of the hungry group compared with the satiated group, but 5 hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) was higher. In addition, serotonin and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in the brain stem of the hungry chicks compared with the satiated group, but levels of 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid were lower. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, were significantly higher in the diencephalon and telencephalon of the chicks in the hungry group. In conclusion, the changes in the free amino acids and monoamines in the brain may have some role in the feeding behavior of

  8. Induction of an antimicrobial biotin-binding egg white protein (avidin) in chick tissues in septic Escherichia coli infection. (United States)

    Elo, H A; Räisänen, S; Tuohimaa, P J


    The induction of avidin in chick tissues was found in septic Escherichia coli infection. Avidin concentrations in the plasma roughly corresponded to those in the other tissues studied which suggests that avidin in chicks is a secretory protein.

  9. Retroviral expression of connexins in embryonic chick lens. (United States)

    Jiang, J X; Goodenough, D A


    To develop an in vivo model system in which exogenous proteins can be expressed in embryonic chick lens and to further understand the function of connexin-mediated gap junction intercellular communication in lens cell biology. RCAS(A) is a replication-competent chicken retrovirus that infects dividing cells. Retroviral constructs were prepared containing alkaline phosphatase (AP) and FLAG-tagged connexins. Chick lenses were infected in situ by injecting virus into the lumen of lens vesicles at stage 18, cultures were taken at various periods. The lenses were then dissected, and the expressed proteins were visualized by AP histochemical examination and immunostaining. Twenty-four hours after infection, alkaline phosphatase could be seen in epithelia and fibers. As lens fiber maturation progressed, however, the alkaline phosphatase staining was lost as the fibers matured, presumably because of the proteolytic removal of the enzyme. By 72 hours, alkaline phosphatase staining could still be observed in epithelial cells and in differentiating fibers in the bow region but not in the mature lens fibers. FLAG-tagged exogenous lens connexins were also abundantly expressed by viral infection. The exogenous connexins were localized at the cell surfaces in junctional maculae and showed the same cell-type specific distribution as that of their endogenous connexin counterparts. An in vivo model system has been developed in the chick that provides opportunities to study the expression of wild-type and mutant proteins during lens differentiation. Expression of wild-type connexins has revealed that the characteristic distribution of the three different lens connexins is maintained even when expression is driven by a viral promoter.

  10. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird (United States)

    Mulard, Hervé; Danchin, E.; Talbot, S.L.; Ramey, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.; White, J.F.; Helfenstein, F.; Wagner, R.H.


    Background. Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results. Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i) genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii) offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion. These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure. ?? 2009 Mulard et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramey Andrew M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the

  13. Short communication: hippocampal neuronal activity and imprinting in the behaving domestic chick. (United States)

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G


    The hippocampus of the chick projects to the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) which stores information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. We have investigated whether the response properties of hippocampal neurons are similar to those of IMHV neurons. Chicks were imprinted by exposure, one group (n = 7) to a rotating red box (RB), the other (n = 5) to a rotating blue cylinder (BC). Four chicks were untrained. The following day, when the chicks were approximately 48 h old, neuronal activity was recorded in the left hippocampus. The proportion of neurons responding to the RB and that to the BC in untrained chicks were compared with the proportions in trained birds. (i) In RB-trained chicks both the proportion responding to the RB and that to the BC were significantly increased. (ii) In BC-trained chicks no significant effect on these proportions was found. Of the responsive neurons some were colour (red or blue) sensitive and others were shape (box or cylinder) sensitive; the proportions so responsive were not influenced by training condition. Certain neurons responded significantly differently when a stimulus was 0.5 m or 2 m from the chick (35%; d-sensitive); very few neurons were equivalently responsive to a stimulus at both distances (3%; d-invariant). These proportions were not significantly affected by training condition. Hippocampal responses are compared with those in the left IMHV. It is concluded that IMHV responses do not passively reflect those of hippocampal neurons.

  14. Study of the infectivity of saline-stored Campylobacter jejuni for day-old chicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter


    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 1 weeks before the strains became...

  15. Classification of neuromuscular blocking agents in a new neuromuscular preparation of the chick in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezen, H. van


    A neuromuscular preparation of the chick is described: 1. 1. The sciatic nerve-tibilis anterior muscle preparation of the 2–10 days old chick fulfils all criteria of an assay preparation and differentiates between curare-like and decamethonium-like agents. 2. 2. The preparation responds to

  16. Transplantation of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan


    NSSCs in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E10 and E11) were cultured for 10 days together with micro-mass cell pellets of hNSSCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or a combination of the two cell types. Changes in femurs gross morphology...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the developmen

  18. Foraging behavior and physiological changes in precocial quail chicks in response to low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, KL; Visser, GH; Daan, S


    We examined whether low ambient temperatures influence foraging behavior of precocial Japanese quail chicks and alter the balance between investment in growth and thermogenic function. To test this, one group of chicks was exposed to 7 degreesC and one group to 24 degreesC during foraging throughout

  19. Efficiency of several cultural methods and a chick bioassay to recover dry stressed Campylobacter (United States)

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of 5 enrichment procedures for recovery of dry-atmospheric-temperature stressed C. jejuni and C. coli and determine the viable status of the non-culturable strains using a chick bioassay. Sterile chick paper pads (PP) and filter papers (FP) were i...

  20. Influences of Feeding Lactobacillus on Colonization of the Lactobacillus in Chicks'Digestible Tracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It was carried out with culture solution of Lactobacillus fed to the newborn chicks to observe the influences on colonization of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts. The results showed that after the chicks were fed Lactobacillus, the amount of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts significantly increased (P<0.01) and the Lactobacillus colonized 36h ahead of schedule

  1. Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio


    Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs. 3…

  2. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina (United States)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  3. Studies on the Relationship between the Embryonic Heart Development and the Amnion Folding in Chick

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    Yongqing Li


    Full Text Available As a model animal for developmental biology, chick embryo is easy to control and observe during embryo development period and therefore it is widely used in the study of cardiac development. The application of proteomics has opened the door for large-scale studies to dissect both protein expression, regulation and function during chick heart developing stages. The proteomics study requires to quickly separate a large number of chick heart samples with the same developing stage. However, the traditional morphological standards based on Hamburger-Hamilton and Witschi stages are difficult to fulfill this requirement. Herein, we suppose a new standard for distinguishing chick heart morphology in different developing stages based on the relationship between the embryonic heart development and the amnion folding in chick. Based on this standard, we can accelerate the speed of embryonic heart sample separation and guarantee the quantity and quality of the sample more reliably.

  4. Shh regulates chick Ebf1 gene expression in somite development. (United States)

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Allen, Steve; McGonnell, Imelda; Mansour, Ali A; Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan


    The chick early B-cell factor 1 (cEbf1) is a member of EBF family of helix loop helix transcription factors. Recently, we have proved that cEbf1 expression in feather is regulated by Shh. It is therefore possible that the somitic expression of cEbf1 is controlled by Shh signals from the notochord. To assess this hypothesis, the expression profile of cEbf1 was first detailed in somites of chick embryos (from HH8 to HH28). cEbf1 expression was mainly localised in the medial sclerotome and later around the vertebral cartilage anlagen of body and pedicles. Tissue manipulations (notochord ablation) and Shh gain and loss of function experiments were then performed to analyse whether the notochord and/or Shh regulate cEbf1 expression. Results from these experiments confirmed our hypothesis that the medial somitic expression of cEbf1 is regulated by Shh from the notochord. In conclusion, cEbf1 gene is considered as a medial sclerotome marker, downstream to and regulated by the notochord derived Shh, which may be functionally involved in somitogenesis.

  5. Aquaporin-1 expression in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico; Frigeri, Antonio; Nico, Beatrice; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; De Giorgis, Michela; Roncali, Luisa; Svelto, Maria


    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is commonly used in vivo to study both angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis. Rapid membrane water transport is mediated by a family of molecular water channels, called aquaporins (AQPs), which have been identified in the epithelial and endothelial cells of higher vertebrates. AQP1, expressed in adsorptive and secretory epithelia, is also expressed in endothelial cells of capillaries and arteries. Its mRNA has been found in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of arteries and capillaries, as well as in a subset of VSMCs of human atherosclerotic plaques. This study investigated the developmental expression of AQP1 in the chick CAM by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot results show that a major nonglycosylated band was observed with electrophoretic mobility of approximately 28 kDa in the three developmental stages examined. Immunohistochemistry data demonstrate that AQP1 was clearly expressed in the ectodermal and endodermal epithelia, the vascular endothelium, and the VSMCs. Because little information is available on the behavior of microvessel AQP1 during angiogenesis in normal and pathological conditions, our data relative to the pattern of expression of AQP1 in CAM blood vessels in normal conditions may be considered a useful tool to further investigate its modifications in several experimental conditions implying a stimulation or an inhibition of angiogenesis in the CAM assay. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


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    Chandrapragasam Vani


    Full Text Available Silica is one of the most effective stored seedand food grain protecting pesticide agent, usedfor ages Silica nanoparticles are hard and strong andresistant to brittle fracture under an imposed stress. The aim of our study is to synthesize and evaluate the toxicity of silica nanoparticles at various concentrations using chick embryo, as it serves as a bridging model between in vivo and ex vivo studies. Silica nanoparticles of 70 nm sizewith concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 PPM were injected in vivo and incubated for 19 days as per IACUC guidelines. The study was carried out on dissected chick embryo after the 19th day of incubation. Vital tissues such as liver and heart tissues were subjected to toxicity assays. Biochemical assay of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were assessed. The results showed a decreased level of MDA (Malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid Peroxidation, whereas increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide were observed. Therefore silica nanoparticles may be used as a pesticide and also as a biomaterial for therapeutic application in the field of medicine.

  7. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao


    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks.

  8. Increased mortality of black-browed albatross chicks at a colony heavily-infested with the tick Ixodes uriae. (United States)

    Bergström, S; Haemig, P D; Olsen, B


    At Bird Island, South Georgia, we studied the effects of the tick Ixodes uriae on survival of chicks at two colonies of the black-browed albatross Diomedea melanophrys, one where most chicks were infested with ticks, the other where most chicks were tick-free. When the two colonies were compared, it was found that the colony heavily-infested with ticks had significantly greater chick mortality than the colony lightly-infested with ticks. However, within each of the two colonies, there was no significant difference in survival between chicks with ticks and those without ticks.

  9. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision. (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N


    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision.

  10. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi


    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  11. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects. (United States)

    Work, T M; Smith, M R


    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 microg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  12. Progesterone-independent avidin induction in chick tissues caused by tissue injury and inflammation. (United States)

    Elo, H A; Kulomaa, M S; Tuohimaa, P J


    Progesterone was administered to oestrogen-treated and untreated chicks, or inflammation in the abdominal cavity was caused by intestine and liver injury or intraperitoneal actinomycin D administration. Local injury to the pectoral muscle was also carried out. Chicks were killed 24--26 h after the treatment and the biotin-binding egg white protein, avidin, was assayed in a number of tissues using a [14C]biotin-binding method and radioimmunoassay. Ovalbumin was also assayed with a radioimmunoassay. Avidin was not found in the tissues of control chicks. Progesterone induced avidin only in the oviducts of oestrogen-treated chicks. After intestine and liver injury avidin was found, however, in all the tissues of oestrogen-treated and untreated chicks studied except for the brain. The concentrations were highest in the oviduct, lung, intestine and bursa of Fabricius. Actinomycin D (200 microgram/kg) caused ascites and subcutaneous oedema in 40--60% of the chicks, and avidin was found only in the tissues of these inflamed animals. Avidin production caused by the local muscular injury was restricted to the injured area. Tissue injury and inflammation did not induce ovalbumin in any tissue. The study shows that avidin can be induced besides the oviduct also in non-oviductal chick tissues, and it is proposed that there are both progesterone-dependent and -independent avidin induction mechanisms.

  13. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus). (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio


    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior.

  14. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects. (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.


    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  15. Competition with a host nestling for parental provisioning imposes recoverable costs on parasitic cuckoo chick's growth. (United States)

    Geltsch, Nikoletta; Hauber, Márk E; Anderson, Michael G; Bán, Miklós; Moskát, Csaba


    Chicks of the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) typically monopolize host parental care by evicting all eggs and nestmates from the nest. To assess the benefits of parasitic eviction behaviour throughout the full nestling period, we generated mixed broods of one cuckoo and one great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to study how hosts divide care between own and parasitic young. We also recorded parental provisioning behaviour at nests of singleton host nestlings or singleton cuckoo chicks. Host parents fed the three types of broods with similar-sized food items. The mass of the cuckoo chicks was significantly reduced in mixed broods relative to singleton cuckoos. Yet, after the host chick fledged from mixed broods, at about 10-12 days, cuckoo chicks in mixed broods grew faster and appeared to have compensated for the growth costs of prior cohabitation by fledging at similar weights and ages compared to singleton cuckoo chicks. These results are contrary to suggestions that chick competition in mixed broods of cuckoos and hosts causes an irrecoverable cost for the developing brood parasite. Flexibility in cuckoos' growth dynamics may provide a general benefit to ecological uncertainty regarding the realized successes, failures, and costs of nestmate eviction strategies of brood parasites.

  16. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

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    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  17. Efficiency of manganese absorption in chicks fed corn-soy and casein diets. (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Chausow, D G; Baker, D H


    Experiments were conducted with young chicks to quantify the absorption efficiency of manganese (Mn) using tibia Mn uptake as the response criterion. Chicks in experiment 1 were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and either injected intraperitoneally or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn provided as MnSO4 X H2O. After 14 d, chicks were killed, and intact tibias were removed to facilitate calculation of bone Mn concentration. Excellent straight-line fits (bone Mn concentration as a function of Mn administered) allowed estimation of gut absorption efficiency of Mn by slope-ratio methodology. Absorption efficiency of Mn was calculated to be 1.71% for chicks fed the corn-soy diet. Identical methodology was employed in experiment 2 wherein chicks were fed a phytate- and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet. An absorption efficiency of 2.40% was estimated for chicks fed this diet. Hence, absorption efficiency of inorganic Mn was 40% greater in chicks fed the purified diet than in those fed the conventional corn-soy diet.

  18. Migratory mechanisms of chick primordial germ cells toward gonadal anlage. (United States)

    Kuwana, T; Rogulska, T


    After appearing at the germinal crescent region, chick primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate toward the presumptive gonads (pG) till stage 19 (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). This study seeks to elucidate the roles of passive and active factors in the PGC-migration, physical trapping of circulating PGCs by the capillary network and PGC attraction by chemotactic factor from presumptive gonads. Firstly, latex beads/pollens (the same size or larger than PGCs) were injected into the embryonic bloodstream at stage 13-19 (when PGCs are in the migrating and settlement phase to the presumptive gonad) in ovo in order to determine whether the PGCs passively reach pG. Most of such particles accumulated in the head region (60%), whereas the remainder did the same in the gonadal region (23% at the peak) at stage 16 when both the head and gonadal regions are rich in capillary plexus. After 3 days, most particles in the gonadal region were located at the angles of dorsal mesentery near the developing gonads where many extra-gonadal PGCs had been located, and a few particles were detected close to the gonad. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms of PGC-migration to the developing gonads is an autonomous trapping of PGCs by the capillary network quite close to the germinal epithelium (GE) and passive translocation by morphogenetic movement. Secondly, the attraction for PGCs by the gonadal anlage proper was examined in ovo using chick and quail embryos. Grafts of quail gonadal anlage containing gonadal epithelium and neighbouring mesenchymal tissue were excised from the quail embryo at stages 12 to 16 (staging by Zacchei, 1961). With the aims of eliminating the influence of surrounding tissue, the quail graft was ectopically transplanted into the posterior to the optic vesicle of 8 to 17 somite chick embryo from the point of a posterior region to the auditory vesicle by a fine tungsten needle under the illumination by the method of Hara (1971). Then the region posterior to

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks. (United States)

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo


    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social facilitation revisited: increase in foraging efforts and synchronization of running in domestic chicks. (United States)

    Ogura, Yukiko; Matsushima, Toshiya


    Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation.

  1. Organochlorines accumulate in heron and egret chicks sampled in the Houston Ship Channel (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Shipley, Frank S.; Kiesling, Russell W.


    The National Contaminant Monitoring Program (NCBP) is an effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to measure concentrations of DDT and other persistent chemicals in the environment and to quantify changes in these levels. The NCBP has established a network of sampling stations in segments of the environment for which Federal agencies have authority. The wildlife component of this program, administered by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, includes the periodic sampling of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American black ducks (Anas rubripes). In order to include an estuarine component into the NCBP, herons and egrets are being evaluated. Eggs and chicks (five, ten, and 15 days of age) of snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected in Naragansett Bay, RI; the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), TX; and San Francisco Bay, CA. Great egret (Casmerodius albus) eggs and chicks also were collected at the Texas colony. Eggs and chicks were analyzed for organochlorines; trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon analyses are pending. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in all eggs and chicks, and they accumulated as the chicks grew. At each location, black-crowned nightheron chicks accumulated both DDE and PCBs more rapidly than snowy egrets or great egrets. PCBs accumulated more rapidly in night-heron chicks in Rhode Island than California; however, PCB accumulation for snowy egret chicks did not differ among locations. Contaminant accumulation rates in heron and egret chicks could be used as a new wetland component of the NCBP.

  2. Monitoring phthalates in the tissues of broiler chicks with feedstuffs different phthalate contents

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    Alžbeta Jarošová


    Full Text Available For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAE in animal tissues, samples of muscle, mesenteric fat (fat, skin and liver from broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were given commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate contents, or animal fat with a high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K, nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oils or animal fat. The N chicks were given the grower (BR2 and finisher (BR3 diets supplemented with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The V chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The Z chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% animal fat, respectively. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were found in the tissues of chicks in all the experimental groups. The DBP content in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 0.55 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from < 0.20 to 2.56 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 1.49 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.03 to 0.13 mg . kg−1. The content of DEHP in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 1.15 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from 0.25 to 9.85 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 4.68 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.16 to 0.24 mg . kg−1. The highest concentrations of DBP of 1.28 ± 1.00 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 ± 2.87 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (mean of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. The accumulation of DEHP was 3.2; 2.6 and 2.9 times higher than that of DBP in the muscle, adipose tissue and skin

  3. Myogenic potential of chick limb bud mesenchyme in micromass culture. (United States)

    Archer, C W; Langille, R M; Teran, M A; Solursh, M


    The myogenic potential of chick limb mesenchyme from stages 18-25 was assessed by micromass culture under conditions conductive to myogenesis, and was measured as the proportion of differentiated (muscle myosin-positive) mononucleated cells detected. It was found that similar myogenic potentials existed in mesenchyme from whole limbs between stages 18 and 19, but this potential was halved by stage 20. At stage 21, proximal mesenchyme showed significantly more myogenesis than distal mesenchyme, but this difference was abolished by stage 22. Thereafter, myogenesis was increasingly restricted from the distal mesenchyme, whilst the potential in more proximal regions did not significantly increase after stage 23. When the ratio between total limb myoblasts which differentiated on days 1 and 4 of culture was analysed, it was found that two distinct peaks existed at stages 20 and 23. The significance of these ratio peaks is unclear, but may be related to different proliferative potentials of the pre-myoblasts at these stages.

  4. Fine structure of Plasmodium gallinaceum in embryonic and neonate chicks. (United States)

    Lushbaugh, W B; McGhee, R B; Singh, S D


    The erythrocytic stages of Plasmdoium gallinaceum in chicken embryos injected with parasited blood either from a syringe-passaged infection in chickens or from a chicken infected with sporozoites were characterized by abnormal structure. Particularly evident were large, unstained vacuoles within the cytoplasm; these occurred with greatest frequency in schizonts. The presence of myelin bodies within these vacuoles was revealed by transmission electron microscopy; abnormal cytokinesis and aberrant merozoites provided additional evidence of the parasite's inability to develop naturally within the milieu of the embryonic erythrocytes. Fifty-five passages were necessary to restore normal structure of the parasites in embryos, while only 5 passages were required for such restoration in neonate chicks. The probable adaptation of the parasite to the proportions of hemoglobin of the adult chicken may be responsible for the abnormal growth in the immature host.

  5. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo. (United States)

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger


    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

  6. Expression of Fgf19 in the developing chick eye. (United States)

    Francisco-Morcillo, Javier; Sánchez-Calderón, Hortensia; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías; Martín-Partido, Gervasio


    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a new member of the FGF family of growth factors. Here, we describe the localization of Fgf19 mRNA in the developing chick retina and lens in stages from the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 15 (HH15) to postnatal day 30 (P30). Fgf19 was expressed in a transient manner in postmitotic neuroblasts during the migration from the ventricular surface to their final location. Moreover, from HH31 (embryonic day 7, E7) on, a subset of lined up Fgf19 expressing cells was distributed in the outer region of the presumptive INL. These cells were Pax6 immunoreactive horizontal cells. During the last third of embryogenesis, Fgf19 expression in the retina was progressively down-regulated and was not detected at P30. Also, it was transiently expressed in the equatorial region of the lens.

  7. Cytoskeletal elements of chick embryo fibroblasts revealed by detergent extraction. (United States)

    Brown, S; Levinson, W; Spudich, J A


    Treatment of chick embryo fibroblasts with 0.5% Triton X-100 extracts most of the cell protein, leaving an organized part of the cell structure attached to the tissue culture dish. This "Triton cytoskeleton" consists largely of intermediate-sized filaments and bundles of microfilaments. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that this cytoskeleton is made up of three main proteins. One protein component is 42,000 daltons and co-migrates with muscle actin. The other two components are 52,000 and 230,000 daltons and remain quantitatively associated with the cytoskeleton during the detergent extraction. The possible identity of these three protein components and their organization into a supramolecular structure is discussed.

  8. The formation of premuscle masses during chick wing bud development. (United States)

    Schramm, C; Solursh, M


    The skeletal musculature of chick limb buds is derived from somitic cells that migrate into the somatopleure of the future limb regions. These cells become organized into the earliest muscle primordia, the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses, prior to myogenic differentiation. Therefore, skeletal-muscle specific markers cannot be used to observe myogenic cells during the process of premuscle mass formation. In this study, an alternative marking method was used to determine the specific stages during which this process occurs. Quail somite strips were fluorescently labeled and implanted into chick hosts. Paraffin sections of the resulting chimeric wing buds were stained with the monoclonal antibody QH1 in order to identify graft-derived endothelium. Non-endothelial graft-derived cells present in the wing mesenchyme were assumed to be myogenic. At Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20, myogenic cells were distributed throughout the central region of the limb, including the future dorsal and ventral premuscle mass regions and the prechondrogenic core region. By stage 21, the myogenic cells were present at greater density in dorsal and ventral regions than in the core. By stage 23, nearly all myogenic cells were located in the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses. Therefore, the two premuscle masses become established by stage 21 and premuscle mass formation is not complete until stage 23 or later. Premuscle mass formation occurs concurrently with early chondrogenic events, as observed with the marker peanut agglutinin. To facilitate the investigation of possible underlying mechanisms of premuscle mass formation, the micromass culture system was evaluated, to determine whether or not it can serve as an accurate in vitro model system. The initially randomly distributed myogenic cells were observed to segregate from prechondrogenic regions prior to myogenic differentiation. This is similar to myogenic patterning in vivo.

  9. Developmental morphology of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks. (United States)

    Wang, J X; Peng, K M


    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological development of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks and to examine the changes in the number of goblet cells therein by observing the gross anatomy and performing histochemistry and morphometry. The BW; length, height, and width of the villi; muscle thickness; depth of the crypts; and number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts were measured on neonatal d 1, 45, 90, and 334. Our results revealed that the weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (relative to the BW) peaked on d 90, 45, and 45, respectively, and tended to decline thereafter. The villus height and width and muscle thickness in the small intestine were positively correlated with the age of the birds. The ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth differed among the segments of the small intestine and at the different time points. The number of goblet cells in the intestinal villi and crypts increased rapidly up to postnatal d 45 and then decreased rapidly between d 45 and 90. The number of goblet cells in the villi was greatest in the jejunum on d 1 and in the ileum on d 45, whereas that in the crypt was greatest in the ileum on d 1 and 90 and in the duodenum on d 45. These results suggest that the small intestine develops gradually from postnatal d 1 to 90 and that the period up to postnatal d 45 is marked by significant developmental changes in the parameters reflective of the digestive capacity, such as the weight, length, and surface area of the intestine and the number of goblet cells. Therefore, in reared African ostrich chicks, feed management should be enhanced between postnatal d 1 and 45.

  10. A Chick Embryo in-Vitro Model of Knee Morphogenesis

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    Edward K. Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Background: In this feasibility study, a mechanically loaded in-vitro tissue culture model of joint morphogenesis using the isolated lower extremity of the 8 day old chick embryo was developed to assess the effects of mechanical loading on joint morphogenesis. Methods: The developed in-vitro system allows controlled flexion and extension of the chick embryonic knee with a range of motion of 20 degrees from a resting position of 90-100 degrees of flexion. Joint morphogenesis at 2, 3, 4 and 7 days of culture was assessed by histology and micro MRI in 4 specimen types: undisturbed in-ovo control embryos, in-ovo paralyzed embryos, in-vitro unloaded limb cultures, and in-vitro loaded limb cultures. Relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG concentration across the joint was assessed with an MRI technique referred to as dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage where T1 is proportional to glycosaminoglycan concentration. Results: Average T1 over the entire tissue image for the normal control (IC knee was 480 msec; for the 4 day loaded specimen average T1 was 354 msec; and for the 7 day loaded specimens T1 was 393 msec. The 4 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 279 msec while the 7 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 224 msec. The higher T1 values in loaded than unloaded specimens suggest that more glycosaminoglycan is produced in the loaded culture than in the unloaded preparation. Conclusion: Isolated limb tissue cultures under flexion-extension load can be viable and exhibit more progression of joint differentiation and glycosaminoglycan production than similarly cultured but unloaded specimens. However, when compared with controls consisting of intact undisturbed embryos in-ovo , the isolated loaded limbs in culture do not demonstrate equivalent amounts of absolute growth or joint differentiation.

  11. Draxin, an axon guidance protein, affects chick trunk neural crest migration. (United States)

    Su, Yuhong; Naser, Iftekhar B; Islam, Shahidul M; Zhang, Sanbing; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Chen, Sandy; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawakami, Minoru; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Hideaki


    The neural crest is a multipotent population of migratory cells that arises in the central nervous system and subsequently migrates along defined stereotypic pathways. In the present work, we analyzed the role of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, in the migration of neural crest cells. Draxin is expressed in the roof plate of the chick trunk spinal cord and around the early migration pathway of neural crest cells. Draxin modulates chick neural crest cell migration in vitro by reducing the polarization of these cells. When exposed to draxin, the velocity of migrating neural crest cells was reduced, and the cells changed direction so frequently that the net migration distance was also reduced. Overexpression of draxin also caused some early migrating neural crest cells to change direction to the dorsolateral pathway in the chick trunk region, presumably due to draxin's inhibitory activity. These results demonstrate that draxin, an axon guidance protein, can also affect trunk neural crest migration in the chick embryo.

  12. The effects of solcoseryl on the growth and multiplication of chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated "in vitro". (United States)

    Brasseur, R; De Paermentier, F


    The action of Solcoseryl, a free protein extract of calf blood, was studied on chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro. Solcoseryl stimulates the permitotic DNA synthesis and increases the number of mitoses.,

  13. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. effect on muscle growth of broiler chicks

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    Farman Ullah Khan,


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the aqueous seed extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek on the weight of breast, thigh and leg of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments i.e., A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate. Groups B, C and D received the aqueous extract of fenugreek @ 10, 20 and 30 ml/L, respectively while group A served as a control. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. The data showed that weight of breast, thigh and leg were significantly (P<0.05 heavier in group C compared to control. It was concluded from this study that Trigonella foenum-graecum at the rate of 30 ml/L aqueous extract has a beneficial impact on the growth of these muscle tissues.

  14. Effects on chicks of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel saponin given by different routes of administration. (United States)

    Nakhla, H B; Mohammed, O S; Abu al Futuh, I M; Adam, S E


    The effect of oral or parenteral administration of crude saponin extract from Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernal on Hisex-type chicks was studied. Seven-d-old chicks were given 5 mg Balanites crude saponin/kg/d im, 25 mg/kg/d ip or 250 mg/kg/day po for 3 w. When compared to controls, the body weights of dosed chicks were depressed and serum LDH and GOT activities and uric acid concentrations were significantly elevated. There were no consistent differences in serum GGT, CPK, total cholesterol and total protein between control and dosed birds. The main lesions were fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation and necrosis of hepatocytes, lymphocytic nodules, epithelial cell degeneration of the renal tubules, catarrhal enteritis and varying degrees of hemorrhage in the thigh and breast muscles. Myositis or peritonitis were observed in chicks given Balanites crude saponins im or ip, respectively.

  15. A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo. (United States)

    Borges, R M; Horne, J H; Melo, A; Vidal, J T; Vieceli, F M; Melo, M O; Kanno, T Y N; Fraser, S E; Yan, C Y I


    One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation.

  16. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation (United States)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  17. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

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    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.


    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  18. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks. (United States)

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M


    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  19. All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. (United States)

    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B


    Researchers trained 24 black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and 12 mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in an operant conditioning task to determine if they use open-ended categorization to classify "chick-a-dee" calls, and whether black-capped chickadees that had experience with mountain chick-a-dee calls (sympatric group) would perform this task differently than inexperienced black-capped chickadees (allopatric group). All experimental birds learned to discriminate between species' call categories faster than within a category (Experiment 1), and subsequently classified novel and original between-category chick-a-dee calls in Experiments 2 and 3 following a change in the category contingency. These results suggest that regardless of previous experience, black-capped and mountain chickadees classify their own and the other species' calls into two distinct, yet open-ended, species-level categories.

  20. The importance of endogenous nutrition of chicks from divergent strains for growing tested by deutectomy

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    E Gonzales


    Full Text Available Effects of yolk sac removal (deutectomy upon performance of chicks from three divergent strains were tested to evaluate the importance of endogenous nutrition on the post-hatch phase. Chicks from three different strains (Hy-Line W98, Cobb 500, and JA57 were submitted to a surgery procedure after hatching. Half of them had the residual yolk removed, and the other constituted a sham-deutectomized group. After operation, chicks were designated to a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 strains x 2 presence/absence of yolk sac, in a total of six experimental groups and ten replications of two to four birds. During 14 experimental days all birds were fed ad libitum a 21% CP and 3050 kcal/kg EM mash diet. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and Tukey's test (p<0.05. Relative yolk sac weights were similar among chicks from different breeders, averaging 11.7% to 13.5%. Comparing to sham-operated, deuctetomized chicks had lower weight gain at 7 and 14d, indicating that endogenous nutrition, via yolk sac, is very important to galliform birds whatever their strain. Hy-line deutectomized chicks gained 40% less body weight at the 7th day as compared to their sham counterparts. Analysis of the same criterion to Cobb and JA57 groups revealed a decrease of 16.1% and 10.8%, respectively, on weight gain efficiency. At the 14th rearing day, Hy-Line chicks had the lowest weight gain, followed by JA57s' and Cobbs'. The results suggested that chicks selected for fast growth are less dependent on endogenous nutrition, responding better when exogenous nutrition is associated to yolk assimilation.

  1. Response of brown hisex chicks to low levels of Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or their mixture. (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Mousa, H M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J


    Feeding Jatropha curcas seed at 0.5% of the basic diet for 2 w was not lethal to chicks. In chicks fed 0.5% Ricinus communis seed or a mixture of 0.5% J curcas + 0.5% R communis for 2 w, there was dullness, poor growth, locomotor disturbance and death. Pathological changes were correlated with alterations in clinical chemistry and hematology.

  2. Comparative toxicity of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas in Brown Hisex chicks. (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J


    Symptoms, lesions and changes in growth, haematology and clinical chemistry were investigated in Brown Hisex chicks fed diets containing 0.5% Jatropha curcas seed or 0.5% Ricinus communis seed. High mortality and more severe changes occurred in chicks on Ricinus diet than Jatropha feed. The results indicated that caution should be observed in tropical countries where people are accustomed to chewing castor bean when in need of a laxative.

  3. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss


    Imna Trigueros V; Miguel Ramón C; José Vázquez O; Juan Aguirre M; Carlos Garcia C; Jaime Martínez T


    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline...

  4. Timing of fledging is influenced by glucocorticoid physiology in Laysan Albatross chicks. (United States)

    Sprague, R S; Breuner, C W


    Fledging is a major life transition for birds, when juveniles move from the safety of a nest into an environment where they must find food and avoid predators. The timing of fledging within a season can have significant effects on future survival and breeding success. Proximate triggers of fledging are unknown: though wing development is likely a primary factor, other physiological changes, such as elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT), may affect fledging behavior. Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) chicks have an extended post-hatching period during which they reach 150% of adult mass. However, approaching fledging, chicks fast for days to weeks and lose mass while still putting energy into feather growth. We evaluated chick morphology and physiology to elucidate proximate triggers of fledging. As in some other species, CORT increased as chicks fasted and lost body mass. At the same time, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) declined, thus amplifying free CORT prior to fledging. Once chicks reached a morphological threshold, free CORT levels predicted how long they stayed at the colony: chicks with higher free CORT fledged sooner. To perturb the relationship between body condition, endocrine physiology, and fledging behavior, we supplementally fed chicks for the month before fledging. Fed birds had a slower decrease in body mass, slower decrease in CBG, slower increase in free CORT, and stayed at the colony longer after reaching a morphological threshold. Our study suggests that as chicks lose mass, free CORT acts as a signal of energetic or nutritional state to adjust the timing of fledging. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks. (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R


    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  6. Acoustic imprinting leads to differential 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in the chick forebrain. (United States)

    Maier, V; Scheich, H


    This report describes experiments in which successful acoustic imprinting correlates with differential uptake of D-2-deoxy[14C]glucose in particular forebrain areas that are not considered primarily auditory. Newly hatched guinea chicks (Numida meleagris meleagris) were imprinted by playing 1.8-kHz or 2.5-kHz tone bursts for prolonged periods. Those chicks were considered to be imprinted who approached the imprinting stimulus (emitted from a loudspeaker) and preferred it over a new stimulus in a simultaneous discrimination test. In the 2-deoxy-D-glucose experiment all chicks, imprinted and naive, were exposed to 1.8-kHz tone bursts for 1 hr. As shown by the autoradiographic analysis of the brains, neurons in the 1.8-kHz isofrequency plane of the auditory "cortex" (field L) were activated in all chicks, whether imprinted or not. However, in the most rostral forebrain striking differences were found. Imprinted chicks showed an increased 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in three areas, as compared to naive chicks: (i) the lateral neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale, (ii) a medial magnocellular field (medial neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale), and (iii) the most dorsal layers of the hyperstriatum. Based on these findings we conclude that these areas are involved in the processing of auditory stimuli once they have become meaningful by experience. Images PMID:6574519

  7. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks. (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic


    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors.

  8. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus). (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien


    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks.

  9. Egg traits and physiological neonatal chick parameters from broiler breeder at different ages

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    BC Luquetti


    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness, and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin, cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.

  10. Screening of central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for sedative and hypnotic effects using chick models. (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuhiro


    The chick has a practical advantage in the screening process in that chicks require only small quantities of drugs. The chick separation stress paradigm has traditionally been recognized as a valid form of anxiolytic screening. Further, chick behavior involving standing motionless with eyes closed or sitting motionless with head drooped is nearly always associated with electrophysiological sleep. When centrally administered, some DNA-encoded L-α-amino acids, as well as some DNA-non-encoded amino acids, such as metabolites of L-α-amino acids, D-amino acid and β-amino acid, have shown sedative and/or hypnotic effects in chicks. The effects of some of these amino acids have subsequently been confirmed in humans. In conclusion, the chick model is convenient and useful for screening central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for hypnosis and sedation.

  11. Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone (United States)

    Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.


