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Sample records for black-containing elastomers decomposition

  1. Thermal Decomposition Model Development of EN-7 and EN-8 Polyurethane Elastomers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keedy, Ryan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrison, Kale Warren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TGA- GC/MS) experiments were performed on EN-7 and EN-8, analyzed, and reported in [1] . This SAND report derives and describes pyrolytic thermal decomposition models for use in predicting the responses of EN-7 and EN-8 in an abnormal thermal environment.

  2. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Lately, dielectric elastomers (DEs) which consist of an elastomer sandwiched between electrodes on both sides, have gained interest as materials for actuators, generators, and sensors. An ideal elastomer for DE uses is characterized by high extensibility, flexibility and good mechanical fatigue...... elastomers were prepared by mixing different mass ratios (9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6) between long polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chains and short PDMS chains. The resulting elastomers were investigated with respect to their rheology, dielectric properties, tensile strength, electrical breakdown, as well.......Moreover, a series of elastomers with the same mass ratio (7:3) between long and short PDMS chains were made at different humidity (90%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 10%) at 23oC. The dielectric and mechincal properties of the resulting elastomers were shown to depend strongly on the atmospheric humidity level.In addition...

  3. Mechanical Design Handbook for Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical Design Handbook for Elastomers reviews state of art in elastomer-damper technology with particular emphasis on applications of highspeed rotor dampers. Self-contained reference but includes some theoretical discussion to help reader understand how and why dampers used for rotating machines. Handbook presents step-by-step procedure for design of elastomer dampers and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications.

  4. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  5. Theory of Dielectric Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    feature of life is to receive and process information from the environment, and then move. The movements are responsible for diverse functions, far...beyond the function of going from place to place. For example, an octopus can change its color at an astonishing speed, for camouflage and signaling...in engineering are indeed apt in mimicking the salient feature of life: movements in response to stimuli. An electric field can cause an elastomer

  6. Silicone-based Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Efficient conversion of energy from one form to another (transduction) is an important topic in our daily day, and it is a necessity in moving away from the fossil based society. Dielectric elastomers hold great promise as soft transducers, since they are compliant and light-weight amongst many...... energy efficient solutions are highly sought. These properties allow for interesting products ranging very broadly, e.g. from eye implants over artificial skins over soft robotics to huge wave energy harvesting plants. All these products utilize the inherent softness and compliance of the dielectric...... elastomer transducers. The subject of this thesis is improvement of properties of silicone-based dielectric elastomers with special focus on design guides towards electrically, mechanically, and electromechanically reliable elastomers. Strategies for improving dielectric elastomer performance are widely...

  7. Sustainable Elastomers from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-07-18

    Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). Plant oils are widely used for fabricating thermoset elastomers. We use abundant biomass, such as plant oils, cellulose, rosin acids, and lignin, to develop elastomers covering a wide range of structure-property relationships in the hope of delivering better performance. In this Account, recent progress in preparing monomers and TPEs from biomass is first reviewed. ABA triblock copolymer TPEs were obtained with a soft middle block containing a soybean-oil-based monomer and hard outer blocks containing styrene. In addition, a combination of biobased monomers from rosin acids and soybean oil was formulated to prepare triblock copolymer TPEs. Together with the above-mentioned approaches based on block copolymers, multigraft copolymers with a soft backbone and rigid side chains are recognized as the first-generation and second-generation TPEs, respectively. It has been recently demonstrated that multigraft copolymers with a rigid backbone and elastic side chains can also be used as a novel architecture of TPEs. Natural polymers, such as cellulose and lignin, are utilized as a stiff, macromolecular backbone. Cellulose/lignin graft copolymers with side chains containing a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate exhibited excellent elastic properties. Cellulose graft copolymers with biomass-derived polymers as side chains were

  8. The Future of Swelling Elastomers: An Elastomer Manufacturer's View of Swelling Elastomer Developments and Market Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Seyger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Swelling elastomers have gained acceptance as very effective products for creating sealing in various industries, including those creating energy from fossil fuels and geothermal resources. This paper outlines the research and development work being conducted not only in the application of these elastomers but also in the development work required to create new generations of elastomers. It touches on fundamental research into the mechanics of swelling with the intent to create a better and more predictable sealing as well as more advanced elastomers. It lifts the veil on the direction of work being done on new elastomers being developed in order to enable a better control of swelling. By doing so, the research is opening up field of applications for new equipment designs and mechanical possibilities in the future. Additionally, it addresses the need for a better and more in-depth dialogue between both chemical and mechanical engineers, and the elastomer companies and their customers on the potential that both swelling and non-swelling elastomers can offer to the industry as a whole.

  9. Self-healing elastomer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A composite material includes an elastomer matrix, a set of first capsules containing a polymerizer, and a set of second capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The polymerizer may be a polymerizer for an elastomer. The composite material may be prepared by combining a first set of capsules containing a polymerizer, a second set of capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer, and a matrix precursor, and then solidifying the matrix precursor to form an elastomeric matrix.

  10. Radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a review is presented of recent results which show that the tensile strength and fatigue life of synthetic elastomers cured by radiation are essentially equivalent to those prepared by other crosslinking techniques. An explanation for the conflict of these new results with the earlier studies on natural rubber is presented. Investigations into the mechanisms and kinetics of crosslinking mentioned above have also shown that the irradiation method should be ideal for preparing well characterized networks. Such materials are useful for testing theoretical relationships between the structure of rubber networks and their stress-strain behavior. The second part of this paper is devoted to this aspect. (author)

  11. Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

  12. Radiation resistance of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourquebie, P.; Bigarre, J.; Forveille, J.L.; Raby, J.; Lazare, L.

    2002-01-01

    The COMOR group is a network of laboratories from both the CEA and the CNRS. This network is particularly involved in fundamental and applied studies on the ageing of polymers under irradiation. COMOR has studied the ageing of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer) because this elastomer is often used in nuclear environment (in cable coating for instance). In this study, we have prepared materials with different formulations and we have characterised their use-condition properties (dielectric and mechanical) before and after γ irradiation. The dielectric measurements are well adapted to study the oxidation and the crosslinking phenomena which appear during the irradiation ageing. We have shown that after a short time, the oxidation is limited by the diffusion of oxygen. A phenolic antioxidant is not able to protect the polymer against the oxidation. However, we used a concentration typical of a purely thermal stabilisation case (0,1%). On the other hand, a diamine type additive with a concentration of 1% showed efficient stabilisation. The mechanical properties of the regular EPDM are strongly affected by the irradiation but there is little difference with regard to radiation resistance between both types of raw materials. Nevertheless, the NORDEL IP 3725 stabilised with the amine has better initial mechanical properties whereas the NORDEL 2722 offers higher strength above 300 kGy. Our results emphasize the stake of a proper stabilisation of polymers with respect to ionising radiation. (authors)

  13. Effects of tritium in elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Elastomers are used as flange gaskets in the piping system of the Savannah River Plant tritium facilities. A number of elastomers is being examined to identify those compounds more radiation-resistant than the currently specified Buna-N rubber and to study the mechanism of tritium radiation damage. Radiation resistance is evaluated by compression set tests on specimens exposed to about 1 atm tritium for several months. Initial results show that ethylene-propylene rubber and three fluoroelastomers are superior to Buna-N. Off-gassing measurements and autoradiography show that retained surface absorption of tritium varies by more than an order of magnitude among the different elastomer compounds. Therefore, tritium solubility and/or exchange may have a role in addition to that of chemical structure in the damage process. Ongoing studies of the mechanism of radiation damage include: (1) tritium absorption kinetics, (2) mass spectroscopy of radiolytic products, and (3) infrared spectroscopy

  14. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....

  15. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  16. Polyurethane elastomers in armour applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    The use of elastomers in ballistic protection products (armour) is limited to low threat levels and transparent armour solution components. Often armor is considered a parasitic mass that increases with increasing threat levels. Therefore, low weight solutions are welcomed and bulk polymers,

  17. Novel silicone elastomer formulations for DEAPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Benslimane, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the force output and work density of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dielectric elastomer transducers can be significantly enhanced by the addition of high permittivity titanium dioxide nanoparticles which was also shown by Stoyanov et al[1] for pre-stretched elastomers...... and by Carpi et al for RTV silicones[2]. Furthermore the elastomer matrix is optimized to give very high breakdown strengths. We obtain an increase in the dielectric permittivity of a factor of approximately 2 with a loading of 12% TiO2 particles compared to the pure modified silicone elastomer with breakdown...

  18. Liquid-Embedded Elastomer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca; Majidi, Carmel; Park, Yong-Lae; Paik, Jamie; Wood, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Hyperelastic sensors are fabricated by embedding a silicone rubber film with microchannels of conductive liquid. In the case of soft tactile sensors, pressing the surface of the elastomer will deform the cross-section of underlying channels and change their electrical resistance. Soft pressure sensors may be employed in a variety of applications. For example, a network of pressure sensors can serve as artificial skin by yielding detailed information about contact pressures. This concept was demonstrated in a hyperelastic keypad, where perpendicular conductive channels form a quasi-planar network within an elastomeric matrix that registers the location, intensity and duration of applied pressure. In a second demonstration, soft curvature sensors were used for joint angle proprioception. Because the sensors are soft and stretchable, they conform to the host without interfering with the natural mechanics of motion. This marked the first use of liquid-embedded elastomer electronics to monitor human or robotic motion. Finally, liquid-embedded elastomers may be implemented as conductors in applications that call for flexible or stretchable circuitry, such as robotic origami.

  19. Radiation cured and monomer modified silicon elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldred, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the production of a tear resistant silicone elastomer, which has improved elongation properties. This elastomer is the radiation induced reaction product of a noncured methyl vinyl silicone resin (VMQ) and uniformly dispersed therein a blend of a polyfunctional acrylic crosslinking monomer and a filler

  20. Biodegradable xylitol-based elastomers: In vivo behavior and biocompatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Bruggeman (Joost); C.J. Bettinger (Christopher); R.S. Langer (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBiodegradable elastomers based on polycondensation reactions of xylitol with sebacic acid, referred to as poly(xylitol sebacate) (PXS) elastomers have recently been developed. We describe the in vivo behavior of PXS elastomers. Four PXS elastomers were synthesized, characterized, and

  1. Microstructure of dimethylsiloxane based magnetic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, M.; Craus, M.L.; Anitas, E.M.; Bica, I.; Plestil, J.; Kuklin, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Dimethylsiloxane based elastomers filled with two types of magnetic particles (nano- and micro-sized) were investigated. It was obtained that doping with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and applying of magnetic field during the polymerization process leads to a significant change of the local structure of elastomer. After filling the polymer with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles the magnetic elastomer presents a mass fractal structure. The mass fractal dimension is decreasing in the magnetic elastomer polymerized in magnetic field. For the elastomer filled with a large amount of Fe microparticles (75% particle concentration) a texture effect is detected; for the samples polymerized in magnetic field the texture effect is higher. Surface fractal property is obtained for all microparticle concentrations

  2. Study of mechanical and thermal properties of soy flour elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kendra Alicia

    Bio-based plastics are becoming viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics because they decrease dependence on petroleum derivatives and are more environmentally friendly. Raw materials such as soy flour are widely available, low cost, lightweight, stiffness and have high strength characteristics, but weak interfacial adhesion between the soy flour and the polymer poses a challenge. In this study, soy flour was utilized as a filler in thermoplastic elastomer composites. A surface modification called acetylation was investigated at soy flour concentrations of 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were then compared to that of elastomers without a filler. Chemical characterization of the acetylated soy flour was attempted in order to understand what occurs during the reaction and after completion. In the range of tests, soy flour loadings were observed to be inversely proportional to tensile strength for both the untreated and treated soy flour. However, the acetylated soy flour at 10 wt% concentration performed comparable to that of the neat rubber and resulted in an increase in tensile strength. Unexpectedly, the acetylation reaction increased elongation, which reduced stress within the composite and is believed to increase the adhesion of the soy flour to that of the elastomer. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR), the intensity for the treated soy flour was larger than that of the untreated soy flour for the acetyl groups that were attached to the soy flour, particularly, the carbonyl function group next to the deprotonated oxygen and the methyl group next to the carbonyl. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the acetylated soy flour is slightly more thermally stable than the untreated soy flour. The treated soy flour also increased the decomposition temperature of the composite.

  3. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  4. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  5. Hencky's model for elastomer forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, A. A.; Oleinikov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the numerical simulation of elastomer forming process, Henckys isotropic hyperelastic material model can guarantee relatively accurate prediction of strain range in terms of large deformations. It is shown, that this material model prolongate Hooke's law from the area of infinitesimal strains to the area of moderate ones. New representation of the fourth-order elasticity tensor for Hencky's hyperelastic isotropic material is obtained, it possesses both minor symmetries, and the major symmetry. Constitutive relations of considered model is implemented into MSC.Marc code. By calculating and fitting curves, the polyurethane elastomer material constants are selected. Simulation of equipment for elastomer sheet forming are considered.