    The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

  12. Influence of hydrogen peroxide in drinking water on diazepam pharmacokinetics in chicks

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    Yaareb J. Mousa

    Full Text Available Aim: Stressful conditions affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study examines the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in a chick model of oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks were either provided with plane tap water (control group or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. On treatment days 7–14, the chicks were treated with a sedative dose of diazepam at 10 mg/kg, intramuscularly. Blood samples were obtained from chicks (5/each sampling time at times of between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of diazepam in the plasma were determined by an HPLC method with UV-detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were calculated from the mean drug concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of diazepam resulted in the appearance of the drug in the plasma of control and H2O2 -treated chicks at mean concentrations ranging between 0.11 to 0.444 and 0.131 to 0.535 μg/ml, respectively when measured between 0.17 to 4 h after administration. Diazepam concentrations of the H O -treated chicks were significantly higher than those of the control group at the sampling times 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 4 h. The highest concentration of diazepam in the plasma of both the control and H2O2 treated chicks occurred one h after the injection. The elimination half-life, mean residence time, maximum plasma concentration, area under the moment curve and area under plasma concentration-time curve in the H2O2 -treated chicks were higher than those of the control group by 35, 28, 23, 91 and 49%, respectively. Correspondingly, the steady state volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and total body clearance in the H2O2 -treated chicks decreased from those of the respective control values by 15, 24 and 33%. Conclusion: The data suggest that oral

  13. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W


    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  14. In Ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks. (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Min; Cai, Demin; Li, Xi; Zhao, Ruqian


    Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations.

  15. Maturation of firing pattern in chick vestibular nucleus neurons. (United States)

    Shao, M; Hirsch, J C; Peusner, K D


    The principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus are vestibular nucleus neurons participating in the vestibuloocular and vestibulocollic reflexes. In birds and mammals, spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing of action potentials is essential for vestibular nucleus neurons to generate mature vestibular reflex activity. The emergence of spike-firing pattern and the underlying ion channels were studied in morphologically-identified principal cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from brain slices of late-term embryos (embryonic day 16) and hatchling chickens (hatching day 1 and hatching day 5). Spontaneous spike activity emerged around the perinatal period, since at embryonic day 16 none of the principal cells generated spontaneous action potentials. However, at hatching day 1, 50% of the cells fired spontaneously (range, 3 to 32 spikes/s), which depended on synaptic transmission in most cells. By hatching day 5, 80% of the principal cells could fire action potentials spontaneously (range, 5 to 80 spikes/s), and this activity was independent of synaptic transmission and showed faster kinetics than at hatching day 1. Repetitive firing in response to depolarizing pulses appeared in the principal cells starting around embryonic day 16, when calcium-dependent potassium current modulated both the spontaneous and evoked spike firing activity. Altogether, these in vitro studies showed that during the perinatal period, the principal cells switched from displaying no spontaneous spike activity at resting membrane potential and generating one spike on depolarization to the tonic firing of spontaneous and evoked action potentials.

  16. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

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    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  17. Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia

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    Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu


    Full Text Available Chick mortality (CM is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829 were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903 mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787 of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n=973, respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5% throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r=0.68, P<0.011 with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n=2,829, it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

  18. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry


    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  19. Chick embryo proliferation studies using EdU labeling. (United States)

    Warren, Michelle; Puskarczyk, Karolina; Chapman, Susan C


    Cell proliferation studies are an important experimental tool. The most commonly used thymidine analogues, tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label cells during S-phase. Both methods have significant drawbacks: low sensitivity in the case of tritiated thymidine and a denaturation step during BrdU detection that destroys most cellular epitopes, requiring careful optimization. The antibody against BrdU is also large and tissue penetration can be difficult. EdU (5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) is closely chemically related to BrdU, with detection achieved by a copper catalyzed reaction requiring a small fluorescently conjugated azide. Cell cultures, flow cytometry and high throughput studies using EdU-labeled cells is exceptionally fast and does not require denaturation or antibodies. We have developed a tissue-labeling technique in chick embryos using EdU. Following EdU chemistry to detect proliferating cells, the tissue can undergo immunolabeling. We demonstrate fluorescent EdU chemistry followed by Tuj1 antibody staining resulting in multiplex fluorescent tissues.

  20. The birth of quail chicks after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (United States)

    Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Dohra, Hideo; Ono, Tamao; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Sasanami, Tomohiro


    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully used to produce offspring in several mammalian species including humans. However, ICSI has not been successful in birds because of the size of the egg and difficulty in mimicking the physiological polyspermy that takes place during normal fertilization. Microsurgical injection of 20 or more spermatozoa into an egg is detrimental to its survival. Here, we report that injection of a single spermatozoon with a small volume of sperm extract (SE) or its components led to the development and birth of healthy quail chicks. SE contains three factors - phospholipase Cζ (PLCZ), aconitate hydratase (AH) and citrate synthase (CS) - all of which are essential for full egg activation and subsequent embryonic development. PLCZ induces an immediate, transient Ca(2+) rise required for the resumption of meiosis. AH and CS are required for long-lasting, spiral-like Ca(2+) oscillations within the activated egg, which are essential for cell cycle progression in early embryos. We also found that co-injection of cRNAs encoding PLCZ, AH and CS support the full development of ICSI-generated zygotes without the use of SE. These findings will aid our understanding of the mechanism of avian fertilization and embryo development, as well as assisting in the manipulation of the avian genome and the production of transgenic and cloned birds.

  1. Comparative studies in Rous sarcoma with virus, tumor cells, and chick embryo cells transformed in vitro by virus. II. Response of normal and immunized chicks. (United States)



    Chick embryo fibroblasts infected in vitro with Rous sarcoma virus have properties similar to tumor cells when injected into virus-immune chickens. When such virus-transformed fibroblasts are injected into normal chickens, they apparently participate in the production of tumors independent of their release of virus and are thus apparently malignant in vivo.

  2. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates. (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.


    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  3. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

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    Gourav Sharma


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  4. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing


    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  5. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

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    Michael R Guttery

    Full Text Available Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  6. Simultaneous oral administration of Salmonella Infantis and S. Typhimurium in chicks. (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Onozuka, Daisuke; Noda, Tamie; Sera, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji; Murakami, Satoshi


    To confirm the hypothesis that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar (S.) Infantis has higher basic reproductive rates in chicks compared with other Salmonella serovars, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks (n = 8) were challenged simultaneously with S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium per os. Challenged chicks (Group A) were then housed with non-infected chicks (Group B, n = 4) for 6 days (from 2 to 8 days of age). Group B birds were then housed with other non-infected birds (Group C, n = 4), which were then transferred to cages containing a further group of untreated chicks (Group D, n = 2). A control group consisting of four non-infected chicks was used for comparison. All chickens were humanely sacrificed at 18 days of age, and Salmonella from bowel and liver samples were enumerated. Both serovars were isolated from all groups except the control group. S. Typhimurium was isolated at a greater frequency than S. Infantis from the bowel samples of chicks from Groups B, C and D, while no differences in colonisation rates were observed between the two serovars in liver samples from Groups B, C and D. S. Typhimurium, but not S. Infantis, was immunohistochemically detected in the lamina propria of the cecum and rectum in five birds of Group A. Despite the competitive administration, neither of the two serovars completely excluded the other, and no differences were observed in basic reproductive rates between the two serovars. These findings, together with data from previous studies, suggest that the initial quantitative domination of S. Infantis in chicken flocks may explain why this serovar is predominant in broiler chickens.

  7. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival. (United States)

    Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N


    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  8. Sex-Based Differences in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

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    Scott Jennings

    Full Text Available Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11% as well as bill (~8% and flipper length (~3%. We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica, with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors

  9. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

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    Jennifer M. Arnold


    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  10. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

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    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  11. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae). (United States)

    Klenova, Anna V


    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  12. L-Ornithine is a potential acute satiety signal in the brain of neonatal chicks. (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Do, Phong H; Bahry, Mohammad A; Yang, Hui; Furuse, Mitsuhiro


    Recently, we observed that neonatal chicks exhibit feeding behavior characterized by frequent food intake and short resting intervals, with changes detected in the brain amino acid and monoamine concentrations. In this study, we aimed to clarify further the relationship between the appetite of neonatal chicks and brain amino acid metabolism. In Experiment 1, changes were investigated in free amino acids in the brain under conditions of regulated appetite induced by fasting and subsequent short-term re-feeding. Chicks (5 days old) were distributed into four treatment groups--namely, fasting for 3h, and fasting for 3h followed by re-feeding for 10, 20 or 30 min. Brain samples were collected after treatment to analyze free amino acid concentrations. Amino adipic acid and proline in all brain parts as well as arginine and ornithine in all brain parts--except mesencephalic arginine and cerebellar ornithine--were increased in a time-dependent manner following re-feeding. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effect of exogenous administration of some amino acids altered in association with feeding behavior in Experiment 1. We chose L-arginine and its functional metabolite, L-ornithine, to analyze their effects on food intake in chicks. Intracerebroventricular injection (2 μmol) of L-ornithine, but not L-arginine, significantly inhibited food intake in neonatal chicks. In Experiment 3, we found that central injection of L-ornithine (2, 4, and 6 μmol) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in chicks. These results suggested that L-ornithine may have an important role in the control of food intake as an acute satiety signal in the neonatal chick brain.

  13. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks. (United States)

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A


    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  14. Physiological Adaptive Indicators in Fasted Neonate Broiler Chicks in Response to Calcium Gluconate Injection

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    Khosravinia H


    Full Text Available Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 hrs after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into 2 groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hrs after chick placement, calcium gluconate (Ca-glu injection (0 and 0.6 mL and sex (male and female. Independent of sex, live body weight (BW of chicks decreased linearly (Y=43.36-0.109BW0h, r2=0.876 as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 mL Ca-glu at 3 hrs post hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR utilized linearly (Y=5.75-0.062YR, r2=0.956 by 0.062 g/hr in neonate fasted chicks showing no effect for Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 hrs increased liver weight (P. The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0h breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (P. Serum glucose concentration in both sexes increased up to 6 hrs fasting, then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dL after 48 hrs feed withdrawal. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 hrs of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to three-fold in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24 hrs feed withdrawal. The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 hrs and significantly elevated in the birds received 0.6 mL Ca-glu injection compared with the non treated chicks. It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 mL Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed deprived neonate chicks.

  15. GABA, taurine and learning: release of amino acids from slices of chick brain following filial imprinting. (United States)

    McCabe, B J; Horn, G; Kendrick, K M


    The intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is a forebrain region in the domestic chick that is a site of information storage for the learning process of imprinting. We enquired whether imprinting is associated with learning-related increases in calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of neurotransmitter amino acids from the IMHV. Chicks were hatched and reared in darkness until 15-30 h after hatching. They then either remained in darkness or were trained for 2 h by exposure to an imprinting stimulus. One hour later, the chicks were given a preference test and a preference score was calculated from the results of this test, as a measure of imprinting. Chicks were killed 2 h after training. Slices from the left and right IMHV of trained and untrained chicks were superfused with Krebs' solution either with or without calcium and the superfusate assayed for arginine, aspartate, citrulline, GABA, glutamate, glycine and taurine using high-performance liquid chromatography. For calcium-containing superfusates from the left IMHV, preference score was significantly correlated with potassium-stimulated release of (i) GABA (r=0.51, 23 d.f., P=0.008) and (ii) taurine (r=0.77, 23 d.f., Pimprinting is associated with increases in releasable pools of GABA and taurine and/or membrane excitability in the left IMHV.

  16. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.


    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  17. Comparison of Hensen's node and retinoic acid in secondary axis induction in the early chick embryo. (United States)

    Chen, Y; Solursh, M


    Retinoic acid (RA) and Hensen's node, the organizer center in the chick embryo, have been shown to have polarizing activity when applied or grafted into the chick limb bud. Here we investigate and compare the effects of RA and grafted Hensen's node on the early chick embryo. Anion exchange beads soaked with RA at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 ng/ml and implanted on the anterior side or on the left side of the host anteroposterior axis of a stage 4 chick embryo in ovo have the ability to induce secondary axis formation, while beads soaked with RA of the same concentration and implanted on the right side or on the posterior side of the host axis are unable to induce the secondary axis. All of the induced axes contain trunk-tail structures. Hensen's node from quail embryos implanted into the early chick blastoderm could also cause the formation of secondary axes in addition to self-differentiation of the graft into a secondary axis. Both RA and grafted Hensen's node caused the inhibition of forebrain development with an increase in hindbrain development and the host heart to loop in an abnormal direction. The results support the hypothesis that Hensen's node is a source of RA which is involved in early embryogenesis. Alternatively, RA might stimulate the formation of Hensen's nodal properties in adjacent tissue.

  18. Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product? (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Barbraud, Christophe; Lormée, Hervé; Prud'homme, François; Chastel, Olivier


    The function and causes of kidnapping juveniles are little understood because individuals sustain some breeding costs to rear an unrelated offspring. Here we focus on the proximal causes of this behaviour in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), whose failed breeders often kidnap chicks. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that kidnapping behaviour was the result of high residual levels of prolactin (PRL), a hormone involved in parental behaviour. Penguins with artificially decreased PRL levels by bromocriptine administration kidnapped chicks less often than control penguins. Within the bromocriptine treated group, kidnapping behaviour was not totally suppressed and the probability of kidnapping a chick was positively correlated to PRL levels measured before treatment. During breeding, emperor penguins have to forage in remote ice-free areas. In these birds, PRL secretion is poorly influenced by chick stimuli and has probably evolved to maintain a willingness to return to the colony after a long absence at sea. Therefore, penguins that have lost their chick during a foraging trip still maintain high residual PRL levels and this, combined with colonial breeding, probably facilitates kidnapping. We suggest that kidnapping in non-cooperative systems may result from a hormonal byproduct of a reproductive adaptation to extreme conditions.


    Walsh, Martin J.; Brown, Bobby C.; Brown, Leonard; Pirkle, Carl I.


    Walsh, Martin J. (Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, Ga.), Bobby C. Brown, Leonard Brown, and Carl I. Pirkle. Use of the chick embryo in maintaining and restoring virulence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 86:478–481. 1963.—Data based on its capabilities of producing acute urethritis in human male volunteers showed that Neisseria gonorrhoeae rapidly decreased in virulence after repeated subculture on chocolate agar medium. Cultures of a particular strain (GCM13) in the allantoic cavity of a developing chick embryo maintained virulence after 82 successive transfers. Another strain (GCF62), after loss of virulence through repeated subculture on chocolate agar, was again able to produce infection after 15 consecutive transfers in chick embryo. Thus, chick embryo apparently had the capability not only to maintain the virulence factor but also to reconstitute virulence. It is postulated that chick embryo serves as a selective medium for the growth of virulent gonococci, permitting rapid multiplication of these organisms and suppressing growth of the nonvirulent organisms. PMID:14066424

  20. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents. (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J


    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  1. Pharmacological reversal of cognitive bias in the chick anxiety-depression model. (United States)

    Hymel, Kristen A; Sufka, Kenneth J


    Cognitive bias presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals adopt a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and depressed individuals adopt both a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and a less optimistic interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. These biases have been reversed by anxiolytics and antidepressants. In the current study, chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5-min to induce an anxiety-like state or 60-min to induce a depressive-like state were tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. Chicks in the depression-like state displayed more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like approach behavior to ambiguous aversive and appetitive cues, respectively. Both forms of cognitive bias were reversed by 15.0 mg/kg imipramine. Chicks in anxiety-like state displayed more pessimistic-like approach behavior under the ambiguous aversive stimulus cues. However, 0.10 mg/kg clonidine produced modest sedation and thus, was ineffective at reversing this bias. The observation that cognitive biases of more pessimism and less optimism can be reversed in the depression-like phase by imipramine adds to the validity of the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  2. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Sherley

    Full Text Available The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot. Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08 and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10 survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03. Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  3. Morphologic characterization of osteosarcoma growth on the chick chorioallantoic membrane

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    Gosheger Georg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM assay is a commonly used method for studying angiogenic or anti-angiogenic activities in vivo. The ease of access allows direct monitoring of tumour growth by biomicroscopy and the possibility to screen many samples in an inexpensive way. The CAM model provides a powerful tool to study effects of molecules, which interfere with physiological angiogenesis, or experimental tumours derived from cancer cell lines. We therefore screened eight osteosarcoma cell lines for their ability to form vascularized tumours on the CAM. Findings We implanted 3-5 million cells of human osteosarcoma lines (HOS, MG63, MNNG-HOS, OST, SAOS, SJSA1, U2OS, ZK58 on the CAM at day 10 of embryonic development. Tumour growth was monitored by in vivo biomicroscopy at different time points and tumours were fixed in paraformaldehyde seven days after cell grafting. The tissue was observed, photographed and selected cases were further analyzed using standard histology. From the eight cell lines the MNNG-HOS, U2OS and SAOS were able to form solid tumours when grafted on the CAM. The MNNG-HOS tumours showed the most reliable and consistent growth and were able to penetrate the chorionic epithelium, grow in the CAM stroma and induce a strong angiogenic response. Conclusions Our results show that the CAM assay is a useful tool for studying osteosarcoma growth. The model provides an excellent alternative to current rodent models and could serve as a preclinical screening assay for anticancer molecules. It might increase the speed and efficacy of the development of new drugs for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  4. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus middle ear columella formation

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    Mercer Kathryn J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella and ossified columella. Middle and external ear defects are responsible for approximately 10% of congenital hearing defects. Thus, understanding the morphogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of the formation of the middle ear is important to understanding normal and abnormal development of this essential component of the hearing apparatus. Results The columella, which arises from proximal ectomesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, is induced and patterned in a dynamic multi-step process. From the footplate, which inserts into the inner ear oval window, the shaft spans the pneumatic middle ear cavity, and the extracolumella inserts into the tympanic membrane. Through marker gene and immunolabeling analysis, we have determined the onset of each stage in the columella's development, from condensation to ossification. Significantly, a single condensation with the putative shaft and extracolumella arms already distinguishable is observed shortly before initiation of five separate chondrogenic centers within these structures. Ossification begins later, with periosteum formation in the shaft and, unexpectedly, a separate periosteum in the footplate. Conclusions The data presented in this study document the spatiotemporal events leading to morphogenesis of the columella and middle ear structures and provide the first gene expression data for this region. These data identify candidate genes and facilitate future functional studies and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of columella formation.

  5. Patterning of the chick forebrain anlage by the prechordal plate. (United States)

    Pera, E M; Kessel, M


    We analysed the role of the prechordal plate in forebrain development of chick embryos in vivo. After transplantation to uncommitted ectoderm a prechordal plate induces an ectopic, dorsoventrally patterned, forebrain-like vesicle. Grafting laterally under the anterior neural plate causes ventralization of the lateral side of the forebrain, as indicated by a second expression domain of the homeobox gene NKX2.1. Such a lateral ventralization cannot be induced by the secreted factor Sonic Hedgehog alone, as this is only able to distort the ventral forebrain medially. Removal of the prechordal plate does not reduce the rostrocaudal extent of the anterior neural tube, but leads to significant narrowing and cyclopia. Excision of the head process results in the caudal expansion of the NKX2.1 expression in the ventral part of the anterior neural tube, while PAX6 expression in the dorsal part remains unchanged. We suggest that there are three essential steps in early forebrain patterning, which culminate in the ventralization of the forebrain. First, anterior neuralization occurs at the primitive streak stage, when BMP-4-antagonizing factors emanate from the node and spread in a planar fashion to induce anterior neural ectoderm. Second, the anterior translocation of organizer-derived cells shifts the source of neuralizing factors anteriorly, where the relative concentration of BMP-4-antagonists is thus elevated, and the medial part of the prospective forebrain becomes competent to respond to ventralizing factors. Third, the forebrain anlage is ventralized by signals including Sonic Hedgehog, thereby creating a new identity, the prospective hypothalamus, which splits the eye anlage into two lateral domains.

  6. Mom's shadow: structure-from-motion in newly hatched chicks as revealed by an imprinting procedure. (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio


    The ability to recognize three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional (2-D) displays was investigated in domestic chicks, focusing on the role of the object's motion. In Experiment 1 newly hatched chicks, imprinted on a three-dimensional (3-D) object, were allowed to choose between the shadows of the familiar object and of an object never seen before. In Experiments 2 and 3 random-dot displays were used to produce the perception of a solid shape only when set in motion. Overall, the results showed that domestic chicks were able to recognize familiar shapes from 2-D motion stimuli. It is likely that similar general mechanisms underlying the perception of structure-from-motion and the extraction of 3-D information are shared by humans and animals. The present data shows that they occur similarly in birds as known for mammals, two separate vertebrate classes; this possibly indicates a common phylogenetic origin of these processes.

  7. Identification and localization of a novel zinc finger gene in developing chick skin and feather buds. (United States)

    Padanilam, B J; Solursh, M


    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a novel zinc finger protein (Fzf-1) containing two tandem repeats of zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type. The cDNA is 3.0 Kb long and has an open reading frame which codes for a protein of 789 amino acids. The expression pattern of the zinc finger gene was studied in chick embryonic skin and feathers by in situ hybridization. The expression of the gene is found to be temporally and spatially regulated. In stage 38 chick embryos, the transcripts are localized to the epidermis but in 10-day-old embryos, the signal is localized to the forming dermis. In 12-day-old chick, the transcripts are localized to the mesenchymal region of the elongated feather buds. Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) did not detect the transcripts in any other tissues.

  8. Trivial or Commendable? : Women’s Writing, Popular Culture, and Chick Lit

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    Ryan, Mary


    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  9. Organochlorines and heavy metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs and chicks from the same clutch

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    Becker, P.H. (Institut fur Vogelforschung Vogelwarte Helgoland (West Germany)); Sperveslage, H. (Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Oldenburg (West Germany))


    In an earlier paper the authors investigated the intraclutch variability in levels of toxic pollutants and compared this contamination with that of the female Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) after production of the clutch in question. In the present study, they examine the concentrations of contaminants in chicks as compared with one egg of the same clutch. Such studies are important with regard to the question as to which ontogenetic stage is most endangered by toxic pollutants. Some investigations concerning this problem have already been carried out, but they don't refer to samples taken from the same clutches. Chicks receive contaminants mainly from two sources: from the egg, which reflects directly the contamination of the breeding female as well as from the food. Moreover the concentrations of pollutants in chicks vary with growth-dependent body distribution and with a decline of the lipid content.

  10. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia (United States)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.


    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.


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    Amalendu Chanda


    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni Gene Expression in the Chick Cecum: Evidence for Adaptation to a Low-Oxygen Environment (United States)

    Woodall, C. A.; Jones, M. A.; Barrow, P. A.; Hinds, J.; Marsden, G. L.; Kelly, D. J.; Dorrell, N.; Wren, B. W.; Maskell, D. J.


    Transcriptional profiling of Campylobacter jejuni during colonization of the chick cecum identified 59 genes that were differentially expressed in vivo compared with the genes in vitro. The data suggest that C. jejuni regulates electron transport and central metabolic pathways to alter its physiological state during establishment in the chick cecum. PMID:16041056

  13. Learning-related changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity in the chick forebrain after imprinting. (United States)

    McCabe, B J; Horn, G


    The intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) is a part of the chick forebrain that is critical for the learning process of imprinting and may be a site of information storage. Chicks were either trained on an imprinting stimulus or dark-reared. Trained chicks were classified as good or poor learners by their preference score (a measure of the strength of imprinting). A monoclonal antibody against the immediate early gene product Fos was applied to sections through IMHV and other forebrain regions. In the IMHV, significantly more immunopositive nuclei were counted in good learners than in poor learners or dark-reared chicks. There was a positive correlation between counts of labeled nuclei and preference score that was not attributable to sensory activity per se, locomotor activity during training, or a predisposition to learn well; rather, the results indicated that the change in Fos immunoreactivity in the IMHV was related to learning. In the hyperstriatum accessorium, significantly fewer immunopositive nuclei were counted in good learners than in poor learners or in dark-reared chicks. In the dorsolateral hippocampal region, more immunopositive nuclei were counted in trained than in dark-reared chicks. No significant effects of training were found in the anterior hyperstriatum ventrale, lobus parolfactorius, neostriatum, medial hippocampal region, or ventrolateral hippocampal region, but counts in this last region were positively correlated with training approach. The results for IMHV implicate Fos or Fos-related proteins in memory processes and pave the way for the identification of the cell types that show the learning-related increase in gene expression. Images PMID:7972076

  14. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in chicks

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    Y.J. Mousa


    Full Text Available The effect of oxidative stress–induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the analgesic effect of xylazine and dipyrone in 7-14 days old chicks was studied, compared with the control group that given plane tap water. H2O2, 0.5 % in water, induced oxidative stress in chicks by significantly lowering glutathione, rising malondialdehyde in plasma, whole brain during the day 7th, 10th, 14th of chicks old in comparison with the control group. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50 of xylazine and dipyrone in the control group were determined to be 0.79 and 65.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m., respectively whereas H2O2 treated groups decreased these values to be 0.31 and 37.2 mg/kg, i.m. by 61 and 43%, respectively. Intramuscular injection of xylazine and dipyrone at 0.5, 70 mg/kg respectively causes analgesia from electro-stimulation induced pain in 50, 66.67% respectively in control groups whereas H2O2 treated chicks increases the analgesic efficacy to be 83.33 and 83.33% respectively. Xylazine and dipyrone injection at 1 and 100 mg/kg, i.m. 15 minutes before formaldehyde injection in right planter foot of stressed chicks causes analgesia from pain induced by formaldehyde through significant increases in onset of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot, significantly decreases its lifting numbers, decreases the time elapsed of lifting of formaldehyde injected foot in comparison with the stressed control group that injected with saline in right planter foot. The data of this study indicate that H2O2-induced oxidative stress potentiate the analgesic efficacy of the central and peripheral analgesics of xylazine and dipyrone in chicks.

  15. Experimental evidence for chick discrimination without recognition in a brood parasite host. (United States)

    Grim, Tomás


    Recognition is considered a critical basis for discriminatory behaviours in animals. Theoretically, recognition and discrimination of parasitic chicks are not predicted to evolve in hosts of brood parasitic birds that evict nest-mates. Yet, an earlier study showed that host reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) of an evicting parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), can avoid the costs of prolonged care for unrelated young by deserting the cuckoo chick before it fledges. Desertion was not based on specific recognition of the parasite because hosts accept any chick cross-fostered into their nests. Thus, the mechanism of this adaptive host response remains enigmatic. Here, I show experimentally that the cue triggering this 'discrimination without recognition' behaviour is the duration of parental care. Neither the intensity of brood care nor the presence of a single-chick in the nest could explain desertions. Hosts responded similarly to foreign chicks, whether heterospecific or experimental conspecifics. The proposed mechanism of discrimination strikingly differs from those found in other parasite-host systems because hosts do not need an internal recognition template of the parasite's appearance to effectively discriminate. Thus, host defences against parasitic chicks may be based upon mechanisms qualitatively different from those operating against parasitic eggs. I also demonstrate that this discriminatory mechanism is non-costly in terms of recognition errors. Comparative data strongly suggest that parasites cannot counter-evolve any adaptation to mitigate effects of this host defence. These findings have crucial implications for the process and end-result of host-parasite arms races and our understanding of the cognitive basis of discriminatory mechanisms in general.

  16. Filial responses as predisposed and learned preferences: Early attachment in chicks and babies. (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio


    To what extent are filial responses the outcome of spontaneous or acquired preferences? The case of domestic chicks illustrates the connection between predisposed and learned knowledge in early social responses. In the absence of specific experience, chicks prefer to approach objects that are more similar to natural social partners (e.g. they prefer face-like configurations, biological motion, self-propelled objects and those that move at variable speed). Spontaneous preferences are complemented by filial imprinting, a powerful learning mechanism that enables chicks to quickly learn the features of specific social partners. While neurobiological studies have clarified that the substrates of spontaneous and learned preferences are at least partially distinct in chicks, evidence shows that spontaneous preferences might orient and facilitate imprinting on animate stimuli, such as the mother hen, and that hormones facilitate and strengthen preferences for predisposed stimuli. Preferences towards animate stimuli are observed in human neonates as well. The remarkable consistency between the perceptual cues attended to by newborn babies and naïve chicks suggests that the attentional biases observed in babies are unlikely to result from very rapid post-natal learning, and confirms that research on precocial species can inform and guide human infant research with regards to both typical and atypical development. This has potentially important biomedical implications, opening new possibilities for the early detection of subjects at risk for autism spectrum disorders. We show how the parallel investigation of predispositions in naïve chicks and human infants, both benefiting from contact with social partners since the beginning of life, has greatly improved our understanding of early responses to social stimuli at the behavioural and neurobiological level.

  17. Phenylalanine requirement, imbalance, and dietary excess in one-week-old chicks: growth and phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. (United States)

    Lartey, F M; Austic, R E


    Two experiments were performed to study Phe imbalance and toxicity in 1-wk-old Babcock B380 chicks resulting from the addition of either a mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) or excess Phe to a diet that was nutritionally adequate in Phe. Chicks received a preexperimental semipurified diet for 1 wk and experimental diets from 7 to 14 d of age. In the first experiment, the chicks were given diets with Phe levels at 0.24, 0.29, 0.34, 0.39, 0.44, and 0.49% of the diet to determine the Phe requirement. The requirement of the chicks for Phe, based on weight gain and feed efficiency, was determined to be 0.39% of the diet. In experiment 2, the IAA - Phe (10% of the diet) or excess Phe (2% of the diet) was added to a diet containing 0.44% Phe. Chicks given the IAA - Phe or excess Phe had significantly slower growth rates than chicks given the basal diet (P > or = 0.05). The activities of the major hepatic enzyme of Phe catabolism, Phe hydroxylase (PAH), were significantly higher than that of chicks fed the basal diet when the chicks were fed the diets containing IAA - Phe plus 1.1% Phe (P > or = 0.05) but not when chicks were fed the diet containing IAA - Phe alone. The activity of PAH in chicks given the excess (2%) Phe was nearly 4 times the activity of PAH in chicks given the basal diet. Adding IAA - Phe to the diet containing excess Phe also resulted in higher PAH activity than was observed in chicks fed the basal diet, although the activity was significantly lower than observed for chicks receiving the diet containing excess Phe alone (P > or = 0.05). It is concluded that hepatic PAH activity in chicks increases primarily in response to its substrate, Phe. A dietary amino acid load without Phe reduces this response to excess Phe.

  18. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands (United States)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.


    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (⩽20 cm for seals and ⩽12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation

  19. Actomyosin organisation for adhesion, spreading, growth and movement in chick fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Rees, D A


    Examination of the actomyosin structures and their relation to adhesion, movement and growth in the first fibroblasts migrating from chick heart explants shows striking differences with fibroblasts adapted to grow in culture. The latter have focal adhesions which seem to immobilize them for ancho......Examination of the actomyosin structures and their relation to adhesion, movement and growth in the first fibroblasts migrating from chick heart explants shows striking differences with fibroblasts adapted to grow in culture. The latter have focal adhesions which seem to immobilize them...

  20. In vitro prevention of chick pancreatic lipase activity by Abroma augusta extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Gupta; Aditya Ganeshpurkar; Nishikant Jatav; Divya Bansal; Nazneen Dubey


    Objective: To investigate chick pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the Abroma augusta (A. augusta). Methods: A. augusta was first extracted with methanol and subjected to phytochemical screenings. Quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenolics and alkaloids was done. Pancreatic lipase from chick pancreas was isolated and used as substrate for anti-lipase studies. Results:A. augusta extract effectively inhibited concentration dependent lipase activity, whereby extract at concentration 100 μg/mL inhibited 88.6% enzyme activity. Conclusions: From these results, it could be concluded that A. augusta can be used as a potential source anti-lipase agents.

  1. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Davies


    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  2. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging. (United States)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry


    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern.

  3. Light exposure of chick embryo influences lateralized recall of imprinting memory. (United States)

    Johnston, A N; Rogers, L J


    Environmental cues, such as light during the later part of incubation, are known to establish lateralization of some forms of visually guided behaviors in birds. The authors investigated the effect of light on lateralized recall of imprinting memory in chicks. On Day E19 of incubation, one eye was occluded for 24 hr. The other eye received stimulation by light. Chicks were imprinted and then tested for their imprinting preferences after administration of a low dose (500 ng) of glutamate into either hemisphere. Chicks that had the right eye exposed to light during incubation showed recall of the imprinting stimulus after injection of the left hemisphere but not after injection into the right hemisphere. The reverse was found for chicks that had the left eye exposed to light. Hence, the hemisphere ipsilateral to the eye exposed to light before hatching became essential for recall of imprinting memory. The hemisphere used in recall of imprinting memory received indirect visual inputs and was determined by environmental stimulation (asymmetrical light input).

  4. Effect of growth rate and body mass on resting metabolic rate in galliform chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Drent, RH


    In this study, we asked whether within-species variation in chick resting metabolic rate was related to variation in growth and whether this relationship changed during development in three galliform species (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, and Japanese quail, Coturnix co

  5. Daily energy expenditure in precocial shorebird chicks : Smaller species perform at higher levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, Karen L.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Visser, G. Henk


    We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) during the development periods of precocial chicks of five species of Arctic shorebirds spanning a broad range in size, in order to investigate the relationships between DEE, body size, and growth rate. We also quantified the effect of weather conditions on

  6. Ethical euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo. (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Herr, Ingrid


    Fertilized chicken eggs are suggested as an alternative to mammalian models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is widely used for examination of angiogenesis, xenotransplants and for virus production. Unfortunately, it is mostly not taken into account, that the chick embryo's ability to experience pain starts to develop at day 7 of breeding. In our view, this model is only in accordance with the 3 R principles, if an appropriate anesthesia of the chick embryo in potentially painful procedures is provided. Although many experimental approaches are performed on the none-innervated CAM, the euthanasia of the embryo strongly requires a more human technique than the usually used freezing at -20°C, decapitation or in ovo fixation with paraformaldehyde without prior anesthesia. However, protocols regarding feasible and ethical methods for anesthesia and euthanasia of avian embryos are currently not available. Therefore, we established an easy and reliable method for the euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

  7. Detailed histopathologic characterization of the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) chick phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Fischer, A.; Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Kiupel, M.; Grip, W.J. de; Sherry, D.; Cho, S.S.; Shaw, G.C.; Evans, M.G.; Hocking, P.; Petersen-Jones, S.M.


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphological abnormalities in the retinas of chicks (Gallus gallus) suffering from the autosomal recessive disease, retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge/rge). METHODS: rge/rge affected and age matched control retinas were examined from hatch up

  8. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.


    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  9. Anthelminthic treatment negatively affects chick survival in the Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K; Heg, D; Quenec'hdu, SLD


    Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus are infested with a wide range of gut parasites, but experimental evidence of their effects on host fitness is scant. We investigated prevalence of parasites, and experimentally tested the effects of gut parasites on chick survival and growth. One hundre

  10. Preventive effect of selenium, methionine and antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks induced by dilauryl succinate. (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Hoshi, H


    The protective effect of supplemental selenium, methionine, ascorbic acid, menaquinone and five antioxidants against encephalomalacia of chicks fed a diet containing dilauryl succinate was examined. Diauryl succinate induces vitamin E deficiency signs such as fragility of the erythrocytes and encephalomalacia. Supplementation of selenium and methionine with or without simultaneous supplementation of a low level of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate had little effect on preventing encephalomalacia. The preventive effect of ascorbic acid, methylene blue, ethoyquine, 2,6-ditertiary-butyl-p-cresol and butylated hydroxyanisole was roughly in proportion to their dietary level, and a high level of any of them could almost completely protect the chicks from encephalomalacia, while diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine was not as effective and the effect was not proportional to the dose. Menaquinone had little effect. No difference was observed in the plasma tocopherol levels and peroxide levels in the adipose tissueof the chick fed eith er dilauryl succinate or cornstarch. The effect of dilauryl succinate appears to be independent of peroxides generated in the chick.

  11. Feeding and growth of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) chicks with unpredictable food access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S


    We investigated the effect of unpredictable feeding times on feeding activity and body mass gain in fast growing Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) from 7 to 31 d of age. Quail chicks were subjected to a long day length (18L:6D) with ad libitum food during (1) 17.5 h of the light period, starting


    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  13. Mucin dynamics in the chick small intestine are altered by starvation. (United States)

    Smirnov, Asya; Sklan, David; Uni, Zehava


    The absorptive surface of the small intestine is covered by a layer of mucus secreted by goblet cells. The secreted mucins and thickness of the adherent layer influence nutrient digestion and absorption processes as well as the functionality of the mucosa. In this study, methods for the analysis of mucin synthesis and dynamics in the chick small intestine are described. A fragment of chicken mucin cDNA was isolated and characterized; this fraction had 60% homology to human mucin MUC-5AC. The thickness of the mucus adherent layer and the relative amounts of mucin glycoprotein and mRNA were also examined in the small intestines of control and starved chicks. Relative amounts of intestinal mucin mRNA and protein increased in the duodenum and jejunum of starved chicks, and mucus adherent layer thickness decreased throughout the small intestine. In starved chicks, higher mRNA expression and protein concentrations with lower amounts of adherent mucus may be related to a higher rate of degradation of the mucus layer, a lower rate of mucus secretion, or an altered rate of mucin turnover. It thus appears that starvation alters mucus dynamics in the small intestine, and this may affect intestinal digestive function and defense.

  14. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D


    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen.


    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  16. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa


    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main…

  17. Intracerebroventricular administration of novel glucagon-like peptide suppresses food intake in chicks. (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi


    Glucagon-related peptides such as glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin suppress food intake in mammals and birds. Recently, novel glucagon-like peptide (GCGL) was identified from chicken brain, and a comparatively high mRNA expression level of GCGL was detected in the hypothalamus. A number of studies suggest that the hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake in mammals and birds. In the present study, we investigated whether GCGL is involved in the central regulation of food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of GCGL in chicks significantly suppressed food intake. Plasma glucose level was significantly decreased by GCGL, whereas plasma corticosterone level was not affected. Central administration of a corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, attenuated GCGL-suppressed food intake. It seems likely that CRF receptor is involved in the GCGL-induced anorexigenic pathway. All our findings suggest that GCGL functions as an anorexigenic peptide in the central nervous system of chicks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood


    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  19. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita


    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  20. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus). (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia


    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.

  1. Chick metabolic rate and growth in three species of albatross: a comparative study. (United States)

    Phillips, R A; Green, J A; Phalan, B; Croxall, J P; Butler, P J


    The relative importance of genetic vs. environmental factors in determining the pattern of avian post-embryonic development is much debated. Previous cross-fostering of albatrosses suggested that although inter-specific variation in growth rate was determined primarily by differences in dietary energy content, species-specific constraints might have evolved that could limit maximal growth, even in chicks fed at similar rates and on similar diets. This study aimed to determine whether intrinsic differences in resting metabolic rate were apparent during the linear phase of growth in chicks of three species (black-browed, grey-headed and light-mantled sooty albatrosses). There was a gradual increase in absolute, and a reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate from 5.0 W kg(-1) during the earliest part of linear growth, to 3.5 W kg(-1) by the time chicks reached peak mass. These values are considerably higher than in resting adults of comparable or lower mass, presumably reflecting the large size and high metabolic demand of organs involved in rapid nutrient processing and tissue synthesis by chicks. The lack of any detectable inter-specific variation in the pattern of metabolic rate changes casts some doubt on the existence of fundamental differences in growth rate that cannot be attributed simply to differences in dietary energy or nutrient delivery rate.

  2. Egg eviction imposes a recoverable cost of virulence in chicks of a brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chicks of virulent brood parasitic birds eliminate their nestmates and avoid costly competition for foster parental care. Yet, efforts to evict nest contents by the blind and naked common cuckoo Cuculus canorus hatchling are counterintuitive as both adult parasites and large older cuckoo chicks appear to be better suited to tossing the eggs and young of the foster parents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show experimentally that egg tossing imposed a recoverable growth cost of mass gain in common cuckoo chicks during the nestling period in nests of great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus hosts. Growth rates of skeletal traits and morphological variables involved in the solicitation of foster parental care remained similar between evictor and non-evictor chicks throughout development. We also detected no increase in predation rates for evicting nests, suggesting that egg tossing behavior by common cuckoo hatchlings does not increase the conspicuousness of nests. CONCLUSION: The temporary growth cost of egg eviction by common cuckoo hatchlings is the result of constraints imposed by rejecter host adults and competitive nestmates on the timing and mechanism of parasite virulence.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The characteristics of memory for the position of an imprinting object were investigated in junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus). Subjects were exposed individually and continuously to an imprinting object located in one of the two back quadrants of their home cage ('training quadrant'). Posi

  4. Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks to methylmercury (United States)

    Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.


    A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ??g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  5. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stekelenburg-de Vos (Sandra); N.T.C. Ursem (Nicolette); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); A.C. Gittenberger-de Groot (Adriana); R.E. Poelmann (Robert)


    textabstractIn the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical

  6. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo. (United States)

    Stekelenburg-de Vos, Sandra; Ursem, Nicolette T C; Hop, Wim C J; Wladimiroff, Juriy W; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Poelmann, Robert E


    In the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical load of the embryonic myocardium. We investigated the instantaneous effects of clipping the right lateral vitelline vein on hemodynamics in the stage-17 chick embryo. 32 chick embryos HH 17 were subdivided into venous clipped (N=16) and matched control embryos (N=16). Dorsal aortic blood flow velocity was measured with a 20 MHz pulsed Doppler meter. A time series of eight successive measurements per embryo was made starting just before clipping and ending 5h after clipping. Heart rate, peak systolic velocity, time-averaged velocity, peak blood flow, mean blood flow, peak acceleration and stroke volume were determined. All hemodynamic parameters decreased acutely after venous clipping and only three out of seven parameters (heart rate, time-averaged velocity and mean blood flow) showed a recovery to baseline values during the 5h study period. We conclude that the experimental alteration of venous return has major acute effects on hemodynamics in the chick embryo. These effects may be responsible for the observed cardiac malformations after clipping.

  7. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Hauten, B.A.M. van; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van


    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  8. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.


    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  9. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa


    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  10. From high heels to weed attics: a syntactic investigation of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.; Koolen, C.W.; van Cranenburgh, Andreas; de Jong, H.A.


    Stylometric analysis of prose is typically limited to classification tasks such as authorship attribution. Since the models used are typically black boxes, they give little insight into the stylistic diff erences they detect. In this paper, we characterize two prose genres syntactically: chick lit (

  11. Effect of feeding poultry manure treated with antibiotic, bacteriostat, and lime on the performance of chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, V.R.; Rao, P.V.; Reddy, V.R.


    A 4-week experiment was conducted with 5-week-old New Hampshire chicks employing treated and untreated dried poultry manure (DPM) at 15% level in the diet. Treating the fresh manure either with antibiotic, bacteriostat, or lime did not show any beneficial effect over untreated manure. DPM at 15% of the feed showed a nonsignificant beneficial effect on weight gain.

  12. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins. (United States)

    Langhout, D J; Schutte, J B


    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of feeding high-methylated (HM) and low-methylated (LM) pectin on performance and physiological characteristics in broiler chicks. Two levels each (1.5 and 3%) of HM citrus pectin (HMC), LM citrus pectin (LMC), or HM sugar beet pectin (HMS) were added to a semi-purified basal diet. The experiment was conducted in battery brooders, and chicks received the diets as pellets from 6 to 27 d of age. The inclusion of LMC or HMS in the diet had little or no effect on the performance of chicks; however, when HMC was added to the diet growth and feed utilization were reduced significantly (P Waterholding capacity of the diets and the excreta were increased significantly by including one (P 0.05) on the concentration of VFA. In contrast, inclusion of HMS in the diet significantly increased the concentration of VFA in the cecal content (P < 0.05) dose-dependently. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of dietary pectin on chick performance is dependent on the degree of carboxyl groups that is esterified, the origin of the pectin product, and the amount added to the diet.

  13. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to coccidiosis in broiler chicks (United States)

    For this study, threonine (Thr) deficiency was hypothesized to exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdrawal and coccidiosis infection because of its high obligatory requirement of the gut. Two dietary Thr treatments (0.49 and 0.90%) were fed to chicks from 1-21 d of age. At 13 d of a...

  14. Doing What Your Big Sister Does: Sex, Postfeminism and the YA Chick Lit Series (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Toffoletti, Kim; Parsons, Liz


    Mass-marketed teen chick lit has become a publishing phenomenon and has begun to attract critical interest among children's literature scholars. Much of this critical work, however, has shied away from robust critical assessment of the postfeminist conditions informing the production and reception of young adult series like Private, Gossip Girl…

  15. Generation of the Dimensional Embryology Application (App) for Visualization of Early Chick and Frog Embryonic Development (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca L.; Bilitski, James; Zerbee, Alyssa; Symans, Alexandra; Chop, Alexandra; Seitz, Brianne; Tran, Cindy


    The study of embryonic development of multiple organisms, including model organisms such as frogs and chicks, is included in many undergraduate biology programs, as well as in a variety of graduate programs. As our knowledge of biological systems increases and the amount of material to be taught expands, the time spent instructing students about…

  16. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

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    Jennifer C. Rock


    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  17. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard


    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive super

  18. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  19. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works. (United States)

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole


    Chicken eggs in the early phase of breeding are between in vitro and in vivo systems and provide a vascular test environment not only to study angiogenesis but also to study tumorigenesis. After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays. Since the lymphoid system is not fully developed until late stages of incubation, the chick embryo serves as a naturally immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition to nurturing developing allo- and xenografts, the CAM blood vessel network provides a uniquely supportive environment for tumor cell intravasation, dissemination, and vascular arrest and a repository where arrested cells extravasate to form micro metastatic foci. For experimental purposes, in most of the recent studies the CAM was exposed by cutting a window through the egg shell and experiments were carried out in ovo, resulting in significant limitations in the accessibility of the CAM and possibilities for observation and photo documentation of effects. When shell-less cultures of the chick embryo were used(1-4), no experimental details were provided and, if published at all, the survival rates of these cultures were low. We refined the method of ex ovo culture of chick embryos significantly by introducing a rationally controlled extrusion of the egg content. These ex ovo cultures enhance the accessibility of the CAM and chick embryo, enabling easy in vivo documentation of effects and facilitating experimental manipulation of the embryo. This allows the successful application to a large number of scientific questions: (1) As an improved angiogenesis assay(5,6), (2) an experimental set up for facilitated injections in the vitreous of the chick embryo eye(7-9), (3) as a test environment for dissemination and intravasation of dispersed tumor

  20. Immunoreactive cortisone in droppings reflect stress levels, diet and growth rate of gull-billed tern chicks. (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Santiago-Quesada, Francisco; Masero, José A; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Möstl, Erich


    Blood levels of corticosterone have been traditionally analyzed to assess stress levels in birds; however, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in feces and droppings has gained much interest as a noninvasive technique successfully used for such purposed in vertebrates. Diet may affect these fecal metabolite levels (e.g., due to nutritional stress), however, this variable has not been taken into account in studies with chicks despite the great dietary flexibility of many avian species. In this study, we addressed for the first time this key issue and validated the technique in wild gull-billed tern chicks (Gelochelidon nilotica). Several enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the most appropriate test to measure the stress response. Subsequently, we performed an experiment in captivity to assess adrenocortical activity in gull-billed tern chicks fed with two diets: piscivorous vs. insectivorous. Finally, the relation between the chicks' growth rate and excreted immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites (EGMs) was also evaluated. We found the immunoreactive cortisone metabolites to be a good index of stress (as being an index of adrenocortical reactivity) in chicks of this species. Fish-fed chicks had higher levels of cortisone metabolites when comparing both concentration and total daily excreted metabolites. Within each treatment diet, cortisone metabolite levels and growth rates were negatively correlated. These findings suggest that the diet should be considered when using this technique for comparative purposes and highlight the trade-off between stress levels and chicks growth rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens. (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira


    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.

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    Mamiko Koshiba

    Full Text Available Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

  3. Effect of dietary buffer additions on gain, efficiency, duodenal pH, and copper concentration in liver of Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. (United States)

    Fox, M C; Brown, D R; Southern, L L


    Three experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to investigate the effect of dietary additions of NaHCO3(1%), A1(OH)3(.5%), kaolin(1%), A1(OH)2NaCO3(.23%), CaCO3(.37%), and MgO(1%) on gain, efficiency, duodenal pH, and liver Cu concentration of Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. Experimental coccidial infection consistently reduced chick gain, efficiency, and duodenal pH, but it increased liver Cu concentration of chicks fed excess Cu. Sodium bicarbonate addition improved chick gain and efficiency slightly, whereas the MgO addition reduced these performance criteria. Sodium bicarbonate improved gain more in coccidiosis-infected chicks than in uninfected chicks, but it failed to alleviate, to any extent, the coccidiosis-induced liver Cu increase of the duodenal pH decrease.

  4. Short copy number variations potentially associated with tonic immobility responses in newly hatched chicks.

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    Hideaki Abe

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tonic immobility (TI is fear-induced freezing that animals may undergo when confronted by a threat. It is principally observed in prey species as defence mechanisms. In our preliminary research, we detected large inter-individual variations in the frequency and duration of freezing behavior among newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus. In this study we aim to identify the copy number variations (CNVs in the genome of chicks as genetic candidates that underlie the behavioral plasticity to fearful stimuli. METHODS: A total of 110 domestic chicks were used for an association study between TI responses and copy number polymorphisms. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was conducted between chicks with high and low TI scores using an Agilent 4 × 180 custom microarray. We specifically focused on 3 genomic regions (>60 Mb of chromosome 1 where previous quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis showed significant F-values for fearful responses. RESULTS: ACGH successfully detected short CNVs within the regions overlapping 3 QTL peaks. Eleven of these identified loci were validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR as copy number polymorphisms. Although there wkas no significant p value in the correlation analysis between TI scores and the relative copy number within each breed, several CNV loci showed significant differences in the relative copy number between 2 breeds of chicken (White Leghorn and Nagoya which had different quantitative characteristics of fear-induced responses. CONCLUSION: Our data shows the potential CNVs that may be responsible for innate fear response in domestic chicks.

  5. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes. (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom


    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.


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    Shweta P. Alai et al.


    Full Text Available There are various drugs used in daily life. Some of them show hazardous effect on various organs and some of them shows even lethal effect. Such drugs are required to banned. One of them is Etizolam (marketed under the brand name Sedekopan, Pasaden or Depas is a drug which is a thiebenzothiodiazepines analog. The aim of this work is done to compare the effect of administration of the etizolam drug at (Zero-day before incubation and at the (5-day first week of incubation, to get an idea about the extent of the teratogenic effect of this drug on the development of chick embryo. So that morphological and biochemical studies were done on the chick embryo of 8- and 16-days old chick embryos treated with (0.5mg/ml egg of etizolam on the (zero and 5-th days of incubation. Etizolam caused abnormality in concentration dependent manner. Enlarged remains of primitive streak was seen at 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml concentration of Etizolam embryo dies. Etizolam inhibit development of somites of the development of 5-day at of incubation also it does not allow the development of notochord. The toxic effects of the drug was seen also more at 16-days treated chick embryos and the drug induced death of chick embryo at both 8- and 16-days treated with 0.1mg/ml and o.3mg/ml. The conclusion from this study was the etizolam drug has dangerous effects on tissues and with powerful toxicity on the cells, because the drug absorbed rapidly with peak plasma levels achieved between 30 minutes and 2 hours and has a mean elimination half life of about 3 and a half hours.

  7. Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity. (United States)

    Lu, J; Austic, R E


    Two experiments were done to determine the influence of Phe imbalance and excess on Phe-pyruvate aminotransferase (PAT) activity in the chick. Five replicates of 3 chicks (experiment 1) or 2 chicks (experiment 2) of a commercial brown egg layer strain were fed a semipurified diet for 1 wk and then received experimental diets for 10 d. Three diets were used in experiment 1: the basal diet contained 0.46% Phe; the imbalance diet was similar to the basal diet except that it contained a 10% mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to create a Phe imbalance; the imbalance corrected diet was similar to the imbalance diet except that it was supplemented with 1.12% Phe to correct the imbalance. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in experiment 2 provided 3 dietary levels (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) of Phe and either no supplement or 10% supplement of IAA - Phe. Nonfasted chicks were killed and livers were sampled in experiment 1, and livers, kidneys, brains, and pectoralis major muscles were sampled in experiment 2. In experiment 1, liver PAT activity per gram of liver was 80 and 55% higher (P PAT per gram of tissue per minute and per milligram of tissue protein extract per minute than chicks that did not receive IAA - Phe (P PAT activity was detected (P > 0.05). Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity appears to be regulated in response to dietary content of indispensable amino acids but not by the dietary level of Phe.

  8. Polyamines metabolically labeled two cellular proteins in fibroblasts isolated from chick embryos

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    Chen, K.Y.; Dou, Q.P.


    A hypusine-containing protein (Mw=18,000) has been reported to be present in all mammalian cells examined. The formation of the unusual amino acid residue in this 18,000-dalton protein is due to a posttranslational modification of lysine residue by spermidine. To search for an abundant source for the purification of this protein, they have examined possible existence of this protein in chick embryos using metabolical labeling method. Metabolical labeling of chick embryo fibroblasts prepared from the Day 11 embryos by (2,3-TH)putrescine resulted in two prominently labeled protein bands as shown by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The apparent molecular weights of the labeled proteins were 20,000- and 18,000-daltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis indicated that the 20,000-dalton protein had a pI of 5.5 and the 18,000-dalton protein exhibited isoform structures with pI values ranging from 4.6 to 5.1. Peptide map analysis showed that the 18,000-dalton protein from chick embryos was identical to the 18,000-dalton protein isolated from mouse neuroblastoma cells. The purification procedure that they have developed for mouse neuroblastoma 18,000-dalton protein was found to be also applicable in isolating the 18,000-dalton protein from chick embryos. Both the 18,000- and the 20,000-dalton proteins in chick embryos were enriched after Cibacron-Blue column and omega-diaminooctyl-agarose column chromatography.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia


    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  10. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

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    Friday Chima NWORGU


    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  11. Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks. (United States)

    Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y


    This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n = 840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n = 210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000 mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500 mg/kg YE + 500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60 d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW + YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW + YE groups during the 60 d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60 d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE + YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60 d growing period.

  12. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocyst vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidiosis. (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Jenkins, Mark C; Miska, Katarzyna B; Barfield, Ruth C


    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, 1-day-old chicks were immunized with oocysts of Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella exposed to gamma radiation ranging from 0-500 Gy. The litter oocyst counts at 7 days postimmunization, and the effect on weight gain following a challenge infection, decreased with an optimum dose between 150-200 Gy. Based on this finding, broiler chicks were immunized with a mixture of E. maxima, E. acervulina, and E tenella that had been exposed to 150 or 200 Gy. This resulted in more than a 100-fold reduction in litter oocyst counts and significant protection from a challenge infection, as measured by improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Immunization of birds with oocysts receiving 200 Gy was less effective in providing protection from a challenge infection. An additional formulation of vaccines containing two different oocyst doses of the three species that had been irradiated with 150 Gy were evaluated in their ability to attenuate oocyst output and convey protection to challenge. Results were similar with both high and low numbers of irradiated oocysts. Immunized chicks shed less oocysts at 7 days postimmunization and were protected from negative effects of challenge infection as measured by FCR, changes in weight gain, lesion scores, and measurement of body composition. However, the level of protection was somewhat less than that achieved by immunization with nonirradiated oocysts. The overall conclusion is that an irradiated oocyst vaccine developed in this study can effectively protect chicks that are raised on litter from challenge infection with multiple species of Eimeria, comparable to vaccines with virulent or precocious strains.

  13. Prediction of optimal vaccination timing for infectious bursal disease based on chick weight. (United States)

    Vaziry, Asaad; Venne, Daniel; Frenette, Diane; Gingras, Sylvain; Silim, Amer


    Growth rate in broiler birds has increased substantially in the last decade due to improvement in genetics, feed formulation, cleaner environment, and vaccine formulations. As a result, it has become necessary to review and revise prediction method for vaccination in chicks. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of the rate of weight gain rather than age in predicting vaccination time. Two groups of 1-day-old broilers originating from old and young breeders, respectively, and with different levels of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were used in this study. The chicks were divided into four groups and subjected to two feed regiments: groups A1 and B1 were fed broiler feed for normal growth rate, and groups A2 and B2 were fed breeder feed for slower growth rate. At 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 29, and 36 days of age, 22 chicks in each group were weighed, and blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against IBDV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. Maternal antibody decline curves for each group were plotted according to chick age and chick weight. Fast-growing birds in groups A1 and B1 showed a faster rate of antibody decline, whereas slow-growing birds in groups A2 and B2 had a slower rate of antibody decline. Based on the effect of weight gain on maternal antibody decline, a new way of predicting vaccination time for IBDV based on measuring maternal antibody titers at 4 days of age was proposed and tested. The predicted antibody decline was shown to correspond to the real ELISA titers measured in our experiments (R = 0.9889), whereas a lower correlation (R = 0.8355) was detected between real ELISA titers and the titers predicted by the current method using age-based Deventer formula.

  14. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

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    Minka N. Salka


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  15. Site-specific effects on productivity of an upper trophic-level marine predator: Bottom-up, top-down, and mismatch effects on reproduction in a colonial seabird (United States)

    Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Brown, E.D.; Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.


    We investigated the relative roles of bottom-up and top-down factors in limiting productivity of an upper trophic level marine predator. Our primary working hypothesis was that the reproductive success of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) a piscivorous, colonial-nesting seabird, was most limited by the abundance, distribution, and species composition of surface-schooling forage fishes. A secondary working hypothesis was that reproductive loss to kittiwake nest predators was greatest during years of reduced prey availability. We report on a broad-scale, integrated study of kittiwakes and their prey in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Our study spanned five breeding seasons (1995-1999) and focused on three colonies that differed in size (ranging from ca. 220 to ca. 7000 breeding pairs) and proximity to each other (50-135 km apart). Kittiwakes in PWS encountered a variety of aquatic habitats, creating a complex foraging environment for breeding birds. We measured kittiwake reproductive success and foraging activities, while simultaneously measuring the abundance of surface schooling forage fishes throughout the foraging range of breeding kittiwakes. The abundance of primary prey species for kittiwakes (Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus) varied both annually and regionally, with no one region consistently having the greatest abundance of prey. Likewise, kittiwake reproductive success varied considerably among colonies and years. We found that bottom-up, top-down, timing mismatch, and colony-specific effects were all important to kittiwake productivity. Although bottom-up effects appeared to be strongest, they were not evident in some cases until other effects, such as geographic location (proximity of colony to prey concentrations) and top-down predation, were considered. Important bottom-up effects on kittiwake reproductive success were not only total prey abundance and distribution, but also

  16. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks. (United States)

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R


    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the

  17. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks. (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A


    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  18. Temporal distribution of encapsulated bacteriophages during passage through the chick gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Islam, Golam S; Wu, Ying; Sabour, Parviz M; Chambers, James R; Wang, Qi; Wu, Shirley X Y; Griffiths, Mansel W


    Encapsulation of bacteriophages ("phage") protects phage against environmental deactivation and provides a product that is easy to handle for storage and application with animal feed as an antibiotic alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate an orally administered, encapsulated phage for efficient phage release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of young chicks receiving feed. An optimized formulation that consisted of 0.8% low molecular weight (MW) alginate, 2% ultra-low molecular weight alginate and 3% whey protein completely released the encapsulated phage within 60 min under simulated intestinal conditions. This product was given to broiler chicks to determine passage time and distribution of the viable phage within the GIT. Following a single oral dose of 10(9) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/chick, the major portion (peak concentration) of the encapsulated phage passed through the chick's GIT and was detected in the feces within 4 h, with low levels being continuously excreted for up to 24 h. In comparison, the passage of free phage through the GIT occurred faster as indicated by a peak concentration in feces after 1.5 h. In assessing the temporal phage distribution, both encapsulated and free phage treatments showed no apparent difference, both having low levels of 10(2) to 10(6) PFU/g of contents along the entire GIT after 1, 2 and 4 h. These low concentrations recovered in vivo led us to examine various exposure conditions (with feed, fecal material, and buffer solutions) that were suspected to have affected phage viability/infectivity during oral delivery, sample recovery, and enumeration by plaque assay. Results showed that the exposure conditions examined did not significantly reduce phage viability and could not account for the observed low phage levels following oral administration in chicks that are on feed. In conclusion, an oral encapsulated phage dose can take more than 4 h to completely move through the GIT of young chicks. Thus

  19. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Hassan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  20. The Effect of Choice Feeding Based on Threonine on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Male Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of choice feeding based on threonine on performance characteristics and carcass parameters of male broiler chicks. Day old, thirty Ross 308 male chicks were divided into two dietary treatment groups. In the experiment, choice feding did not affect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio. Feed intake and carcass parameters significantly affected by experimental treatments.

  1. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken oxyntomodulin suppresses food intake and increases plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations in chicks. (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi


    Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino acid sequence and peptide length of chicken OXM differ from those of bovine OXM. In the present study, we examined the effect of chicken OXM on food intake and plasma components in chicks to investigate the mechanisms underlying the OXM effect. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone were significantly increased by chicken OXM. These phenomena were also observed after bovine OXM injection in chicks. In contrast, central administration of chicken GLP-1 significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration and did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. We previously showed that central administration of chicken glucagon significantly increased plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone in chicks. All our findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the anorexigenic action of OXM is similar to that of glucagon in chicks.

  2. Reelin inhibits migration of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord of the chick. (United States)

    Yip, Yee Ping; Zhou, Guangdou; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Yip, Joseph W


    The present study examined the effects of Reelin in the migration of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the spinal cord of the chick. SPN in the chick first migrate from the neuroepithelium to the ventrolateral spinal cord. They then undergo a secondary migration to cluster adjacent to the central canal, forming the column of Terni (CT). During secondary migration, abundant Reelin is found in large areas of the ventral spinal cord; the only areas devoid of Reelin are areas occupied by SPN or somatic motor neurons and the pathway along which SPN migrate. Ectopic expression of Reelin in the pathway of SPN through electroporation of full-length Reelin DNA stopped SPN migration toward their destination. The spatiotemporal pattern of Reelin expression, along with the inhibition of SPN migration by exogenous Reelin, suggests that Reelin functions as a barrier to SPN migration during normal development of the spinal cord.

  3. Induced systemic listeriosis in Alectoris chukar chicks: clinical, histopathological and microbiological findings. (United States)

    Tavakkoli, H; Rahmani, M; Ghanbarpoor, R; Kheirandish, R


    1. Systemic listeriosis was induced in 14-d-old Chukar partridge chicks, Alectoris chukar, by intravenous injection of a suspension containing 10(6) cfu/ml of viable Listeria monocytogenes organisms to study the course of infection. 2. Septicaemic and encephalitic forms of listeriosis were observed in all birds. Infection resulted in a fever response 8-h post-inoculation. Disease rapidly developed over a 24-h period with decreased activity, lethargy, ruffled feathers, huddling, listlessness, inability to stand, wing droop, decreased feed and water consumption, growth depression, neural disturbances and finally death. Gross and histopathological changes were observed in the myocardium, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, pancreas, kidney, liver, spleen, lung, meninges and joints. 3. The diversity of these clinical signs and lesions suggests a high susceptibility of Chukar partridge chicks to systemic listeriosis.

  4. Pyridoxine treatment alters embryonic motility in chicks: Implications for the role of proprioception. (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew A; Bekoff, Anne


    Somatosensory feedback is important for the modulation of normal locomotion in adult animals, but we do not have a good understanding of when somatosensory information is first used to modulate motility during embryogenesis or how somatosensation is first used to regulate motor output. We used pyridoxine administration (vitamin B6 ), which is known to mostly kill proprioceptive neurons in adult mammals and embryonic chicks, to explore the role of proprioceptive feedback during early embryonic motility in the chick. Injection of pyridoxine on embryonic day 7 (E7) and E8 reduced the amplitude of leg movements recorded on E9 and the number of large, healthy neurons in the ventral-lateral portion of the DRGs. We conclude that proprioception is initially used during embryogenesis to modulate the strength of motor output, but that it is not incorporated into other aspects of pattern generation until later in development as poly-synaptic pathways develop.

  5. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue


    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... from domestic breeds. Using the Red Jungle Fowl genome sequence as a reference, we identified 3.1 million non-redundant DNA sequence variants. To facilitate the application of our data to avian genetics and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies, we created the 'Chicken...... Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information...

  6. Effects of polysaccharide on chicks co-infected with Bordetella avium and Avian leukosis virus. (United States)

    Guo, Fanxia; Xue, Cong; Wu, Cun; Zhao, Xue; Qu, Tinghe; He, Xiaohua; Guo, Zhongkun; Zhu, Ruiliang


    Chicks' co-infection with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria seriously threaten the development of the poultry industry. In this study, a model was established in which chicks were injected with either subgroup B ALV (ALV-B)+Bordetella avium (B. avium), or ALV-B+B. avium+Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), or B. avium only, or B. avium+TPPPS. The data showed that the group injected with ALV-B and B. avium exhibited significant inhibition of the immune function and therefore increased pathogenicity compared with the group injected with B. avium-only. Application of TPPPS effectively alleviated immunosuppression, and body weights increased sharply in the TPPPS groups compared with non-TPPPS groups. To some extent, TPPPS may reduce the proliferation of ALV-B. These results suggest that Pinus pollen polysaccharides are beneficial treating co-infections with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria and therefore have potential for development into safe and effective immunoregulator.

  7. Evidence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the retinal centrifugal system of the chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calaza K.C.


    Full Text Available In this study we characterize the presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR in the isthmo-optic nucleus (ION of chicks by immunohistochemistry with the M35 antibody. Some M35-immunoreactive fibers were observed emerging from the retinal optic nerve insertion, suggesting that they could be centrifugal fibers. Indeed, intraocular injections of cholera toxin B (CTb, a retrograde tracer, and double-labeling with M35 and CTb in the ION confirmed this hypothesis. The presence of M35-immunoreactive cells and the possible mAChR expression in ION and ectopic neuron cells in the chick brain strongly suggest the existence of such a cholinergic system in this nucleus and that acetylcholine release from amacrine cells may mediate interactions between retinal cells and ION terminals.

  8. Eradication of Salmonella Typhimurium in broiler chicks by combined use of P22 bacteriophage and probiotic

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    Guilherme Augusto Marietto Gonçalves


    Full Text Available It has been reported that the phage therapy is effective in controlling the number of colony-forming unit (CFU of Salmonella spp. in chicken gut. This paper describes the protective effect of phage and Lactobacilli administration on Salmonella infection in 1-day-old chicks. We administered the bacteriophage P22 in a single dose and a probiotic mixture of four species of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus once a day for one week. Samples were analyzed every 48 hours, and intestinal eradication of S. Typhimurium was confirmed after treatments. We observed an increase in the size of duodenal villi and cecal crypts, as well as an increase in body weight in groups that received daily doses of Lactobacilli. This study confirms the efficiency of bacteriophage therapy in controlling salmonellosis in chicks and the beneficial effect of Lactobacilli mixtures in the weight gain of the birds.

  9. Passive avoidance training enhances cell proliferation in 1-day-old chicks. (United States)

    Dermon, C R; Zikopoulos, B; Panagis, L; Harrison, E; Lancashire, C L; Mileusnic, R; Stewart, M G


    One-day-old domestic chicks were injected i.p. with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) before training on a one-trial passive avoidance task where the aversive experience was a bead coated with a bitter tasting substance, methyl anthranilate (MeA). Animals were tested 24 h later; those avoiding (if MeA-trained) or pecking if water (W)-trained (which they peck appetitively), along with a group of untrained naïve chicks, were used to determine cell proliferation either 24 h or 9 days post BrdU injection. In all three groups, BrdU positive cells were identified sparsely throughout the forebrain but labelling was pronounced around ventricular zone (VZ) surfaces at both 24 h and 9 days post-BrdU-injection. Double immunolabelling with neuronal specific antibodies, to either NeuN, or beta-tubulin III, confirmed that most BrdU labelled cells appeared to be neurons. Unbiased stereological analysis of labelled cells in selected forebrain areas 24 h post BrdU injection showed a significant MeA-training induced increase in labelled cells in both the dorsal VZ surface bordering the intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) and the tuberculum olfactorium (TO). By 9 days post-BrdU-injection, there was a significantly greater number of BrdU labelled cells in MeA-trained birds within the IMHV, lobus parolfactorius (LPO) and TO. These results demonstrate that avoidance training in 1-day-old chicks has a marked effect on cell proliferation, in the LPO and IMHV, regions of the chick previously identified as a key loci of memory formation, and in a second region (TO), which has olfactory functions, but has not been previously investigated in relation to avoidance learning.

  10. Gene transfer to chicks using lentiviral vectors administered via the embryonic chorioallantoic membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Hen

    Full Text Available The lack of affordable techniques for gene transfer in birds has inhibited the advancement of molecular studies in avian species. Here we demonstrate a new approach for introducing genes into chicken somatic tissues by administration of a lentiviral vector, derived from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, into the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chick embryos on embryonic day 11. The FIV-derived vectors carried yellow fluorescent protein (YFP or recombinant alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH genes, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Transgene expression, detected in chicks 2 days after hatch by quantitative real-time PCR, was mostly observed in the liver and spleen. Lower expression levels were also detected in the brain, kidney, heart and breast muscle. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses confirmed transgene expression in chick tissues at the protein level, demonstrating a transduction efficiency of ∼0.46% of liver cells. Integration of the viral vector into the chicken genome was demonstrated using genomic repetitive (CR1-PCR amplification. Viability and stability of the transduced cells was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, immunostaining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA, and detection of transgene expression 51 days post transduction. Our approach led to only 9% drop in hatching efficiency compared to non-injected embryos, and all of the hatched chicks expressed the transgenes. We suggest that the transduction efficiency of FIV vectors combined with the accessibility of the CAM vasculature as a delivery route comprise a new powerful and practical approach for gene delivery into somatic tissues of chickens. Most relevant is the efficient transduction of the liver, which specializes in the production and secretion of proteins, thereby providing an optimal target for prolonged study of secreted hormones and peptides.

  11. Effects of magnesium and high dietary intakes of pyridoxine on the chick. (United States)

    Rogerson, G; Singsen, E P


    Day-old broiler-type male chicks were used to determine what effects magnesium and high dietary pyridoxine had on the chick's performance. The chicks were randomly assigned to 15 treatments of magnesium at 875, 1375 and 1875 mg/kg. diet and pyridoxine at 1, 4, 31, 301, and 3001 mg/kg. diet in a 3 x 5 factorial block design. A regression was used to study some of the criteria. The highest mortality of 20% occurred in chicks on the 1875 mg. magnesium-3001 mg. pyridoxine treatment. Magnesium and pyridoxine had highly significant effects on body moisture. Effects due to magnesium and pyridoxine and the interaction between the two were highly significant for weight gain and the efficiency of feed utilization (E.F.U.) At 1875 mg. magnesium/kg diet, maximum growth response and E.F.U. were predicted to occur on 10 and 39 mg pyridoxine/kg diet, respectively, Neither magnesium nor the interaction between magnesium and pyridoxine had any significant effect on carcass protein. Pyridoxine had a highly significant effect on carcass protein. Maximum response in carcass protein occurred at 31 mg. pyridoxine/kg diet irrespective of magnesium level. Serum aminotransferase activity (S.A) was significant for magnesium, pyridoxine and the interaction between the two. Pyridoxine requirement for maximum S.A. was 49 mg/kg diet at 1875 mg magnesium/kg diet. Pyridoxine requirement for maximum response was highest for S.A. and least for growth. But S.A. had the highest R2 whereas growth had the least.

  12. Energy and Protein Requirements for - to -Week-Age Gushi Chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiang-tao; TIAN Ya-dong; SONG Su-fang


    In this experiment, 540 male and female chicks of 1-day-age were selected respectively and reared separately. 3 × 3 factorial experiment was designed. Gushi chicks were fed with nine diets under different metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP). Effects of different diets on the performances and carcass ingredients of 0-to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were studied by rearing, comparative slaughter and metabolism experiments. Based on the results of three experiments, ME intake per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as dependent variable (Y), and its corresponding net energy (NE) deposition per kilogram metabolic weight was regarded as independent variable (X), respectively. Lineal regressive analysis was made according to the mathematic model: Y=a+bX. Maintenance ME(MEm) and the converted coefficient from net energy for gain(NEg) to ME for gain(MEg) were found out, then ME requirement was divided into MErm+ MEg,which is ME = 359.14 W0.75 + 10.47/△W; CP intake and corresponding metabolic weight were regarded as dependent variable and independent variable respectively, and then regressive analysis was made. The result was CP = 0. 57 + 8.21 W0.75. Consequently, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake and metabolic weight were put into the regressive equations, and then ME and CP requirements for 0- to 4-week-age Gushi chicks were obtained, 12.38 MJ kg-1 and 20.13%, respectively, the ratio of CP to ME was 16.26 g MJ-1.

  13. A receptor that is highly specific for extracellular ATP in developing chick skeletal muscle in vitro.


    Thomas, S A; Zawisa, M. J.; X. Lin; Hume, R. I.