  6. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  7. High-strain actuator materials based on dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelrine, R.; Kornbluh, R.; Kofod, G.

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black) and patt......Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black...

  8. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron; Lassen, Benny; Rechenbach, Björn; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O’Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation. (paper)

  9. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Frediani, Gabriele; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Lassen, Benny; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing; Pelrine, Ron; Rechenbach, Björn; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation.

  10. Fracture of elastomers by cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdi, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation phenomenon is studied in rubber-like materials by combining experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches. Specific tests are carried out on a Styrene Butadiene Rubber to point out main characteristics of cavitation phenomenon. Hydrostatic depression is numerically modelled using finite element method. Numerical results are compared to Ball\\'s and Hou & Abeyaratne\\'s models with regard to cavity nucleation in the material. Both models well fit experimental observations suggesting that the cavitation nucleation in elastomers depends on the confinement degree of the specimen. Finally, critical hydrostatic pressure and critical global deformation are proved to govern cavitation nucleation in the studied material. Critical loadings are identified by comparing experimental and numerical load-displacement curves. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  12. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  13. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducrot, E.; Chen, Y.; Bulters, M.J.H.; Sijbesma, R.P.; Creton, C.

    2014-01-01

    Elastomers are widely used because of their large-strain reversible deformability. Most unfilled elastomers suffer from a poor mechanical strength, which limits their use. Using sacrificial bonds, we show how brittle, unfilled elastomers can be strongly reinforced in stiffness and toughness (up to 4

  14. EB radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bik, J.; Rzymski, M.; Gluszewski, W.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The first paper in the series described by the general title, starts with radiation crosslinking of hydrogenated butadiene-nitrile rubber (HBNR). This high-tech elastomer is obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of >C=C 99.5 and 94.5% of starting double bonds. Samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons, monoenergetical, 6 kW power, used as scanned beam over the conveyor, securing homogeneity of dose distribution. The doses were up to 300 kGy, applied in 20 kGy increments to avoid radiation generated heating of the material. The influence of presence or absence of oxygen was considered. Irradiated samples were investigated for the extend of crosslinking in the function of dose and for properties important for understanding of mechanisms. Samples are transparent, what allowed conventional absorption spectrophotometry, also time resolved. The quantitative interpretation of results shows that for 100 crosslinks there are 6-9 acts of chain-scission. It is less, than expected from the participation of multi-ionization spurs, also in the solid state, as announced during the previous, 9th Tihany Conference. However, the apparent lower yield of multi-ionization spurs is explained by partial conversion of products into crosslinks of specific type. Our investigations confirm the usefulness of consideration of radiation spurs in polymers as well as in all, low LET irradiated media

  15. Poly (ricinoleic acid) based novel thermosetting elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Hiroki; Yasuda, Mayumi; Toshima, Kazunobu; Matsumura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    A novel bio-based thermosetting elastomer was prepared by the lipase-catalyzed polymerization of methyl ricinoleate with subsequent vulcanization. Some mechanical properties of the cured carbon black-filled polyricinoleate compounds were evaluated as a thermosetting elastomer. It was found that the carbon black-filled polyricinoleate compounds were readily cured by sulfur curatives to produce a thermosetting elastomer that formed a rubber-like sheet with a smooth and non-sticky surface. The curing behaviors and mechanical properties were dependent on both the molecular weight of the polyricinoleate and the amount of the sulfur curatives. Cured compounds consisting of polyricinoleate with a molecular weight of 100,800 showed good mechanical properties, such as a hardness of 48 A based on the durometer A measurements, a tensile strength at break of 6.91 MPa and an elongation at break of 350%.

  16. Better fuel handling system performance through improved elastomers and seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensel, R G; Metcalfe, R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    In the area of elastomers, tests have identified specific compounds that perform well in each class of CANDU service. They offer gains in service life, sometimes by factors of ten or more. Moreover, the aging characteristics of these specific compounds are being thoroughly investigated, whereas many elastomers used previously were either non-specific or their aging was unknown. In this paper the benefits of elastomer upgrading, as well as the deficiencies of current station elastomer practices, are discussed in the context of fuel handling equipment. Guidelines for procurement, storage, handling and condition monitoring of elastomer seals are outlined. (author). 3 figs.

  17. Better fuel handling system performance through improved elastomers and seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.G.; Metcalfe, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the area of elastomers, tests have identified specific compounds that perform well in each class of CANDU service. They offer gains in service life, sometimes by factors of ten or more. Moreover, the aging characteristics of these specific compounds are being thoroughly investigated, whereas many elastomers used previously were either non-specific or their aging was unknown. In this paper the benefits of elastomer upgrading, as well as the deficiencies of current station elastomer practices, are discussed in the context of fuel handling equipment. Guidelines for procurement, storage, handling and condition monitoring of elastomer seals are outlined. (author). 3 figs

  18. Silicone elastomers with aromatic voltage stabilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    of electron-trapping by aromatic compounds grafted to silicone backbones in a crosslinked PDMS is illustrated in Fig. 1. The electrical breakdown strength, the storage modulus and the loss modulus of the elastomer were investigated, as well as the excitation energy from the collision between electron carriers...... and benzene rings in PDMS-PPMS copolymer was measured by UV-vis spectroscopy. The developed elastomers were inherently soft with enhanced electrical breakdown strength due to delocalized pi-electrons of aromatic rings attached to the silicone backbone. The dielectric relative permittivity of PDMS...

  19. Radiation cured acrylonitrile--butadiene elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldred, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention, the ultimate elongation of an electron beam radiation cured acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer is significantly increased by the incorporation of a preferred noncrosslinking monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, in combination with the conventional crosslinking monomer, trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate, prior to the radiation curing process

  20. Patterning nonisometric origami in nematic elastomer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinsky, Paul; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; White, Timothy J.; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    Nematic elastomers dramatically change their shape in response to diverse stimuli including light and heat. In this paper, we provide a systematic framework for the design of complex three dimensional shapes through the actuation of heterogeneously patterned nematic elastomer sheets. These sheets are composed of \\textit{nonisometric origami} building blocks which, when appropriately linked together, can actuate into a diverse array of three dimensional faceted shapes. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that: 1) the nonisometric origami building blocks actuate in the predicted manner, 2) the integration of multiple building blocks leads to complex multi-stable, yet predictable, shapes, 3) we can bias the actuation experimentally to obtain a desired complex shape amongst the multi-stable shapes. We then show that this experimentally realized functionality enables a rich possible design landscape for actuation using nematic elastomers. We highlight this landscape through theoretical examples, which utilize large arrays of these building blocks to realize a desired three dimensional origami shape. In combination, these results amount to an engineering design principle, which we hope will provide a template for the application of nematic elastomers to emerging technologies.

  1. Processing a difficult urethane elastomer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed study of an adiprene/butanediol/trimethylolpropane elastomer system and the associated production process was performed to assess the importance of various processing factors on the physical properties of the system. Results indicated that control of the curing cycle, material ratio, moisture in the curing agent and elastomer, mixing, and vacuum level was necessary. Sufficient control of the manual process could not be obtained to eliminate significant physical property variability. An automatic metering, mixing and dispensing machine was purchased for laboratory evaluation. After modification, including the addition of a high shear vacuum type mixer, and with close vacuum and temperature control, material property variability was still at an unacceptable level. A tracer agent was introduced into the curing agent system to assess the distribution of the curing agent in the elastomer. Machine evaluation using the tracer agent indicated that distribution of the curing agent in the elastomer was very poor is spite of the high shear mixing configuration. The addition of an oscillating motion to the mixing configuration. The addition of an oscillating motion to the mixing system significantly improved curing agent distribution and eliminated material property variability problems. 16 figures, 3 tables

  2. Thermoplastic elastomers via controlled radical graft polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzcu, G.

    2012-01-01

    Rubbery behavior with a consistent modulus over a wide temperature range is a challenge in the search for ultimate structure-property relations of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). This feature is closely related to the phase separation behavior of the constitutional segments and the Tg of the

  3. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  4. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...

  5. 75 FR 39664 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers and Fire Retardant Chemicals) Conroe... specialty elastomer manufacturing and distribution facility of Materials Science Technology, Inc., located... and distribution of specialty elastomers and fire retardant chemicals at the facility of Materials...

  6. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  7. Compatibility of selected elastomers with plutonium glovebox environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.

    1994-06-01

    This illustrative test was undertaken as a result of on-going failure of elastomer components in plutonium gloveboxes. These failures represent one of the major sources of required maintenance to keep gloveboxes operational. In particular, it was observed that the introduction of high specific activity Pu-238 into a glovebox, otherwise contaminated with Pu-239, resulted in an inordinate failure of elastomer components. Desiring to keep replacement of elastomer components to a minimum, a decision to explore a few possible alternative elastomer candidates was undertaken and reported upon herewith. Sample specimens of Neoprene, Urethane, Viton, and Hypalon elastomeric formulations were obtained from the Bacter Rubber Company. Strips of the elastomer specimens were placed in a plutonium glovebox and outside of a glovebox, and were observed for a period of three years. Of the four types of elastomers, only Hypalon remained completely viable

  8. Types and properties of elastomer materials used in CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Ho Sik; Jeong, Jin Kon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Properties and kinds of elastomer materials used in a CANDU power plant have been described. The elastomer materials have been used as a sealing material in the components f nuclear power plant since they have many excellent properties that can not be seen in other materials. It is very important to select proper elastomer materials used in the nuclear power plant are required to have resistance to temperature as well as radiation. According to the experimental results performed at some laboratories including the Chalk River Laboratory of AECL, elastomer materials with high resistance to temperature and radiation are Nitrile, Ethylene, Propylene and Butyl. These materials have been used in a lot of components of Wolsong unit 1 and Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 which are under elastomer material. Therefore, the studies on the standardization are currently under way to limit about 10 different kinds of elastomer materials to be used in the plant. 16 tabs., 1 fig., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  9. On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress

  10. Pengerasan Pada Bahan Cetak Elastomer Polyether

    OpenAIRE

    Azree Zayani M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Bahan cetak polyether merupakan bahan elastomer yang digunakan di kedokteran gigi. Terdapat empat kelas menurut konsistensi dan viskositas yaitu (1) light body (2)medium atau regular body (3) heavy body: dan (4) Putty. Komposisi bahan cetak polyether terdiri dari pasta base dan pasta katalis. Pasta base mengandung polimer polyether, kolloidal silika sebagai bahan pengisi, dan plastisizer yaitu glikoeter atau phthalate. Pasta katalis mengandung alkil aromatik sulfonat ditambah dengan baha...

  11. Upgrading elastomer seals for nuclear service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittich, K C; Wensel, R; LaRose, R; Kuran, S

    1995-06-01

    Pumps, valves and instruments in nuclear plants have historically contained whatever elastomer each equipment supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The proliferation of elastomer compounds, and their sometimes uncertain reliability, is now being reduced by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of compounds that have each been verified to be high performers for their class of service conditions. The objective is to make cost-effective improvements in the reliability and integrity of equipment in Canadian-designed nuclear plants. The effort focuses on elastomer seals and includes: understanding sealing fundamentals, developing relevant data for superior compounds for each service, and improving quality assurance methods, including handling and inspection guidelines. In practice, discussions with plant personnel and review of plant records are the first step. Two severe-service examples are given where these needs have been met by the following progression of activities: inspecting and laboratory testing of seals removed from service, preliminary and qualification testing of improvements, introduction into service, and monitoring the upgraded seals during phase-in periods. Large gains in reliability and integrity have been demonstrated for simulated normal and accident service conditions of heat, radiation and other deteriorative influences. Significant savings in maintenance costs are also projected. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Upgrading elastomer seals for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, K.C.; Wensel, R.; LaRose, R.; Kuran, S.

    1995-06-01

    Pumps, valves and instruments in nuclear plants have historically contained whatever elastomer each equipment supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The proliferation of elastomer compounds, and their sometimes uncertain reliability, is now being reduced by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of compounds that have each been verified to be high performers for their class of service conditions. The objective is to make cost-effective improvements in the reliability and integrity of equipment in Canadian-designed nuclear plants. The effort focuses on elastomer seals and includes: understanding sealing fundamentals, developing relevant data for superior compounds for each service, and improving quality assurance methods, including handling and inspection guidelines. In practice, discussions with plant personnel and review of plant records are the first step. Two severe-service examples are given where these needs have been met by the following progression of activities: inspecting and laboratory testing of seals removed from service, preliminary and qualification testing of improvements, introduction into service, and monitoring the upgraded seals during phase-in periods. Large gains in reliability and integrity have been demonstrated for simulated normal and accident service conditions of heat, radiation and other deteriorative influences. Significant savings in maintenance costs are also projected. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs

  13. Toward a predictive model for elastomer seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Nicola; Khawaja, Musab; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and hydrogenated-NBR (HNBR) are widely used elastomers, especially as seals in oil and gas applications. During exposure to well-hole conditions, ingress of gases causes degradation of performance, including mechanical failure. We use computer simulations to investigate this problem at two different length and time-scales. First, we study the solubility of gases in the elastomer using a chemically-inspired description of HNBR based on the OPLS all-atom force-field. Starting with a model of NBR, C=C double bonds are saturated with either hydrogen or intramolecular cross-links, mimicking the hydrogenation of NBR to form HNBR. We validate against trends for the mass density and glass transition temperature for HNBR as a function of cross-link density, and for NBR as a function of the fraction of acrylonitrile in the copolymer. Second, we study mechanical behaviour using a coarse-grained model that overcomes some of the length and time-scale limitations of an all-atom approach. Nanoparticle fillers added to the elastomer matrix to enhance mechanical response are also included. Our initial focus is on understanding the mechanical properties at the elevated temperatures and pressures experienced in well-hole conditions.

  14. Upgrading elastomer seals for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, K.C.; Wensel, R.; Larose, R.; Kuran, S.

    1998-01-01

    Pumps, valves and instruments in nuclear plants have historically contained whatever elastomer each equipment supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The proliferation of elastomer compounds, and their sometimes uncertain reliability, is now being reduced by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of compounds that have each been verified to be high performers for their class of service conditions. The objective is to make cost-effective improvements in the reliability and integrity of equipment in Canadian-designed nuclear plants. The effort focuses on elastomer seals and includes: understanding sealing fundamentals, developing relevant data for superior compounds for each service, and improving quality assurance methods, including handling and inspection guidelines. In practice, discussion with plant personnel and review of plant records are the first step. Two severe-service examples are given where these needs have been met by the following progression of activities: inspecting and laboratory testing of seals removed from service, preliminary and qualification testing of improvements, introduction into service, and monitoring the upgraded seals during phase-in periods. Large gains in reliability and integrity have been demonstrated for simulated normal and accident service conditions of heat, radiation and other deteriorative influences. Significant savings in maintenance costs are also projected. (author)

  15. Numerical analysis of laminated elastomer by FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, T.; Shiojiri, H.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer code based on mixed finite element method was developed for three dimensional large strain analyses of laminated elastomers including nonlinear bulk stress vs. bulk strain relationships. The adopted element is the variable node element with maximum node numbers of 27 for displacements and 4 for pressures. At first, the displacements and pressures were calculated by the code using single element under various loading conditions. The results were compared with theoretical solutions and the both results' exactly coincided with each other. Next, the analyses of laminated elastomers subjected to axial loadings were conducted using both the new code and ABAQUS code, and the results were compared with the test results. The agreement of the results of the present code were better than ABAQUS code mainly due to the capability of handling wider range of material properties. Lastly, the shearing tests of laminated elastomers were simulated by the new code. The results were shown to be in good agreement with the test results. (author)

  16. Electromechanical response of silicone dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cârlescu, V.; Prisăcaru, G.; Olaru, D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental technique to investigate the electromechanical properties of silicone dielectric elastomers actuated with high DC electric fields. A non-contact measurement technique is used to capture and monitor the thickness strain (contraction) of a circular film placed between two metallic disks electrodes. Two active fillers such as silica (10, 15 and 30 wt%) and barium titanate (5 and 15 wt%) were incorporated in order to increase the actuation performance. Thickness strain was measured at HV stimuli up to 4.5 kV and showed a quadratic dependence against applied electric field indicating that the induced strain is triggered by the Maxwell effect and/or electrostriction phenomenon as reported in literature. The actuation process evidences a rapid contraction upon HV activation and a slowly relaxation when the electrodes are short-circuit due to visco-elastic nature of elastomers. A maximum of 1.22 % thickness strain was obtained at low actuating field intensity (1.5 V/pm) comparable with those reported in literature for similar dielectric elastomer materials.

  17. Contact and friction in systems with fibre reinforced elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Pareja, Natalia Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The tribological behaviour (contact and friction) of systems that include fibre reinforced elastomers is studied in this thesis. The elastomer composite is considered to behave as a viscoelastic anisotropic continuum material. In the defined tribo-system, the most influential friction mechanism is

  18. Theory Of Dewetting In A Filled Elastomer Under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Steven T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of dewetting between elastomeric binder and filler particles of highly filled elastomer under multiaxial tension and resulting dilatation of elastomer. Study directed toward understanding and predicting nonlinear stress-vs.-strain behavior of filled elastomeric rocket propellant, also applicable to rubber in highly loaded tire or in damping pad.

  19. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    productions, the impact of synthetic elastomer business cannot be overlooked. The need of ... Keywords. Elastomers; catalysis; tyres and automobiles; mechanism; manufacturing process. 1. ..... level fractional factorial design model was also developed to ..... Polybutadiene can be manufactured by a number of pro- cesses ...

  20. Dielectric elastomer actuators used for pneumatic valve technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giousouf, Metin; Kovacs, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators have been investigated for applications in the field of pneumatic automation technology. We have developed different valve designs with stacked dielectric elastomer actuators and with integrated high voltage converters. The actuators were made using VHB-4910 material and a stacker machine for automated fabrication of the cylindrical actuators. Typical characteristics of pneumatic valves such as flow rate, power consumption and dynamic behaviour are presented. For valve construction the force and stroke parameters of the dielectric elastomer actuator have been measured. Further, benefits for valve applications using dielectric elastomers are shown as well as their potential operational area. Finally, challenges are discussed that are relevant for the use of elastomer actuators in valves for industrial applications. (paper)

  1. Functional silicone copolymers and elastomers with high dielectric permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) are a new and promising transducer technology and are often referred to as ‘artificial muscles’, due to their ability to undergo large deformations when stimulated by electric fields. DEs consist of a soft and thin elastomeric film sandwiched between compliant electrodes......, thereby forming a capacitor [1]. Silicone elastomers are one of the most used materials for DEs due to their high efficiency, fast response times and low viscous losses. The major disadvantage of silicone elastomers is that they possess relatively low dielectric permittivity, which means that a high...... electrical field is necessary to operate the DE. The necessary electrical field can be lowered by creating silicone elastomers with higher dielectric permittivity, i.e. with a higher energy density.The aim of this work is to create new and improved silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity...

  2. Monitoring diver kinematics with dielectric elastomer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher R.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2017-04-01

    Diving, initially motivated for food purposes, is crucial to the oil and gas industry, search and rescue, and is even done recreationally by millions of people. There is a growing need however, to monitor the health and activity of divers. The Divers Alert Network has reported on average 90 fatalities per year since 1980. Furthermore an estimated 1000 divers require recompression treatment for dive-related injuries every year. One means of monitoring diver activity is to integrate strain sensors into a wetsuit. This would provide kinematic information on the diver potentially improving buoyancy control assessment, providing a platform for gesture communication, detecting panic attacks and monitoring diver fatigue. To explore diver kinematic monitoring we have coupled dielectric elastomer sensors to a wetsuit worn by the pilot of a human-powered wet submarine. This provided a unique platform to test the performance and accuracy of dielectric elastomer strain sensors in an underwater application. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of strain sensors to monitor the kinematics of a diver. This study was in collaboration with the University of Auckland's human-powered submarine team, Team Taniwha. The pilot, completely encapsulated in a hull, pedals to propel the submarine forward. Therefore this study focused on leg motion as that is the primary motion of the submarine pilot. Four carbon-filled silicone dielectric elastomer sensors were fabricated and coupled to the pilot's wetsuit. The first two sensors were attached over the knee joints, with the remaining two attached between the pelvis and thigh. The goal was to accurately measure leg joint angles thereby determining the position of each leg relative to the hip. A floating data acquisition unit monitored the sensors and transmitted data packets to a nearby computer for real-time processing. A GoPro Hero 4 silver edition was used to capture the experiments and provide a means of post-validation. The

  3. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Andrew D; Katzschmann, Robert K; Rus, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes.

  4. Thermal Characterization of Modified Tacca Leontopetaloides Starch and Natural Rubber Based Thermoplastic Elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainatul Mardhiah Mohd Amin; Nur Shahidah Ab Aziz; Nurul Shuhada Mohd Makhtar; Miradatul Najwa Mohd Rodhi; Suhaila Mohd Sauid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the potential of Tacca leontopetaloides starch as bio-based thermoplastic elastomers, TPEs. Starch based polymer had been recognized to have highly potential in replace existing source of conventional elastomeric polymer. The modification process of blending starch with natural rubber, plasticizers, additives, and filler contribute to the enhancement and improvement for the properties of starch in order to produce biopolymers by approaching the properties of TPEs. Thermal properties of starch based thermoplastic was studied to evaluate the decomposition and degradation of the samples by using Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA while the properties of endothermic reactions of the samples were thermally analyzed via Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC. From the analysis, it was found that the thermal properties of samples were revealed by recognizing GM-2 (green materials, GM) has high thermal resistance towards high temperature up to 480.06 degree Celsius with higher amount of residue which is 4.97 mg compared to other samples. This indicates GM-2 comprises of superior combination of ratio between natural rubbers and glycerol (plasticizer) in purpose of approaching the properties of Thermoplastic Elastomers, TPEs. (author)

  5. Thermodynamics and instability of dielectric elastomer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Mu, Tong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer is a kind of typical soft active material. It can deform obviously when subjected to an external voltage. When a dielectric elastomer with randomly oriented dipoles is subject to an electric field, the dipoles will rotate to and align with the electric field. The polarization of the dielectric elastomer may be saturated when the voltage is high enough. When subjected to a mechanical force, the end-to-end distance of each polymer chain, which has a finite contour length, will approach the finite value, reaching a limiting stretch. On approaching the limiting stretch, the elastomer stiffens steeply. Here, we develop a thermodynamic constitutive model of dielectric elastomers undergoing polarization saturation and strain-stiffening, and then investigate the stability (electromechanical stability, snap-through stability) and voltage induced deformation of dielectric elastomers. Analytical solution has been obtained and it reveals the marked influence of the extension limit and polarization saturation limit on its instability. The developed thermodynamic constitutive model and simulation results would be helpful in future to the research of dielectric elastomer based high-performance transducers.

  6. Modeling shape selection of buckled dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Jacob; Bense, Hadrien; Barkley, Dwight

    2018-02-01

    A dielectric elastomer whose edges are held fixed will buckle, given a sufficiently applied voltage, resulting in a nontrivial out-of-plane deformation. We study this situation numerically using a nonlinear elastic model which decouples two of the principal electrostatic stresses acting on an elastomer: normal pressure due to the mutual attraction of oppositely charged electrodes and tangential shear ("fringing") due to repulsion of like charges at the electrode edges. These enter via physically simplified boundary conditions that are applied in a fixed reference domain using a nondimensional approach. The method is valid for small to moderate strains and is straightforward to implement in a generic nonlinear elasticity code. We validate the model by directly comparing the simulated equilibrium shapes with the experiment. For circular electrodes which buckle axisymetrically, the shape of the deflection profile is captured. Annular electrodes of different widths produce azimuthal ripples with wavelengths that match our simulations. In this case, it is essential to compute multiple equilibria because the first model solution obtained by the nonlinear solver (Newton's method) is often not the energetically favored state. We address this using a numerical technique known as "deflation." Finally, we observe the large number of different solutions that may be obtained for the case of a long rectangular strip.

  7. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  8. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  9. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  10. Modeling of Magnetostriction of Soft Elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, Andriushchenko; Leonid, Afremov; Mariya, Chernova

    2014-01-01

    Small magnetic particles placed in a relatively soft polymer (with elastic modulus E ∼ 10 ÷ 100 kPa) are magnetically soft elastomers. The external magnetic field acts on each particle which leads to microscopic deformation of the material and consequently to changing of its shape – magnetostriction. For purposes of studying of magnetostriction the model of movable cellular automata (MCA), in which a real heterogeneous material is an ensemble of interacting elements of finite size – automata, is used. It's supposed to be that the motion of each automata can be described by Newton's Second law. The force acting on the i-th automata consists of the following components: volume-dependent force acting on the automata i which is caused by pressure from the surrounding automata; force of an external magnetic field acting on the i-th automata with some magnetic moment; and normal and tangential interaction force between a pair of i and j automata. This approach was used for modeling of magnetostriction elastomer

  11. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  12. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiubianu, George; Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian; Ignat, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles

  13. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiubianu, George, E-mail: george.stiubianu@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Ignat, Mircea [National R& D Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA Bucharest, Splaiul Unirii 313, District 3, Bucharest 030138 (Romania)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles.