    1. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activated an early excitatory conductance followed by a late potassium conductance in developing chick skeletal muscle. A series of ATP analogues were tested for their ability to activate these two conductances. All compounds tested were either agonists for both responses or for neither. Furthermore, the potency of agonists was similar for the two responses. 2. The order of potency for agonists was ATP approximately adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotripho...

  14. Task- and Time-Dependent Memory Enhancement by Dehydroepiandosterone in Day-Old Chicks


    Johnston, A. N. B.; Migues, P. V.


    We have previously reported the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) in the dayold- chick brain, and a role for it in enhanced memory formation. Here we confirm that intracerebral injections of DHEA 5 min before training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 hours after training. Recall per se on an appetitive visual categorization task was not altered by administration of DHEA 5 min before training. However administration of DHEA 5 min before limited or very limited train...

  15. Exposure to Excess Phenobarbital Negatively Influences the Osteogenesis of Chick Embryos


    Yu Yan; Xin Cheng; Ren-hao Yang; He Li; Jian-long Chen; Zheng-lai Ma; Guang Wang; Manli Chuai; Xuesong Yang


    Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phe...

  16. Influence of rapeseed meal on productivity and health of broiler chicks. (United States)

    Janjecić, Z; Grbesa, D; Muzic, S; Curić, S; Rupić, V; Liker, B; Dikić, Marija; Antunović, B; Zupanić, D


    Research was focussed on investigating the influence of different quantities (0, 10, 20 and 30%) of rapeseed meal (RM), 00-cultivar Silvia on production results, as well as on the morphological and pathohistological changes in the internal organs of chicks during the course of the experiment, measured on the 21st and 42nd days of the 42-day experiment. The experiment involved 120 chicks divided into four groups: a control group (C) and three experimental groups (E1-3). It was found that chicks in Groups C, E1 and E2 realised significantly (P days, but following the finisher diet Group E3 had a significantly (P < 0.05) lighter gizzard. Compared with birds in Group C, those in Groups E2-3 had significantly heavier (P < 0.05) unevacuated intestines when fed the starter diet, and those in Groups E1-2 showed a similar result when fed the finisher diet. Chicks in Group E3 had a significantly lower grill weight than those in Groups C, E1 and E2, both in the first half of the experiment and at the end. The starter diet did not result in any differences in the quantity of abdominal fat among groups, but following the finisher diet Groups E2-3 showed significantly less abdominal fat in comparison to Groups C and E1 (P < 0.05). Group C showed a significantly higher carcass yield than Groups E1-3 (P < 0.05) in the first half of the experiment and at the end. Groups E1-3 manifested a slight to medium hypertrophy of thyroid epithelial tissue as well as slight thymus hypertrophy and slight atrophy of the cloacal bursa follicles.

  17. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys (United States)

    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  18. The Teratogenic Effects of Antiepileptic Drug, Topiramate, on the Development of Chick Embryos

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    Jantima Roongruangchai


    Full Text Available Background: Anti-epileptic drugs are known to be the risk of teratogenicity. Topiramate (TPM is a new kind of such drug, for which no research has confirmed the incidence of producing congenital abnormalities. Objective: This study was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of TPM by using chick embryos as an animal model and the results can be compared to the human embryo of the same stage. Methods: Fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were injected in ovo with two concentrations of TPM, which were 10mg, and 20mg, in NSS at a volume of 0.1 ml into the yolk sac at 21 hrs of incubation and repeated injections at 72 hrs at a volume of 0.05 ml. The chick embryos on day 3, 6 and 11 of incubation were sacrificed and all living embryos were processed for total mount and serial section. Results: The mortality rate increased corresponding to the concentrations of TPM, and the embryonic stage. The total mount of day 3 showed major abnormalities of the eye and heart, such as microphthalmia and looser of heart looping. The serial section of day 3 showed opening of the anterior neuropore, ectopia viscerae and multiple malformations of the eye and heart. Day 6 chick embryos showed ectopia cordis and ectopia viscerae. Moreover, there were retardation and abnormalities of several organs such as eye, heart, liver, mesonephros and gonads. Day 11 chick embryos showed ectopia viscerae and several growth retardations, retardation of ossification of both limb bones and skull bones. Conclusion: This study showed that TPM might cause embryonic death, growth retardation and abnormalities of the eye, heart, an opening of the anterior neuropore and ectopia viscerae. This might indicate abnormalities to the baby born from mother with gestational epilepsy who was taking this drug continuously, and it might lead to spontaneous abortion or congenital anomalies of the fetus.

  19. Gastrointestinal absorption of lead in chicks: involvement of the cholecalciferol endocrine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, S.; Fullmer, C.S.; Wasserman, R.H.


    The role of dietary calcium and phosphorus in modifying the intestinal absorption of lead and also the effect of lead ingestion on the metabolism of cholecalciferol were studied in chicks. The efficiency of absorption of /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca was increased when the animals were fed a low calcium diet and treated with cholecalciferol. The synthesis of the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP) was correspondingly increased. When the chicks were depleted of vitamin D and repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) as their only source of the vitamin, the absorption of both /sup 47/Ca and /sup 203/Pb was unaffected by dietary calcium levels, and no change in CaBP levels occurred. Low dietary intake of phosphorus resulted in an increase in /sup 47/Ca and /sup 203/Pb absorption and in CaBP synthesis when the animals were treated with cholecalciferol. However, when the birds were repleted with 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, the intestinal absorption of /sup 47/Ca and of /sup 203/Pb was increased, as well as the intestinal CaBP levels. Intracardial injection of increasing doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ to rachitic chicks resulted in a concomitant increase in /sup 203/Pb absorption in a manner that correlated with the degree of synthesis of CaBP. Ingestion of lead by the chicks was found to impair growth and renal production of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, resulting in lowered circulating and intestinal content of the hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol.

  20. Automatic system for 3D reconstruction of the chick eye based on digital photographs. (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Genest, Reno; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Choh, Vivian; Irving, Elizabeth L


    The geometry of anatomical specimens is very complex and accurate 3D reconstruction is important for morphological studies, finite element analysis (FEA) and rapid prototyping. Although magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and laser scanners can be used for reconstructing biological structures, the cost of the equipment is fairly high and specialised technicians are required to operate the equipment, making such approaches limiting in terms of accessibility. In this paper, a novel automatic system for 3D surface reconstruction of the chick eye from digital photographs of a serially sectioned specimen is presented as a potential cost-effective and practical alternative. The system is designed to allow for automatic detection of the external surface of the chick eye. Automatic alignment of the photographs is performed using a combination of coloured markers and an algorithm based on complex phase order likelihood that is robust to noise and illumination variations. Automatic segmentation of the external boundaries of the eye from the aligned photographs is performed using a novel level-set segmentation approach based on a complex phase order energy functional. The extracted boundaries are sampled to construct a 3D point cloud, and a combination of Delaunay triangulation and subdivision surfaces is employed to construct the final triangular mesh. Experimental results using digital photographs of the chick eye show that the proposed system is capable of producing accurate 3D reconstructions of the external surface of the eye. The 3D model geometry is similar to a real chick eye and could be used for morphological studies and FEA.

  1. Vaccination of one-day-old broiler chicks against infectious coryza. (United States)

    Conde, Maximiliano Daniel; Huberman, Yosef Daniel; Espinoza, Alfredo Mendoza; Delgado, Rosa Inés; Terzolo, Horacio Raúl


    In order to evaluate the protection conferred by an experimental inactivated vaccine against infectious coryza, three challenge trials were undertaken using 112 1-day-old broilers. The vaccine "Hepa Inmuno NC" included bacterial antigens of Avibacterium paragallinarum (serogroups A, B, variant B, and C) as well as antigens of Newcastle virus and hepatitis virus. Fifty-six broiler chicks were vaccinated at the first day of life at the hatchery while another 56 chicks were left unvaccinated. Three infection trials were conducted simultaneously using each of the three serogroups A, B, or C of Av. paragallinarum. In each trial, 17 vaccinated and 17 unvaccinated broilers were used. Challenge was performed at day 31 of life by injection, into the left infraorbital sinus, of approximately 1 x 10(5) colony forming units of the corresponding Av. paragallinarum strain. Clinical signs were recorded on day 2 postchallenge. All broilers were euthanatized and both infraorbital sinuses were bacteriologically examined for the presence of Av. paragallinarum on day 5 postchallenge. In comparison with the unvaccinated broilers, the vaccine significantly reduced the number of broilers with clinical signs after challenge with serogroup B, and significantly fewer vaccinated broilers were positive for the presence of Av. paragallinarum after challenge with serogroup C. On the other hand, no significant protection was observed when broilers were challenged with Av. paragallinarum from serogroup A. Despite the high infection rates in vaccinated chicks after an experimental infection with Av. paragallinarum, it was possible to reduce colonization of Av. paragallinarum (serogroup B) and clinical signs (serogroup C) in broiler chicks by vaccination at the first day of life. Further cross-protection trials should be done, including other Av. paragallinarum strains in the vaccine, especially those from serogroup A.

  2. Synthesis of type III collagen by fibroblasts from the embryonic chick cornea



    Synthesis of collagen types I, II, III, and IV in cells from the embryonic chick cornea was studied using specific antibodies and immunofluorescence. Synthesis of radioactively labeled collagen types I and III was followed by fluorographic detection of cyanogen bromide peptides on polyacrylamide slab gels and by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography followed by disc gel electrophoresis. Type III collagen had been detected previously by indirect immunofluorescence in the corneal epithelial cel...

  3. The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites

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    McGrew Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Results Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of somitogenesis, when it slows down. When the chick embryo reaches its final number of somites at stage HH 24-25 there is still some remaining unsegmented PSM in which expression of components of the somitogenesis oscillator is no longer dynamic. Finally, we identify a change in expression of retinoic acid regulating factors in the tail bud at late stages of somitogenesis, such that in the chick embryo there is a pronounced onset of Raldh2 expression while in the mouse embryo the expression of the RA inhibitor Cyp26A1 is downregulated. Conclusions Our results show that the chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. In addition, endogenous retinoic acid is probably also involved in the termination of the process of segmentation, and in tail growth in general.

  4. Experimental Coinfection of Chicken Anemia Virus and Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Strains in Broiler Chicks

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    CF Prezotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at determining the clinical and pathological effects of the coinfection of young SPF chickens with chicken anemia virus (CAV and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG vaccine strains. The clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions were determined after the experimental coinfection broilers with a CAV genotype 1 vaccine strain given intraperitoneally on the first day of age and a MG F-strain vaccine given intranasally on the 8th day of age. The experimental groups included the negative control (group 1, a group infected with the MG F-strain vaccine (group 2, and a group coinfected with CAV and MG vaccines (group 3. Chicks were examined clinically and post mortem at 23 days of age, and gross and microscopic lesions of the trachea, thymus, and air sacs were compared among treatments (Kruskal-Wallis test. Infections were confirmed by PCR for specific genetic fragments of each agent in the target tissues. Mortality was only observed in chicks on group 3, with two deaths and more severe lesions in the trachea, thymus and air sacs compared with groups 1 and 2 (p< 0.01. Dead chicks presented reduced thymus and spleen size, hemorrhagic trachea with catarrhal exudate and partial obstruction, pericarditis, catarrhal airsacculitis, lungs with liquid and ascites. The surviving chicks in group 3 showed more severe respiratory changes than those in group 2, in addition to thymus and spleen size reduction. Results indicate the adverse effects of the coinfection of young chickens with MG F-strain and CAV genotype 1 vaccines.

  5. Developmental changes of Insulin-like growth factors in the liver and muscle of chick embryos. (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Guo, Wei; Pu, Zhenyu; Li, Xueyuan; Lei, Xinyu; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun


    The insulin-like growth factors ( IGFS: ) are synthesized in tissues and play an important role in embryonic development of avian via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. In the study, mRNA expression of IGFs were detected by real-time PCR in the muscle and liver from d 10 to 20 of chick embryo ( E10: to E20: ). Methylation of IGF1 promoter in the muscle was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR as well as IGF2 promoter in the liver. These results showed that there was obviously IGF1 expression in liver at E19 and E20. The higher IGF1 expression in muscle was found during E15 to E18 with the peak on E17, and then declined. Correspondingly, the lowest methylation level of IGF1 promoter was detectable on the same embryonic d 17. Expression of IGF2 in muscle increased gradually during embryonic growth and showed higher level in the later stages (E17 to E20) when IGF1 expression began to decrease. IGF2 expression in liver reached the first peak on E14, then declined but gradually elevated from E17. IGF2 promoter methylation in liver showed gradual decline on d 12, 15, 17 and 19 of incubation, meanwhile IGF2 expression of liver increased gradually. These results suggested that IGF1 and IGF2 might separately be more important for muscle and liver growth in chick embryonic development. Variation of IGFs expression during the incubation might be concerned with the methylation of gene promoter. The profile of IGFs expression in chick embryonic tissues may be meaningful for understanding organ growth and embryonic development in chick. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae)


    Anna V Klenova


    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous sp...

  7. Tissue distribution of cells derived from the area opaca in heterospecific quail-chick blastodermal chimeras. (United States)

    Karagenç, Levent; Sandikci, Mustafa


    The objective of the current study was to determine the tissue distribution of cells derived from the area opaca in heterospecific quail-chick blastodermal chimeras. Quail-chick chimeras were constructed by transferring dissociated cells from the area opaca of the stage X-XII (EG&K) quail embryo into the subgerminal cavity of the unincubated chick blastoderm. The distribution of quail cells in embryonic as well as extra-embryonic tissues of the recipient embryo were examined using the QCPN monoclonal antibody after 6 days of incubation in serial sections taken at 100-mum intervals. Data gathered in the present study demonstrated that, when introduced into the subgerminal cavity of a recipient embryo, cells of the area opaca are able to populate not only extra-embryonic structures such as the amnion and the yolk sac, but also various embryonic tissues derived from the ectoderm and less frequently the mesoderm. Ectodermal chimerism was confined mainly to the head region and was observed in tissues derived from the neural ectoderm and the surface ectoderm, including the optic cup, diencephalon and lens. Although the possibility of random incorporation of transplanted cells into these embryonic structures cannot be excluded, these results would suggest that area opaca, a peripheral ring of cells in the avian embryo destined to form the extra-embryonic ectoderm and endoderm of the yolk sac, might harbor cells that have the potential to give rise to various cell types in the recipient chick embryo, including those derived from the surface ectoderm and neural ectoderm.

  8. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

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    Imna Trigueros V


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline transesterification. Data was statistically analyzed by a completely random procedure and the measurements were compared with the Tukey test(p≤0.05. Results. The greatest weight gain, consumption and best feed conversion were found in the treatment that contains 1% neem seed flour. It also produced the increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (C18:2 Omega-6 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega-3, and the proportion of palmitic acid (C16:0. The consumption of feed diminished when 5% of neem flour was added. Conclusions. It was demonstrated that incorporating 1% neem seed flour in the diet of broiler chicks modifies the consumption of fatty acids without harming its productive behavior.

  9. Development of the chick microbiome: How early exposure influences future microbial diversity

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    Anne L Ballou


    Full Text Available The concept of improving animal health through improved gut health has existed in food animal production for decades; however, only recently have we had the tools to identify microbes in the intestine associated with improved performance. Currently, little is known about how the avian microbiome develops or the factors that affect its composition. To begin to address this knowledge gap, the present study assessed the development of the cecal microbiome in chicks from hatch to 28 days of age with and without a live Salmonella vaccine and/or probiotic supplement; both are products intended to promote gut health. The microbiome of growing chicks develops rapidly from days 1-3, and the microbiome is primarily Enterobacteriaceae, but Firmicutes increase in abundance and taxonomic diversity starting around day 7. As the microbiome continues to develop, the influence of the treatments becomes stronger. Predicted metagenomic content suggests that functionally, treatment may stimulate more differences at day 14, despite the strong taxonomic differences at day 28. These results demonstrate that these live microbial treatments do impact the development of the bacterial taxa found in the growing chicks; however, additional experiments are needed to understand the biochemical and functional consequences of these alterations.

  10. β-Catenin inactivation is a pre-requisite for chick retina regeneration.

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    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available In the present study we explored the role of β-catenin in mediating chick retina regeneration. The chick can regenerate its retina by activating stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin (CM of the eye or via transdifferentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE. Both modes require fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2. We observed, by immunohistochemistry, dynamic changes of nuclear β-catenin in the CM and RPE after injury (retinectomy. β-Catenin nuclear accumulation was transiently lost in cells of the CM in response to injury alone, while the loss of nuclear β-catenin was maintained as long as FGF2 was present. However, nuclear β-catenin positive cells remained in the RPE in response to injury and were BrdU-/p27+, suggesting that nuclear β-catenin prevents those cells from entering the cell cycle. If FGF2 is present, the RPE undergoes dedifferentiation and proliferation concomitant with loss of nuclear β-catenin. Moreover, retinectomy followed by disruption of active β-catenin by using a signaling inhibitor (XAV939 or over-expressing a dominant negative form of Lef-1 induces regeneration from both the CM and RPE in the absence of FGF2. Our results imply that β-catenin protects cells of the CM and RPE from entering the cell cycle in the developing eye, and specifically for the RPE during injury. Thus inactivation of β-catenin is a pre-requisite for chick retina regeneration.

  11. Expression analysis of Shh signaling members in early stages of chick lung development. (United States)

    Moura, Rute Silva; Silva-Gonçalves, Carla; Vaz-Cunha, Patrícia; Correia-Pinto, Jorge


    Lung organogenesis is guided by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that coordinate cellular events responsible for the formation of the respiratory system. Several signaling pathways have been implicated in this process; among them, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has emerged as a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Canonical Shh signaling requires the presence of patched (Ptch) and smoothened (Smo) transmembrane receptors in order to induce the activation of glioblastoma (Gli) zinc finger transcription factors that are the true effectors of the pathway. Signal transduction is finely regulated by Ptch1, Gli, and Hhip (hedgehog-interacting protein). The present work characterizes, for the first time, the expression pattern of shh, ptch1, smo, gli1, and hhip in early stages of the embryonic chick lung. In situ hybridization studies revealed that these genes are expressed in the same cellular compartments as their mammalian counterparts, although their proximo-distal distribution is slightly changed. Moreover, the molecular interactions between fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Shh signaling pathway were assessed, in vitro, by grafting beads soaked in SU5402 (an FGF receptor inhibitor). In the chick lung, Shh signaling seems to have some features that are species specific since shh is not a downstream target of FGF signaling. Nonetheless and despite the observed differences, these findings suggest a role for Shh signaling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that control chick lung morphogenesis.

  12. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo (United States)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei


    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  13. Growth Retardation Of Chick Embryo Exposed To A Low Dose Of Electromagnetic Waves. (United States)

    Siddiqi, Najam; John C, Muthusami; Norrish, Mark; Heming, Thomas


    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the nonionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100% safe.

  14. Gene expression profile in cerebrum in the filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Katagiri, Sachiko; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Takano, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J


    In newly hatched chicks, gene expression in the brain has previously been shown to be up-regulated following filial imprinting. By applying cDNA microarrays containing 13,007 expressed sequence tags, we examined the comprehensive gene expression profiling of the intermediate medial mesopallium in the chick cerebrum, which has been shown to play a key role in filial imprinting. We found 52 up-regulated genes and 6 down-regulated genes of at least 2.0-fold changes 3h after the training of filial imprinting, compared to the gene expression of the dark-reared chick brain. The up-regulated genes are known to be involved in a variety of pathways, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, nuclear function, cell metabolism, RNA binding, endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi function, synaptic function, ion channel, and transporter. In contrast, fewer genes were down-regulated in the imprinting, coinciding with the previous data that the total RNA synthesis increased associated with filial imprinting. Our data suggests that the filial imprinting involves the modulation of multiple signaling pathways.

  15. T-maze performance after developmental exposure to 19F tagged 5-HTP in chicks. (United States)

    Dingman, Sherry; Nash, Laurie; Hogan, Jeremy; Branch, Craig


    Chicks were used as a model to investigate behavioral effects of administering a new compound intended for use with magnetic resonance. The compound has multiple 19F atom tags covalently bonded to the indole ring of 5-hydroxytryptophan (PF-5HTP), the immediate precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. On incubation Day 17, 5 microg of PF-5-HTP, an equivalent amount of 5-HTP, or just 200 microL of the weak phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle was injected into the airsac of each egg. Three days after hatching, chicks were isolated at the top of a simple T-Maze which, when traversed correctly, enabled them to return to their brood mates. A second trial in the T-Maze was conducted about three hours later. The brief period of isolation at the start of a trial causes social distress in chicks who are reinforced by returning to the brood. The task was selected as being sensitive to functioning of the serotonin pathways whose development might be altered by administering the compound during brain development. Repeated-measures analysis of variance yielded a statistically significant main effect for trial within groups, but no significant difference between injection groups. Administering a low dose of the fluorine tagged compound during development did not impair performance on this T-maze task.

  16. Quantitative analysis of nerve growth factor in the amniotic fluid during chick embryonic development. (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Dianati, Elham; Moghadam, Lotfali Masomi


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and most neurotrophic factors support the proliferation and survival of particular types of neurons. Besidesthe pivotal role of NGF in the development of neuronal cells, it also has important functions on non-neuronal cells. The amnion surrounds the embryo, providing an aqueous environment for the embryo. A wide range of proteins has been identified in human amniotic fluid (AF). In this study, total protein concentration (TPC) and NGF level in AF samples from chick embryos were measured using a Bio-Rad protein assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. TPC increased from days E10 to day E18. There was a rapid increase in AF TPC on day E15 when compared to day E16. No significant changes in NGF levels have been seen from day E10 to day E14. There was a rapid increase in NGF content on days E15 and E16, and thereafter the levels decreased from day E16 to day E18. Since, NGF is important in brain development and changes in AF NGF levels have been seen in some CNS malformations, changes in the TPC and NGF levels in AF during chick embryonic development may be correlated with cerebral cortical development. It is also concluded that NGF is a constant component of the AF during chick embryogenesis.

  17. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J triggers caspase-1-mediated inflammatory response in chick livers. (United States)

    Liu, Xue-lan; Shan, Wen-jie; Jia, Li-juan; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Jin-jing; Wu, Ya-rong; Xu, Fa-zhi; Li, Jin-nian


    Many pathogens trigger caspase-1-mediated innate immune responses. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious immunosuppression and diverse tumors in chicks. The caspase-1 inflammasome mechanism of response to ALV-J invading remains unclear. Here we investigated the expression of caspase-1, the inflammasome adaptor NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in response to ALV-J infection in the liver of chick. We found caspase-1 mRNA expression was elevated at 5 dpi and peaked at 7 dpi in ALV-J infected animals. Corresponding to this, the expressions of NLRP3 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly increased at 5 or 7 dpi. In addition, caspase-1 protein expression and inflammatory cell infiltration were induced after virus infection. These results indicated that ALV-J infection could trigger the caspase-1- mediated inflammatory response in chicks. Thus, an understanding of the inflammatory responses can provide a better insight into the pathogenicity of ALV-J and a possible anti-virus target for ALV-J infection.

  18. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development. (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong


    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  19. From the Cover: Exposing Imidacloprid Interferes With Neurogenesis Through Impacting on Chick Neural Tube Cell Survival. (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Zhong, Shan; Qi, Guo-Long; Wang, Chao-Jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong


    As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control insects in agriculture and fleas on domestic animals. However, it is not known whether imidacloprid exposure negatively affects neurogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, using a chick embryo model, we investigated the effects of imidacloprid exposure on neurogenesis at the earliest stage and during late-stage embryo development. Exposing HH0 chick embryos to imidacloprid in EC culture caused neural tube defects (NTDs) and neuronal differentiation dysplasia as determined by NF/Tuj1 labeling. Furthermore, we found that F-actin accumulation on the apical side of the neural tube was suppressed by exposure to imidacloprid, and the expression of BMP4 and Shh on the dorsal and ventral sides of the neural tubes, respectively, were also reduced, which in turn affects the dorsolateral hinge points during bending of the neural plate. In addition, exposure to imidacloprid reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, as determined by pHIS3 labeling and TUNEL staining, respectively, also contributing to the malformation. We obtained similar results in late-stage embryos exposed to imidacloprid. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was employed to determine which genes identified in this study were involved in NTDs. The experimental evidence and bioinformatics analysis suggested that imidacloprid exposure during chick embryo development could increase the risk of NTDs and neural dysplasia.

  20. Identification, classification, and growth of moa chicks (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from the genus Euryapteryx. (United States)

    Huynen, Leon; Gill, Brian J; Doyle, Anthony; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M


    The analysis of growth in extinct organisms is difficult. The general lack of skeletal material from a range of developmental states precludes determination of growth characteristics. For New Zealand's extinct moa we have available to us a selection of rare femora at different developmental stages that have allowed a preliminary determination of the early growth of this giant flightless bird. We use a combination of femora morphometrics, ancient DNA, and isotope analysis to provide information on the identification, classification, and growth of extinct moa from the genus Euryapteryx. Using ancient DNA, we identify a number of moa chick bones for the species Euryapteryx curtus, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and Anomalopteryx didiformis, and the first chick bone for Pachyornis geranoides. Isotope analysis shows that ∂15N levels vary between the two known size classes of Euryapteryx, with the larger size class having reduced levels of ∂15N. A growth series for femora of the two size classes of Euryapteryx shows that early femora growth characteristics for both classes are almost identical. Morphometric, isotopic, and radiographic analysis of the smallest Euryapteryx bones suggests that one of these femora is from a freshly hatched moa at a very early stage of development. Using morphometric, isotopic, and ancient DNA analyses have allowed the determination of a number of characteristics of rare moa chick femora. For Euryapteryx the analyses suggest that the smaller sized class II Euryapteryx is identical in size and growth to the extant Darwin's rhea.

  1. Maternal Antibody Protected Chicks from Growth Retardation and Immunosuppression Induced by Early Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-hong; GUI Zhi-zhong; QU Li-xin


    To determine if the maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with cell culture-adapted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) could protect chicks from early REV infection, one-day-old chicks with or without anti-REV maternal antibodies were inoculated with REV, and then their growth rates and antibody tilers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, were compared. This study indicated that REV infection could cause growth retardation and severely inhibit immune reactions to inactivated vaccines against NDV and Avian influenza virus (AIV, H9 and H5) in one-day-old broilers without maternal antibodies specific to REV. Maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with an attenuated REV vaccine effectively protected REV-challenged birds from growth retardation and immunosuppression on antibody reactions to NDV and AIV vaccines. Four weeks after vaccination, the HI liters to NDV, AIV-H9, and AIV-H5 in maternal antibody positive and negative groups were 3.36±2.04 versus 1.58±1.69 (P<0.01), 6.27±3.87 versus 0.71±1.60(P<0.01), and 6.72 versus 0.54±1.44(p<0.01). Maternal antibodies from breeders vaccinated with REV vaccine could successfully protect chicks from REV infection and effectively prevent REV-induced growth retardation and immunosuppression in antibody responses to NDV and AIV.

  2. Die Fledermaus: regarding optokinetic contrast sensitivity and light-adaptation, chicks are mice with wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Through adaptation, animals can function visually under an extremely broad range of light intensities. Light adaptation starts in the retina, through shifts in photoreceptor sensitivity and kinetics plus modulation of visual processing in retinal circuits. Although considerable research has been conducted on retinal adaptation in nocturnal species with rod-dominated retinas, such as the mouse, little is known about how cone-dominated avian retinas adapt to changes in mean light intensity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the optokinetic response to characterize contrast sensitivity (CS in the chick retina as a function of spatial frequency and temporal frequency at different mean light intensities. We found that: 1 daytime, cone-driven CS was tuned to spatial frequency; 2 nighttime, presumably rod-driven CS was tuned to temporal frequency and spatial frequency; 3 daytime, presumably cone-driven CS at threshold intensity was invariant with temporal and spatial frequency; and 4 daytime photopic CS was invariant with clock time. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Light- and dark-adaptational changes in CS were investigated comprehensively for the first time in the cone-dominated retina of an avian, diurnal species. The chick retina, like the mouse retina, adapts by using a "day/night" or "cone/rod" switch in tuning preference during changes in lighting conditions. The chick optokinetic response is an attractive model for noninvasive, behavioral studies of adaptation in retinal circuitry in health and disease.

  3. Structural imbalance promotes behavior analogous to aesthetic preference in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual images may be judged 'aesthetic' when their positioning appears imbalanced. An apparent imbalance may signify an as yet incomplete action or event requiring more detailed processing. As such it may refer to phylogenetically ancient stimulus-response mechanisms such as those mediating attentional deployment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied preferences for structural balance or imbalance in week-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus, using a conditioning procedure to reinforce pecking at either "aligned" (balanced or "misaligned" (imbalanced training stimuli. A testing phase with novel balanced and imbalanced stimuli established whether chicks would retain their conditioned behavior or revert to chance responding. Whereas those trained on aligned stimuli were equally likely to choose aligned or misaligned stimuli, chicks trained on misaligned stimuli maintained the trained preference. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with the idea that the coding of structural imbalance is primary and even overrides classical conditioning. Generalized to the humans, these results suggest aesthetic judgments based upon structural imbalance may be based on evolutionarily ancient mechanisms, which are shared by different vertebrate species.

  4. Conotruncal anomalies induced in chick embryos by 2 MeV neutron radiation

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    Kawamura, Tsukasa (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))


    Radiation of 2 MeV neutrons was used to induce conotruncal anomalies experimentally in chick. White leghorn eggs were exposed to a single dose of neutrons ranging from 50 to 250 rads at various stages of the development. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 209(40%) of 526 treated embryos;conotruncal anomalies (81/209 or 39%), simple VSD (56/209 or 27%), isolated aortic arch anomalies (69/209 or 33%) and others (3/209 or 1%). The conotruncal anomalies were induced at considerably high incidences by exposures during the 3rd day of incubation and the highest incidence was 74% in the cases malformed by 220 rads. The types of conotruncal anomalies observed were as follows: VSD with pulmonary overriding (52 cases), VSD with aortic overriding (11 cases), DORV (10 cases), truncus arteriosus (6 cases) and complete TGA (2 cases). Sixty (74%) of these cases had aortic hypoplasia, constituting coarctation or interruption complex similar to that seen in man. It is generally thought that the experimental production of complete TGA in chick appears to be impossible when utilizing ordinary teratogenic means. However, neutron radiation could induce this peculiar anomaly in chick.

  5. Melatonin modulates monochromatic light-induced GHRH expression in the hypothalamus and GH secretion in chicks. (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing


    To study the mechanism by which monochromatic lights affect the growth of broilers, a total of 192 newly hatched broilers, including the intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) and blue light (BL) using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for 2 weeks. The results showed that the GHRH-ir neurons were distributed in the infundibular nucleus (IN) of the chick hypothalamus. The mRNA and protein levels of GHRH in the hypothalamus and the plasma GH concentrations in the chicks exposed to GL were increased by 6.83-31.36%, 8.71-34.52% and 6.76-9.19% compared to those in the chicks exposed to WL (P=0.022-0.001), RL (P=0.002-0.000) and BL (P=0.290-0.017) in the intact group, respectively. The plasma melatonin concentrations showed a positive correlation with the expression of GHRH (r=0.960) and the plasma GH concentrations (r=0.993) after the various monochromatic light treatments. After pinealectomy, however, these parameters decreased and there were no significant differences between GL and the other monochromatic light treatments. These findings suggest that melatonin plays a critical role in GL illumination-enhanced GHRH expression in the hypothalamus and plasma GH concentrations in young broilers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypoxia during embryonic development increases energy metabolism in normoxic juvenile chicks. (United States)

    Amaral-Silva, Lara do; Scarpellini, Carolina da S; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea; Fernandes, Marcia H M R; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Bícego, Kênia C


    Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed. To this end, we measured body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (V̇02) under acute hypoxia or different ambient temperatures (Ta) of 1 and 10day-old chicks that have been exposed to 21% O2 for entire incubation (Nx) or to 15% O2 in the last week of incubation (Hx). We also assessed the thermal preference under normoxia or acute hypoxia of the older chicks from both incubation groups in a thermocline. Hypoxia over incubation reduced growth but did not affect the cold-induced thermogenesis in hatchlings. Regarding the juvenile Hx, present data indicate a catch up growth with higher resting V̇02, a thermal preference for warmer Tas and a possible higher thermal conductance. In conclusion, our results show that hypoxia over the third week of incubation can affect the thermoregulation at least until 10days after hatch in chickens.

  7. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris. (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon


    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris.

  8. Neurophysiological investigations of a recognition memory system for imprinting in the domestic chick. (United States)

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G


    The responsiveness of neurons in a region of the chick brain involved in the learning process of imprinting, the right intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (right IMHV), has been investigated in unanaesthetized, trained and untrained chicks. The results demonstrate that neuronal responsiveness in this region reflects a variety of behavioural consequences of imprinting and is markedly altered as a result of the learning process. Groups of chicks (nine in each group) were either dark-reared or trained (imprinted) by exposure to a rotating red box or a rotating blue cylinder. Recordings of single or small groups of neurons were subsequently made from 156 sites in the right IMHV while the 2-day-old chicks were free to move in a running wheel. There was a highly significant increase in the proportion of sites responsive to the stimulus used to train the birds compared to the proportion responsive to that stimulus in dark-reared birds (30 and 9% respectively). These changes were found when either the red box or the blue cylinder was used to train the bird, the changes being similar for both stimuli. There was also a significant increase in the mean magnitude of the change in neuronal activity on stimulus presentation for the training stimulus compared to the same stimulus when not used in the bird's training. No significant effects of the training experience of the chicks were found upon either the magnitude of evoked activity or the proportion of sites responsive to a rotating stuffed jungle fowl or the sound of the maternal call. The presence of the training stimulus was selectively signalled by the response at certain sites. At other sites there was response generalization across stimulus shape or colour. A comparison with results for the left IMHV demonstrates both similarities and differences in neuronal responsiveness between the two regions. In both regions imprinting selectively enhances neuronal responsiveness to the training stimulus. However, for

  9. Parasagittal hypothalamic knife cuts in male chicks: advancement of reproductive function and changes in plasma concentrations of luteinising hormone and androgen. (United States)

    Kuenzel, W J; Sharp, P J


    Advancement of reproductive function occurred in male domestic chicks after lateral hypothalamic deafferentation (bilateral knife cuts extending from the preoptic to the mamillary region) at 2 weeks of age. Five out of 24 chicks showed sexual precocity as shown by accelerated comb growth after surgery. The 5 chicks had significantly higher concentrations of plasma luteinising hormone (LH) and androgen (A) than 5 sham-operated controls. Maximum concentrations of plasma LH and A were observed 3 and 4 weeks respectively after surgery. It is concluded that in the male domestic chick gonadotropin secretion is inhibited by extrahypothalamic influences.

  10. Absence of O sup 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase induction in chick embryo liver and brain following X-irradiation or treatment with bleomycin

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    Stammberger, I.; Tempel, K. (Munich Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine)


    The presence of O{sup 6}-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AT) in liver and brain of chick embryos, chicks and hens was demonstrated. An induction of AT activity has only been found in the liver of chicks and hens 48 h after X-irradiation. The administration of methylmethanesulphonate to the chick embryo resulted 3-24 hr later in strong inhibition of AT activity accompanied by DNA alkylation. Under the same conditions, X-irradiation, dimethylnitrosamine and bleomycin exhibited no effect. The results are compared with those obtained in mouse, rat and human foetal tissues. (author).

  11. Unifying quantitative life-history theory and field endocrinology to assess prudent parenthood in a long-lived seabird (United States)

    Satterthwaite, W.H.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Piatt, J.F.; Mangel, M.


    Question: Can field measurements of stress hormones help us to assess the prudent parent hypothesis in a long-lived seabird? Organism: Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla. Location: Duck and Gull Islands, Cook Inlet, Alaska, Methods: We examined the statistical relationship between the stress hormone corticosterone and mortality in black-legged kittiwakes. We built a demographic model of the kittiwake life cycle to determine whether the mortality rates associated with persisting in a breeding attempt despite high corticosterone caused the birds to sacrifice more lifetime reproductive output than they gain from one year's breeding. Results: The probability of apparent mortality increased with corticosterone, suggesting some birds incurred increased mortality risk for the sake of breeding. For Duck Island (low reproductive success), it appears birds sacrificed more lifetime reproductive success than a prudent parent would. On Gull Island, it appears most but possibly not all birds were behaving in ways consistent with theory, although definitive statements require larger samples of highly stressed birds. ?? 2010 William H. Satterthwaite.