  14. The Current State of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    class of transducer due to their inherent lightweight and potentially large strains. For the field to progress towards industrial implementation, a leap in material devel- opment is required, specifically targeting longer lifetime and higher energy densities to provide more efficient transduction at lower...... driving voltages. In this review, the current state of sili- cone elastomers for DETs is summarised and critically discussed, including commercial elastomers, composites, polymer blends, grafted elastomers and complex network structures. For future developments in the field it is essential that all aspects...

  15. Active vibration isolation platform on base of magnetorheological elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Valery P., E-mail: mikhailov@bmstu.ru; Bazinenkov, Alexey M.

    2017-06-01

    The article describes the active vibration isolation platform on base of magnetorheological (MR) elastomers. An active damper based on the MR elastomers can be used as an actuator of micro- or nanopositioning for a vibroinsulated object. The MR elastomers give such advantages for active control of vibration as large range of displacements (up to 1 mm), more efficient absorption of the vibration energy, possibility of active control of amplitude-frequency characteristics and positioning with millisecond response speed and nanometer running accuracy. The article presents the results of experimental studies of the most important active damper parameters. Those are starting current, transient time for stepping, transmission coefficient of the vibration displacement amplitude.

  16. Self-Healing, High-Permittivity Silicone Dielectric Elastomer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    possesses high dielectric permittivity and consists of an interpenetrating polymer network of silicone elastomer and ionic silicone species that are cross-linked through proton exchange between amines and acids. The ionically cross-linked silicone provides self-healing properties after electrical breakdown...... or cuts made directly to the material due to the reassembly of the ionic bonds that are broken during damage. The dielectric elastomers presented in this paper pave the way to increased lifetimes and the ability of dielectric elastomers to survive millions of cycles in high-voltage conditions....

  17. Metal and elastomer seal tests for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.; McIntyre, G.T.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Skelton, R.; Pate, D.J.; Gill, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum system of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has more than a thousand metal vacuum seals. Also, numerous elastomer seals are used throughout the AGS to seal large beam component chambers. An accelerator upgrade program is being implemented to reduce the AGS operating pressure by x100 and improve the reliability of the vacuum system. This paper describes work in progress on metal and elastomer vacuum seals to help meet those two objectives. Tests are reported on the sealing properties of a variety of metal seals used on different sealing surfaces. Results are also given on reversible sorption properties of certain elastomers. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Suppression of electromechanical instability in fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomers has been a major challenge for the application of this class of active materials. In this work, we demonstrate that dielectric elastomers filled with soft fiber can suppress the electromechanical instability and achieve large deformation. Specifically, we developed a constitutive model to describe the dielectric and mechanical behaviors of fiber-reinforced elastomers. The model was applied to study the influence of stiffness, nonlinearity properties and the distribution of fiber on the instability of dielectric membrane under an electric field. The results show that there exists an optimal fiber distribution condition to achieve the maximum deformation before failure.

  19. Electrical Breakdown and Mechanical Ageing in Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    Dielectric elastomers (DE) are used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. For many applications, one of the major factors that limits the DE performance is premature electrical breakdown. There are many approaches that have been......, the lifetime of elastomer materials needs further investigation. Therefore, in the second strategy, several DE parameters such as Young’s moduli, breakdown strengths and dielectric permittivities of PDMS elastomers filled with hard filler particles were investigated after being subjected to pre...

  20. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Etienne; Chen, Yulan; Bulters, Markus; Sijbesma, Rint P; Creton, Costantino

    2014-04-11

    Elastomers are widely used because of their large-strain reversible deformability. Most unfilled elastomers suffer from a poor mechanical strength, which limits their use. Using sacrificial bonds, we show how brittle, unfilled elastomers can be strongly reinforced in stiffness and toughness (up to 4 megapascals and 9 kilojoules per square meter) by introducing a variable proportion of isotropically prestretched chains that can break and dissipate energy before the material fails. Chemoluminescent cross-linking molecules, which emit light as they break, map in real time where and when many of these internal bonds break ahead of a propagating crack. The simple methodology that we use to introduce sacrificial bonds, combined with the mapping of where bonds break, has the potential to stimulate the development of new classes of unfilled tough elastomers and better molecular models of the fracture of soft materials.

  1. Synthetic Strategies for High Dielectric Constant Silicone Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt

    synthetic strategies were developed in this Ph.D. thesis, in order to create silicone elastomers with high dielectric constants and thereby higher energy densities. The work focused on maintaining important properties such as dielectric loss, electrical breakdown strength and elastic modulus....... The methodology therefore involved chemically grafting high dielectric constant chemical groups onto the elastomer network, as this would potentially provide a stable elastomer system upon continued activation of the material. The first synthetic strategy involved the synthesis of a new type of cross...... extender’ that allowed for chemical modifications such as Cu- AAC. This route was promising for one-pot elastomer preparation and as a high dielectric constant additive to commercial silicone systems. The second approach used the borane-catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction to form spatially well...

  2. Elastomer degradation sensor using a piezoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olness, Dolores U.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring the degradation of elastomeric materials is provided. Piezoelectric oscillators are placed in contact with the elastomeric material so that a forced harmonic oscillator with damping is formed. The piezoelectric material is connected to an oscillator circuit,. A parameter such as the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q value of the oscillating system is related to the elasticity of the elastomeric material. Degradation of the elastomeric material causes changes in its elasticity which, in turn, causes the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q of the oscillator to change. These changes are monitored with a peak height monitor, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum analyzer, or other measurement circuit. Elasticity of elastomers can be monitored in situ, using miniaturized sensors.

  3. Polyurethane elastomers from morphology to mechanical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prisacariu, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the physical / mechanical behaviour of polyurethanes (PU´s) elastomers, films and blends of variable crystallinity. Aspects covered include the elasticity and inelasticity of amorphous to crystalline PUs, in relation to their sensitivity to chemical and physical structure. A study is made of how aspects of the constitutive responses of PUs vary with composition: the polyaddition procedure, the hard segment, soft segment and chain extender (diols and diamines) are varied systematically in a large number of systems of model and novel crosslinked andthermoplastic PUs. Results will be related to: microstructural changes, on the basis of evidence from x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), and also dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and IR dichroism. Inelastic effects will be investigated also by including quantitative correlations between the magnitude of the Mullins effect and the fractional energy dissipation by hysteresis under cyclic straining, g...

  4. Sensing capabilities of graphite based MR elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, T F; Li, W H; Deng, Y M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both experimental and theoretical investigations of the sensing capabilities of graphite based magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). In this study, eight MRE samples with varying graphite weight fractions were fabricated and their resistance under different magnetic fields and external loadings were measured with a multi-meter. With an increment of graphite weight fraction, the resistance of MRE sample decreases steadily. Higher magnetic fields result in a resistance increase. Based on an ideal assumption of a perfect chain structure, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the relationship between the MRE resistance with external loading. In this model, the current flowing through the chain structure consists of both a tunnel current and a conductivity current, both of which depend on external loadings. The modelling parameters have been identified and reconstructed from comparison with experimental results. The comparison indicates that both experimental results and modelling predictions agree favourably well

  5. Actuation response of polyacrylate dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, G.; Kornbluh, R.; Pelrine, R.

    2001-01-01

    Polyacrylate dielectric elastomers have yielded extremely large strain and elastic energy density suggesting that they are useful for many actuator applications. A thorough understanding of the physics underlying the mechanism of the observed response to an electric field can help develop improved......, though there are discrepancies. Further analysis suggests that these arise mostly from imperfect manufacture of the actuators, though there is a small contribution from an explicitly electrostrictive behavior of the acrylic adhesive. Measurements of the dielectric constant of stretched polymer reveal...... that the dielectric constant drops, when the polymer is strained, indicating the existence of a small electrostrictive effect. Finally, measurements of the electric breakdown field were made. These also show a dependence upon the strain. In the unstrained state the breakdown field is 20 WV/m, which grows to 218MV...

  6. Skin-inspired hydrogel-elastomer hybrids with robust interfaces and functional microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhang, Teng; Parada, German Alberto; Liu, Xinyue; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by mammalian skins, soft hybrids integrating the merits of elastomers and hydrogels have potential applications in diverse areas including stretchable and bio-integrated electronics, microfluidics, tissue engineering, soft robotics and biomedical devices. However, existing hydrogel-elastomer hybrids have limitations such as weak interfacial bonding, low robustness and difficulties in patterning microstructures. Here, we report a simple yet versatile method to assemble hydrogels and elastomers into hybrids with extremely robust interfaces (interfacial toughness over 1,000 Jm-2) and functional microstructures such as microfluidic channels and electrical circuits. The proposed method is generally applicable to various types of tough hydrogels and diverse commonly used elastomers including polydimethylsiloxane Sylgard 184, polyurethane, latex, VHB and Ecoflex. We further demonstrate applications enabled by the robust and microstructured hydrogel-elastomer hybrids including anti-dehydration hydrogel-elastomer hybrids, stretchable and reactive hydrogel-elastomer microfluidics, and stretchable hydrogel circuit boards patterned on elastomer.

  7. Methyl Iodide Decomposition at BWR Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Mike; Bell, Merl

    2012-09-01

    Based on favourable results from short-term testing of methanol addition to an operating BWR plant, AREVA has performed numerous studies in support of necessary Engineering and Plant Safety Evaluations prior to extended injection of methanol. The current paper presents data from a study intended to provide further understanding of the decomposition of methyl iodide as it affects the assessment of methyl iodide formation with the application of methanol at BWR Plants. This paper describes the results of the decomposition testing under UV-C light at laboratory conditions and its effect on the subject methyl iodide production evaluation. The study as to the formation and decomposition of methyl iodide as it is effected by methanol addition is one phase of a larger AREVA effort to provide a generic plant Safety Evaluation prior to long-term methanol injection to an operating BWR. Other testing phases have investigated the compatibility of methanol with fuel construction materials, plant structural materials, plant consumable materials (i.e. elastomers and coatings), and ion exchange resins. Methyl iodide is known to be very unstable, typically preserved with copper metal or other stabilizing materials when produced and stored. It is even more unstable when exposed to light, heat, radiation, and water. Additionally, it is known that methyl iodide will decompose radiolytically, and that this effect may be simulated using ultra-violet radiation (UV-C) [2]. In the tests described in this paper, the use of a UV-C light source provides activation energy for the formation of methyl iodide. Thus is similar to the effect expected from Cherenkov radiation present in a reactor core after shutdown. Based on the testing described in this paper, it is concluded that injection of methanol at concentrations below 2.5 ppm in BWR applications to mitigate IGSCC of internals is inconsequential to the accident conditions postulated in the FSAR as they are related to methyl iodide formation

  8. Fluoridated elastomers: effect on the microbiology of plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Douglas, C W Ian; Martin, Michael V

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated elastomeric ligatures on the microbiology of local dental plaque in vivo. This randomized, prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial had a split-mouth crossover design. The subjects were 30 patients at the beginning of their treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances in the orthodontic departments of the Liverpool and the Sheffield dental hospitals in the United Kingdom. The study consisted of 2 experimental periods of 6 weeks with a washout period between. Fluoridated elastomers were randomly allocated at the first visit to be placed around brackets on tooth numbers 12, 11, 33 or 22, 21, 43. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on the contralateral teeth. Standard nonantibacterial fluoridated toothpaste and mouthwash were supplied. After 6 weeks (visit 2), the elastomers were removed, placed in transport media, and plated on agar within 2 hours. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on all brackets for 1 visit to allow for a washout period. At visit 3, fluoridated elastomers were placed on the teeth contralateral to those that received them at visit 1. At visit 4, the procedures at visit 2 were repeated. Samples were collected on visits 2 and 4. A logistic regression was performed, with the presence or absence of streptococcal or anaerobic growth as the dependent variable. A mixed-effects analysis of variance was carried out with the percentage of streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial count as the dependent variable. The only significant independent variables were the subject variable (P =bacterial count and the visit variable for the percentage of streptococcal count (P =fluoridated or nonfluoridated elastomers was not significant for percentage of either streptococcal (P =.288) or anaerobic count (P =.230). Fluoridated elastomers are not effective at reducing local streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial growth after a clinically relevant time in the mouth.

  9. Thermal tuning of a silicon photonic crystal cavity infilled with an elastomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdamar, A.K.; Van Leest, M.M.; Picken, S.J.; Caro, J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal tuning of the transmission of an elastomer infilled photonic crystal cavity is studied. An elastomer has a thermal expansion-induced negative thermo-optic coefficient that leads to a strong decrease of the refractive index upon heating. This property makes elastomer highly suitable for

  10. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric...

  11. Improved reliability, maintainability and safety through elastomer upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.; Wittich, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Equipment in nuclear plants has historically contained whatever elastomer each component supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The resulting proliferation of elastomer compounds, many of which are far from optimal for the service conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, radiation, etc.), has multiplied the costs to provide station reliability, maintainability and safety. Cost-effective improvements are being achieved in CANDU plants by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of high performing elastomer compounds. These upgraded materials offer significant gains in service life over the materials they replace (often by factors of 2 or more). This rationalization of elastomer compounds also facilitates the EQ process for safety-related equipment. Detailed test data on aging is currently being generated for these specific elastomers, encompassing the conditions and media (air, water, oil) common in CANDU service. Two key elements characterize this testing. First, each result is specific to the compound used in the test, and second, it is specific to the tested failure mode (e.g., compression set, extrusion, fracture, etc.). Having fewer, but more thoroughly tested compounds, avoids the penalty (associated with poorly characterized materials) of having to replace parts prematurely because of conservatism, while maintaining safe, reliable service. This paper provides an overview of this approach covering: the benefits of compound rationalization; and the how and why of establishing relevant failure criteria; appropriate quality assurance to maintain EQ; procurement, storage and handling guidelines; and monitoring and predicting in-service degradation. (author)

  12. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Costantino

    2014-03-01

    Most unfilled elastomers are relatively brittle, in particular when the average molecular weight between crosslinks is lower than the average molecular weight between entanglements. We created a new class of tough elastomers by introducing isotropically prestretched chains inside ordinary acrylic elastomers by successive swelling and polymerization steps. These new materials combine a high entanglement density with a densely crosslinked structure reaching elastic moduli of 4 MPa and fracture strength of 25 MPa. The highly prestretched chains are the minority in the material and can break in the bulk of the material before catastrophic failure occurs, increasing the toughness of the material by two orders of magnitude up to 5 kJ/m2. To investigate the details of the toughening mechanism we introduced specific sacrificial dioxetane bonds in the prestretched chains that emit light when they break. In uniaxial extension cyclic experiments, we checked that the light emission corresponded exactly and quantitatively to the energy dissipation in each cycle demonstrating that short chains break first and long chains later. We then watched crack propagation in notched samples and mapped spatially the location of bond breakage ahead of the crack tip before and during propagation. This new toughening mechanism for elastomers creates superentangled rubbers and is ideally suited to overcome the trade-off between toughness and stiffness of ordinary elastomers. We gratefully acknowledge funding from DSM Ahead

  13. Frequency and temperature dependence of high damping elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are one of the preferred devices for isolating large buildings and structures. In the US, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of high damping rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 and 100% and are expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading conditions. Elastomeric bearings are currently designed to provide a system frequency between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz and expected to operate between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. To assure proper performance of isolation bearings, it is necessary to characterize the elastomer's response under expected variations of frequency and temperature. The dynamic response of the elastomer must be characterized within the frequency range that spans the bearing acceptance test frequency, which may be as low as 0.005 Hz, and the design frequency. Similarly, the variation in mechanical characteristics of the elastomer must be determined over the design temperature range, which is between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. This paper reports on (1) the capabilities of a testing facility at ANL for testing candidate elastomers, (2) the variation with frequency and temperature of the stiffness and damping of one candidate elastomer, and (3) the effect of these variations on bearing acceptance testing criteria and on the choice of bearing design values for stiffness and damping

  14. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  15. Thermal decomposition of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.; Popovic, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of natural pyrite (cubic, FeS 2 ) has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis of pyrite ore from different sources showed the presence of associated minerals, such as quartz, szomolnokite, stilbite or stellerite, micas and hematite. Hematite, maghemite and pyrrhotite were detected as thermal decomposition products of natural pyrite. The phase composition of the thermal decomposition products depends on the terature, time of heating and starting size of pyrite chrystals. Hematite is the end product of the thermal decomposition of natural pyrite. (author) 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Inkjet 3D printing of UV and thermal cure silicone elastomers for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David; Rosset, Samuel; Schlatter, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2017-12-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are an attractive form of electromechanical transducer, possessing high energy densities, an efficient design, mechanical compliance, high speed, and noiseless operation. They have been incorporated into a wide variety of devices, such as microfluidic systems, cell bioreactors, tunable optics, haptic displays, and actuators for soft robotics. Fabrication of DEA devices is complex, and the majority are inefficiently made by hand. 3D printing offers an automated and flexible manufacturing alternative that can fabricate complex, multi-material, integrated devices consistently and in high resolution. We present a novel additive manufacturing approach to DEA devices in which five commercially available, thermal and UV-cure DEA silicone rubber materials have been 3D printed with a drop-on-demand, piezoelectric inkjet system. Using this process, 3D structures and high-quality silicone dielectric elastomer membranes as thin as 2 μm have been printed that exhibit mechanical and actuation performance at least as good as conventionally blade-cast membranes. Printed silicone membranes exhibited maximum tensile strains of up to 727%, and DEAs with printed silicone dielectrics were actuated up to 6.1% area strain at a breakdown strength of 84 V μm-1 and also up to 130 V μm-1 at 2.4% strain. This approach holds great potential to manufacture reliable, high-performance DEA devices with high throughput.

  17. Artificial muscles based on liquid crystal elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Hui; Keller, Patrick

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents our results on liquid crystal (LC) elastomers as artificial muscle, based on the ideas proposed by de Gennes. In the theoretical model, the material consists of a repeated series of main-chain nematic LC polymer blocks, N, and conventional rubber blocks, R, based on the lamellar phase of a triblock copolymer RNR. The motor for the contraction is the reversible macromolecular shape change of the chain, from stretched to spherical, that occurs at the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition in the main-chain nematic LC polymers. We first developed a new kind of muscle-like material based on a network of side-on nematic LC homopolymers. Side-on LC polymers were used instead of main-chain LC polymers for synthetic reasons. The first example of these materials was thermo-responsive, with a typical contraction of around 35-45% and a generated force of around 210 kPa. Subsequently, a photo-responsive material was developed, with a fast photochemically induced contraction of around 20%, triggered by UV light. We then succeeded in preparing a thermo-responsive artificial muscle, RNR, with lamellar structure, using a side-on nematic LC polymer as N block.Micrometre-sized artificial muscles were also prepared. This paper illustrates the bottom-up design of stimuli-responsive materials, in which the overall material response reflects the individual macromolecular response, using LC polymer as building block.

  18. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  19. A soft compressive sensor using dielectric elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongying; Wang, Michael Yu; Li, Jisen; Zhu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to design, analyze and fabricate a soft compressive sensor, made of dielectric elastomers that are able to recover from large strain. Each module of the compressive sensor is modeled as a capacitor, comprising a DE membrane sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. When the sensor modules aligned in an array were subject to a compressive load, the induced deformation on the corresponding module resulted in capacitance increase. By detecting the capacitance signal, not only the position but also the magnitude of the compressive load were obtained. We built an analytical model to simulate the mechanical–electrical responses of two common soft sensor structures, namely with and without an embedded air chamber. The simulation results showed that the air embedded prototype improved the sensitivity of the sensor significantly, which was consistent with the experimental results, where the sensitivity is enhanced from 0.05 N −1 to 0.91 N −1 . Furthermore, the effect of the air chamber dimension on the sensitivity is also discussed theoretically and experimentally. It concluded that the detection range increased with the air chamber height over length ratio. (paper)

  20. Hysteretic behavior of soft magnetic elastomer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krautz, Maria; Werner, David [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schrödner, Mario [Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, D-07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Funk, Alexander [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Jantz, Alexander; Popp, Jana [Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, D-07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Waske, Anja [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Composites of polymer and micron-sized particles of carbonyl-iron were investigated in terms of their magnetization behavior. Thermoplastic elastomers with varying Young's modulus (E{sub Polymer}=0.14–14.6 MPa) were used as matrix material. Field dependent magnetization curves reveal that the hysteretic behavior of the composites strongly depends on both the particle fraction (7, 10, 14, 21, 31 vol%) and on the mechanical properties of the polymer. It is shown that hysteresis only appears above a certain fraction of magnetic particles which can be accounted to the magnetic exchange between the particles. However, hysteresis is suppressed in the composite with largest Young's modulus of the polymer matrix, even at largest particle fraction. - Highlights: • Composites with soft magnetic Iron Particles show hysteretic magnetization behavior. • Origin of the hysteresis is the alignment of particles along field direction. • Hysteresis depends on both, mechanical properties of matrix and particle fraction.

  1. Super soft silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favourable properties. The obstacle of high driving voltages, however, limits the commercial viability of the technology at present. Driving voltage can be lowered by decreasing the Young’s modulus and increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone...... elastomers. A decrease in Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE. New soft elastomer matrices with high dielectric permittivity and low Young’s modulus, with no loss of mechanical stability, were prepared by two different...... approaches using chloropropyl-functional silicone polymers. The first approach was based on synthesised chloropropyl-functional copolymers that were cross-linkable and thereby formed the basis of new silicone networks with high dielectric permittivity (e.g. a 43% increase). These networks were soft without...

  2. Mechanical tests for validation of seismic isolation elastomer constitutive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    High damping laminated elastomeric bearings are becoming the preferred device for seismic isolation of large buildings and structures, such as nuclear power plants. The key component of these bearings is a filled natural rubber elastomer. This material exhibits nonlinear behavior within the normal design range. The material damping cannot be classified as either viscous or hysteritic, but it seems to fall somewhere in between. This paper describes a series of tests that can be used to characterize the mechanical response of these elastomers. The tests are designed to determine the behavior of the elastomer in the time scale of the earthquake, which is typically from 30 to 60 seconds. The test results provide data for use in determining the material parameters associated with nonlinear constitutive models. 4 refs

  3. Preparation of micro-pored silicone elastomer through radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoling; Gu Mei; Xie Xubing; Huang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking was adopted to prepare the micro-pored silicone elastomer, which was performed by vulcanization and foaming respectively. Radiation crosslinking is a new method to prepare micro-pored material with high performance by use of radiation technology. Silicon dioxide was used as filler, and silicone elastomer was vulcanized by electron beams, then the micro-pored material was made by heating method at a high temperature. The effects of absorbed dose and filler content on the performance and morphology were investigated. The structure and distribution of pores were observed by SEM. The results show that the micro-pored silicon elastomer can be prepared successfully by controlling the absorbed dose and filler content. It has a smooth surface similar to a rubber meanwhile the pores are round and unconnected to each other with the minimum size of 14 μm. And the good mechanical performance can be suitable for further uses. (authors)

  4. Optimization of large-scale fabrication of dielectric elastomer transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have gained substantial ground in many different applications, such as wave energy harvesting, valves and loudspeakers. For DE technology to be commercially viable, it is necessary that any large-scale production operation is nondestructive, efficient and cheap. Danfoss......-strength laminates to perform as monolithic elements. For the front-to-back and front-to-front configurations, conductive elastomers were utilised. One approach involved adding the cheap and conductive filler, exfoliated graphite (EG) to a PDMS matrix to increase dielectric permittivity. The results showed that even...... as conductive adhesives were rejected. Dielectric properties below the percolation threshold were subsequently investigated, in order to conclude the study. In order to avoid destroying the network structure, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used as fillers during the preparation of the conductive elastomers...

  5. Silicone elastomers with superior softness and dielectric properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) change their shape and size under a high voltage or reversibly generate a high voltage when deformed. The obstacle of high driving voltages, however, limits the commercial viability of the technology at present. Driving voltage can be lowered by decreasing the Young......’s modulus and increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers. One such prominent method of modifying the properties is by adding suitable additives. [1] The major drawbacks for adding solid fillers are agglomeration and increasing stiffness which is often accompanied by the decrease...... were determined by NMR and morphology structures were investigated by optical microscopy. The resulting elastomers were evaluated with respect to their dielectric permittivity, tear and tensile strengths, as well as electrical breakdown.The breakdown strength increased at low amounts of additives...