  12. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jie Zhang


    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation.

  13. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Attar


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.

  14. Medical Management of Hypovitaminosis D With Cholecalciferol and Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) Chicks. (United States)

    Kozel, Caitlin A; Kinney, Matthew E; Hanley, Christopher S; Padilla, Luis R


    Three hand-reared, 50-53 day-old, red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) chicks were evaluated for acute lameness and reluctance to ambulate. Two of the 3 chicks presented with angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsi and external rotation of the legs. Radiographs demonstrated decreased opacity of the long bone of the legs, with poorly delineated cortices and deviation of the proximal tarsometarsi. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol revealed all 3 chicks were deficient in vitamin D(3) at presentation. The chicks were administered injectable vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol), oral vitamin D(3), and an ultraviolet B (UV-B) light was placed in their enclosure. Elastic, therapeutic taping was used to correct angular limb deformities present in 2 of the 3 chicks. Taping was continued until the angular limb deformities were corrected and lameness resolved. Hypovitaminosis D is a common cause of metabolic bone disease in captive avian species. Cholecalciferol administration, UV-B light supplementation, and elastic, therapeutic taping were effective treatments for osteodystrophy and secondary angular limb deformities due to hypovitaminosis D. This multifaceted treatment may be useful in other long-legged juvenile birds with similar clinical signs.

  15. Chicks prefer to peck at insect-like elongated stimuli moving in a direction orthogonal to their longer axis. (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J


    Spontaneous preferences towards possible prey have been little investigated using targets in motion. Preferences of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to peck at video-images of stimuli representing live insects moving along their longer body axis (i.e. "forwards") or along the shorter body axis (i.e. "sideways") were investigated. Chicks presented with both types of stimulus displayed a significant preference for pecking at stimuli moving sideways. This preference was already present on day 1 post-hatching, and it strengthened on day 6 for those chicks that had experienced pecking at live insects. Head angles used to fixate the stimuli prior to pecking were also analysed and were consistent (i.e. 30 degrees -35 degrees and 60 degrees -65 degrees ) with those reported for fixation of non-edible targets (larger stimuli at a distance). In a first control experiment the same video-presented stimuli were used but the insect's legs were removed to reduce flickering. In a second control experiment, paper-printed images of the whole insect were used. In both cases, the sideways direction of movement was clearly preferred. Overall, our data show that chicks have a spontaneous preference to peck at video-images resembling live insects moving along their shorter body axis. Sideways movement may constitute a crucial signal attracting chicks' attention and enhancing predatory responses possibly because of stronger stimulation of motion detectors.

  16. The effects of a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina. (United States)

    Faber, T A; Dilger, R N; Hopkins, A C; Price, N P; Fahey, G C


    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a mannose-rich, galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively impact immune status and prevent weight loss resulting from acute coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina) infection of chicks. Using a completely randomized design, 1-d-old commercial broiler chicks (n = 160; 4 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to one of 4 corn-soybean meal-based diets containing supplemental GGMO-AX (0, 1, 2, or 4%) that replaced dietary cellulose. On d 9 posthatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either distilled water (sham control) or E. acervulina (1 × 10(6) oocysts). All birds were euthanized on d 7 postinoculation (PI) for collection of cecal contents and duodenal tissue. Overall, BW gain of chicks was not affected by diet PI, whereas infection decreased (P AX resulting in the highest cfu/g of cecal contents (on a DM basis). Messenger RNA expression of all duodenal cytokines evaluated was affected by infection status (P ≤ 0.02) but not by dietary treatment alone. Supplementing 4% GGMO-AX consistently resulted in the greatest fold change in proinflammatory cytokine expression, while inhibiting antiinflammatory cytokine expression, which indicates a more robust innate immune response. Despite decreasing performance, 4% dietary GGMO-AX improved select fermentation indices and the innate intestinal immune response to an acute E. acervulina infection.

  17. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  18. Chick embryos have the same pattern of hypoxic lower-brain activation as fetal mammals. (United States)

    Landry, Jeremy P; Hawkins, Connor; Lee, Aaron; Coté, Alexandra; Balaban, Evan; Pompeiano, Maria


    cFos expression (indicating a particular kind of neuronal activation) was examined in embryonic day (E) 18 chick embryos after exposure to 4 h of either normoxia (21% O2), modest hypoxia (15% O2), or medium hypoxia (10% O2). Eight regions of the brainstem and hypothalamus were surveyed, including seven previously shown to respond to hypoxia in late-gestation mammalian fetuses (Breen et al., 1997; Nitsos and Walker, 1999b). Hypoxia-related changes in chick embryo brain activation mirrored those found in fetal mammals with the exception of the medullary Raphe, which showed decreased hypoxic activation, compared with no change in mammals. This difference may be explained by the greater anapyrexic responses of chick embryos relative to mammalian fetuses. Activation in the A1/C1 region was examined in more detail to ascertain whether an O2-sensitive subpopulation of these cells containing heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2) may drive hypoxic brain responses before the maturation of peripheral O2-sensing. HMOX2-positive and -negative catecholaminergic cells and interdigitating noncatecholaminergic HMOX2-positive cells all showed significant changes in cFos expression to hypoxia, with larger population responses seen in the catecholaminergic cells. Hypoxia-induced activation of lower-brain regions studied here was significantly better correlated with activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) than with that of HMOX2-containing A1/C1 neurons. Together, these observations suggest that (1) the functional circuitry controlling prenatal brain responses to hypoxia is strongly conserved between birds and mammals, and (2) NTS neurons are a more dominant driving force for prenatal hypoxic cFos brain responses than O2-sensing A1/C1 neurons.

  19. Effect of vegetable wastage and energy in ostrich chick diet on performance and hematology. (United States)

    Tasirnafas, Mohammadebrahim; Seidavi, Alireza; Rasouli, Behrouz; Kawka, Magdalena


    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of dietary vegetable wastage and energy on ostrich chick performance and hematology. Twenty-four ostrich chicks (blue and black African breed) were allocated to eight treatments. The diet in treatments T1 to T4 had 2,500 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, while treatments T5 to T8 had 2,700 kcal/kg. Each treatment had 0, 10, 20, and 30% of vegetable wastage. Vegetable wastage included parsley (Petroselinum crispum, 51.3 %), cress (Lepidium sativum, 15.0%), spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 15.0%), wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum, 14.0%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, 2.5%), and basil (Ocimum basilicum, 2.2 %). The body weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly. Blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, LDL/HDL, ratio and alkaline phosphatase. The highest level of weight was seen in the second treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 10% dietary wastage). The hematological parameters were different depending on the treatment used. The lowest level of total cholesterol was observed in eighth treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30% dietary wastage), while the lowest level of triglycerides was in fourth treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30 % of wastage). The level of alkaline phosphatise was the lowest in seventh treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 20% wastages). The energy level had no effect (P wastage showed effect (P = 0.033) on feed intake, but the increase of this level showed depressive effect on the feed intake. This is the first report on the performance and blood parameters of commercial ostrich chicks fed diets differing in vegetable wastage. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  20. The Pinay as Fun, Fearless Female: Philippine Chick Literature in the Age of the Transnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Stuart Santiago


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes Philippine chick literature by Summit Publishing – the first to come out with local chick literature via the Summit Books – and as a by-product of its magazine Cosmopolitan Philippines.This study delves into chick lit’s existence given these context(s: 1. the dynamics of publication in this country, i.e., the “literary” versus the “popular”, works in English versus works in Filipino, the “artsy” versus the bestseller; 2. the various kinds of feminism(s of which the middle class Filipina of today is necessarily part; and 3. the facts of globalization and the transnation that are the bases of the Summit Books’ existence, given its links to Cosmopolitan Philippines, and the latter’s existence as a local franchise of a transnational magazine. This paper also looks at the marginalization and suppression that is contingent upon these perspectives of the Summit Books with a view of seeing the possibilities of resistance and rebellion within them. This project uses as backbone contemporary third world feminist and current Philippine cultural theories that insist on the urgent tasks of relevance and involvement that all contemporary cultural productions by women must face. More particularly, this study uses notions of subjectivity and agency, and the processes of negotiation these allow, towards an analysis of where these women’s texts necessarily belong to. This kind of analysis is utilized precisely because these texts traverse across the oppressive and the empowering, the status quo and the possibilities of rebellion, and the powerless and the powerful. In the end, such negotiation is seen as Summit Books’ contribution to the contemporary creation of the Philippine feminine – one that demands that no text be reduced to just its class origins, or just the popular.

  1. Environmental influences on Adelie penguin breeding schedules, endocrinology, and chick survival. (United States)

    Ninnes, C E; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E


    To understand how the social and physical environment influences behaviour, reproduction and survival, studies of underlying hormonal processes are crucial; in particular, interactions between stress and reproductive responses may have critical influences on breeding schedules. Several authors have examined the timing of breeding in relation to environmental stimuli, while others have independently described endocrine profiles. However, few studies have simultaneously measured endocrine profiles, breeding behaviour, and offspring survival across seasons. We measured sex and stress hormone concentrations (oestrogens, testosterone, and corticosterone), timing of breeding, and chick survival, in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at two colonies in two different years. Clutch initiation at Cape Bird South (CBS; year 1, ~14,000 pairs) occurred later than at Cape Crozier East (CCE; year 2, ~ 25,000 pairs); however, breeding was more synchronous at CBS. This pattern was probably generated by the persistence of extensive sea ice at CBS (year 1). Higher corticosterone metabolite and lower sex hormone concentrations at CBS correlated with later breeding and lower chick survival compared to at CCE - again, a likely consequence of sea ice conditions. Within colonies, sub-colony size (S, 50-100; M, 200-300; L, 500-600; XL, >1000 pairs) did not influence the onset or synchrony of breeding, chick survival, or hormone concentrations. We showed that the endocrine profiles of breeding Adelie penguins can differ markedly between years and/or colonies, and that combining measures of endocrinology, behaviour, and offspring survival can reveal the mechanisms and consequences that different environmental conditions can have on breeding ecology.

  2. Effect of vitamin D on the intestinal absorption of 203Pb and 47Ca in chicks

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    Mykkaenen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.


    The transfer of 203Pb and/or 47Ca across the intestinal epithelium of the chick was investigated, with emphasis given to the functional role of cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). 203Pb, after introduction in the intestinal lumen, is rapidly accumulated by the intestinal tissue, and only a fraction of 203Pb is translocated parenterally (absorbed). Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect the accumulation of 203Pb by intestinal tissue but did accelerate 203Pb movement across the basal-lateral membrane. In contrast, cholecalciferol both decreased 47Ca tissue levels and increased 47Ca absorption. In rachitic chicks, the rate of absorption of 203Pb was greater in the distal than in the proximal segments of the intestine; after cholecalciferol repletion, the degree of absorption in al segments was similar, indicting the order of cholecalciferol effectiveness as duodenum greater than or equal to jejunum greater than ileum. An acute dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 to rachitic chicks also enhanced both 203Pb and 47Ca absorption, but the time course and pattern of absorption of these metal cations differed. The time at which the absorption of 203Pb peaked and returned to base-line occurred sooner than for 47Ca. Also the back-flux (blood leads to intestinal lumen) of 47Ca was enhanced by cholecalciferol, whereas no effect on the back-flux of 203Pb was noted. These studies show that cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH)2D3 affects both the 203Pb and 47Ca absorptive processes, but the nature of these responses are not identical, suggesting differences in the transport path or the macromolecular interactions of these metal ions during the course of absorption, or both.

  3. Antiparasitic effect of wild rue (Peganum harmala L.) against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Tanweer, A Jabbar; Chand, N; Saddique, U; Bailey, C A; Khan, R U


    Organic farming of poultry has increased in recent years as the prophylactic use of antibiotics has come into disfavor. This study was conducted to explore the antiparasitic effect of a methanolic extract of Peganum harmala in broilers challenged with coccidiosis. For this purpose, 200 1-week-old broiler chicks were divided into five treatments: negative control (basal diet, Ph-0/NC), positive control (basal diet with coccidiosis challenge, Ph-0/C), and three groups challenged with coccidiosis and supplemented with P. harmala at the rate of 200 mg L(-1) (Ph-200), 250 mg L(-1) (Ph-250), and 300 mg L(-1) (Ph-300) drinking water. Each group had three replicates of ten chicks each. Challenge with standard dose of the larvae of coccidiosis and supplementation of P. harmala were initiated on day 14 until 35 days of age. As expected, the results revealed that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were depressed significantly in Ph-0 group with significant mortality percentage. Weight gain, total body weight, and FCR increased linearly with increasing dose of P. harmala with the exception of feed intake. The growth and feed efficiency of Ph-0/NC was better in Ph-0/NC compared to that in Ph-0/C and comparable to that in P. harmala-treated birds. Similarly, mean ooccytes per gram (OPG) decreased linearly (P < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared to that in Ph-0/C. Histological evidences showed that cecal lesion and leucocyte infiltration decreased markedly in supplemented groups of P. harmala specifically the Ph-300 group compared to those in Ph-0/C. From the present experiment, we concluded the anticoccidial effect of P. harmala in broiler chicks.

  4. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in cultured chick embryonic muscle treated with phospholipase C. (United States)

    Sleight, R; Kent, C


    Cultures of embryonic chick muscle cells grown in medium containing phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens incorporated [3H]choline into lipid at a rate 3- to 5-fold higher than control cultures. To determine the mechanism by which stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis occurred in phospholipase C-treated cells, activities of enzymes and levels of intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylcholine were examined. Activities of choline kinase, choline phosphotransferase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and phosphatidic acid phosphatase in phospholipase C-treated cells were the same or only slightly higher than in control cells. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, on the other hand, was 3 times as active in homogenates from phospholipase C-treated cells. Levels of phosphocholine decreased and levels of CDP-choline increased in phospholipase C-treated cells, and a calculation of the disequilibrium ratio indicated that the cytidylyltransferase reaction was not at equilibrium. The cytidylyltransferase was, thus, identified as the regulatory enzyme for choline flux in these cells. The cytidylyltransferase was located in both the cytosolic and particulate fractions from cultured muscle cells and a much larger portion of enzyme activity was associated with the particulate fraction in cells treated with phospholipase C. Sonicated preparations of total chick lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine greatly stimulated the cytosolic cytidylyltransferase activity but had no effect on the particulate enzyme. Neither stimulation of incorporation of [3H]choline into lipid nor activation of the cytidylyltransferase was dependent on protein synthesis. A model for the mechanism of regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in embryonic chick muscle is presented.

  5. Early expression of hypocretin/orexin in the chick embryo brain.

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    Kyle E Godden

    Full Text Available Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O neuropeptides are released by a discrete group of neurons in the vertebrate hypothalamus which play a pivotal role in the maintenance of waking behavior and brain state control. Previous studies have indicated that the H/O neuronal development differs between mammals and fish; H/O peptide-expressing cells are detectable during the earliest stages of brain morphogenesis in fish, but only towards the end of brain morphogenesis (by ∼ 85% of embryonic development in rats. The developmental emergence of H/O neurons has never been previously described in birds. With the goal of determining whether the chick developmental pattern was more similar to that of mammals or of fish, we investigated the emergence of H/O-expressing cells in the brain of chick embryos of different ages using immunohistochemistry. Post-natal chick brains were included in order to compare the spatial distribution of H/O cells with that of other vertebrates. We found that H/O-expressing cells appear to originate from two separate places in the region of the diencephalic proliferative zone. These developing cells express the H/O neuropeptide at a comparatively early age relative to rodents (already visible at 14% of the way through fetal development, thus bearing a closer resemblance to fish. The H/O-expressing cell population proliferates to a large number of cells by a relatively early embryonic age. As previously suggested, the distribution of H/O neurons is intermediate between that of mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. This work suggests that, in addition to its roles in developed brains, the H/O peptide may play an important role in the early embryonic development of non-mammalian vertebrates.

  6. K channel kinetics during the spontaneous heart beat in embryonic chick ventricle cells.


    Mazzanti, M.; DeFelice, L J


    By averaging the current that passes through cell-attached patches on beating heart cells, while measuring action potentials with a whole-cell electrode, we were able to study K channels during beating. In 7-d chick ventricle in 1.3 mM K physiological solutions at room temperature, delayed-rectifier channels have three linear conductance states: 60, 30, and 15 pS. The 60 and 15 pS conductances can exist alone, but all three states may appear in the same patch as interconverting conductance le...

  7. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

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    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  8. Effect of testosterone on intermediate memory in day-old chicks. (United States)

    Gibbs, M E; Ng, K T; Andrew, R J


    Day-old chicks trained on a single trial passive avoidance discrimination task show three well-defined behavioural stages in memory formation: short-term, intermediate and long-term memory. Testosterone (2 mg), given subcutaneously, yielded results which may be tentatively interpreted as an extension of the time of availability of recall from the intermediate stage by between 20 and 50 min, provided the hormone is administered no earlier than 90 min before learning. A higher dose (12.5 mg) of testosterone administered 30 min before learning had a similar effect. The findings with testosterone are comparable to those reported for pituitary-adrenal hormones.

  9. The effect of feed wetting and fermentation on the performance of broiler chick


    Uchewa E.N.; Onu P. N.


    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed wetting and fermented feed on the performance of broiler chicks. Four experimental diets were used in the study. Diet 1, was a conventional commercial broiler starter feed. Diet 2 was a commercial broiler starter feed in a 1:1.2 dilution with water. Diet 3, was a water diluted commercial feed inoculated with Bactocell™ and fermented for 24 hours at 35oC in an incubator. Diet 4 was fermented feed add...

  10. Immunogenicity of formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine inactivated infectious bursal disease virus in broiler chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HABIB Mudasser; HUSSAIN Iftikhar; IRSHAD Hamid; YANG Zong-zhao; SHUAI Jiang-bing; CHEN Ning


    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was inactivated by two different chemicals-formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine (BEI). Formaldehyde was used at 0.1% and 0.2%, while BEI was used at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L.These four vaccines were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of broiler chicks.Both BEI-inactivated vaccines gave relatively higher antibody titers and were almost twice as efficient as formaldehyde-inactivated ones.

  11. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain. (United States)

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei


    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  12. Alternative splicing modulates Disabled-1 (Dab1) function in the developing chick retina


    Katyal, Sachin; Godbout, Roseline


    The Reelin–Disabled 1 (Dab1)-signaling pathway plays a critical role in neuronal cell positioning in the brain. We have isolated two alternatively spliced variants of Dab1 from chick retina, an early form (chDab1-E) expressed in undifferentiated cells and a late form (chDab1-L) expressed in amacrine and ganglion cells. A key difference between the two forms is the exclusion in chDab1-E of two Src-related tyrosine kinase recognition sites implicated in Reelin-mediated Dab1 tyrosine phosphoryla...

  13. The ultrastructure of nephrocalcinosis induced in chicks by Cestrum diurnum leaves. (United States)

    Sarkar, K; Narbaitz, R; Pokrupa, R; Uhthoff, H K


    Powdered Cestrum diurnum leaves, mixed with two diets differing in calcium and phosphorus contents, produced nephrocalcinosis in young chicks regardless of serum calcium elevation. The calcific deposits, found in both proximal and distal portions of cortical tubules, began either in the cytoplasm or in lysosomal bodies as a unilaminar spheroid structure containing apatite crystals. The ultrastructural characteristics of intraluminal concretions suggested that they were formed intracellularly but later were extruded into the lumen. The extent of calcific deposits increased with duration and with hypercalcemia. Although Cestrum contains an analog of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, neither mitochondria nor basal lamina contained calcific deposits described in nephrocalcinosis secondary to hypervitaminosis D.

  14. Cadmium inhibition of vitamin D-mediated responses in organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum

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    Corradino, R.A.


    When added to the medium, cadmium inhibits 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-mediated responses in the organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum: decreases induction of a specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP), prevents the elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduces the ability of the tissue to absorb radiocalcium at the mucosal surface. The cadmium effect is clearly not generalized cytotoxicity. These results may be taken as evidence that cadmium can interfere with vitamin D action at the level of the target organ itself and is not necessarily secondary to alteration in vitamin D metabolism.

  15. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick biventer cervicis muscle

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    B. Esfandiar


    Full Text Available biventer cervicis muscleD. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick EsfandiarAbstractBackground and Purpose: NO is a short-lived gas molecule generated by degradation of L-arg to citrulline and by the activation of enzyme NOS Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. There are multiple NOS isoforms that strongly are expressed in skeletal muscle, suggesting the crucial role of NO in regulating muscular metabolism and function. In this study, the effect of L-arginine was examined at the neuromuscular junction of the chick biventer cervicis muscle.Materials and Methods: Biventer cervicis muscle preparations from chick’s age of 3 weeks were set up in the organ bath. The organ bath had a vessel with volume of about 70 ml; it contained Tyrode solution aerated with oxygen and was kept at 37º C. NO levels was also measured in the chick biventer cervicis muscle homogenates, using spectrophotometer method for the direct detection of NO, nitrite and nitrate. Total nitrite (nitrite+nitrate was measured by a spectrophotometer at 540 nm after the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by copperized cadmium granules.Results: L-Arginine at 500 µg/ml, decreased twitch response to electrical stimulation, and produced rightward shift of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol. L-arginine at 1000 µg/ml produced a strong shift to the right of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol with a reduction in efficacy. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine on the twitch response was blocked by caffeine (200 µg/ml. NO levels were found to be significantly increased in concentrations 500 and 1000 µg/ml of L-arginine in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001.Conclusion: These findings indicate a possible role of increased NO levels in the suppressive action of L-arginie on the twitch response. In addition, the results indicate that the post-junctional antagonistic action of L-arginine is probably the result of impaired sarcoplasmic

  16. Vitamin D-Dependent Calcium Binding Protein: Immunocytochemical Localization in Chick Kidney (United States)

    Roth, Jurgen; Thorens, Bernard; Hunziker, Willi; Norman, Anthony W.; Orci, L.


    A vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein in the chick kidney that was detected by immunocytochemical techniques was localized exclusively in the distal convoluted tubule, the initial collecting tubule, and the early part of the collecting tubule. The intercalated (mitochondria-rich) cells in these tubular segments were negative for the calcium binding protein. Subcellularly, the protein was found in the cytosol and the nucleus of the tubular cells. The results suggest a role for vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein in intracellular calcium metabolism rather than a direct involvement in membrane-mediated calcium reabsorption in the avian kidney.

  17. In vitro stimulation of phosphate uptake in isolated chick renal cells by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.


    Liang, C T; Barnes, J; Balakir, R; Cheng, L; Sacktor, B


    Renal cells isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks had an increased Na+-dependent phosphate uptake when preincubated with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3]. Phosphate uptake in the absence of Na+ and methyl alpha-glucoside uptake dependent on Na+ were not affected. Phosphate uptake was stimulated 15% by 0.010 pM 1,25-(OH)2D3. Maximal enhancement of 30% was obtained with 100 pM. The uptake when fully stimulated by preincubation in vitro approximated the uptake of cells isolated fr...

  18. Uroporphyria development in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts long-term treated with chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide. (United States)

    de Muys, J M; Morais, R


    Long-term chloramphenicol- and ethidium bromide-treated chick embryo fibroblasts synthesize large amounts of porphyrins from exogenously added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The porphyrins consist mainly of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrins and are retained within cells. Uroporphyria development is a time-dependent process which accompanies a step-wise decrease in the capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Upon removal of chloramphenicol from the medium, the pattern of porphyrin production readily returns to normal (mainly proto- and coproporphyrins found in the medium) while ethidium bromide-treated cells remain uroporphyric. The results suggest that impairment of mitochondrial functions in chicken by xenobiotics leads to uroporphyria development.

  19. The Chick as a Model for the Study of the Cellular Mechanisms and Potential Therapies for Alzheimer's Disease

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    Radmila Mileusnic


    Full Text Available While animal experiments have contributed much to our understanding of the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD, their value in predicting the effectiveness of treatment strategies in clinical trials has remained controversial. The disparity between the results obtained in animal models and clinical trials may in part be explained by limitations of the models and species-specific differences. We propose that one trial passive avoidance in the day-old chick is a useful system to study AD because of the close sequence homologies of chick and human amyloid precursor protein (APP. In the chick, APP is essential for memory consolidation, and disrupting its synthesis or structure results in amnesia. RER, a tripeptide sequence corresponding to part of the growth domain of APP, can restore memory loss and act as a cognitive enhancer. We suggest that RER and its homologues may form the basis for potential pharmacological protection against memory loss in AD.

  20. The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

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    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. METHODOLOGY: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162 and 13.5% (p = 0.0064 more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05 and 14% (p = 0.035 more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

  1. Immunological Changes of Chicks Immunized with Marek‘s Disease Vaccines and Challenged with Virulent MD Virus

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    LiuZhonggui; GaoRong; 等


    The experiment was conducted to inoculate one-day old chicks with Marek's disecae(MD) trivalent and herpesvirus of turkey(HVT) vaccines separately,and then to challenge them with virulent MD virus(vMDV) at the age of 15 days,and 5,25,45,and 75 days after the challenge with vMDV,comparing with the cotrol-challenged chicks without immunization,to detect the immunoprotetive efficacy and dynamic changes of the inductive activity of interleukin-2(IL-2),expression of IL-2 receptor and proliferative function of T cells in thymus and spleen;the number of ANAET,APT,cells and IgG,IgM,IgA antibody-producing cells in Bursa Fabricius,spleen,thymus,cecal tonsil and Harder gland;as the amount of T cells and IgG,IgA in peripheral blood as well as the content of IgG,IgM and IgA in the tear,trachea washings,bile and intestinal fluids of the experimental chicks.The experimental results firstly demonstrate that the immunoregulation of IL-2,and IL-2 receptor,the cellualr and humoral immune resposes were significantly enhanced in the central and peripheral immune organs;the local mucosal immune funcsignificantly enhanced in the central and peripheral immune organs;the local mucosal immune function were markedly amplified in the respiratory and digestive tracts of the immunized-challenged,chicks,which were closely correlated with the immunoprotection against MD;the immune response and immunoprotective effect of the trivalent vaccine-immunized chicks wrer much better than those of HVT vaccine-immunized chicks.

  2. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

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    Bogomolnaya Lydia M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.


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    A. DUTTA


    Full Text Available Waste silkworm pupae (SWP generate vast resources of nutrients for livestock and poultry. In the present investigation, three days old chicks of RIR strain were allocated to five dietary treatments of silk worm pupae meal. The energy budget was prepared from calculated proximate analysis and growth performance of broiler chicks fed with different percentages of silk worm pupae. The result showed that the silkworm powder meal (SWPM is the cheapest and has potential to replace the costly and contaminated fish meal, as the protein source, used in poultry industry.

  4. Redistribution of cathepsin B activity from the endosomal-lysosomal pathway in chick intestine within 3 min of calcium absorption. (United States)

    Nemere, I; Norman, A W


    Earlier work has suggested that calcium-containing lysosomes are involved in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-stimulated intestinal absorption of the divalent cation. In the present report immunofluorescent labelling studies on fixed frozen sections of chick intestine were undertaken to determine whether lysosomes could respond to calcium transport conditions in less than 5 min. Tissue prepared from vitamin D-deficient chicks dosed with vehicle or 1.3 nmol of 1,25(OH)2D3 15 h prior to use was immunofluorescently labelled for cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease. In the absence of calcium absorption, punctate staining was found in the region below the terminal web, and more diffusely in the cytoplasm. The intensity of staining was noticeably greater in sections from 1,25(OH)2D3-treated than control chicks. In sections prepared after 3 min of calcium absorption, cathepsin B staining was localized near the basal and lateral membranes of the epithelial cells. After 30 min of transport, the protease was found in the villus core regardless of vitamin D status; however, immunoreactivity within the epithelial cells of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chick intestine had returned to pretransport intensity, whereas that of controls had not. To further investigate the specificity of the cathepsin B antibody, the intracellular compartmentalization of the protease was determined by biochemical methods. Using dosing procedures and calcium transport times equivalent to those for the immunofluorescent studies mucosae were collected by scraping, homogenized, and subcellular fractions prepared by a combination of differential and Percoll gradient centrifugation. In the absence of calcium transport, cathepsin B-specific activity was enhanced in whole homogenates, endocytic vesicles, and a lysosomal fraction prepared from intestinal epithelium of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chicks, relative to vitamin D-deficient controls. After 3 min of calcium absorption, a profound (approximately 4-fold) decrease in

  5. Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

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    AML Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.

  6. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks. (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Komine, Okiru; Sato, Katsushige; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Uchimura, Motoaki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko


    Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  7. [Effect of filial imprinting procedure on cell proliferation in the chick brain]. (United States)

    Komissarova, N V; Anokhin, K V


    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that memory formation during visual imprinting might be related to generation of new cells in the brain of newborn domestic chicks. Cell proliferation was examined in the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), arcopallium intermedium (AI), medial part of nidopallium and mesopallium (MNM), nidopallium dorso-caudalis (Ndc), hippocampus (Hp) and area parahippocampalis (APH), as well as in corresponding ventricular zones. Number of new cells was measured by BrdU incorporation 24 h or 7 days after training, BrdU was injected before training. 24 h after imprinting the number of BrdU-positive cells increased significantly in IMM. 7 days after training no changes were observed in IMM, while the number of new cells decreased in MNM and Ndc in comparison to the control group. These data suggest that newly generated cells in the brain of young chicks are influenced by imprinting procedure, which has opposite short-term and long-term effects. A possible reason for such double action of imprinting in contrast to conventional learning can be its additional stimulation of development of predisposition for features of natural parents.

  8. Effects of an imprinting procedure on cell proliferation in the chick brain. (United States)

    Komissarova, N V; Anokhin, K V


    We report here studies on the effects of an imprinting procedure on cell proliferation in neonatal chicks in brain structures known to undergo plastic changes in imprinting. Proliferating cells were detected immunohistochemically on brain sections by incorporation of pre-training doses of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA; numbers of new cells were counted in the intermediate medial mesopallium, the intermediate arcopallium, the medial part of the mesopallium and the nidopallium, the dorsocaudal nidopallium, the hippocampus, and the parahippocampal region 24 h and seven days after training. The intermediate medial mesopallium showed an increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells 24 h after training. However, at seven days post-training, the number of BrdU-containing cells decreased in the medial nidopallium and mesopallium, in the dorsocaudal nidopallium, and the right intermediate medial mesopallium. Thus, the imprinting procedure had differently directed transient and long-term influences on the genesis of new cells in the chick brain, inducing the appearance of a large number of cells in the parenchyma of the brain one day after training and decreases in the numbers of cells at later time points. This double effect may be associated with the fact that the imprinting procedure simultaneously initiates two brain processes involving the control of cell proliferation - one related to maturation of a species-specific functional system for tracking individuals of the same species and one related to remembering the characteristics of the actual parent.

  9. FGF signaling pathway in the developing chick lung: expression and inhibition studies.

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    Rute S Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGF are essential key players during embryonic development. Through their specific cognate receptors (FGFR they activate intracellular cascades, finely regulated by modulators such as Sprouty. Several FGF ligands (FGF1, 2, 7, 9, 10 and 18 signaling through the four known FGFRs, have been implicated in lung morphogenesis. Although much is known about mammalian lung, so far, the avian model has not been explored for lung studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we provide the first description of fgf10, fgfr1-4 and spry2 expression patterns in early stages of chick lung development by in situ hybridization and observe that they are expressed similarly to their mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, aiming to determine a role for FGF signaling in chick lung development, in vitro FGFR inhibition studies were performed. Lung explants treated with an FGF receptor antagonist (SU5402 presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture; moreover, abnormal lung growth with a cystic appearance of secondary bronchi and reduction of the mesenchymal tissue was observed. Branching and morphometric analysis of lung explants confirmed that FGFR inhibition impaired branching morphogenesis and induced a significant reduction of the mesenchyme. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates that FGFRs are essential for the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that determine epithelial branching and mesenchymal growth and validate the avian embryo as a good model for pulmonary studies, namely to explore the FGF pathway as a therapeutic target.

  10. Expression pattern of LINGO-1 in the developing nervous system of the chick embryo. (United States)

    Okafuji, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hideaki


    We isolated a chick homologue of LINGO-1 (cLINGO-1), a novel component of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR)/p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) signaling complex, and examined the expression of cLINGO-1 in the developing brain and spinal cord of the chick embryo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. cLINGO-1 was expressed broadly in the spinal cord, including the ventral portion of the ventricular zone, and motor neurons. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the dorsal root ganglion and boundary cap cells at dorsal and ventral roots. In the early embryonic brain, cLINGO-1 was first expressed in the prosencephalon and the ventral mesencephalon, and later in the telencephalon, the rostral part of the mesencephalon and some parts of the hindbrain. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the ventral part of the neural retina and trigeminal and facial nerves. We also found that cLINGO-1, cNgR1 and p75NTR were expressed in overlapped patterns in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion, but that these genes were expressed in distinct patterns in the early embryonic brain.

  11. Detection probability of least tern and piping plover chicks in a large river system (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Dovichin, Colin M.


    Monitoring the abundance and stability of populations of conservation concern is often complicated by an inability to perfectly detect all members of the population. Mark-recapture offers a flexible framework in which one may identify factors contributing to imperfect detection, while at the same time estimating demographic parameters such as abundance or survival. We individually color-marked, recaptured, and re-sighted 1,635 federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum; endangered) chicks and 1,318 piping plover (Charadrius melodus; threatened) chicks from 2006 to 2009 at 4 study areas along the Missouri River and investigated effects of observer-, subject-, and site-level covariates suspected of influencing detection. Increasing the time spent searching and crew size increased the probability of detecting both species regardless of study area and detection methods were not associated with decreased survival. However, associations between detection probability and the investigated covariates were highly variable by study area and species combinations, indicating that a universal mark-recapture design may not be appropriate.

  12. Modeling gastrulation in the chick embryo: formation of the primitive streak.

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    Bakhtier Vasiev

    Full Text Available The body plan of all higher organisms develops during gastrulation. Gastrulation results from the integration of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration of thousands of cells. In the chick embryo gastrulation starts with the formation of the primitive streak, the site of invagination of mesoderm and endoderm cells, from cells overlaying Koller's Sickle. Streak formation is associated with large-scale cell flows that carry the mesoderm cells overlying Koller's sickle into the central midline region of the embryo. We use multi-cell computer simulations to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the formation of the primitive streak in the chick embryo. Our simulations suggest that the formation of the primitive streak employs chemotactic movement of a subpopulation of streak cells, as well as differential adhesion between the mesoderm cells and the other cells in the epiblast. Both chemo-attraction and chemo-repulsion between various combinations of cell types can create a streak. However, only one combination successfully reproduces experimental observations of the manner in which two streaks in the same embryo interact. This finding supports a mechanism in which streak tip cells produce a diffusible morphogen which repels cells in the surrounding epiblast. On the other hand, chemotactic interaction alone does not reproduce the experimental observation that the large-scale vortical cell flows develop simultaneously with streak initiation. In our model the formation of large scale cell flows requires an additional mechanism that coordinates and aligns the motion of neighboring cells.

  13. Hemispheric lateralization of memory stages for discriminated avoidance learning in the chick. (United States)

    Gibbs, Marie E; Andrew, Richard J; Ng, Kim T


    Memory formation following the one trial discriminated bead task in the chick falls into three stages (short-term, intermediate and long-term memory) that are defined by susceptibility to different classes of drugs. The stages show sharply timed offsets of sensitivity and loss at specific times after inhibition. Recall of the memory in the chick shows cyclical changes that differ in period between left and right hemispheres, and is marked by a series of brief windows of enhanced recall that recur with periods of about 16 and 25 min in the left and right hemispheres respectively. The timing of these 'retrieval events' corresponds, to a large extent, with the timing of the memory stages seen in the visual discrimination task. Here we examine the effects of left or right hemisphere injection of the main agents (glutamate, ouabain and anisomycin) that have been used to characterize the three stages of memory. We show that memory in the left hemisphere is largely responsible for performance at test and that processes involved in its consolidation generate the phases of memory.

  14. The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P


    Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gross lesions were scored and intestinal digesta pH and viscosity were measured. C. perfringens was counted in the caecum. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed that the cold stress in challenged birds significantly increased the incidence and the severity of necrotic enteritis lesions (Ρ ≤ 0.05), while causing no lesions in unchallenged birds. Moreover, the cold stress caused a significant increase (Ρ ≤ 0.05) in the pH and C. perfringens counts in the caeca. The study provides evidence that cold stress increased the susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and thus should be regarded as a physical environmental stressor that could significantly affect the welfare, health and intestinal ecosystem of broiler chicks.