  6. Flexible and stretchable electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-02-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are flexible lightweight actuators that can generate strains of over 100 %. They are used in applications ranging from haptic feedback (mm-sized devices), to cm-scale soft robots, to meter-long blimps. DEAs consist of an electrode-elastomer-electrode stack, placed on a frame. Applying a voltage between the electrodes electrostatically compresses the elastomer, which deforms in-plane or out-of plane depending on design. Since the electrodes are bonded to the elastomer, they must reliably sustain repeated very large deformations while remaining conductive, and without significantly adding to the stiffness of the soft elastomer. The electrodes are required for electrostatic actuation, but also enable resistive and capacitive sensing of the strain, leading to self-sensing actuators. This review compares the different technologies used to make compliant electrodes for DEAs in terms of: impact on DEA device performance (speed, efficiency, maximum strain), manufacturability, miniaturization, the integration of self-sensing and self-switching, and compatibility with low-voltage operation. While graphite and carbon black have been the most widely used technique in research environments, alternative methods are emerging which combine compliance, conduction at over 100 % strain with better conductivity and/or ease of patternability, including microfabrication-based approaches for compliant metal thin-films, metal-polymer nano-composites, nanoparticle implantation, and reel-to-reel production of μm-scale patterned thin films on elastomers. Such electrodes are key to miniaturization, low-voltage operation, and widespread commercialization of DEAs.

  7. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  8. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  9. Collapse of triangular channels in a soft elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepáyotl-Ramírez, Daniel; Lu, Tong; Park, Yong-Lae; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We extend classical solutions in contact mechanics to examine the collapse of channels in a soft elastomer. These channels have triangular cross-section and collapse when pressure is applied to the surrounding elastomer. Treating the walls of the channel as indenters that penetrate the channel base, we derive an algebraic mapping between pressure and cross-sectional area. These theoretical predictions are in strong agreement with results that we obtain through finite element analysis and experimental measurements. This is accomplished without data fitting and suggests that the theoretical approach may be generalized to a broad range of cross-sectional geometries in soft microfluidics.

  10. Hemispherical breathing mode speaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Naoki; Baba, Shun; Maeda, Shingo

    2015-10-01

    Although indoor acoustic characteristics should ideally be assessed by measuring the reverberation time using a point sound source, a regular polyhedron loudspeaker, which has multiple loudspeakers on a chassis, is typically used. However, such a configuration is not a point sound source if the size of the loudspeaker is large relative to the target sound field. This study investigates a small lightweight loudspeaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator vibrating in the breathing mode (the pulsating mode such as the expansion and contraction of a balloon). Acoustic testing with regard to repeatability, sound pressure, vibration mode profiles, and acoustic radiation patterns indicate that dielectric elastomer loudspeakers may be feasible.

  11. Electrical behaviour of synthetic elastomers under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharescu, Traian; Ciuprina, Florin

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of ethylene-propylene elastomers to the action of gamma radiation causes the modification of chemical state of polymer matrix by the formation of oxygenated products. The accumulation of dipoles modifies the electrical behaviour of materials. The value of resistance increases more than three times at increasing the dose up to 200 kGy. The absorption/resorption current measurements demonstrate the bad consequence of the inversion of polarity for applied voltages. Differences between the two sorts of synthetic elastomers (ethylene-propylene copolymer and ethylene-propylene terpolymer) were pointed out. (author)

  12. Effect of the filler on radiolysis of filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, S.A.; Erastov, A.Kh.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Gostikina, A.V.; Mal'kov, A.M.; Korovkin, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the type and concentration of filler (A-175 Aerosil, PM-75 technical carbon, BS-100 white black, kaolin, titanium oxide) on the radiation yield of elastomers of different chemical nature was studied. The extreme character of the dependence of the radiation yield of paramagnetic centers on the concentration of filler, common to the systems studied, was established; it was due to the features of the colloid chemical structure of the filled elastomers and particularly to processes of cross-linking of the filter

  13. Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, J., E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Ostaszewska, U. [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials & Dyes, Division of Elastomers & Rubber Technology, Harcerska 30, 05-820 Piastow (Poland); Bielinski, D.M. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Polymer & Dye Technology, Stefanowskiego 12/16, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Grambole, D. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); Kosinska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers.

  14. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  15. Microtomography of elastomers for tire manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmuir, John H.; Dias, A. J.; Peiffer, D. G.; Kolb, R.; Jones, G.

    1999-09-01

    X-ray microtomography is used to image the internal structure of carbon black filled isobutylene-p-methylstyrene-p- bromomethylstyrene (PIB-PMS/BrPMS or ExxProTM) curing bladders before and after use-to-failure in the manufacture of automobile tires. Curing bladders operate under extreme conditions with extended mechanical cycling at high temperatures. Manufacturers typically do not run the bladders until failure but rather a pull policy is established which emphasizes the distribution of cyclic lifetimes. We examine the bladder elastomer structure at a resolution of about 10 microns with the objective of reducing the variability in performance. Using both edge crossing and absorption contrast we identify several types of heterogeneity including voids, foreign inclusions, and the distribution of curative agent from which we infer the uniformity of the cure. The results indicate several potential failure mechanisms. The small number of voids and foreign inclusions are mechanical defects that can initiate cracking. More widespread through the polymer matrix are small regions of polymer devoid of curative agent as shown by absorption edge imaging. These regions may be uncured polymer with poor mechanical and thermal properties that may lead to early failure. After several cure cycles the uncured regions are no longer present in the bladder tread area but they remain near the bead. At high cycles an approximately 500 micrometer thick zinc rich cap develops where the bladder contacts the inner tread area of the tire. This zinc rich cap may cause over-curing of the polymer resulting in crack initiation at the surface of the bladder that contacts the tire.

  16. Polypropylene/elastomers/organophilic bentonite nanocomposites. Influence of elastomer content on morphology and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, K.R.M.; Braga, C.R.C.; Andrade, D.L.A.C.S.; Carvalho, L.H.; Silva, S.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the elastomer terpolymer ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) content on the morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene PP/EPDM/organophilic bentonite nanocomposite was evaluated. The bentonite, supplied by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste, was purified and organically modified with cetyl trimethyl quaternary ammonium (cetremide) before the incorporation in PP/EPDM blend. The blends with various amounts of EPDM (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) and 1 phr of organoclay were prepared by melt-blending at 180 deg C and 50 rpm for 15 min with an internal mixer (Haake). The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction and mechanical properties (tensile strength). According to the results, we concluded that the content of EPDM affected the morphology and mechanical properties of nanocomposites resulting in improvement in mechanical and morphological properties when a content of 30 wt% of EPDM was used. (author)

  17. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  18. Decompositions of manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Daverman, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decomposition theory studies decompositions, or partitions, of manifolds into simple pieces, usually cell-like sets. Since its inception in 1929, the subject has become an important tool in geometric topology. The main goal of the book is to help students interested in geometric topology to bridge the gap between entry-level graduate courses and research at the frontier as well as to demonstrate interrelations of decomposition theory with other parts of geometric topology. With numerous exercises and problems, many of them quite challenging, the book continues to be strongly recommended to eve

  19. The dynamic contact area of elastomers at different velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khafidh, Muhammad; Rodriguez, N.V.; Masen, Marc Arthur; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    The friction in tribo-systems that contain viscoelastic materials, such as elastomers, is relevant for a large number of applications. Examples include tyres, hoses, transmission and conveyor belts. To quantify the friction in these applications, one must first understand the contact behaviour of

  20. Complaint liquid metal electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Lauren R.; Majidi, Carmel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a liquid-phase metal electrode to be used with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). DEAs are favorable for soft-matter applications where high efficiency and response times are desirable. A consistent challenge faced during the fabrication of these devices is the selection and deposition of electrode material. While numerous designs have been demonstrated with a variety of conductive elastomers and greases, these materials have significant and often intrinsic shortcomings, e.g. low conductivity, hysteresis, incapability of large deformations, and complex fabrication requirements. The liquid metal alloy eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) is a promising alternative to existing compliant electrodes, having both high conductivity and complete soft-matter functionality. The liquid electrode shares almost the same electrical conductivity as conventional metal wiring and provides no mechanical resistance to bending or stretching of the DEA. This research establishes a straightforward and effective method for quickly depositing EGaIn electrodes, which can be adapted for batch fabrication, and demonstrates the successful actuation of sample curved cantilever elastomer actuators using these electrodes. As with the vast majority of electrostatically actuated elastomer devices, the voltage requirements for these curved DEAs are still quite significant, though modifications to the fabrication process show some improved electrical properties. The ease and speed with which this method can be implemented suggests that the development of a more electronically efficient device is realistic and worthwhile.

  1. Patterning conductive PDMS nanocomposite in an elastomer using microcontact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao-Xuan; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple method of embedding conductive and flexible elastomer micropatterns into a bulk elastomer. Employing microcontact printing and cast molding techniques, patterns consisting of conductive poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composites mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are embedded into bulk PDMS to form all-elastomer devices. To pattern conductive composites, a micromachined printing mold is utilized to transfer composite ink from a spin-coated thin layer to another substrate. Distinct from previously reported approaches, the printing mold in this technique, once fabricated, can be repeatedly used to generate new patterns and therefore greatly simplifies the device fabrication process and improves its efficiency. Manufactured devices with embedded conductive patterns exhibit excellent mechanical flexibility. With characterization of printing reliability, electrical conductivity of the composites is also shown with different loading percentages of MWCNTs. Furthermore, a simple strain gauge was fabricated and tested to demonstrate the potential applications of embedded conductive patterns. Overall, this approach demonstrates feasibility to be a simple method to pattern conductive elastomers that work as electrodes or sensing probes in PDMS-based devices. With further development, this technology yields many potential applications in lab-on-a-chip systems

  2. Conductive Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics, Sensors and Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seo Noh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been a wide variety of efforts to develop conductive elastomers that satisfy both mechanical stretchability and electrical conductivity, as a response to growing demands on stretchable and wearable devices. This article reviews the important progress in conductive elastomers made in three application fields of stretchable technology: stretchable electronics, stretchable sensors, and stretchable energy harvesters. Diverse combinations of insulating elastomers and non-stretchable conductive materials have been studied to realize optimal conductive elastomers. It is noted that similar material combinations and similar structures have often been employed in different fields of application. In terms of stretchability, cyclic operation, and overall performance, fields such as stretchable conductors and stretchable strain/pressure sensors have achieved great advancement, whereas other fields like stretchable memories and stretchable thermoelectric energy harvesting are in their infancy. It is worth mentioning that there are still obstacles to overcome for the further progress of stretchable technology in the respective fields, which include the simplification of material combination and device structure, securement of reproducibility and reliability, and the establishment of easy fabrication techniques. Through this review article, both the progress and obstacles associated with the respective stretchable technologies will be understood more clearly.

  3. Liquid crystal elastomer coatings with programmed response of surface profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhanova, G.; Turiv, T.; Guo, Y.; Hendrikx, M.; Wei, Q.H.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Broer, D.J.; Lavrentovich, O.D.

    2018-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive liquid crystal elastomers with molecular orientation coupled to rubber-like elasticity show a great potential as elements in soft robotics, sensing, and transport systems. The orientational order defines their mechanical response to external stimuli, such as thermally activated

  4. Influence of gamma irradiation in the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Camila B.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Marchini, Leonardo G.

    2017-01-01

    The TPE is the nomenclature used for the thermoplastic elastomer, which is also known as thermoplastic rubber. It belongs to an under-researched class of engineering plastics, however, in recent years there has been steady growth due to its important and unusual combination of properties. During its use, it behaves like an elastomer, but, unlike traditional elastomers (vulcanized rubbers), it can be processed using conventional technologies and equipment used for thermoplastics, such as extrusion and injection. The processing of polymers, such as TPE by means of radiation, constitutes a technological area dedicated to the study of the physical and chemical effects caused by high energy radiation, such as gamma radiation. Thus the objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical and thermal properties of TPE irradiated by 60 Co source of gamma radiation in different doses. The thermoplastic elastomer being modified by means of ionizing radiation at doses of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 kGy the effects of the radiation on the mechanical and thermal properties of this material are evaluated through the tests of tensile tests, TGA, FTIR and Fluency Index

  5. Novel polycarbonate-based polyurethane elastomers: composition–property relationship

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Pavličevic, J.; Strachota, Adam; Poreba, Rafal; Bera, O.; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav; Lazić, N.; Budinski-Simendic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 959-972 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyurethane elastomer * polycarbonate diol * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2011

  6. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Aranas, Erika B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  7. Applications of pressure-sensitive dielectric elastomer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Holger; Ocak, Deniz; Ehrlich, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer sensors for the measurement of compression loads with high sensitivity are described. The basic design of the sensors exhibits two profiled surfaces between which an elastomer film is confined. All components of the sensor were prepared with silicone whose stiffness can be varied in a wide range. Depending on details of the sensor design, various effects contribute to the enhancement of the capacitance. The intermediate elastomer film is stretched upon compression and electrode layers on the elastomer profiles and in the elastomer film approach each other. Different designs of the pressure sensor give rise to very different sensor characteristics in terms of the dependence of electric capacitance on compression force. Due to their inherent flexibility, the pressure sensors can be used on compliant substrates such as seats or beds or on the human body. This gives rise to numerous possible applications. The contribution describes also some examples of possible sensor applications. A glove was equipped with various sensors positioned at the finger tips. When grabbing an object with the glove, the sensors can detect the gripping forces of the individual fingers with high sensitivity. In a demonstrator of the glove equipped with seven sensors, the capacitances representing the gripping forces are recorded on a display. In another application example, a lower limb prosthesis was equipped with a pressure sensor to detect the load on the remaining part of the leg and the load is displayed in terms of the measured capacitance. The benefit of such sensors is to detect an eventual overload in order to prevent possible pressure sores. A third example introduces a seat load sensor system based on four extended pressure sensor mats. The sensor system detects the load distribution of a person on the seat. The examples emphasize the high performance of the new pressure sensor technology.