  15. Antioxidant dietary deficiency induces caspase activation in chick skeletal muscle cells

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    V.A. Nunes


    Full Text Available Apoptosis and necrosis are two distinct forms of cell death that can occur in response to different agents and stress conditions. In order to verify if the oxidative stress induced by dietary selenium and vitamin E deficiencies can lead muscle cells to apoptosis, one-day-old chicks were reared using diets differing in their vitamin E (0 or 10 IU/kg and selenium (0 or 0.15 ppm supplementation. Chick skeletal muscle tissue was obtained from 28-day-old animals and used to verify apoptosis occurrence based on caspase activity detection and DNA fragmentation. Antioxidant deficiency significantly increased caspase-like activity assessed by the hydrolysis of fluorogenic peptide substrates (Abz-peptidyl-EDDnp at lambdaexc = 320 nm and lambdaem = 420 nm. Proteolytic activation was not accompanied by typical internucleosomal DNA fragmentation detected by field inversion gel electrophoresis. Although the general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(O-Me fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-fmk (0 to 80 muM did not block caspase-like activity when preincubated for 30 min with muscle homogenates, the hydrolyzed substrates presented the same cleavage profile in HPLC (at the aspartic acid residue when incubated with the purified recombinant enzyme caspase-3. These data indicate that oxidative stress causes caspase-like activation in muscle cells and suggest that cell death associated with exudative diathesis (dietary deficiency of selenium and vitamin E can follow the apoptotic pathway.

  16. Protein expression profiling during chick retinal maturation: a proteomics-based approach

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    Stitt Alan W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying pathways that drive retinal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis are still relatively poorly understood. Protein expression analysis can provide direct insight into these complex developmental processes. The aim of this study was therefore to employ proteomic analysis to study the developing chick retina throughout embryonic (E development commencing at day 12 through 13, 17, 19 and post-hatch (P 1 and 33 days. Results 2D proteomic and mass spectrometric analysis detected an average of 1514 spots per gel with 15 spots demonstrating either modulation or constitutive expression identified via MS. Proteins identified included alpha and beta-tubulin, alpha enolase, B-creatine kinase, gamma-actin, platelet-activating factor (PAF, PREDICTED: similar to TGF-beta interacting protein 1, capping protein (actin filament muscle Z line, nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase, triosphoaphate isomerase, DJ1, stathmin, fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7/B-FABP, beta-synuclein and enhancer of rudimentary homologue. Conclusion This study builds upon previous proteomic investigations of retinal development and represents the addition of a unique data set to those previously reported. Based on reported bioactivity some of the identified proteins are most likely to be important to normal retinal development in the chick. Continued analysis of the dynamic protein populations present at the early stages and throughout retinal development will increase our understanding of the molecular events underpinning retinogenesis.

  17. FT-IR microscopic mappings of early mineralization in chick limb bud mesenchymal cell cultures (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Camacho, N. P.; Mendelsohn, R.; Doty, S. B.; Binderman, I.


    Chick limb bud mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes and form a cartilaginous matrix in culture. In this study, the mineral formed in different areas within cultures supplemented with 4 mM inorganic phosphate, or 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP), was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy. The relative mineral-to-matrix ratios, and distribution of crystal sizes at specific locations throughout the matrix were measured from day 14 to day 30. The only mineral phase detected was a poorly crystalline apatite. Cultures receiving 4 mM inorganic phosphate had smaller crystals which were less randomly distributed around the cartilage nodules than those in the beta GP-treated cultures. beta GP-induced mineral consisted of larger, more perfect apatite crystals. In cultures receiving 5 or 10 mM beta GP, the relative mineral-to-matrix ratios (calculated from the integrated intensities of the phosphate and amide I bands, respectively) were higher than in the cultures with 4 mM inorganic phosphate or in the in vivo calcified chick cartilage.

  18. Measurement of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Dou, Shidan; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Liu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe


    It is important to measure embryonic heart myocardial wall strain and strain rate for understanding the mechanisms of embryonic heart development. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide depth resolved images with high spatial and temporal resolution, which makes it have the potential to reveal the complex myocardial activity in the early stage embryonic heart. We develop a novel method to measure strain in embryonic chick heart based on spectral domain OCT images and subsequent image processing. We perform 4D(x,y,z,t) scanning on the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts in HH18 stage (~3 days of incubation). Only one image sequence acquired at the special position is selected based on the Doppler blood flow information where the probe beam penetrates through the OFT perpendicularly. For each image of the selected sequence, the cross-section of the myocardial wall can be approximated as an annulus. The OFT is segmented with a semi-automatic boundary detection algorithm, thus the area and mean circumference of the annular myocardial wall can be achieved. The myocardial wall thickness was calculated using the area divided by the mean circumference, and then the strain was obtained. The results demonstrate that OCT can be a useful tool to describe the biomechanical characteristics of the embryonic heart.

  19. Information theoretical approaches to chick-a-dee calls of Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis). (United States)

    Freeberg, Todd M; Lucas, Jeffrey R


    One aim of this study was to apply information theoretical analyses to understanding the structural complexity of chick-a-dee calls of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. A second aim of this study was to compare this structural complexity to that of the calls of black-capped chickadees, P. atricapillus, described in an earlier published report (Hailman, Ficken, & Ficken, 1985). Chick-a-dee calls were recorded from Carolina chickadees in a naturalistic observation study in eastern Tennessee. Calls were analyzed using approaches from information theory, including transition probability matrices, Zipf's rules, entropies, and information coding capacities of calls and notes of calls. As described for black-capped chickadees, calls of Carolina chickadees exhibited considerable structural complexity. Most results suggested that the call of Carolina chickadees is more structurally complex than that of black-capped chickadees. These findings add support to the growing literature on the complexity of this call system in Paridae species. Furthermore, these results point to the feasibility of detailed cross-species comparative analyses that may allow strong testing of hypotheses regarding signal evolution.

  20. Dehydroepiandosterone and its sulphate enhance memory retention in day-old chicks. (United States)

    Migues, P V; Johnston, A N B; Rose, S P R


    We report the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEA-S) in the day-old-chick brain, and their possible role in memory formation. DHEA and DHEA-S were present in the brain at higher concentrations than in the plasma. Radioimmunoassay examination of the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale 5 or 30 min after training or the lobus parolfactorius 60 or 120 min after training on the passive avoidance task did not show learning-related differences in absolute levels of DHEA or DHEA-S. However, bilateral intracerebral injections of DHEA or DHEA-S before or after training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 h after training. Memory retention was enhanced by administration of DHEA and DHEA-S 15 min before training or 30 and 60 but not 180 min after training. Neurosteroids are present in high concentrations in regions of the chick brain known to be associated with learning and memory for an aversive one-trial task. Our study demonstrates that memory retention for this task is enhanced by administration of the neurosteroids DHEA-S and DHEA. These findings provide additional evidence that these neurosteroids have memory-enhancing properties and, thus, if common to other tasks and species, that DHEA-S and DHEA may constitute potential therapeutic tools for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

  1. Temporal effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on memory formation in day-old chicks. (United States)

    Sujkovic, E; Mileusnic, R; Fry, J P; Rose, S P R


    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been shown to enhance memory retention in different animal models and in various learning paradigms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of peripherally administered DHEAS on the acquisition, consolidation and retention of memory using a weak version of the one-trial passive avoidance task in day-old chicks. Intraperitoneally administered DHEAS (20 mg/kg) either 30 min before or 30 min and 4.5 h after training on the weakly aversive stimulus, enhanced recall at 24 h following training, suggesting a potentiation of not only the acquisition but also the early and late phases of memory consolidation. In contrast, when DHEAS was administered at 30 min prior to the 24 h retention test there was no memory enhancement, indicating a lack of effect on memory retrieval. Memory recall was unaltered when DHEAS was administered at 30 min before training in a control group trained on a strongly aversive stimulus, confirming memory-specific effects. Interestingly, the memory enhancement appeared to be sex-specific as male chicks showed higher recall than females. These findings provide further evidence that DHEAS enhances memory and may be involved in the temporal cascade of long-term memory formation.

  2. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

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    Harald van Lintel


    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  3. Exposure to excess phenobarbital negatively influences the osteogenesis of chick embryos

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    Yu Yan


    Full Text Available Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phenobarbital treatment also suppressed mineralization in both in vivo and in vitro long bone models. Next, we established that phenobarbital treatment delayed blood vessel invasion in a cartilage template, and this finding was supported by the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the hypertrophic zone following phenobarbital treatment. Phenobarbital treatment inhibited tube formation and the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, it impaired angiogenesis in chick yolk sac membrane model and chorioallantoic membrane model. In summary, phenobarbital exposure led to shortened lengths of long bones during embryogenesis, which might result from inhibiting mesenchyme differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, and delaying mineralization by impairing vascular invasion.

  4. Characteristics of odorant elicited calcium fluxes in acutely-isolated chick olfactory neurons. (United States)

    Jung, Yewah; Wirkus, Eric; Amendola, Diedra; Gomez, George


    To understand avian olfaction, it is important to characterize the peripheral olfactory system of a representative bird species. This study determined the functional properties of olfactory receptor neurons of the chicken olfactory epithelium. Individual neurons were acutely isolated from embryonic day-18 to newborn chicks by dissection and enzymatic dissociation. We tested single olfactory neurons with behaviorally relevant odorant mixtures and measured their responses using ratiometric calcium imaging; techniques used in this study were identical to those used in other studies of olfaction in other vertebrate species. Chick olfactory neurons displayed properties similar to those found in other vertebrates: they responded to odorant stimuli with either decreases or increases in intracellular calcium, calcium increases were mediated by a calcium influx, and responses were reversibly inhibited by 100 microM L: -cis-diltiazem, 1 mM Neomycin, and 20 microM U73122, which are biochemical inhibitors of second messenger signaling. In addition, some cells showed a complex pattern of responses, with different odorant mixtures eliciting increases or decreases in calcium in the same cell. It appears that there are common features of odorant signaling shared by a variety of vertebrate species, as well as features that may be peculiar to chickens.

  5. Clinical and biochemical effects of aflatoxin in feed ration of chicks. (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Taskar, P K; Schwabe, O; Das, Y T; Brown, H D


    Aflatoxin carcinogenesis appears to relate to multiple factors. This includes bulky adduct formation at DNA guanine N-7. The process also requires more extensive physiological degradation, possibly by the toxin alone as the active principle, but in instances also involving other assaults (e.g., hepatitis B virus). Since aflatoxin carcinogenesis involves complex effects, we have undertaken to define the range of influence of this common food contaminant upon a susceptible model, the broiler-type chick. Aflatoxicosis in two treated groups was indicated by jaundice, coagulopathy, dehydration of combs and shanks, retardation of body weight, and decrease in bursa weight. Blood clotting time, hemoglobin content, erythrocyte and packed-cell volume were affected. Hepatocytes were swollen and had undergone fatty degeneration. Bile duct hyperplasia was evident. Total serum protein, alkaline phosphatase, creatine, lactate dehydrogenase, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and glutamyl transpeptidase were similarly abnormal in birds receiving the contaminated (0.5 and 2.5 micrograms/g aflatoxin B1) feed rations. The aflatoxin B1 and its metabolites were isolated by HPLC from chick serum, liver and muscle.

  6. Spatiotemporal distribution of 1P1 antigen expression in the plexiform layers of developing chick retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Changes in the distribution of 1P1-antigen in the developing chick retina have been examined by indriect immunofluorescence staining technique using the novel monoclonal antibody(MAb)1P1.Expression of the 1P1 antigen was found to be regulated in radial as well as in tangential dimension of the retina,being preferentially or exclusively located in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the neural retina depending on the stages of development ,With the onset of the formation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 antigen becomes expressed in the retina.With progressing differentiation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 immunofluorescence revealed 2 subbands at E9 and 6 subands at E18,At postnatal stages(after P3) immunoreactivity was reduced in an inside-outside sequence leading to the complete absence of the 1P1 antigen in adulthood.1P1 antigen expression in the outer plexiform layer was also subject to developmental regulation.The spation-temporal pattern of 1P1 antigen expression was correlated with the time course of histological differentation of chick retina,namely the synapse rich plexiform layers.Whether the 1P1 antigen was functionally involved in dendrite extension and synapse formation was discussed.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of fibroblast growth factor receptor expression patterns during chick forelimb development. (United States)

    Sheeba, Caroline J; Andrade, Raquel P; Duprez, Delphine; Palmeirim, Isabel


    Specific interactions between fibroblast growth factors (Fgf1-22) and their tyrosine kinase receptors (FgfR1-4) activate different signalling pathways that are responsible for the biological processes in which Fgf signalling is implicated during embryonic development. In the chick, several Fgf ligands (Fgf2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 18) and the four FgfRs (FgfR 1, 2, 3 and 4) have been reported to be expressed in the developing limb. The precise spatial and temporal expression of these transcripts is important to guide the limb bud to develop into a wing/leg. In this paper, we present a detailed and systematic analysis of the expression patterns of FgfR1, 2, 3 and 4 throughout chick wing development, by in situ hybridisation on whole mounts and sections. Moreover, we characterize for the first time the different isoforms of FGFR1-3 by analysing their differential expression in limb ectoderm and mesodermal tissues, using RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation on sections. Finally, isoform-specific sequences for FgfR1IIIb, FgfR1IIIc, FgfR3IIIb and FgfR3IIIc were determined and deposited in GenBank with the following accession numbers: GU053725, GU065444, GU053726, GU065445, respectively.

  8. Rediscovering the chick embryo as a model to study retinal development

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    Vergara M Natalia


    Full Text Available Abstract The embryonic chick occupies a privileged place among animal models used in developmental studies. Its rapid development and accessibility for visualization and experimental manipulation are just some of the characteristics that have made it a vertebrate model of choice for more than two millennia. Until a few years ago, the inability to perform genetic manipulations constituted a major drawback of this system. However, the completion of the chicken genome project and the development of techniques to manipulate gene expression have allowed this classic animal model to enter the molecular age. Such techniques, combined with the embryological manipulations that this system is well known for, provide a unique toolkit to study the genetic basis of neural development. A major advantage of these approaches is that they permit targeted gene misexpression with extremely high spatiotemporal resolution and over a large range of developmental stages, allowing functional analysis at a level, speed and ease that is difficult to achieve in other systems. This article provides a general overview of the chick as a developmental model focusing more specifically on its application to the study of eye development. Special emphasis is given to the state of the art of the techniques that have made gene gain- and loss-of-function studies in this model a reality. In addition, we discuss some methodological considerations derived from our own experience that we believe will be beneficial to researchers working with this system.

  9. /sup 3/H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes

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    Wallingford, J.; Zatz, M.


    Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with /sup 3/H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH/sub 3/, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH/sub 3/ was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates.

  10. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

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    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  11. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis. (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong


    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7(+) somite development and directly increased HNK-1(+) neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1(+) neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development.

  12. Exposure to Excess Phenobarbital Negatively Influences the Osteogenesis of Chick Embryos (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Ren-Hao; Li, He; Chen, Jian-Long; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Yang, Xuesong


    Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phenobarbital treatment also suppressed mineralization in both in vivo and in vitro long bone models. Next, we established that phenobarbital treatment delayed blood vessel invasion in a cartilage template, and this finding was supported by the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the hypertrophic zone following phenobarbital treatment. Phenobarbital treatment inhibited tube formation and the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, it impaired angiogenesis in chick yolk sac membrane model and chorioallantoic membrane model. In summary, phenobarbital exposure led to shortened lengths of long bones during embryogenesis, which might result from inhibiting mesenchyme differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, and delaying mineralization by impairing vascular invasion. PMID:27746734

  13. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

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    Rui-Rong Tan


    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  14. Effects of Multivitamins and Known Teratogens on Chick Cardiomyocytes Micromass Culture Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Memon


    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study aimed to find out whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM system could be employed to predict the teratogenecity of common environmental factors. Different multivitamins and over the counter drugs were used in this study.   Materials and Methods: White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissected and trypsinized to produce a cardiomyocyte cell suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The cultures were incubated at 370C in 5% CO2 in air, and observations were made at 24, 48 and 144 hr, for the detection of cell beating. Cellular viability was assessed using the resazurin assay and cell protein content was assessed by the kenacid blue assay. It was observed that while not affecting total cell number folic acid, vitamin C, sodium fluoride and ginseng did not significantly reduced cell activity and beating. However cadmium chloride significantly reduced the beating, cell viability and cell protein content in micromass cultures. Results: The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter morphology and function, which may result in either teratogenic outcome or cytotoxicity. Conclusion: This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function

  15. Lipid-mediated gene transfection into chick embryo retinal cells in ovo and in vitro. (United States)

    Toy, J; Bradford, R L; Adler, R


    Several lipofection reagents were tested on chick embryo retinal cultures using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene; best results were obtained with the GenePORTER (GP) reagent, which yielded approximately 4.4% of the cells with intense GFP fluorescence. Cell survival and structural differentiation appeared normal, but one of the immunocytochemical markers studied (visinin) was less frequently observed in GP-treated cultures. When similar plasmid-GP mixtures were injected into chick embryo eyes in ovo, bright GFP-fluorescent cells were observed in different retinal layers, without detectable detrimental effects on retinal morphology. Particularly extensive reporter gene expression was obtained upon intraocular injection of GP plus naked DNA from a RCAS retrovirus, which resulted in the development of abundant radial columns of alkaline phosphatase-positive cells, separated by columns of negative cells. We conclude that lipid-based transfection offers a quick, simple and fairly innocuous means for gene delivery into proliferating and postmitotic retinal cells, in vitro as well as in the developing eye in ovo, and that transfection of naked retroviral DNA can lead to extensive expression of foreign genes by retinal cells, bypassing the time-consuming steps required for the generation of high-titer virion stocks.

  16. The chick embryo as an experimental system for melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Busch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A primary cutaneous melanoma will not kill the patient, but its metastases. Since in vitro studies on melanoma cells in 2-D cultures do often not reflect reality, 3-D models might come closer to the physiological situation in the patient during cancer initiation and progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the chick embryo model for in vivo studies of melanoma cell migration and invasion. After transplantation of neural crest-derived melanoma cells into the neural tube, the melanoma cells resume neural crest cell migration along the medial and lateral pathways and finally undergo apoptosis in the target areas. Upon transplantation into ectopic areas such as the hindbrain or the optic cup malignant invasion and local tissue destruction occurs. In contrast, melanocytes are not able to spontaneously resume neural crest cell migration. However, malignant invasion can be induced in melanocytes by pre-treatment with the TGF-beta family members bone morphegenetic protein-2 or nodal. Transplantation of MCF7 breast cancer cells yields a different growth pattern in the rhombencephalon than melanoma cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The chick embryo model is a feasible, cost-effective in vivo system to study invasion by cancer cells in an embryonic environment. It may be useful to study invasive behavior induced by embryonic oncogenes and for targeted manipulation of melanoma or breast cancer cells aiming at ablation of invasive properties.

  17. Growth responses of breast and leg muscles to essential amino acids in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Mehri, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M


    The first three essential amino acids (EAA) for broilers including methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and threonine (Thr) may greatly influence the growth of chick muscles at early stages of life. In order to survey the potential effects of those EAA on growth muscles, a rotatable three-variable central composite design (CCD) was conducted to track the interrelationships of dietary digestible Met (dMet), Lys (dLys) and Thr (dThr) for optimization of processing yields in broiler chicks using response surface methodology. A total of 60 floor pens of six birds each were assigned to 15 dietary treatments based on CCD containing five levels of dMet (0.416% to 0.584% of diet), dLys (0.881% to 1.319% of diet) and dThr (0.532% to 0.868% of diet) from 3 to 16 days of age. Experimental treatments significantly affected breast mass (BM) and leg mass (LM) of the birds (Pmuscle may indicate the higher importance of these EAA in this muscle than those in thigh muscle.

  18. Effects of intravitreal insulin and insulin signaling cascade inhibitors on emmetropization in the chick (United States)

    Penha, Alexandra Marcha; Burkhardt, Eva; Schaeffel, Frank


    Purpose Intravitreal insulin has been shown to be a powerful stimulator of myopia in chickens, in particular if the retinal image is degraded or defocused. In most tissues, the insulin receptor activates two main signaling pathways: a) the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinasem kinase [MEK] and extracellular regulated kinase [ERK]) and b) the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. In the current study, insulin was injected, and these pathways were separately inhibited to determine which is activated when the retinal image is defocused by spectacle lenses. Methods Chicks were treated with either +7 D, −7 D, or no lenses. They were intravitreally injected with insulin, the MEK inhibitor U0126, the PI3K inhibitor Ly294002, or a combination of insulin and one of the inhibitors. Refractions and ocular dimension were measured at the beginning and after four days of treatment. The retinal proteins of the chicks were measured with western blots after 2 h and four days of treatment. Incubation occurred with anti-Akt1, anti-Erk1/2, anti-phospho-AktThr308, and anti-phospho-Erk1/2(Thr202/Tyr204) antibodies, and the ratio between the relative intensity of the phospho-form and the total-form was calculated. Results Chicks wearing positive lenses and injected with saline and with PI3K inhibitor compensated for the imposed defocus and became hyperopic. Insulin injections and insulin plus PI3K inhibitor injections prevented lens-induced hyperopia, whereas the MEK inhibitor alone and insulin plus MEK inhibitor had no effect. Obviously, the MEK inhibitor suppressed the effect of insulin on eye growth in the plus lens–treated animals. Chicks treated with negative lenses and injected with insulin, or with insulin plus MEK inhibitor, overcompensated for the imposed defocus. This effect of insulin was not detected in eyes injected with PI3K inhibitor plus insulin, suggesting that the PI3K inhibitor

  19. Redistribution of calbindin-D28k in chick intestine in response to calcium transport. (United States)

    Nemere, I; Leathers, V L; Thompson, B S; Luben, R A; Norman, A W


    Vitamin D and its hormonally active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] are known to alter several parameters associated with stimulated intestinal Ca2+ transport: levels of calbindin-D28K, tubulin, and endosomal-lysosomal organelles containing Ca2+, and calbindin-D28K. In the present study the as yet unexamined relationship among Ca2+ transport, calbindin-D28K, and microtubules was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitamin D3-treated or 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated chicks, in the absence of Ca2+ transport, immunofluorescence microscopy of intestinal tissue fixed at 25 C indicated a colocalization of calbindin-D28K and tubulin along epithelial cell brush border and basal-lateral membranes. Initiation of in situ Ca2+ absorption for 10, 20, or 30 min before tissue fixation resulted first in increased punctate calbindin-D28K staining and then in a progressive decrease in intestinal cell- and microtubule-associated calbindin-D28K, with a concomitant increase in calbindin-D28K labeling in the villus core. When intestinal tissue from 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated chicks was chilled to 4 C before fixation (a procedure shown by others to cause microtubule depolymerization), evaluation by immunofluorescence microscopy revealed diffuse cytoplasmic staining of both the immunoreactive tubulin and its associated calbindin-D28K. These results indicate the possible involvement of calbindin-D28K with tubulin during the process of Ca2+ transport and the secretion of the calbindin-D28K as a consequence of the overall transport process. Electron microscopy with immunogold labeling revealed intestinal epithelial calbindin-D28K to be localized inside of small vesicles and lysosome-like structures, with sparse cytoplasmic labeling. Subsequent electron microscopic analysis of intestinal epithelial microtubules prepared by polymerization and depolymerization revealed immunogold labeling in coprecipitated vesicular remnants, with consistently light staining of filaments traversing

  20. Up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 2 accompanying the filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Murakami, Akio; Hirose, Naoki; Aoki, Naoya; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Takano, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J


    Using cDNA microarrays, we have identified elsewhere the genes of microtubule-associated proteins as a group up-regulated in newly hatched chick brains after filial imprinting training. Here we show by in situ hybridization that the mRNA for the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) gene was enriched in the mesopallium and the hippocampus in the trained chick brain. The regionally specific enrichments of MAP2 mRNA were not observed in the brain of dark-reared or light-exposed chick as controls, implying an association between the degree of expression and the strength of the learned preference. In agreement with the gene expression, MAP2 protein was accumulated in the mesopallium of the trained chick brain, but not in the brains of the controls. The accumulation of MAP2 was found in the cytosol of neurons and co-localized with beta-tubulin, suggesting a change in microtubule assembly. Our results suggest a postnatal reorganization of cytoskeleton following filial imprinting.

  1. Effect of short chain fatty acids on the performance and intestinal weight in germ-free and conventional chicks. (United States)

    Furuse, M; Yang, S I; Niwa, N; Okumura, J


    1. In experiment 1, the performance and tissue weights of germ-free (GF) and conventional (CV) chicks fed on diets containing 25.4 g acetic acid/kg diet (AD) or 25.4 g kaolin/kg diet (KD) were investigated. Body weight gain in GF chicks was significantly higher on the AD, but significantly lower on the KD compared with their CV counterparts. The values for food efficiency, protein retention and energy retention followed a similar pattern to that of the body weight gain. 2. The weights of all sections of the intestine except the colon were significantly greater in CV chicks. In CV but not in GF birds the jejunum and ileum were heavier from birds fed on the AD than from those on the KD diet. 3. In experiment 2, the influence of butyric acid administration on the weight of some organs in chicks was investigated. The weight of duodenum, jejunum and ileum was significantly increased by intraperitoneal administration of butyric acid (2 ml of 100 mM solution/d) for 4 d, but no significant effect was observed by oral administration. 4. It might be suggested that short chain fatty acids such as acetic and butyric acids formed by bacterial action in the crop and subsequently absorbed are at least partly responsible for the heavier gut weight in CV birds.

  2. The lesser of two evils? The killing of day-old male chicks in the Dutch egg sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.; Blok, V.


    The practice of killing day-old chicks in the Dutch egg sector is a recurrent subject of societal debate. Preventing the killing of young animals and in ovo sex determination are the two main alternatives for this problem available. An online questionnaire was held to ask the opinion of the Dutch pu

  3. Response of chicks to two diets of differing energy levels under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat (United States)

    Donkoh, A.; Kese, A. G.


    A 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the performance and certain physiological parameters of 200 day-old chicks fed diets containing either 2600 or 3000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram for a period of 28 days under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat in a hot humid tropical area. The results indicated that within each dietary energy level, there was no significant difference in growth rates of chicks brooded with or without supplemental heat, however, the high energy diet significantly (Pfeed intake and improved feed conversion efficiency. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat consumed significantly (Pglucose levels were not affected by the heat and dietary energy treatments. Thyroid weight expressed as percentage of body weight, haemoglobin and hematocrit values were significantly (P<0.01) higher for chicks brooded without supplemental heat. On the other hand, dietary energy levels did not exert any effect on these physiological parameters. No significant heat and dietary energy level interaction effects were noted on all the parameters considered under this trial.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Growth parameters of Cormorant hatchlings are described in relation to brood size and age ranking of each chick within individual broods. Growth rates, expressed as body mass increment per day over the period of linear, growth (5-30 days), ranged from 56.4-102.8 g . d(-1) and were found to be

  5. Dietary boron modified the effects of magnesium and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick. (United States)

    Hunt, C D


    The metabolic effects of dietary boron, magnesium, and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick, with emphasis on growth cartilage histology, were studied. One-day-old cockerel chicks were assigned to groups in a fully-crossed, three factor, 2 x 2 x 2 design. The basal diet was based on ground corn, high-protein casein, and corn oil and contained 125 IU cholecalciferol (inadequate), 0.465 mg B, 2.500 mg Mg, and 0.420 mg Mo/kg. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal diet with B at O or 3; Mg at 300 (inadequate) or 500 (adequate); and Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg. At d 25, B depressed mortality, alleviated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced distortion of the marrow sprouts (MS) of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, and elevated the numbers of osteoclasts within the MS. Adequate Mg exacerbated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced bone lesions. Mo widened the MS markedly. In Mg-deficient chicks, B elevated plasma Ca and Mg concentrations and growth, but inhibited initiation of cartilage calcification; B had the opposite effect in Mg-adequate chicks. An interaction among B, Mg, and Mo affected plasma uric acid and glucose concentrations. B may function to modify mineral metabolism in cholecalciferol deficiency, suppressing bone anabolism in concurrent Mg deficiency and bone catabolism in concurrent Mg adequacy.

  6. Generation Chick: Reading Bridget Jones’s Diary, Jessica, 30., and Dies ist kein Liebeslied as Postfeminist Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Bethman


    Full Text Available This article examines Helen Fielding’s, Marlene Streeruwitz’s, and Karen Duve’s novels in the context of the literarisches Fräuleinwunder , the generic conventions of chick lit, and postfeminism, relating all three to the globalization of the book publishing industry and its effects on German-language fiction. I argue that Duve’s and Streeruwitz’s texts can be understood as responses to the Anglo-American chick lit that flooded the German-language book market in the 1990s, of which Fielding’s novel is one of the best-known. Close readings situate both German-language novels firmly within the generic conventions of chick lit, and then look at the ways the texts relate to postfeminism, as well as second- and third-wave feminism. I conclude by arguing that our concept of Frauenliteratur should be expanded to include chick lit as well as more overtly political feminist texts.

  7. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. (United States)

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y


    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks.

  8. The effect of food restriction on morphological and metabolic development in two lines of growing Japanese quail chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ziel, CE; Visser, GH


    To investigate whether there is a relationship between the inherent maximum growth rate of a chick and its degree of developmental plasticity, we studied the effects of food restriction on morphological and physiological development in P-line (selected for high growth rates) and C-line (nonselected)

  9. Categorization and discrimination of "chick-a-dee" calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees. (United States)

    Bloomfield, Laurie L; Farrell, Tara M; Sturdy, Christopher B


    Bloomfield and Sturdy [Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B. All chick-a-dee calls are not created equally. Part I. Open-ended categorization by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behav. Proc., in press] previously reported that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate conspecific from heterospecific (mountain chickadee, P. gambeli) 'chick-a-dee' calls, and their ability to accurately discriminate and classify the calls as belonging to separate species' defined categories was largely unaffected by their prior experience with mountain chickadees and their calls. To further examine the potential influence of experience on discrimination and categorization, we compare wild-caught black-capped chickadees, wild-caught mountain chickadees, and black-capped chickadees hand-reared among either adult laboratory-housed black-capped chickadees or adult laboratory-housed mountain chickadees on a true category/pseudo category chick-a-dee call discrimination task. Irrespective of group assignment, hand-reared birds performed as well as wild-caught birds and did not show a conspecific- or rearing-specific advantage in discrimination, categorization or memorization of chick-a-dee calls. While vocal learning is under the influence of ontogenetic experience, the results derived from the current methods suggest that experience (or a lack thereof) does not affect categorization and memorization abilities.

  10. Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: the chick-a-dee call of the boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus). (United States)

    Moscicki, Michele K; Hoeschele, Marisa; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Modanu, Maria; Charrier, Isabelle; Sturdy, Christopher B


    An important first step in characterizing a vocalization is to classify, describe, and measure the elements of that vocalization. Here, this methodology is employed to study the chick-a-dee call of the boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus). The note types (A, B, C, D, and D(h)) in a sample of boreal chickadee calls are identified and described, spectral and temporal features of each note type are analyzed, and production phenomena in each note type are identified and quantified. Acoustic variability is compared across note types and individuals to determine potential features used for note-type and individual discrimination. Frequency measures appear to be the most useful features for identifying note types and individuals, though total duration may also be useful. Call syntax reveals that boreal chick-a-dee calls follow a general rule of note-type order, namely A-B-C-D(h)-D, and that any note type in this sequence may be repeated or omitted. This work provides a thorough description of the boreal chickadee chick-a-dee call and will serve as a foundation for future studies aimed at elucidating this call's functional significance within this species, as well as for studies comparing chick-a-dee calls across Poecile species.

  11. All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part II. Mechanisms for discrimination by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. (United States)

    Bloomfield, L L; Farrell, T M; Sturdy, C B


    The 'chick-a-dee' call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to discriminate between the acoustically similar calls of the species. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that black-capped (P. atricapillus) and mountain chickadees (P. gambeli) discriminate between the species' calls and treat each species' calls as belonging to separate open-ended categories. In the current set of experiments we use an operant conditioning paradigm to gain an understanding of (1) how the birds perform this discrimination and (2) whether birds with different levels of experience with heterospecific calls perform this task differently. We use natural recordings of chick-a-dee calls and perform several manipulations to test the importance of the introductory 'chick-a' portion and the terminal 'dee' portion for discriminating among the calls of the two species. Evidence suggests that birds mainly use the terminal 'dee' portion, as all groups of birds responded similarly to these probe stimuli and control chick-a-dee calls. We propose that the terminal 'dee' portion, consisting of lower frequency notes, is more likely to be resistant to degradation, and therefore a more reliable species-specific marker.

  12. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness. (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M


    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  13. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick. (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S


    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The contributions of BMP4, positive guidance cues, and repulsive molecules to cutaneous nerve formation in the chick hindlimb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honig, Marcia G; Camilli, Suzanne J; Surineni, Kiran M; Knight, Brian K; Hardin, Holly M


    Our previous surgical manipulations have shown that the target ectoderm is necessary for the initial formation of one of the major cutaneous nerves in the embryonic chick limb (Honig, M.G., Camilli, S.J., Xue, Q.S., 2004...

  15. Brain-derived mast cells could mediate histamine-induced inhibition of food intake in neonatal chicks. (United States)

    Kawakami, S; Bungo, T; Ohgushi, A; Ando, R; Shimojo, M; Masuda, Y; Denbow, D M; Furuse, M


    In the present study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine on food intake of neonatal chicks was examined over 2 h. Histamine (100, 200 or 400 nmol, respectively) was injected in the lateral ventricle of 2-day-old chicks, and cumulative food intakes were measured. i.c.v. injection of histamine significantly inhibited food intake in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compound 48/80, which causes degranulation of mast cells and release of histamine, or thioperamide, which is an antagonist of the histamine H3 autoreceptor and increases histamine release from histaminergic nerve terminals, was injected i.c.v. to clarify whether mast cell- or neuron-derived histamine in the central nervous system of chicks is essential to the feeding inhibition. Central administration of compound 48/80 inhibited food intake with a dose-dependent manner, but thioperamide had no effect on feeding. An inhibitor of mast cell degranulation, sodium cromoglycate, somewhat attenuated food intake inhibited by compound 48/80. These results suggest that brain-derived mast cells could be a major source of histamine in the inhibition of food intake of neonatal chicks.

  16. Studies on the 1. cap alpha. ,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like activity in a calcinagenic plant, Cestrum diurnum, in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R.H. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Corradino, R.A.; Krook, L.; Hughes, M.R.; Haussler, M.R.


    Cestrum diurnum (day-blooming jessamine) has been proposed to cause calcinosis in horses and cattle in Florida. The present studies investigated some physiological properties of the plant, using the chick as the experimental animal. The inclusion of dried leaf powder in a rachitogenic diet restored intestinal calcium-binding protein synthesis (CaBP) and increased calcium absorption in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick. The estimated level of cholecalciferol-equivalents in the dried leaf was about 30,000 to 35,000 IU/kg. Most of the activity was extractable with methanol : chloroform (2:1), indicating that the major cholecalciferol-like component in C. diurnum was different from the water soluble factor(s) in Solanum malacoxylon. The time course of effect of C. diurnum extract in rachitic chicks was similar to that of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol but the former had a longer lag time. The strontium fed chick, in which the kidney 25-hydroxycholecaliciferol-1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase is inhibited, responded to C. diurnum extract, confirming the 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like character of the Cestrum factor. The extract also appeared to interact with the intestinal 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol cytosol receptor although this observation is preliminary. These findings indicate that the 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like principle in C. diurnum may cause excessive calcium and phosphate absorption leading to calcinosis.

  17. Studies on the 1alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like activity in a calcinogenic plant. Cestrum diurnum, in the chick. (United States)

    Wasserman, R H; Corradino, R A; Krook, L; Hughes, M R; Haussler, M R


    Cestrum diurnum (day-blooming jessamine) has been proposed to cause calcinosis in horses and cattle in Florida. The present studies investigated some physiological properties of the plant, using the chick as the experimental animal. The inclusion of dried leaf powder in a rachitogenic diet restored intestinal calcium-binding protein synthesis (CaBP) and increased calcium absorption in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick. The estimated level of cholecalciferol-equivalents in the dried leaf was about 30,000 to 35,000 IU/kg. Most of the activity was extractable with methanol:chloroform (2:1), indicating that the major cholecalciferol-like component in C. diurnum was different from the water soluble factor(s) in Solanum malacoxylon. The time course of effect of C. diurnum extract in rachitic chicks was similar to that ot 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol but the former had a longer lag time. The strontium fed chick, in which the kidney 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1alpha-hydroxylase is inhibited, responded to C. diurnum extract, confirming the 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like character of the Cestrum factor. The extract also appeared to interact with the intestinal 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol cytosol receptor although this observation is preliminary. These findings indicate that the l alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like principle in C. diurnum many cause excessive calcium and phosphate absorption leading to calcinosis.

  18. Application of Impermeable Barriers Combined with Candidate Factor Soaked Beads to Study Inductive Signals in the Chick. (United States)

    Wilde, Susan; Logan, Malcolm P


    The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier. The results are analyzed using in situ hybridization of subsequent gene expression. Our main focus is on the role of retinoic acid signaling in the induction and later initiation of the chick embryo fore and hindlimb. We use BMS 493 (an inverse agonist of retinoic acid receptors (RAR)) soaked beads implanted in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) to mimic the effect of a barrier placed between the somites (a source of retinoic acid (RA)) and the LPM from which limb buds grow. Modified versions of these protocols could also be used to address other questions on the origin and timing of inductive cues. Provided the region of the chick embryo is accessible at the relevant developmental stage, a barrier could be placed between the two tissues and consequent changes in development studied. Examples may be found in the developing brain, axis extension and in organ development, such as liver or kidney induction.

  19. Effect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hydrina D'Silva


    Full Text Available A Mobile phone in operation emits a pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field which is absorbed into the user’s body particularly the head region. Contradictory scientific reports on the health effect of nonionizing radiations on biological tissues have prompted to undertake the present study to evaluate the damage in the developing lens of a chick embryo following exposure to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in two groups in a standard egg incubator. The experiment group was exposed to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies. The 9th to 12th day chick embryo eyes were processed for assessment of DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay technique. The lens thickness and the equatorial diameter were measured using oculometer and statistically compared for both groups. In the present study, the exposure of chick embryos to a 2G cell phone caused structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of posterior aberrant nuclear layer. The DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant.

  20. Effects of contaminant exposure and food restriction on hepatic autophagic lysosomal parameters in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks. (United States)

    Hegseth, Marit Nøst; Gorbi, Stephania; Bocchetti, Raffaella; Camus, Lionel; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Regoli, Francesco


    Lysosomal autophagic responses, such as lysosomal membrane stability, neutral lipids (NL), lipofuscin (LF), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, are valuable measures of cellular early-onset effects induced by environmental stress factors, such as contaminant exposure and fasting. In this study, these parameters were analysed and related to levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in 40 Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks. Chicks were experimentally exposed to HOCs through diet and went through a period of nutrient deprivation at the end of the experiment. HOC exposure and fasting were conducted separately and in combination. NL storages were depleted, and lysosomal membranes were destabilised after HOC exposure and nutrient deprivation. These responses were not related specifically to one type of stress or the extent of the treatment. No synergistic or additive effects from the combination of HOC exposure and fasting were observed. LF accumulated, and MDA levels increased as a result of fasting, but were unaffected by HOC exposure. LF accumulation was strongly associated with the percent weight change in the chicks. Large weight loss was associated with high LF levels, and slight weight gain was associated with low LF levels. Hence, food deprivation affected all the measured parameters, and HOC exposure decreased NL levels and lysosomal membrane stability in HG chick liver. Furthermore, autophagic lysosomal parameters have frequently been applied as biomarkers of cellular health status in previous studies of marine and terrestrial invertebrates, and this study suggests that these parameters may be good candidates for biomarkers of cellular health status in seabirds as well.

  1. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte


    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  2. The Determination of Vitamin D-Dependent Calcium Binding Protein in Chick Intesting: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment. (United States)

    Lessard, George M.


    Described is an experiment used in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory involving inducing rickets in chicks and correlating the disease to a reduction in vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein. Techniques involved are hormone induction, protein isolation, and radioisotope methodology. (Author/DS)

  3. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks. (United States)

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia


    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam.

  4. Differential distribution of protein kinase C (PKCαβ and PKCγ) isoenzyme immunoreactivity in the chick brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, Eddy A. van der; Bolhuis, Johan J.; Solomonia, Revaz O.; Horn, Gabriel; Luiten, Paul G.M.


    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in neural plasticity. The phosphorylation of the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) in the left intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) of the chick brain has been shown previously to correlate significantly with the streng

  5. Immunological evaluation of the intestinal mucosa of broiler chicks treated with Lactobacillus Spp. and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Okamoto


    Full Text Available This study aimed at the antibody production by intestinal mucosa of broilers chicks were orally inoculated with Lactobacillus spp. at one and/or 21 days of age, and subsequently challenged with Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica, serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. A total number of 288 drug-free broiler chicks was divided into 6 groups (groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, according to age at Lactobacillus spp. inoculation and SE challenge. The intestinal mucosa immune response was determined as the production of immunoglobulin A against S. Enteritidis, and evaluated by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique in intestinal washing fluid. Groups treated with Lactobacillus spp. presented higher IgA production only when the chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis at 21 days of age. Nevertheless, the expected stimulus for intestinal mucosa antibody production induced by Lactobacillus spp was observed in only some of the treated groups, demonstrating that the protocol utilized in the present experiment resulted in few beneficial effects for chicks, particularly during the first days of life.

  6. Innate Immune Responses in ALV-J Infected Chicks and Chickens with Hemangioma In Vivo. (United States)

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Xie, Tingting; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan


    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1β, and interferon-β (IFN-β) were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-β protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) and a twofold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in 1 week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression.

  7. Innate immune responses in ALV-J infected chicks and chickens with hemangioma in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min eFeng


    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β and interferon-β (IFN-β were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-β protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i. and a 2-fold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7 at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5 in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in one week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression.

  8. Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis infection alters the indigenous microbiota diversity in young layer chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Khine Zar Mon


    Full Text Available Avian gastrointestinal tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors especially during the early post-hatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post-infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and post-infection time-points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the gastrointestinal microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non

  9. Growth prior to thermogenesis for a quick fledging of Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Dégletagne

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trade-off between tissue growth and mature function restricts the post natal development of polar birds. The present study uses an original integrative approach as it includes gene expression, plus biochemical and physiological analysis to investigate how Adélie penguin chicks achieve a rapid growth despite the energetic constraints linked to the cold and the very short breeding season in Antarctica. In pectoralis muscle, the main thermogenic tissue in birds, our data show that the transition from ectothermy to endothermy on Day 15 post- hatching is associated with substantial and coordinated changes in the transcription of key genes. While the early activation of genes controlling cell growth and differentiation (avGHR, avIGF-1R, T3Rβ is rapidly down-regulated after hatching, the global increase in the relative expression of genes involved in thermoregulation (avUCP, avANT, avLPL and transcriptional regulation (avPGC1α, avT3Rβ underlie the muscular acquisition of oxidative metabolism. Adélie chicks only become real endotherms at 15 days of age with the development of an oxidative muscle phenotype and the ability to shiver efficiently. The persistent muscular expression of IGF-1 throughout growth probably acts as a local mediator to adjust muscle size and its oxidative capacity to anticipate the new physiological demands of future Dives in cold water. The up-regulation of T3Rβ mRNA levels suggests that circulating T3 may play an important role in the late maturation of skeletal muscle by reinforcing, at least in part, the paracrine action of IGF-1. From day 30, the metabolic shift from mixed substrate to lipid metabolism, with the markedly increased mRNA levels of muscle avLPL, avANT and avUCP, suggests the late development of a fatty acid-enhanced muscle non-shivering thermogenesis mechanism. This molecular control is the key to this finely-tuned strategy by which the Adélie penguin chick successfully heads for the sea

  10. Phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and expression in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity. (United States)

    Lartey, F M; Austic, R E


    Experiments were performed to investigate the activity of hepatic Phe hydroxylase (PAH) and plasma amino acid concentrations under conditions of Phe imbalance or toxicity in chicks fed on experimental diets from 7 to 14 or 16 d of age. In experiment 1, Phe imbalance was created by adding 10% of a mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to a basal diet containing 0.46% Phe. The activity of PAH was not significantly affected by the imbalance. Correcting the imbalance by adding 1.12% Phe to the diet prevented the growth impairment and increased the activity of PAH. In experiment 2, growth was reduced by the addition of excess (2%) Phe to the basal diet. Correcting the excess by adding the IAA - Phe to the diet prevented the growth reduction. The activity of PAH was not significantly affected by 2% Phe, but it increased in chicks fed the corrected diet. The levels of PAH mRNA were not affected by the dietary treatments. A factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 dietary levels of Phe (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) with or without the IAA - Phe was used in experiment 3. The effects on growth were similar to those of the same treatments in experiments 1 and 2. The addition of Phe significantly increased hepatic PAH activity, but there was no detectable main effect of the IAA - Phe and no interaction. Plasma Phe concentration was increased by dietary Phe and decreased by the IAA - Phe mixture. We conclude that hepatic PAH activity in chicks variably increases in response to Phe or a 10% dietary supplement of indispensable amino acids including Phe but does not increase in response to IAA - Phe when the amino acids are added to a diet that is marginally adequate in Phe. The increased activity does not involve changes in PAH mRNA. The effects of IAA - Phe on plasma Phe concentrations appear to be independent of hepatic PAH activity as measured in vitro.

  11. Toxicity and EROD-inducing potency of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Broman, D. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Naef, C. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)


    The toxicities (embryolethality) of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in chick embryos using a 72-h test. The substances, dissolved in peanut oil, were injected into the air sacs of eggs preincubated for 7 days. LD{sub 50} values were determined for the four most toxic of the 24 compounds. Benzo(k)fluoranthene was the most potent, with an LD{sub 50} of 14 {mu}g (56 nmol)/kg egg. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benz(a)lanthracene and benzol(b)naphtho(2,3-d)thiophene were a few times less toxic (LD{sub 50} = 39 {mu}g (140 nmol)/kg, 79 {mu}g (349 nmol)/kg and 82 {mu}g (350 nmol)/kg, respectively). The LD{sub 50} of benzo(k)fluoranthene was only about 5 times higher than that previously found for the most potent coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (LD{sub 50} = 3.1 {mu}g (9.4 nmol)/kg), in the same kind of test. The toxicities of 18 of the PAHs in this study have also been evaluated previously using a 2-week test in chick embryos. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, which had not been studied earlier in the 2-week test, proved to be almost as toxic as previously found for benzo(k)fluoranthene in that test. Several of the PAHs studied induced EROD activity in chick embryos, and, in general, the most toxic PAHs were also the most potent inducers of EROD. The highest enzyme activities were found after treatment with indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (12 times the control value) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (8 times the control value). However, due to the high toxicity of dibenz(a,h)anthracene, the dose used was 7 times lower than that of indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Following injection of PAHs on day 7, the EROD activities on day 10 were considerably lower than those obtained after a corresponding treatment with coplanar PCBs in an earlier study. Of the PAHs studied, some exhibited very high embryotoxicity. The most toxic PAHs induced EROD activity, suggesting that their toxicity was at least partly mediated via binding to the Ah receptor

  12. Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine A.; Fraser, William R.


    An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaechick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Adélie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krillEuphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick’s surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick’s probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Adélie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate.

  13. Impaired imprinting and social behaviors in chicks exposed to mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, during the final week of embryogenesis. (United States)

    Nishigori, Hideo; Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu


    The effects of glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during embryogenesis on the imprinting abilities and social behaviors of hatchlings were examined using "fertile hen's egg-embryo-chick" system. Of embryos treated with mifepristone (0.4μmol/egg) on day 14, over 75% hatched a day later than the controls (day 22) without external anomalies. The mifepristone-treated hatchlings were assayed for imprinting ability on post-hatching day 2 and for social behaviors on day 3. The findings were as follows: imprinting ability (expressed as preference score) was significantly lower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (0.65±0.06 vs. 0.92±0.02, P<0.005). Aggregation tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) required for four chicks, individually isolated with cardboard dividers in a box, to form a group after removal of the barriers showed that aggregation was significantly slower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (8.7±1.1 vs. 2.6±0.3, P<0.001). In belongingness tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) for a chick isolated at a corner to join a group of three chicks placed at the opposite corner, mifepristone-treated hatchlings took significantly longer than controls (4.5±0.4/40 cm vs. 2.4±0.08/40 cm, P<0.001). In vocalization tests, using a decibel meter to measure average decibel level/30s (chick vocalization), mifepristone-treated hatchlings had significantly weaker vocalizations than controls (14.2±1.9/30s vs. 26.4±1.3/30s P<0.001). In conclusion, glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during the last week embryogenesis altered the programming of brain development, resulting in impaired behavioral activities in late life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective contribution of the telencephalic arcopallium to the social facilitation of foraging efforts in the domestic chick. (United States)

    Xin, Qiuhong; Ogura, Yukiko; Uno, Leo; Matsushima, Toshiya


    To investigate the neural basis of socio-economic behaviors in birds, we examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of arcopallium (Arco, the major descending pallial area of the avian telencephalon) and the surrounding nuclei in domestic chicks. We tested foraging effort (running distance) in an I-shaped maze with two food patches that delivered food in a biased manner according to a variable interval schedule. Normally, chicks run back and forth between the patches, and the patch use time matches the respective food delivery rate. In the paired phase, even without actual interference of food, chicks showed social facilitation of running effort compared with the single phase. Chicks with lesions in the Arco and lateral Arco showed significant reductions in social facilitation. The lesion effects of the lateral Arco were particularly selective, as it was not accompanied by changes in running distance in the single phase. Lesions of the nidopallium and nucleus taeniae of the amygdala produced no changes in foraging behavior. On the other hand, the Arco lesion did not impair social facilitation of operant peck latency. In accordance with this, anterograde tracing revealed characteristic projections from the lateral Arco to the extended amygdala, hippocampus, and septum, as well as wide areas of limbic nuclei in the hypothalamus and medial areas of the striatum including the nucleus accumbens. Pathways from the lateral Arco could enable chicks to overcome the extra effort investment of social foraging, suggesting functional and anatomical analogies to the anterior cingulate cortex and basolateral amygdala in mammals. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.


    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  16. Popeye domain containing gene 2 (Popdc2) is a myocyte-specific differentiation marker during chick heart development. (United States)

    Breher, Stephanie S; Mavridou, Eleftheria; Brenneis, Christian; Froese, Alexander; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Brand, Thomas


    The Popeye domain containing (popdc) genes constitute a novel gene family encoding proteins of the plasma membrane in muscle cells, with three N-terminal transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic carboxy terminus. In vertebrates, three members of the Popdc gene family have been described. However, in the chick system only two cDNAs, Popdc1 and Popdc3, have been cloned previously. By screening a chick expressed sequence tag database, we report here the identification of five alternatively spliced chick Popdc2 cDNAs with different carboxy termini. Northern blot analysis revealed expression of Popdc2 predominantly in the myocardium and weaker expression in skeletal muscle. By whole-mount in situ hybridization, chick Popdc2 was first detected at Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 7 within the anterior part of the heart fields. In the tubular heart, atrial and ventricular precursor cells stained positively for Popdc2. Weaker expression was observed in myocardium of the outflow tract and sinus venosus. By HH stage 18, the outer curvature myocardium was strongly stained, whereas expression in myocardium of the inner curvature was negligible. Popdc2 expression was absent from the endocardium and propepicardial organ. At HH stage 36, Popdc2 expression was confined to the compact layer myocardium. In addition to the heart, Popdc2 expression was also observed in the myotome and in the muscle-forming fields of the limbs. Our results indicate that Popdc2 is highly expressed in the developing heart and may serve as a novel marker of myocardial differentiation in the chick embryo.

  17. Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination. (United States)

    Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R


    Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0 h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24 h (4 treatments × 6 replicates per treatment × 20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration.

  18. Salmonella spp. infection in imported 1-day-old chicks, ducklings, and turkey poults: a public health risk. (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Yousef, Ashgan M M; Aly, Mona M; Radwan, Moustafa I


    The occurrence of Salmonella in 750 birds was assessed. The samples included the internal organs (caecal pouches, yolk sac, liver, and lung) of imported 1-day-old chicks (n = 150), grandparent chicks (n = 150), breeder chicks (n = 150), ducklings (n = 150), and turkey poults (n = 150), and paper-lined boxes (n = 250). Salmonellae isolated from the internal organs and paper-lined box of 1-day-old chicks, ducklings, and poults were mostly evident from the paper-lined box followed by caecal samples. Imported 1-day-old grandparent flocks were Salmonella free. Although 23.3% of the imported breeder flocks were positive for Salmonella, the imported duckling flocks and day-old turkey poults exhibited 19.3% and 12.6%, respectively. The widest diversity in isolated salmonellae was from the 1-day-old chicks where Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Shubra, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Agona were isolated. On the other hand, two Salmonella serovars were isolated from the imported breeders, Salmonella Shubra and Salmonella Shipley, and from the imported ducklings, Salmonella Shubra and Salmonella Saintpaul. The three Salmonella serovars isolated from the imported day-old turkey poults were Salmonella Shubra, Salmonella Newport, and Salmonella Saintpaul. The high percentage and diversity of Salmonella isolation from the imported birds cause concern because of the zoonotic potential of this agent and its economical importance to the local commercial poultry breeding industry. From 80 samples investigated for Salmonella, the positivity of the standard microbiological technique method was 17.5% and of the polymerase chain reaction method (Salmonella-specific invA gene) was 22.5%. The concordance between the two methods was 90% (k = 0.850). Our results indicated that the polymerase chain reaction approach is better than culturing for detecting Salmonella in poultry samples when using the preenriched medium combinations used in this

  19. The role of GABAergic system on the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake in neonatal chicks. (United States)

    Jonaidi, H; Abbassi, L; Yaghoobi, M M; Kaiya, H; Denbow, D M; Kamali, Y; Shojaei, B


    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide that has a stimulatory effect on food intake in mammals. In contrast, this peptide decreases food intake in neonatal chicks when injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV). In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates the orexigenic effect of ghrelin whereas in chicks it appears that corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is partially involved in the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) has a stimulatory effect on food intake in mammals and birds. In this study we investigated whether the anorectic effect of ghrelin is mediated by the GABAergic system. In Experiment 1, 3h-fasted chicks were given an ICV injection of chicken ghrelin and picrotoxin, a GABA(A) receptors antagonist. Picrotoxin decreased food intake compared to the control chicks indicating a stimulatory effect of GABA(A) receptors on food intake. However, picrotoxin did not alter the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake. In Experiment 2, THIP hydrochloride, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, was used in place of picrotoxin. THIP hydrochloride appeared to partially attenuate the decrease in food intake induced by ghrelin at 30 min postinjection. In Experiment 3, the effect of ICV injection of chicken ghrelin on gene expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)(1) and GAD(2), GABA synthesis enzymes in the brain stem including hypothalamus, was investigated. The ICV injection of chicken ghrelin significantly reduced GAD(2) gene expression. These findings suggest that ghrelin may decrease food intake in neonatal chicks by reducing GABA synthesis and thereby GABA release within brain feeding centers.

  20. Distribution of glutamine synthetase in the chick forebrain: implications for passive avoidance memory formation. (United States)

    O'Dowd, B S; Ng, K T; Robinson, S R


    The glial enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) converts glutamate to glutamine; the latter is used by neurons for the resynthesis of glutamate and GABA. We have used a monoclonal antibody to GS to examine the regional distribution of this enzyme in the forebrains of day-old chicks. GS was detected in glia throughout the rostral and caudal regions of the forebrain and was particularly intense in the hippocampus, area parahippocampus and parts of the hyperstriatal and paleostriatal complex, regions widely considered to be involved in memory formation. Thus, our data provide an anatomical framework for the conclusion that neurons require the support of glia in order to restock their glutamate and/or GABA transmitter supplies during memory processing.

  1. Systemic Aspergillosis in Emu Chicks in an organised farm in Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Karunakaran1

    Full Text Available Systematic post mortem examination was carried out on seven Emu chicks submitted for disease diagnosis to Clinical Laboratory, District Veterinary Centre, Palakkad. On examination, numerous small greyish white nodules were seen in the lungs, air sacs, kidney and serosal surface of proventriculus. Dark red liver with necrotic areas and dark coloured spleen were the other lesions. Microscopically the lungs revealed granulomas with central areas of caseation surrounded by mononuclear cells and fibroblasts. PAS positive fungal hyphae could be seen in the lesion. Aspergillus fumigatus could be isolated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar from the lesions. This is the first report on the occurrence of systemic aspergillosis in Emus from Kerala. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 453-455

  2. In-vivo effect of Lithospermum ruderale on LHRH activity in the chick

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    Zeller, F.J.; Breneman, W.R.


    Lithospermum (LSPM) plant extracts can inhibit gonadotropin action in mammals and birds. The experiments reported in this paper were performed to note the possible effect of LSPM on the ability of LHRH to stimulate /sup 32/P testis uptake in immature chicks. LHRH injected 2 h before autopsy significantly increased /sup 32/P uptake in these animals. Water extracts of Lithospermum ruderale roots were administered subcutaneously at various concentrations and times before LHRH. LSPM injections of 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mg equivalents of dried material given 10 h before LHRH significantly suppressed the releasing hormone effect. 4.0 mg LSPM was not inhibitory at 16, 22, 38 or 46 h before LHRH. Interestingly, LHRH had a greater effect, as measured by /sup 32/P testis uptake, when given to these latter 3 groups then when given to controls. This suggests that LSPM may have prevented the release but not the synthesis of anterior pituitary gonadotropins.

  3. Ontogeny of circadian clock gene expression in the pineal and the suprachiasmatic nucleus of chick embryo. (United States)

    Okabayashi, Naritoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Watanabe, Miwa; Namikawa, Takao; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Yoshimura, Takashi


    Avian circadian rhythms are regulated by a multiple oscillatory system consisting of the pineal, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the eye. In the present study, ontogeny of circadian clock in the pineal and the SCN of chick embryo was examined using Per2 expression as a marker. A daily rhythmicity of Per2 expression was first detectable at embryonic day (ED) 18 in the pineal and at ED 16 in the SCN under light-dark (LD) cycles. The amplitude of the rhythmicity increased during the development. In contrast, little expression was observed during the development in constant darkness. These results suggest that although circadian clock matures by the end of the embryonic life in chicken, LD cycles are required for the expression of the Per2.

  4. Comparative study of prostaglandin E2 production in chick spinal cord and meninges. (United States)

    Billotte, C; Vesin, M F


    In chick spinal cord the presence of low affinity (KD = 2.2 microM) receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) raises the question whether spinal cord possesses a PGE2 biosynthetic capacity able to activate these receptors. The production of PGE2 in spinal cord and meninges was investigated by enzyme immunoassay. Spinal cord exhibited a 30- to 100-fold lower PGE2 biosynthetic capacity compared to meninges, but can generate PGE2 resulting in micromolar concentrations, sufficient to activate the low affinity PGE2 receptors. It is suggested that in physiological conditions, PGE2 synthesized within the spinal cord might locally activate the low affinity PGE2 receptors, whereas in pathological situations, after disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier, PGE2 produced by the meninges might be accessible to spinal cord PGE2 receptors, and thus largely contribute to their saturation.

  5. Effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in African ostrich chicks. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Xinting; Zhu, Daiyun; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Juan; Sun, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Peng, Kemei


    To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality.

  6. A 'tool box' for deciphering neuronal circuits in the developing chick spinal cord. (United States)

    Hadas, Yoav; Etlin, Alex; Falk, Haya; Avraham, Oshri; Kobiler, Oren; Panet, Amos; Lev-Tov, Aharon; Klar, Avihu


    The genetic dissection of spinal circuits is an essential new means for understanding the neural basis of mammalian behavior. Molecular targeting of specific neuronal populations, a key instrument in the genetic dissection of neuronal circuits in the mouse model, is a complex and time-demanding process. Here we present a circuit-deciphering 'tool box' for fast, reliable and cheap genetic targeting of neuronal circuits in the developing spinal cord of the chick. We demonstrate targeting of motoneurons and spinal interneurons, mapping of axonal trajectories and synaptic targeting in both single and populations of spinal interneurons, and viral vector-mediated labeling of pre-motoneurons. We also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of the activity pattern of defined spinal neurons during rhythmic motor behavior, and assess the role of channel rhodopsin-targeted population of interneurons in rhythmic behavior using specific photoactivation.

  7. NMR Based Cerebrum Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Simultaneous Interconnected Changes during Chick Embryo Incubation. (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Zhu, Hang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xuxia; Xu, Fuqiang; Tang, Huiru; Ye, Chaohui; Liu, Maili


    To find out if content changes of the major functional cerebrum metabolites are interconnected and formed a network during the brain development, we obtained high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) 1H NMR spectra of cerebrum tissues of chick embryo aged from incubation day 10 to 20, and postnatal day 1, and analyzed the data with principal component analysis (PCA). Within the examined time window, 26 biological important molecules were identified and 12 of them changed their relative concentration significantly in a time-dependent manner. These metabolites are generally belonged to three categories, neurotransmitters, nutrition sources, and neuronal or glial markers. The relative concentration changes of the metabolites were interconnected among/between the categories, and, more interestingly, associated with the number and size of Nissl-positive neurons. These results provided valuable biochemical and neurochemical information to understand the development of the embryonic brain.

  8. Task- and time-dependent memory enhancement by dehydroepiandosterone in day-old chicks. (United States)

    Johnston, A N; Migues, P V


    We have previously reported the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) in the day-old-chick brain, and a role for it in enhanced memory formation. Here we confirm that intracerebral injections of DHEA 5 min before training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 hours after training. Recall per se on an appetitive visual categorization task was not altered by administration of DHEA 5 min before training. However administration of DHEA 5 min before limited or very limited training on a visual categorization task (20 or 10 pecks only) appeared to enhance consolidation of this task at test 24 h after training; reducing the latency and total time taken to complete the test (60 pecks), while not detrimentally altering accuracy. Moreover, DHEA is unlikely to induce this effect via possible anxiolytic effects because it did not alter behavior in the open field test. We also examined diffusion of DHEA throughout the brain at various stages following intracerebral injection.

  9. Hematological alterations in broiler chicks during different seasons supplemented with herbal formulations

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    Nidhi Singh1


    Full Text Available The study was conducted on Vencobb broiler chicks to ascertain the antistress affects of Zist, Zeetress and a combination of Amla and Turmeric during summer, rainy and winter seasons and thereby the haematological changes of birds revealed that during all the three seasons a marked improvement in Haemoglobin was encountered in all the three groups where herbal preparations were supplemented. A marked increase in the lymphocyte count occurred during summer and winter seasons in all the experimental groups of bird as compared to the control group. The heterophil count was decreased with the supplementation of herbal formulations in the feed irrespective of the seasons encountered in the season. This decrease in heterophil count was highly significant in seasons like summer, winter and rainy. This observation proves the hepato-stimulatory, hepato protective and immuno modulating effects of herbal preparations. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 110-112

  10. Virulence and molecular aspects of Bordetella avium isolated from cockatiel chicks (Nymphicus hollandicus) in Brazil. (United States)

    Grespan, A; Camera, O; Knöbl, T; Gomes, C R; Felizardo, M R; Ferreira, T S P; Gobbi, D D S; Moreno, M; Sanches, A A; Ferreira, C S A; Ferreira, A J P; Moreno, A M


    Bordetella avium is an opportunistic pathogen that presents tropism for ciliated epithelia, leading to upper respiratory tract disease in turkeys. This agent has also been associated with Lockjaw Syndrome in psittacine birds, but literatures describing the importance of this agent in such species are rare. The purpose of the present study was to report the first outbreak of B. avium infection in juvenile cockatiels demonstrating the Lockjaw Syndrome in Brazil and to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these strains. Surprising, the strains obtained from five infected cockatiel chicks from three different breeders from different Brazilian states showed a clonal relationship using the Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and Single Enzyme Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism techniques. The virulence potentials of the B. avium strains were assessed using tracheal adherence and cytotoxic effects on a VERO cell monolayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The mecanism of cementing line formation in the bones of cestrum-fed chicks. (United States)

    Bélanger, L F; Narbaitz, R


    Chicks fed a rachitogenic diet for five weeks after hatching were then treated with a daily oral dose of 1,000 I.U. Vitamin D3 or a 1% addition to the feed of powdered leaves of Cestrum diurnum for periods of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days. Comparative studies were made on stained sections, microradiographs of undermineralized sections and alpharadiographs of demineralized sections. The present dose of Cestrum diurnum caused at first, a rapid maturation and mineralization of the epiphyseal cartilage and an intense growth and osteocytic osteolysis in the diaphysis of the tibia and femur. After 8 days however, growth decreased and the diaphysis gradually became petrotic. Under these conditions, the osteocytes degenerated and died. The areas of polysaccharide-rich, low density matrix which surrounded them, decreased gradually to become cementing lines, persistent after 30 days.

  12. Integration of human model neurons (NT2) into embryonic chick nervous system. (United States)

    Podrygajlo, Grzegorz; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Scaal, Martin; Bicker, Gerd


    Postmitotic neurons were generated from the human NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line in a novel cell aggregate differentiation procedure. Approximately a third of the differentiated neurons expressed cell markers related to cholinergic neurotransmission. To examine whether this human cell model system can be directed toward a motoneuronal fate, postmitotic neurons were co-cultured with mouse myotubes. Outgrowing neuronal processes established close contact with the myotubes and formed neuromuscular junction-like structures that bound alpha-bungarotoxin. To determine how grafted precursor cells and neurons respond to embryonic nerve tissue, NT2 cells at different stages of neural development were injected into chick embryo neural tube and brain. Grafted NT2 neurons populated both parts of the nervous system, sometimes migrating away from the site of injection. The neural tube appeared to be more permissive for neurite extensions than the brain. Moreover, extending neurites of spinal grafts were approaching the ventral roots, thus resembling motoneuronal projections.

  13. Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Møller, Eva Friis; Johansen, Kasper Lambert;

    Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland Anders Mosbech, Kasper Johansen, Eva Friis Møller & Peter Lyngs Department of Biology and Arctic Center, Aarhus University, Denmark An estimated 80 % of the global little auk population breeds in the coastal landscape...... bordering the north water polynya in high Arctic northwest Greenland, and from this main breeding area very little is known on foraging behavior. Little auks are feeding on lipid-rich copepods associated with cold artic waters, and are potentially important for monitoring and assessing the impact...... of the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Here we present the first results from GPS tracking of breeding little auks in northwest Greenland, involving data from four different breeding colonies. We examine time budgets, foraging trip patterns and habitat preferences at foraging areas, including comparison...

  14. Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling in the Developing Chick Heart: The Deranging Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

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    Lucie Hejnova


    Full Text Available The adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiac contractility. Here we analyzed the key components of myocardial AC signaling in the developing chick embryo and assessed the impact of selected β-blocking agents on this system. Application of metoprolol and carvedilol, two commonly used β-blockers, at embryonic day (ED 8 significantly downregulated (by about 40% expression levels of AC5, the dominant cardiac AC isoform, and the amount of Gsα protein at ED9. Activity of AC stimulated by forskolin was also significantly reduced under these conditions. Interestingly, when administered at ED4, these drugs did not produce such profound changes in the myocardial AC signaling system, except for markedly increased expression of Giα protein. These data indicate that β-blocking agents can strongly derange AC signaling during the first half of embryonic heart development.

  15. The Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane as an In Vivo Assay to Study Antiangiogenesis

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    Domenico Ribatti


    Full Text Available Antiangiogenesis, e.g., inhibition of blood vessel growth, is being investigated as a way to prevent the growth of tumors and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Pharmacological inhibition interferes with the angiogenic cascade or the immature neovasculature with synthetic or semi-synthetic substances, endogenous inhibitors or biological antagonists.The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM is an extraembryonic membrane, which serves as a gas exchange surface and its function is supported by a dense capillary network. Because its extensive vascularization and easy accessibility, CAM has been used to study morphofunctional aspects of the angiogenesis process in vivo and to study the efficacy and mechanism of action of pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. The fields of application of CAM in the study of antiangiogenesis, including our personal experience, are illustrated in this review article.

  16. Piracetam, an AMPAkine drug, facilitates memory consolidation in the day-old chick. (United States)

    Samartgis, Jodi R; Schachte, Leslie; Hazi, Agnes; Crowe, Simon F


    Piracetam is an AMPAkine drug that may have a range of different mechanisms at the cellular level, and which has been shown to facilitate memory, amongst its other effects. This series of experiments demonstrated that a 10mg/kg dose of piracetam facilitated memory consolidation in the day-old chick when injected from immediately until 120min after weak training (i.e. using a 20% v/v concentration of methyl anthranilate) with the passive avoidance learning task. Administration of piracetam immediately after training led to memory facilitation which lasted for up to 24h following training. This dose of the AMPAkine was not shown to facilitate memory reconsolidation. These findings support the contention that application of the AMPAkine piracetam facilitates memory using a weak training task, and extend the range of actions previously noted with NMDA-related agents to those which also facilitate the AMPA receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bidirectional Fusion of the Heart-forming Fields in the Developing Chick Embryo (United States)

    Moreno-Rodriguez, R.A.; Krug, E.L.; Reyes, L.; Villavicencio, L.; Mjaatvedt, C.H.; Markwald, R.R.


    It is generally thought that the early pre-tubular chick heart is formed by fusion of the anterior or cephalic limits of the paired cardiogenic fields. However, this study shows that the heart fields initially fuse at their midpoint to form a transitory “butterfly”-shaped, cardiogenic structure. Fusion then progresses bi-directionally along the longitudinal axis in both cranial and caudal directions. Using in vivo labeling, we demonstrate that cells along the ventral fusion line are highly motile, crossing future primitive segments. We found that mesoderm cells migrated cephalically from the unfused tips of the anterior/cephalic wings into the head mesenchyme in the region that has been called the secondary heart field. Perturbing the anterior/cranial fusion results in formation of a biconal heart. A theoretical role of the ventral fusion line acting as a “heart organizer” and its role in cardia bifida is discussed. PMID:16252277

  18. Spontaneous and light-induced photon emission from intact brains of chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦珠; 于文斗; 孙彤


    Photon emission (PE) and light-induced photon emission(LPE) of intact brains isolated from chick embryos have been measured by using the single photon counting device. Experimental results showed that the intensi-ty level of photon emission was detected to be higher from intact brain than from the medium in which the brain was immerged during measuring, and the emission intensity was related to the developmental stages, the healthy situation of the measured embryos, and the freshness of isolated brains as well. After white light illumination, a short-life de-layed emission from intact brains was observed, and its relaxation behavior followed a hyperbolic rather than an expo-nential law. According to the hypothesis of biophoton emission originating from a delocalized coherent electromagnetic field and Frohlich’s idea of coherent long-range interactions in biological systems, discussions were made on the signifi-cance of photon emission in studying cell communication, biological regulation, living system’

  19. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

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    Ingrid R. Cordeiro


    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1 regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues.

  20. Curcumin Prevents Aflatoxin B1 Hepatoxicity by Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isozymes in Chick Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni-Ya Zhang


    Full Text Available This study was designed to establish if Curcumin (CM alleviates Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine whether alteration of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450 isozymes is involved in the regulation of these effects in chick liver. One-day-old male broilers (n = 120 were divided into four groups and used in a two by two factorial trial in which the main factors included supplementing AFB1 (< 5 vs. 100 μg/kg and CM (0 vs. 150 mg/kg in a corn/soybean-based diet. Administration of AFB1 induced liver injury, significantly decreasing albumin and total protein concentrations and increasing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, and induced hepatic histological lesions at week 2. AFB1 also significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, while increasing malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO-DNA concentrations. In addition, the mRNA and/or activity of enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of AFB1 into AFBO—including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4—were significantly induced in liver microsomes after 2-week exposure to AFB1. These alterations induced by AFB1 were prevented by CM supplementation. Conclusively, dietary CM protected chicks from AFB1-induced liver injury, potentially through the synergistic actions of increased antioxidant capacities and inhibition of the pivotal CYP450 isozyme-mediated activation of AFB1 to toxic AFBO.