  8. Photochemical decomposition of catecholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, N.J. de; Henegouwen, G.M.J.B. van; Gerritsma, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    During photochemical decomposition (lambda=254 nm) adrenaline, isoprenaline and noradrenaline in aqueous solution were converted to the corresponding aminochrome for 65, 56 and 35% respectively. In determining this conversion, photochemical instability of the aminochromes was taken into account. Irradiations were performed in such dilute solutions that the neglect of the inner filter effect is permissible. Furthermore, quantum yields for the decomposition of the aminochromes in aqueous solution are given. (Author)

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF RADIATION AND DEFORMATION ON THE ELASTOMER DETERIORATION BY USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Bonato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers belong to the group of polymer materials and they have an important role as technical material in the shipbuilding industry. The radiation crosslinking of elastomers shows significant advantages over chemical crosslinking. It can improve mechanical strength, resistance to chemicals and insulation properties of elastomers. An undesirable side reaction, which can occur during radiation, is the degradation process. This results in cracks breaking, chemical disintegration and reduction of mechanical properties of elastomers. In this paper fuzzy logic is used to estimate the influence of radiation and deformation on the behavior of elastomer samples. A Gaussian model is created according to both the experts' experience and the measuring data. The results of the model are calculated by using the Normalized Roth Mean Square Error (NRMSE and the Roth Mean Square Error (RMSE. The so developed model gives new conceptions, which offer a possibility to improve the application of elastomer materials.

  10. Design of Elastomer Structure to Facilitate Incorporation of Expanded Graphite in Silicones Without Compromising Electromechanical Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    The development of elastomer materials with a high dielectric permittivity has attracted increased interest over the past years due to their use in, for example, dielectric elastomers. For this particular use, both the electrically insulating properties - as well as the mechanical properties......-functional crosslinker, which allows for development of a suitable network matrix. The dielectric permittivity was increased by almost a factor of 4 compared to a benchmark silicone elastomer....

  11. Enhancement of dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    A silicone elastomer from PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer has been prepared by use of silylation reactions for both copolymer preparation and crosslinking. The dielectric and mechanical properties of the silicone elastomers were carefully investigated, as well as the morphology of the elastomers wa...... to a significantly increased dielectric permittivity. The conductivity also remained low due to the resulting discontinuity in PEG within the silicone matrix....

  12. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping of elastomers in engineering applications, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, A.; Zorzi, E.

    1980-01-01

    An elastomer shear damper was designed, tested, and compared with the performance of the T 55 power turbine supported on the production engine roller bearing support. The Viton 70 shear damper was designed so that the elastomer damper could be interchanged with the production T 55 power turbine roller bearing support. The results show that the elastomer sheer dampener permitted stable operation of the power turbine to the maximum operating speed of 16,000 rpm.

  13. Giant, Voltage-Actuated Deformation of a Dielectric Elastomer under Dead Load

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jiangshui; Li, Tiefeng; Foo, Choon Chiang; Clarke, David R.; Zhu, Jian; Suo, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Far greater voltage-actuated deformation is achievable for a dielectric elastomer under equal-biaxial dead load than under rigid constraint usually employed. Areal strains of 488% are demonstrated. The dead load suppresses electric breakdown, enabling the elastomer to survive the snap-through electromechanical instability. The breakdown voltage is found to increase with the voltage ramp rate. A nonlinear model for viscoelastic dielectric elastomers is developed and shown to be consistent with...

  14. The effects of additives on the actuating performances of a dielectric elastomer actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Huu Chuc; Doan, Vu Thuy; Park, JongKil; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jae-do

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of additives on the performance of a dielectric elastomer actuator. Previously, a new dielectric elastomer material, called 'synthetic elastomer', was presented for the means of actuation, which permits changes in the mechanical as well as the electrical properties in order to meet the requirements of certain applications. This work studies how the electromechanical properties of the synthetic elastomer can be adjusted by combining two additives, namely dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Experiments are carried out and the effects of each additive are compared to one another based on the actuation performances

  15. Elastomer damper performance - A comparison with a squeeze film for a supercritical power transmission shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Burgess, G.; Cunningham, R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an elastomer damper on a super-critical power transmission shaft. The elastomers were designed to provide acceptable operation through the fourth bending mode and to control synchronous as well as nonsynchronous vibration throughout the operating range. The design of the elastomer was such that it could be incorporated into the system as a replacement for a squeeze-film damper without a reassembly, which could have altered the imbalance of the shaft. This provided a direct comparison of the elastomer and squeeze-film dampers without having to assess the effect of shaft imbalance changes.

  16. Solvent Resistant Elastomers and High TG Materials from the Same Carbosilane Backbone: Broadening the Materials Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagener, K

    2003-01-01

    .... We have directed our efforts towards solvent resistant materials that improve upon butyl rubber. Polycarobcsilanes combine the behavioral characteristics of hydrocarbon polymers and siloxane elastomers...

  17. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A. [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Institute for Information Transmission Problems,19-1 Bolshoy Karetniy, Moscow, 127051 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,31 Kashirskoe highway, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Zenkevich, Y. [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,31 Kashirskoe highway, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences,6a Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-16

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair “interaction” is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  18. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2016-01-01

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair “interaction” is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  19. Symmetric Tensor Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....

  20. Magnetic force induced tristability for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zou, Hong-Xiang; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) with three stable states. By introducing magnetic forces and coupling them with two cone dielectric elastomer (DE) films, an inherent tristability for the DEA is obtained with a compact design. It is easy to switch between the three stable states by controlling the voltages applied to the DE films. A theoretical model of the system’s potential energy that contains the free energy of the DEs and the potential energy of the applied magnetic field was developed for the tristable mechanism. The experimental results demonstrate that controllable transitions between the three stable states can be achieved with this design by applying over-critical voltages to the various DE films. The maximum dynamic range of the DEA can exceed 53.8% of the total length of the device and the DE’s creep speed was accelerated under the action of the magnetic field.

  1. Dielectric elastomers with novel highly-conducting electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Holger; Uhl, Detlev

    2013-04-01

    Beside the characteristics of the elastomer material itself, the performance of dielectric elastomers in actuator, sensor as well as generator applications depends also on the properties of the electrode material. Various electrode materials based on metallic particles dispersed in a silicone matrix were manufactured and investigated. Anisotropic particles such as silver-coated copper flakes and silver-coated glass flakes were used for the preparation of the electrodes. The concentration of the metallic particles and the thickness of the electrode layers were varied. Specific conductivities derived from resistance measurements reached about 100 S/cm and surmount those of the reference materials based on graphite and carbon black by up to three orders of magnitude. The high conductivities of the new electrode materials can be maintained even at very large stretch deformations up to 200 %.

  2. Manufacturing of Liquid-Embedded Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca; Majidi, Carmel; Weaver, James; Wood, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft, elastically deformable, and may adapt their functionality in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for power circuits and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. As the demand for increased elasticity of electrical components heightens, the challenges for functionality revert to basic questions of fabrication, materials, and design. Several designs for soft sensory skins (including strain, pressure and curvature sensors) based on a liquid-embedded-elastomer approach have been developed. This talk will highlight new ``soft MEMS'' manufacturing techniques based on wetting behavior between gallium-indium alloys and elastomers with varying microtextured surface topography. Supported by Harvard MRSEC and the Wyss Institute

  3. Reliability in maintenance and design of elastomer sealed closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The methods of reliability are considered for maintenance and design of elastomer sealed containment closures. Component reliability is used to establish a replacement schedule for system maintenance. Reliability data on elastomer seals is used to evaluate the common practice of annual replacement, and to calculate component reliability values for several typical shipment time periods. System reliability methods are used to examine the relative merits of typical closure designs. These include single component and redundant seal closure, with and without closure verification testing. The paper presents a general method of quantifying the merits of closure designs through the use of reliability analysis, which is a probabilistic technique. The reference list offers a general source of information in the field of reliability, and should offer the opportunity to extend the procedures discussed in this paper to other design safety applications

  4. Electrical behaviour of a silicone elastomer under simulated space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggero, A; Dantras, E; Paulmier, T; Rejsek-Riba, V; Tonon, C; Dagras, S; Balcon, N; Payan, D

    2015-01-01

    The electrical behavior of a space-used silicone elastomer was characterized using surface potential decay and dynamic dielectric spectroscopy techniques. In both cases, the dielectric manifestation of the glass transition (dipole orientation) and a charge transport phenomenon were observed. An unexpected linear increase of the surface potential with temperature was observed around T g in thermally-stimulated potential decay experiments, due to molecular mobility limiting dipolar orientation in one hand, and 3D thermal expansion reducing the materials capacitance in the other hand. At higher temperatures, the charge transport process, believed to be thermally activated electron hopping with an activation energy of about 0.4 eV, was studied with and without the silica and iron oxide fillers present in the commercial material. These fillers were found to play a preponderant role in the low-frequency electrical conductivity of this silicone elastomer, probably through a Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars relaxation phenomenon. (paper)

  5. Mimicking biological stress-strain behaviour with synthetic elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Daniel, William F. M.; Everhart, Matthew H.; Pandya, Ashish A.; Liang, Heyi; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Dobrynin, Andrey V.; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2017-09-01

    Despite the versatility of synthetic chemistry, certain combinations of mechanical softness, strength, and toughness can be difficult to achieve in a single material. These combinations are, however, commonplace in biological tissues, and are therefore needed for applications such as medical implants, tissue engineering, soft robotics, and wearable electronics. Present materials synthesis strategies are predominantly Edisonian, involving the empirical mixing of assorted monomers, crosslinking schemes, and occluded swelling agents, but this approach yields limited property control. Here we present a general strategy for mimicking the mechanical behaviour of biological materials by precisely encoding their stress-strain curves in solvent-free brush- and comb-like polymer networks (elastomers). The code consists of three independent architectural parameters—network strand length, side-chain length and grafting density. Using prototypical poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomers, we illustrate how this parametric triplet enables the replication of the strain-stiffening characteristics of jellyfish, lung, and arterial tissues.

  6. Soft Elasticity in Main Chain Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm C. Griffin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Main chain liquid crystal elastomers exhibit several interesting phenomena, such as three different regimes of elastic response, unconventional stress-strain relationship in one of these regimes, and the shape memory effect. Investigations are beginning to reveal relationships between their macroscopic behavior and the nature of domain structure, microscopic smectic phase structure, relaxation mechanism, and sample history. These aspects of liquid crystal elastomers are briefly reviewed followed by a summary of the results of recent elastic and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the shape memory effect and the dynamics of the formation of the smectic-C chevron-like layer structure. A possible route to realizing auxetic effect at molecular level is also discussed.

  7. A mechanical characterisation on multiple timescales of electroconductive magnetorheological elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, M.; Morich, J.; Kaufhold, T.; Böhm, V.; Zimmermann, K.; Odenbach, S.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers are a type of smart hybrid material which combines elastic properties of a soft elastomer matrix with magnetic properties of magnetic micro particles. This leads to a material with magnetically controllable mechanical properties of which the magnetorheological effect is the best known. The addition of electroconductive particles to the polymer mix adds electrical properties to the material behaviour. The resulting electrical resistance of the sample can be manipulated by external magnetic fields and mechanical loads. This results in a distinct interplay of mechanical, electrical and magnetic effects with a highly complex time behaviour. In this paper a mechanical characterisation on multiple time scales was conducted to get an insight on the short and long-term electrical and mechanical behaviour of this novel material. The results show a complex resistivity behaviour on several timescales, sensitive to magnetic fields and strain velocity. The observed material exhibits fatigue and relaxation behaviour, whereas the magnetorheological effect appears not to interfere with the piezoresistive properties.

  8. FDG decomposition products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Buriova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition products of [ 18 ]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition products (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[ 18 F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%

  9. Characterization of Ferrofluid-based Stimuli-responsive Elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra dePedro; Xavier Munoz-Berbel; Rosalia Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Jordi Sort; Jose Antonio Plaza; Juergen Brugger; Andreu Llobera; Victor J Cadarso

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials undergo physicochemical and/or structural changes when a specific actuation is applied. They are heterogeneous composites, consisting of a non-responsive matrix where functionality is provided by the filler. Surprisingly, the synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based stimuli-responsive elastomers (SRE) has seldomly been presented. Here, we present the structural, biological, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties of several magnetic SRE (M-SRE) obtained...