  1. Measurement of wall shear stress in chick embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Ma, Zhenhe; Dou, Shidan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Suo, Yanyan; Wang, Fengwen


    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. To study the mechanism, WSS measurement is a step with significant importance. WSS is caused by blood flow imposed on the inner surface of the heart wall and it can be determined by calculating velocity gradients of blood flow in a direction perpendicular to the wall. However, the WSS of the early stage embryonic heart is difficult to measure since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is uniquely suitable for the study of early stage embryonic heart development. In this paper, we introduce a method to measure the WSS of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). 4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. After phase synchronization, OFT boundary segmentation, and OFT center line calculation, Doppler angle of the blood flow in the OFT can be achieved (This method has been described in previous publications). Combining with the Doppler OCT results, we calculate absolute blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT. The boundary of the OFT was segmented at each cross-sectional structural image, then geometrical center of the OFT can be calculated. Thus, the gradients of blood flow in radial direction can be calculated. This velocity gradient near the wall is termed wall shear rate and the WSS value is proportional to the wall shear rate. Based on this method, the WSS at different heart beating phase are compare. The result demonstrates that OCT is capable of early stage chicken embryonic heart WSS study.

  2. Distribution of microglial cells in the cerebral hemispheres of embryonic and neonatal chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ignácio


    Full Text Available The distribution, morphology and morphometry of microglial cells in the chick cerebral hemispheres from embryonic day 4 (E4 to the first neonatal day (P1 were studied by histochemical labeling with a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum lectin. The histochemical analysis revealed lectin-reactive cells in the nervous parenchyma on day E4. Between E4 (5.7 ± 1.35 mm length and E17 (8.25 ± 1.2 mm length, the lectin-reactive cells were identified as ameboid microglia and observed starting from the subventricular layer, distributed throughout the mantle layer and in the proximity of the blood vessels. After day E13, the lectin-reactive cells exhibited elongated forms with small branched processes, and were considered primitive ramified microglia. Later, between E18 (5.85 ± 1.5 mm cell body length and P1 (3.25 ± 0.6 mm cell body length, cells with more elongated branched processes were observed, constituting the ramified microglia. Our findings provide additional information on the migration and differentiation of microglial cells, whose ramified form is observed at the end of embryonic development. The present paper focused on the arrangement of microglial cells in developing cerebral hemispheres of embryonic and neonatal chicks, which are little studied in the literature. Details of morphology, morphometry and spatial distribution of microglial cells contributed to the understanding of bird and mammal central nervous system ontogeny. Furthermore, the identification and localization of microglial cells during the normal development could be used as a morphological guide for embryonic brain injury researches.

  3. Effect of Saffron aqua Extract on Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane

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    Javad Baharara


    Full Text Available Background: Studies confirmed anticancer properties of saffron extract. Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels which is necessary in many physiological stages and pathological events such as tumor growth. So it would be an effective strategy to inhibit angiogenesis to treat many cancers and metastasis. In this experimental study, effects of saffron on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane (CAM were investigated. Materials and Methods: Fifity ross fertilized eggs divided in 5 groups, including: control, sham exposed, experimental group 1, 2 and 3. In second day of incubation window was opened on eggs. In day 8 gelatin sponges contain gelatin and albumin was put on chorioalantoic membrane and was soaked with Saffron aqua extract in concentration 100, 400 and 800 μg/ml. In 12th day all cases were photographed by photo stereomicroscope. Numbers and lengths of vessels around the sponges were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 in significant level p<0.05. Results: According to data analysis, changes had no correlation on the average length of blood vessels in the first experimental group (41.5±5.5 mm, compared with the control group, (44.5±2.4 mm. While in the second and third experimental group (40.2±2.1 mm and (38.4±3.8 mm these changes were significant (p=0.001. On the other hand, the average number of blood vessels in the first experimental group (22.07±5.2 in compare with the control group (27.46±4.4 shows a significant reduction (p=0.02, this decline between the second (18.80±4.4 and third (15.87±3.8 experimental groups was significant at the level of p=0.001. Conclusion: Saffron extract has a dose dependent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane.

  4. [Effect of pirenzepine on form deprivation myopia in chicks and its possible mechanism]. (United States)

    Dai, Shu-zhen; Zeng, Jun-wen; Wang, Li-ya


    To observe the effect of M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, on form deprivation myopia and investigate the expression of MMP-2 and its inhibitor TIMP-2 in the fibrous sclera in order to better understand the mechanism by which pirenzepine inhibits myopia. 40 chicks after birth one day were divided into 4 groups randomly: I. Control group; II. Form deprivation group; III. Vehicle application group; IV. Pirenzepine injected group. Form deprivation myopia was established in right eyes of group II, III, IV by placement of a translucent occluder. The deprived eyes of group III and IV received daily subconjunctival administration of vehicle PBS and pirenzepine respectively. Optical measures such as refraction, axial length, equatorial diameter were made at the end of the experiment. Total RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior fibrous sclera chicks. The expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein were investigated with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. Refraction status, axial length, equatorial diameter of the eyes in pirenzepine injected group were significantly lower when compared with form deprivation group (P pirenzepine injected group when optical measures and the expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2 were concerned (P > 0.05). The expressions (mRNA and protein) of both MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were significantly different in form deprivation group when compared with normal control group (MMP-2 mRNA increased by 143.51%, P pirenzepine injected group the relative expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein were decreased obviously by 41.95% (P pirenzepine, partly prevents or restrains form deprivation induced myopia. It may exert its inhibitory effect by modulating the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in fibrous sclera.

  5. Regulation of chick early B-cell factor-1 gene expression in feather development. (United States)

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Awad, Ashraf; Shukry, Mustafa


    The chick Ebf1 (early B-cell factor-1) gene is a member of a novel family of helix loop helix transcription factors. The expression profile, regulation and significance of this gene have been extensively studied in lymphatic, nervous, adipose and muscular tissues. However, cEbf1 expression, regulation and function in the feather of chick embryo have not yet been investigated. cEbf1 expression was first detected throughout the mesenchymal core of some few feather placodes (D7-D7.5). After feathers became mature and grew distally (D9 and D10), the mesenchymal expression of cEbf1 became confined to the caudal margin of the proximal half of all formed feather buds. Because this dynamic pattern of expression resembles that of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein and bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp4) plus the crucial role of these two major signals in feather development, we hypothesized that cEbf1 expression in the feather may be regulated by Shh and Bmp4. In a feather explant culture system, Shh signals are necessary to initiate and maintain cEbf1 expression in the posterior half of the feather bud, while Bmp4 is crucial for the initial cEbf1 expression in the anterior half of the feather bud. Inhibition of Shh, not only down-regulates cEbf1, but also changes the morphology of feather buds, which become irregular and fused. This is the first study to demonstrate that cEbf1 expression in the feather bud is under the control of Shh and Bmp4 signals and that expression may play a role in the normal development of feathers.

  6. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry. (United States)

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk


    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  7. Investigation of Interaction between Deferoxamine and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Angiogenesis in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Dashtizadeh


    Full Text Available Background: Deferoxamine (DFO is an iron chelator. In the present research, the synergic effects of deferoxamine and electromagnetic field (with 50 H frequency and 100 Gauss intensity on angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 80 fertilized egg used and randomly divided 8 group: control group, laboratory control groups of 1 and 2, experimental group 1 (treatment with electromagnetic field, 2 and 3 (treatment with deferoxamine 10, 100 µmol, respectively, 4 and 5 (treatment both deferoxamine 10 and 100 µmol respectively and electromagnetic field. On 8th day of incubation, 2 and 4 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine and for 3 and 5 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine 100 µmol. On 10th day, 1, 4 and 5 groups were put in electromagnetic field. On 12th day, the number and length of vessels in all samples was measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed by SPSS-19, ANOVA and t-test. Results: The mean number and length of vessels in the control and experimental cases did not show any significant differences. Comparison between mean number of vessels in the control and group 2, 3, 4, 5 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 and groups 2 and 4 was showed a significant decrease in the mean length of vessels compared with the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using deferoxamine with low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz and 100 G cause inhibition of angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

  8. Sulfate transport by chick renal tubule brush-border and basolateral membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, J.L.; Clark, N.B.; Metts, R.E.; Lynch, M.A.


    Brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles (BBMV and BLMV, respectively) were prepared from chick kidney by a calcium precipitation method and by centrifugation on an 8% Percoll self-generating gradient, respectively. In BBMV a 100-mM Na gluconate gradient, out>in, caused concentrative (/sup 35/S) sulfate uptake approximately fivefold greater at 1 min than at 60 min (equilibrium) whether or not the membranes were short-circuited with 100 mM K gluconate, in=out, plus 20 valinomycin/mg protein. A 48-mM HCO/sub 3//sup -/ gradient, in>out, stimulated a 2.5-fold higher uptake at 1 min than at 60 min, and short circuiting as above had no effect on the magnitude of this response. Imposition of a H/sup +/ gradient caused concentrative uptake fourfold higher at 1 min than at equilibrium. Short circuiting as above or addition of 0.1 mM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) significantly inhibited the pH gradient effect. Creation of an inside positive electrical potential with 100 mM K gluconate, out>in, plus valinomycin, also caused concentrative sulfate uptake. Based on inhibitor/competitor effects, these are distinct sulfate transport processes. In chick BLMV, imposition of an HCO/sub 3//sup -/ gradient, in>out, produced concentrative sulfate uptake. 4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium at 0.1 mM was an effective inhibitor of BLMV bicarbonate-sulfate exchange.

  9. Mitosis and cell death in the tail of the chick embryo. (United States)

    Mills, C L; Bellairs, R


    Although somites develop from the mesoderm in the tail of the chick embryo, they do not form to the tip of the tail. Previous work has shown that this terminal mesoderm possesses many of the characteristics of the segmental plate mesoderm which gives rise to the somites in the trunk. This investigation is aimed therefore at understanding why the terminal mesoderm fails to form somites. Mitotic and pyknotic rates have been obtained for the tail region of chick embryos between stages 13 and 27. Embryos were treated with colchicine, so that the mitoses were blocked in metaphase, and counts were made on serial sections. The overall mitotic rates were highest between stages 15 and 18. Regions of high mitotic rate, which are an indication of cell synchrony, were found in the tail bud mesoderm though not in a consistent location, and only infrequently near the anterior end of the tail segmental plate. In the trunk however (Stern and Bellairs 1984) a single peak of cell synchrony was routinely found near the cranial end of the segmental plate. It is concluded that the cells of the tail mesoderm are less synchronised in preparation for somitogenesis than are the corresponding mesoderm cells in the trunk. A further conclusion is that the tail bud is not per se a region of high proliferation, though there are patches of high mitotic rate. The overall pyknotic rate reached a maximum at stage 25; peaks of pyknosis corresponded initially with the mitotic peaks and were associated with the ventral ectodermal ridge and the tail gut. By stage 25 however, the high levels of cell death were restricted mainly to the tip of the tail.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Gap junction signalling mediated through connexin-43 is required for chick limb development. (United States)

    Makarenkova, H; Patel, K


    During chick limb development the gap junction protein Connexin-43 (Cx43) is expressed in discrete spatially restricted domains in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and mesenchyme of the zone of polarising activity. Antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) were used to investigate the role of Connexin-43 (Cx43) in the development of the chick limb bud. We have used unmodified ODNs in Pluronic F-127 gel, which is liquid at low temperature but sets at room temperature and so remains situated at the point of application. As a mild surfactant, the gel increases antisense ODN penetration and supplies ODNs to the embryo continually for 12-18 h. We have shown a strong decrease in Cx43 protein expression after application of specific antisense oligonucleotides but the abundance of a closely related protein, Connexin-32 (Cx32), was not affected. Application of antisense Cx43 ODNs at stages 8-15 HH before limb outgrowth resulted in dramatic limb phenotypes. About 40% of treated embryos exhibited defects such as truncation of the limb bud, fragmentation into two or more domains, or complete splitting of the limb bud into two or three branches. Molecular analysis of antisense treated embryos failed to detect Shh or Bmp-2 in anterior structures and suggested that extra lobes seen in nicked and split limbs were not a result of establishment of new signalling centres as found after the application of FGF to the flank. However, examination of markers for the AER showed a number of abnormalities. In severely truncated specimens we were unable to detect the expression of either Fgf-4 or Fgf-8. In both nicked and split limbs the expression of these genes was discontinuous. Down-regulation of Cx43 after the antisense application could be comparable to AER removal and results in distal truncation of the limb bud. Taken together these data suggest the existence of a feedback loop between the FGFs and signalling mediated by Cx43.

  11. Effects of zinc and PGE sub 2 on bone metabolism in chick tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.; Pierce, W.M. Jr. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))


    The effects of zinc and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) on bone metabolism were investigated. Tibiae were removed from 19 day chicks and cultured for periods up to 72 hours in a chemically defined medium. Calcium release from tibiae cultured in the presence of 50-100 ug/dl zinc or 10{sup {minus}9}-10{sup {minus}7} M PGE{sub 2} between 24 and 48 hours increased significantly in a concentration dependent fashion. When 100 ug/dl zinc was added with 10{sup {minus}9}-10{sup {minus}7} M PGE{sub 2} to the culture bone, no additive effect was observed. Flurbiprofen decreased calcium release from chick tibiae significantly in the 24-48 hour incubation period in a concentration dependent fashion, suggesting that endogenous PG's have stimulatory effect on bone calcium release. When 10{sup {minus}6} M flurbiprofen was added with 25-100 ug/dl zinc, the calcium release from tibiae was not changed significantly. Bone release from tibiae was not changed significantly. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated by 50-100 ug/dl zinc. Addition of PGE{sub 2} did not increase the zinc stimulated elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity. The authors propose the following: zinc stimulates bone cell proliferation; PGE{sub 2} stimulates calcium release from the limited number of osteoclasts in cultured embryonic tibiae; and most bone organ culture system are models of zinc deficiency, since incubation of physiological concentrations of zinc has significant effect.

  12. Endosulfan Impacts on the Developing Chick Embryos: Morphological, Morphometric and Skeletal Changes

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    Y.M. Mobarak


    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effects of the organochlorine pesticide Endosulfan (35% EC on the developing chick embryos. After 24 h of eggs incubation, a single dose of 7 or 14 or 21 mg Endosulfan/egg was administered through the egg air space at once. The eggs were opened on embryonic days 6 and 12 and the embryos were evaluated for viability, wet body weights and various morphological, morphometric and skeletal changes. Skeletons of 12-day-old embryos were stained by alizarin red S and Alcian blue using a whole mount double cartilage and bone staining technique. Comparing the three doses with control and with each others, the high dose treatment resulted in statistically significant more embryonic deaths, while the mid-dose caused statistically more malformed embryos. On both embryonic days, the treated embryos exhibited dose-related growth retardation, as reflected by significant reductions of embryonic wet body weight, anterior-posterior head and crown-rump lengths as well as generalized edema and hematomas formations. Also, on embryonic day 12 significant reductions of beak length, eye diameters and measurements of wing and hind-limb parts were recorded. Abnormal survivors showed high percentages of limb deformities (as limb paralysis, clinodactyly, flexion and shortness of limbs or digits, microphthalmia, microtia and omphalocele. The skeleton of treated embryos showed anomalies and incomplete chondrification and/or ossification of some skull parts (interorbital septum, frontals, parietals, palatines and external auditory apertures, cervicals, scapulae, ribs, sacrals and caudals. These findings suggest that Endosulfan exhibits embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing chick embryos in terms of growth retardation, external and skeletal malformations.

  13. The efficacy of raw and concentrated bentonite clay in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Shannon, T A; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Shaw, D P; Dakovic, A; Markovic, M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two adsorbents, a raw bentonite clay (RC) and a concentrated bentonite clay (CC), in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Results of the in vitro study (pH 3.0) indicated the CC adsorbed more AFB1 than RC (93.39 mg/g vs. 79.30 mg/g) suggesting that CC may be more effective than RC in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1. One hundred and eighty day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 6 replicate pens of 5 chicks each and assigned to 6 dietary treatments from hatch to day 21. Dietary treatments included: 1) basal diet (BD) containing no AFB1 or adsorbents; 2) BD plus 0.50% RC; 3) BD plus 0.50% CC; 4) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg; 5) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg plus 0.50% RC; and 6) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg plus 0.50% CC. Dietary AFB1 concentrations were confirmed by analysis and diets were screened for other mycotoxins prior to the start of the experiment. The addition of AFB1 to the feed reduced (P < 0.05) growth performance and increased (P < 0.05) relative liver weight (RLW) and kidney weight (RKW) of chicks fed AFB1 compared to control chicks on day 21. These changes were ameliorated (P < 0.05) by the addition of RC and CC to the AFB1 diet. Mild to moderate lesions of aflatoxicosis (2.25) were observed in chicks fed AFB1 alone on day 21. The addition of both RC and CC to the AFB1 diet decreased (P < 0.05) but did not prevent liver lesions (0.92 and 1.42, respectively). Results indicate that both RC and CC were effective in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1, however the cost of processing of CC would make the RC a more economical product for reducing the effects of AFB1 in young broiler chicks. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth. (United States)

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S


    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (PDARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry industry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks: e67347

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tania Sanyal; Vivek Kumar; Tapas Chandra Nag; Suman Jain; Vishnu Sreenivas; Shashi Wadhwa


    .... However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored...

  16. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi


    .... However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored...

  17. A new approach to study of seabird-fishery overlap: Connecting chick feeding with parental foraging and overlap with fishing vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Sugishita


    Full Text Available Incidental fisheries bycatch is recognised as a major threat to albatross populations worldwide. However, fishery discards and offal produced in large quantities might benefit some scavenging seabirds. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach to better understand the ecological ramifications of fine-scale overlap between seabirds and fisheries. As a case study, we examined whether foraging in association with a fishing vessel is advantageous for chick provisioning in terms of quantity of food delivered to chicks, in northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi at Taiaroa Head, New Zealand. Fine-scale overlap between albatrosses and vessels was quantified by integrating GPS tracking and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS. Meal size delivered to chicks was measured using custom-designed nest balances, and monitoring of attendance of adults fitted with radio transmitters was used in conjunction with time-lapse photography at the nest allowed us to allocate each feeding event to a specific parent. The combination of these techniques enabled comparison of meal sizes delivered to chicks with parental foraging trip durations with or without fishing vessels association. A total of 45 foraging trips and associated chick feeding events were monitored during the chick-rearing period in 2012. Differences in the meal size and foraging trip duration relative to foraging overlap with fisheries were examined using a linear mixed-effect model, adjusted for chick age. Our results, based on three birds, suggest that foraging in association with vessels does not confer an advantage for chick feeding for this population that demonstrated low rates of overlap while foraging. The integrated research design presented can be applied to other seabird species that are susceptible to bycatch, and offers a valuable approach to evaluate habitat quality by linking habitat use and foraging success in terms of total amount of food delivered to offspring.

  18. The relationship between gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos and chick breed, development, sex, and egg amino acid concentration. (United States)

    Zeng, P L; Li, X G; Wang, X Q; Zhang, D X; Shu, G; Luo, Q B


    This study was conducted to investigate the gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid (AA) transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos with different genetic backgrounds [Wenshi Yellow-Feathered chick (WYFC) and White Recessive Rock chick (WRRC)]. The study also investigated the correlation between the abundance of AA transporter mRNA and the AA content of fertilized eggs. Intestinal samples were collected on embryonic d 9, 12, 14, 17, and 19 and the day of hatch. The results showed that, before incubation, the AA content of WRRC eggs was lower (P CAT-1 [solute carrier (SLC) family 7 member 1], CAT-4 (SLC family 7 member 4), rBAT (SLC family 3 member 1), y(+)LAT-1 (SLC family 7 member 7), y(+)LAT-2 (SLC family 7 member 6), LAT-4 (SLC family 43 member 2), and SNAT-2 (SLC family 38 member 2), as detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, was greater (P CAT-1, CAT-4, y(+)LAT-2, and LAT-4 in WYFC and on CAT-4 and B(0)AT-1 (SLC family 6 member 19) mRNA expression in WRRC. In WYFC, only CAT-1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated (r = -0.68 to -0.84, P < 0.05) with all AA content. However, few correlations were detected between AA content and the mRNA expression of multiple transporters in WRRC. These findings provide a comprehensive profile of the temporal and spatial mRNA expression of AA transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos. Few correlations were detected between the AA content of the eggs and mRNA expression of specific AA transporters in the small intestine.

  19. Excitotoxic lesions of the medial striatum delay extinction of a reinforcement color discrimination operant task in domestic chicks; a functional role of reward anticipation. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yoko; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Matsushima, Toshiya


    To reveal the functional roles of the striatum, we examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions to the bilateral medial striatum (mSt) and nucleus accumbens (Ac) in a food reinforcement color discrimination operant task. With a food reward as reinforcement, 1-week-old domestic chicks were trained to peck selectively at red and yellow beads (S+) and not to peck at a blue bead (S-). Those chicks then received either lesions or sham operations and were tested in extinction training sessions, during which yellow turned out to be nonrewarding (S-), whereas red and blue remained unchanged. To further examine the effects on postoperant noninstrumental aspects of behavior, we also measured the "waiting time", during which chicks stayed at the empty feeder after pecking at yellow. Although the lesioned chicks showed significantly higher error rates in the nonrewarding yellow trials, their postoperant waiting time gradually decreased similarly to the sham controls. Furthermore, the lesioned chicks waited significantly longer than the controls, even from the first extinction block. In the blue trials, both lesioned and sham chicks consistently refrained from pecking, indicating that the delayed extinction was not due to a general disinhibition of pecking. Similarly, no effects were found in the novel training sessions, suggesting that the lesions had selective effects on the extinction of a learned operant. These results suggest that a neural representation of memory-based reward anticipation in the mSt/Ac could contribute to the anticipation error required for extinction.

  20. Effects of aqua agar as water replacement for posthatch chicks during transportation on residual yolk-sac and growth performance of young broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossaporn Incharoen


    Full Text Available Water is one of the most essential nutrients for the maintenance of chicks' function, and delayed access to feed and water post hatch has been reported to dehydrate chicks. Aqua agar (AA was formulated to contain more than 95% water and an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of AA as water replacement for posthatch chicks during transportation. During the simulated transport, chicks were held for 24 h with (AA group or without (NO-AA group aqua agar in chick boxes. During the holding period, chicks in the AA group lost less body weight, compared with the NO-AA group. However, the weight of residual yolk tended to be lower in the AA-treated birds. There were no significant differences in the weight of gizzard, proventriculus, and liver, nor in the weights and lengths of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. A higher body weight was also observed in the AA group at 7 days of age. At 21 days of age, weight gain and feed intake were higher (P < 0.05 in the AA group, when compared to that of the NO-AA group. No significant differences were observed in the feed conversion rate (FCR between the two groups. In conclusion, the data suggests that the use of AA as a water replacement could reduce the negative impact of water deficiency in posthatch period during transportation, resulting in greatly improved growth performance of young broilers at 21 days of age.

  1. A small-scale, low-cost isolation system for the incubation and rearing of low bacterial load chicks as a model to study microbial-intestinal interactions. (United States)

    Forder, Rebecca E A; Firth, Gordon A; Tivey, David R; Howarth, Gordon S; Hughes, Robert J


    A small-scale, economical isolator system was adapted to hatch and raise chicks in a bacteria-free environment as a means to observe bacterial interactions with the intestinal mucosa during early development. The design and construction of flexible plastic isolators for incubation and brooding are described along with methodologies for preparation of eggs for entry into the isolators, incubation and hatching. Two trials were conducted, the first in August 2005 and the second in March 2006. Results from both trials showed no differences in body weights of chicks raised in isolation when compared with those raised conventionally. Growth of bacteria was detected from rectal swabs at day 2 post-hatch, with both trials, showing a light growth of Bacillus sp., coagulase-negative staphylococci and haemolytic streptococcus in trial 1, and a light growth of Bacillus cereus only in trial 2. Although not germfree, the growth of bacteria in chicks raised in isolation was decreased or absent when compared with chicks raised conventionally. Feed was negative for contamination and surface swabs of equipment were also negative until day 3 post-hatch, suggesting possible contamination within the eggs themselves. Despite the presence of bacterial species, the isolator system was successful in producing low bacterial load chicks for comparison studies with conventionally raised chicks.

  2. Bioluminescence imaging of c-fos gene expression accompanying filial imprinting in the newly hatched chick brain. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Iikubo, Eiji; Hirose, Naoki; Kitajima, Takaaki; Katagiri, Sachiko; Kawamori, Ai; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J


    Bioluminescence imaging is a powerful tool for examining gene expression in living animals. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into neurons in the newly hatched chick brain using electroporation. Here, we show the in vivo bioluminescence imaging of c-fos promoter activity and its upregulation, which is associated with filial imprinting. The upregulation of c-fos gene expression correlated with both the strength of the chicks' approach activity to the training object and the acquisition of memory. The present technique should be a powerful tool for analyzing the time changes in neural activity of certain brain areas in real-time during memory formation, using brains of living animals.

  3. Effects of Dietary Male and Female Ferula Eleaochytris Powder on Growth Performance and Body Components of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Duru


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary addition of male and female Ferula eleaochytris powder (FEP on growth performance and body components of broilers (Ross-308. Treatment groups were allocated to 5 dietary in which 0 (control, 5 g and 10 g male FEP, 5 g and 10 g female FEP doses per kg commercial broiler diet. In total, 80 male broiler chicks (1-d old in which 16 animals in each group were used in study. Body weight gain and feed intake were monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Forty two days old broiler chicks were slaughtered to determine the possible changes in body components. The results of the study indicated that FEP had no effect on any parameters. However; the weight of the control group gave higher values than 5 g male Ferula group. In conclusion the measured parameters had no effect between all groups.

  4. Necrotizing enteritis as a cause of mortality in Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll, Hawaii (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.; Duncan, R.


    A necropsy survey of Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll in June 1993, 1994, and 1995 revealed 54% (21/39), 67% (49/71), and 93% (15/16), respectively, to have enteritis as the most severe pathologic finding. The lesion was limited to the ileum, ceca, and large intestine. We were unable to attribute a single infectious etiology to this lesion. Many birds with enteritis also exhibited renal lesions similar to those encountered in chickens experimentally deprived of water. We propose that enteritis is a significant cause of mortality in Laysan albatross chicks on Midway and that it may be a sequela to dehydration. It is likely that the pathology of dehydration in Laysan albatross differs from that in chickens largely because of diet.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram, M. Laiq Khan, Amer Tariq, Hasnat Ahmed and Rafia Firdous


    Full Text Available The effect of Digestarcom, a herbal feed additive on the performance of broiler chicks fed different levels of rapeseed cake was investigated. Fourteen experimental rations containing 7 rapeseed (0,2, 4, 6,8, 10 and 12% x 2 Digestarcom (0 and 150 9 per tone feed levels were formulated and fed to 14 treatment groups in three replications having 10 chick each. A higher weight gain per bird was observed for all the levels 0( rapeseed treated with Digestarcom as compared to non-supplemented control group. The maximum feed consumption was observed in group fed 10% rape seed cake treatment and maximum weight gain was observed in 6% level. More feed was consumed and more weight was gained by the broilers fed ration supplemented with digestarcom and exhibited better feed to gain ratio than non-supplemented control

  6. Transcription factor AP-2delta regulates the expression of polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 in chick retina. (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Persad, Amit R L; Monckton, Elizabeth A; Godbout, Roseline


    The AP-2δ transcription factor is restricted to a subset of retinal ganglion cells. Overexpression of AP-2δ in chick retina results in induction of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) accompanied by misrouting and bundling of ganglion cell axons. Two polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are responsible for polysialylation of NCAM. Here, we investigate the mechanism driving the increase in PSA-NCAM observed upon AP-2δ overexpression. We show that ST8SIA2 is induced by AP-2δ overexpression in chick retina. We use chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shift assays to demonstrate direct interaction between AP-2δ and the ST8SIA2 promoter. We propose that up-regulation of ST8SIA2 upon AP-2δ overexpression in retina increases ectopic polysialylation of NCAM which in turn causes premature bundling of axons and alters axonal response to guidance cues.

  7. Effects of systemic administration of histone deacetylase inhibitor on memory formation and immediate early gene expression in chick brain. (United States)

    Tiunova, A A; Toropova, K A; Konovalova, E V; Anokhin, K V


    We studied the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor that stimulates transcriptional activity via histone hyperacetylation on memory formation. Sodium butyrate and sodium valproate enhanced memory in chicks following "weak" training with memory transfer into long-term state. Quantitative analysis of c-Fos and ZENK transcriptional factor gene expression in six structures of chick brain revealed induction of these genes in the structures involved in this type of learning. Sodium valproate administration did not increase this induction, but even reduced it. These findings suggest that sodium butyrate and sodium valproate exert cognitive stimulating action in the "weak" memory formation paradigm, and that this effect is not mediated via enhanced expression of transcriptional factors, which are traditionally considered as "molecular switcher" for memory transfer into long-term state.

  8. Effects of DDT and permethrin on neurite growth in cultured neurons of chick embryo brain and Lymnaea stagnalis. (United States)

    Ferguson, C A; Audesirk, G


    The pesticides permethrin and 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), dissolved in either ethanol (EtOH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), were studied to determine their effect on neurite growth from cultured neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis and embryonic chicks. Both of these toxins decreased the percentage of neurons growing neurites, mean neurite length, and number of neurites/cell in a dose-dependent manner. DMSO increased the toxicity of permethrin and DDT in L. stagnalis neurons. EtOH was not used as a solvent with the embryonic chick cultures. Pre-existing neurites of L. stagnalis neurons exposed to permethrin regressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These two toxins may affect neurite outgrowth through interference with intracellular calcium regulation.

  9. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

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    Xian-Ren Jiang


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.


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    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  11. The effect of pirenzepine on positive- and negative-lens-induced refractive error and ocular growth in chicks. (United States)

    Metlapally, Sangeetha; McBrien, Neville A


    The selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine inhibits experimentally induced myopia in avian and mammalian species, including nonhuman primates and adolescent humans. Transient positive lens defocus has a potent inhibitory effect on negative-lens-induced myopia in avian and mammalian models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of daily treatment with pirenzepine on ocular growth and refractive error in chicks wearing positive lenses. The chicks were allocated to one of eight groups (n = 6 each group) on the basis of whether they wore +10 or -10 D lenses monocularly and whether they received daily intravitreal injections of pirenzepine (700 μg) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) in the lens-defocused eye. In vivo refractive and biometric data were collected, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the sclera was assessed. Pirenzepine did not alter the level of positive-lens-induced hyperopia in chicks wearing +10 D lenses compared with that in the vehicle control group (+8.1 ± 0.6 D vs. +8.9 ± 2.4 D, mean ± SEM; P = 0.76). In contrast, pirenzepine caused significant inhibition of negative-lens-induced myopia compared with that in the vehicle group (-1.1 ± 1.5 D vs. -8.8 ± 1.1 D; P = 0.001). Glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the posterior sclera was significantly increased in the negative-lens-treated groups and showed small decreases in the positive-lens-treated groups. The influence of pirenzepine on ocular growth in chicks differed by sign of lens defocus, with pirenzepine blocking negative-lens effects on ocular growth, but not positive-lens effects. The most likely reason that hyperopia was not enhanced by pirenzepine treatment was that the rapid compensatory eye growth associated with positive lenses eliminated the imposed myopic defocus, and the clear retinal image prevented any additional hyperopia from developing.



    Achaiah.N; N.Vijaya Kumar


    The prevalence of Raillietina tetragona, a helminth parasite was examined in domestic chick for a period of two annual cycles to determine the effects of seasonal variation on intensity and incidence of infection. The results show that the infection was more during summer followed by rainy and winter seasons. The infection was single or in association with other helminth parasites like Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina cesticillus and Ascardia galli. The results are discussed in relatio...

  13. Uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

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    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.


    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane.

  14. Mouse FGF15 is the ortholog of human and chick FGF19, but is not uniquely required for otic induction. (United States)

    Wright, Tracy J; Ladher, Raj; McWhirter, John; Murre, Cornelis; Schoenwolf, Gary C; Mansour, Suzanne L


    The inner ear develops from an ectodermal placode that is specified by inductive signals from the adjacent neurectoderm and underlying mesoderm. In chick, fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-19 is expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, and human FGF19 induces expression of otic markers in a tissue explant containing neural plate and surface ectoderm. We show here that mouse Fgf15 is the sequence homolog of chick and human Fgf19/FGF19. In addition, we show that FGF15, like FGF19, is sufficient to induce expression of otic markers in a chick explant assay, suggesting that these FGFs are orthologs. Mouse embryos lacking Fgf15, however, do not have otic abnormalities at E9.5-E10.5, suggesting that Fgf15 is not uniquely required for otic induction or early patterning of the otocyst. To compare FGF15 and FGF19 signaling components and assess where signals potentially redundant with FGF15 might function, we determined the expression patterns of Fgf15 and Fgf19. Unlike Fgf19, Fgf15 is not expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, but is expressed in the adjacent neurectoderm. Fgfr4, which encodes the likely receptor for both FGF19 and FGF15, is expressed in the neurectoderm of both species, and is also expressed in the mesoderm only in chick. These results suggest the hypotheses that during otic induction, FGF19 signals in either an autocrine fashion to the mesoderm or a paracrine fashion to the neurectoderm, whereas FGF15 signals in an autocrine fashion to the neurectoderm. Thus, the FGFs that signal to the neurectoderm are the best potential candidates for redundancy with FGF15 during mouse otic development.

  15. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations (United States)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.


    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S


    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching.

  17. In Ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks.

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    Yun Hu

    Full Text Available Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P < 0.05 and the hepatic content (P < 0.01 of cholesterol. Accordingly, the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMGCR was up-regulated (P < 0.05 for both mRNA and protein, while CYP7A1 which converts cholesterol to bile acids was down-regulated (P < 0.05 for mRNA and P = 0.07 for protein. Moreover, hepatic protein content of the sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 which regulates cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, and the mRNA abundance of ATP binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1 which mediates cholesterol counter transport were significantly (P < 0.05 increased in betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P < 0.05, which was associated with global genomic DNA hypermethylation (P < 0.05 and diminished gene repression mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (P < 0.05. Furthermore, CpG methylation level on gene promoters was found to be increased (P < 0.05 for CYP7A1 yet decreased (P < 0.05 for ABCA1. These results indicate that in ovo betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations.

  18. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Mucin Expression and Suppresses the Mucosal Immune Function of the Respiratory Tract in Chicks. (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Shaoqiong; Liu, Guanhua; Zhao, Jingpeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Zhigang; Lin, Hai


    The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A supplement levels on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of three replicates of 10 broilers and subjected to dietary vitamin A supplement levels of 0, 1,500, 6,000, or 12,000 IU/kg for seven days. Compared with control birds, vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the mucin and IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the IgA level in serum. In the lungs, vitamin A supplementation downregulated TNF-α and EGFR mRNA expression. The TGF-β and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were upregulated by vitamin A supplementation at a dose of 6,000 IU/kg, and the IL-13 mRNA expression level was increased at the 12,000 IU/kg supplement level. Vitamin A deficiency (control) significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of MUC2, IgA, EGFR, IL-13 and TGF-β in trachea tissue. Histological section analysis revealed that the number of goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium was less in the 0 and 12,000 IU/kg vitamin A supplement groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency suppressed the immunity of the airway by decreasing the IgA and mucin concentrations in neonatal chicks. This study suggested that a suitable level of vitamin A is essential for the secretion of IgA and mucin in the respiratory tract by regulating the gene expression of cytokines and epithelial growth factors.

  19. Molecular function of microtubule-associated protein 2 for filial imprinting in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Katagiri, Sachiko; Aoki, Naoya; Iikubo, Eiji; Kitajima, Takaaki; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J


    RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene-silencing can be a tool for elucidating the role of genes in the neural basis of behavioral plasticity. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into newly-hatched chick brains via electroporation. Here, we used this in vivo gene-transfer technique and showed that transfected microRNA vectors preferentially silence exogenous DNA expression in neuronal cells. Using this system, the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) accompanying filial imprinting was suppressed in vivo, which impaired the filial imprinting in chicks. In addition, the phosphorylation of MAP2 was found to increase in parallel with filial imprinting, and lithium chloride, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), was found to impair filial imprinting. Our results suggest that the regulation of MAP2 expression and its phosphorylation are required for filial imprinting and may modify microtubule stability, thereby leading to cytoskeletal reorganization during imprinting. This in vivo RNAi-mediated gene-silencing system will facilitate the analysis of gene function in the living chick brain and provides further clues regarding the molecular mechanisms underpinning avian learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

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    DL Pires


    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.