  10. Characteristics and utilization of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE)-an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestamsjah, [R and D Center for Applied Chemistry, Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The unique feature of thermoplastic elastomer, the combining of processing characteristics of thermoplastics with the physical properties of vulcanized rubber is reviewed. Highlights of TPE and its characteristics is aimed to generate interest in TPE, where SANS technique will be utilized for its characterization. The topics discussed include rubber elasticity, state of aggregation of polymers, microseparation in block copolymer system, application of TPE, and finally some notes in developing interest in TPE and SANS in Indonesia. (author)

  11. Silicone elastomers with covalently incorporated aromatic voltage stabilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    to the incorporationof an aromatic voltage stabiliser, were prepared by cross-linking synthesised polydimethylsiloxane–polyphenylmethylsiloxane (PDMS–PPMS) copolymers. PPMS possesses voltage stabilisation capabilitiesbut is immiscible in PDMS, and thus the copolymerisation of the two components was necessary...... forhomogeneity. Concentrations of the voltage stabiliser were varied by changing the molecular weights ofthe PPMS in the copolymer. The developed elastomers were inherently soft with enhanced electricalbreakdown strengths, due to delocalisedp-electrons of the aromatic constituent. An optimumconcentration...

  12. Microstructure of magnetite doped elastomers investigated by SAXS and SANS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balasoiu, M.; Craus, M. L.; Kuklin, A. I.; Pleštil, Josef; Haramus, V.; Islamov, A. H.; Erhan, R.; Anitas, E. M.; Lozovan, M.; Tripadus, V.; Petrescu, C.; Savu, D.; Savu, S.; Bica, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2008), s. 2932-2935 ISSN 1454-4164. [International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics /9./. Constanta, 07.07.2008-09.07.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : SANS * SAXS * magnetic elastomers * ferrofluids Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2008 http://inoe.inoe.ro/joam/index.php?option=magazine&op=list&revid=32

  13. Zipping dielectric elastomer actuators: characterization, design and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffli, L; Rosset, S; Shea, H R

    2013-01-01

    We report on miniature dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) operating in zipping mode with an analytical model that predicts their behavior. Electrostatic zipping is a well-known mechanism in silicon MEMS to obtain large deformations and forces at lower voltages than for parallel plate electrostatic actuation. We extend this concept to DEAs, which allows us to obtain much larger out-of-plane displacements compared to silicon thanks to the softness of the elastomer membrane. We study experimentally the effect of sidewall angles and elastomer prestretch on 2.3 mm diameter actuators with PDMS membranes. With 15° and 22.5° sidewall angles, the devices zip in a bistable manner down 300 μm to the bottom of the chambers. The highly tunable bistable behavior is controllable by both chamber geometry and membrane parameters. Other specific characteristics of zipping DEAs include well-controlled deflected shape, tunable displacement versus voltage characteristics to virtually any shape, including multi-stable modes, sealing of embedded holes or channels for valving action and the reduction of the operating voltage. These properties make zipping DEAs an excellent candidate for applications such as integrated microfluidics actuators or Braille displays. (paper)

  14. A survey on dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-23

    Conventional industrial robots with the rigid actuation technology have made great progress for humans in the fields of automation assembly and manufacturing. With an increasing number of robots needing to interact with humans and unstructured environments, there is a need for soft robots capable of sustaining large deformation while inducing little pressure or damage when maneuvering through confined spaces. The emergence of soft robotics offers the prospect of applying soft actuators as artificial muscles in robots, replacing traditional rigid actuators. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are recognized as one of the most promising soft actuation technologies due to the facts that: i) dielectric elastomers are kind of soft, motion-generating materials that resemble natural muscle of humans in terms of force, strain (displacement per unit length or area) and actuation pressure/density; ii) dielectric elastomers can produce large voltage-induced deformation. In this survey, we first introduce the so-called DEAs emphasizing the key points of working principle, key components and electromechanical modeling approaches. Then, different DEA-driven soft robots, including wearable/humanoid robots, walking/serpentine robots, flying robots and swimming robots, are reviewed. Lastly, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for the further studies in terms of mechanism design, dynamics modeling and autonomous control.

  15. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  16. Statistical analysis of magnetically soft particles in magnetorheological elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundermann, T.; Cremer, P.; Löwen, H.; Menzel, A. M.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-04-01

    The physical properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) are a complex issue and can be influenced and controlled in many ways, e.g. by applying a magnetic field, by external mechanical stimuli, or by an electric potential. In general, the response of MRE materials to these stimuli is crucially dependent on the distribution of the magnetic particles inside the elastomer. Specific knowledge of the interactions between particles or particle clusters is of high relevance for understanding the macroscopic rheological properties and provides an important input for theoretical calculations. In order to gain a better insight into the correlation between the macroscopic effects and microstructure and to generate a database for theoretical analysis, x-ray micro-computed tomography (X-μCT) investigations as a base for a statistical analysis of the particle configurations were carried out. Different MREs with quantities of 2-15 wt% (0.27-2.3 vol%) of iron powder and different allocations of the particles inside the matrix were prepared. The X-μCT results were edited by an image processing software regarding the geometrical properties of the particles with and without the influence of an external magnetic field. Pair correlation functions for the positions of the particles inside the elastomer were calculated to statistically characterize the distributions of the particles in the samples.

  17. PZT/PLZT - elastomer composites with improved piezoelectric voltage coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, K.; Bavbande, D. V.; Mohan, Dhirendra; Manoharan, B.; Prasad, M. R. S.; Kalyanakrishnan, G.

    2018-02-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Lanthanum-modified Lead Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) ceramic sensor materials are widely used because of their excellent piezoelectric coefficients. These materials are brittle, high density and have low achievable piezoelectric voltage coefficients. The density of the sintered ceramics shall be reduced by burnable polymeric sponge method. The achievable porosity level in this case is nearly 60 - 90%. However, the porous ceramic structure with 3-3 connectivity produced by this method is very fragile in nature. The strength of the porous structure is improved with Sylgard®-184 (silicone elastomer) by vacuum impregnation method maintaining the dynamic vacuum level in the range of -650 mm Hg. The elastomer Sylgard®-184 is having low density, low dielectric constant and high compliance (as a resultant stiffness of the composites is increased). To obtain a net dipole moment, the impregnated ceramic composites were subjected to poling treatment with varying conditions of D.C. field and temperature. The properties of the poled PZT/PLZT - elastomer composites were characterized with LCR meter for measuring the dielectric constant values (k), d33 meter used for measuring piezo-electric charge coefficient values (d33) and piezo-electric voltage coefficient (g33) values which were derived from d33 values. The voltage coefficient (g33) values of these composites are increased by 10 fold as compared to the conventional solid ceramics demonstrates that it is possible to fabricate a conformable detector.

  18. Interfacial Properties of EXXPRO(TM) and General Purpose Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rafailovich, M.; Sokolov, Jon; Qu, S.; Ge, S.; Ngyuen, D.; Li, Z.; Peiffer, D.; Song, L.; Dias, J. A.; McElrath, K. O.

    1998-03-01

    EXXPRO(Trademark) elastomers are used for tires and many other applications. This elastomer (denoted as BIMS) is a random copolymer of p-methylstyrene (MS) and polyisobutylene (I) with varying degrees of PMS content and bromination (B) on the p-methyl group. BIMS is impermeable to gases, and has good heat, ozone and flex resistance. Very often general purpose elastomers are blended with BIMS. The interfacial width between polybutadiene and BIMS is a sensitive function of the Br level and PMS content. By neutron reflectivity (NR), we studied the dynamics of interface formation as a function of time and temperature for BIMS with varying degrees of PMS and Br. We found that in addition to the bulk parameters, the total film thickness and the proximity of an interactive surface can affect the interfacial interaction rates. The interfacial properties can also be modified by inclusion of particles, such as carbon black (a filler component in tire rubbers). Results will be presented on the relation between the interfacial width as measured by NR and compatibilization studies via AFM and LFM.

  19. Aging of elastomers in CANDU pressure boundary service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanBerlo, C.; Leidner, J.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the properties and aging of elastomers, and examines the performance of major elastomeric components in CANDU pressure boundary service. The components examined are vacuum building roof seals, pressure relief duct seals, airlock door seals, fuelling machine hoses, and cable penetrations. For each of these components, the design requirements, technical specifications and component testing procedures are compared with applicable standards. Information on actual and recommended monitoring and maintenance methods is presented. Operational and environmental stressors are identified. Component failure modes, causes and frequencies are described, as well as the remedial action taken. Many different elastomers are used in CANDU plants, for many different applications. Standards and manufacturers' recommendations are not consistent and may vary from one component to another. Accordingly, the monitoring, maintenance and replacement practices tend to vary from one application to another, and may also be different at different stations. Recommendations are given in this report for improved monitoring and maintenance, in an attempt to provide more consistency in approach. A summary of some experiences with elastomers from non-Canadian sources is contained in the last section. 125 refs

  20. Performance Optimization of a Conical Dielectric Elastomer Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjing Cao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs are known as ‘artificial muscles’ due to their large actuation strain, high energy density and self-sensing capability. The conical configuration has been widely adopted in DEA applications such as bio-inspired locomotion and micropumps for its good compactness, ease for fabrication and large actuation stroke. However, the conical protrusion of the DEA membrane is characterized by inhomogeneous stresses, which complicate their design. In this work, we present an analytical model-based optimization for conical DEAs with the three biasing elements: (I linear compression spring; (II biasing mass; and (III antagonistic double-cone DEA. The optimization is to find the maximum stroke and work output of a conical DEA by tuning its geometry (inner disk to outer frame radius ratio a/b and pre-stretch ratio. The results show that (a for all three cases, stroke and work output are maximum for a pre-stretch ratio of 1 × 1 for the Parker silicone elastomer, which suggests the stretch caused by out-of-plane deformation is sufficient for this specific elastomer. (b Stroke maximization is obtained for a lower a/b ratio while a larger a/b ratio is required to maximize work output, but the optimal a/b ratio is less than 0.3 in all three cases. (c The double-cone configuration has the largest stroke while single cone with a biasing mass has the highest work output.

  1. New reusable elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M-V; Chaset, L; Bittner, P A; Barthod, C; Passard, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of telemedicine requires finding solutions of reusable electrodes for use in patients' homes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of reusable elastomer electrodes for measuring body composition. We measured a population of healthy Caucasian (n = 17). A measurement was made with a reference device, the Xitron®, associated with AgCl Gel electrodes (Gel) and another measurement with a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® associated with reusable elastomer electrodes (Elast). We obtained a low variability with an average error of repeatability of 0.39% for Re and 0.32% for Rinf. There is a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 200 ml between extracellular water Ve measured with Gel and Elast in supine and in standing position. For total body water Vt, we note a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 100 ml and 2.2 1 respectively in supine and standing position. The results give low dispersion, with R 2 superior to 0.90, with a 1.5% maximal error between Gel and Elast on Ve in standing position. It looks possible, taking a few precautions, using elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition.

  2. Voltage-stabilised elastomers with increased relative permittivity and high electrical breakdown strength by means of phase separating binary copolymer blends of silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Increased electrical breakdown strength and increased dielectric permittivity of silicone-based dielectric elastomers are achieved by means of the addition of so-called voltage-stabilisers prepared from PDMS–PPMS copolymers as well as PDMS–PEG copolymers in order to compensate for the negative...... effect of softness on electrical stability of silicone elastomers. The voltage-stabilised elastomer, incorporating a high-permittivity PDMS–PEG copolymer, possesses increased relative permittivity, high electrical breakdown strength, excellent network integrity and low dielectric loss and paves the way...

  3. Iterative and variational homogenization methods for filled elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Taha

    Elastomeric composites have increasingly proved invaluable in commercial technological applications due to their unique mechanical properties, especially their ability to undergo large reversible deformation in response to a variety of stimuli (e.g., mechanical forces, electric and magnetic fields, changes in temperature). Modern advances in organic materials science have revealed that elastomeric composites hold also tremendous potential to enable new high-end technologies, especially as the next generation of sensors and actuators featured by their low cost together with their biocompatibility, and processability into arbitrary shapes. This potential calls for an in-depth investigation of the macroscopic mechanical/physical behavior of elastomeric composites directly in terms of their microscopic behavior with the objective of creating the knowledge base needed to guide their bottom-up design. The purpose of this thesis is to generate a mathematical framework to describe, explain, and predict the macroscopic nonlinear elastic behavior of filled elastomers, arguably the most prominent class of elastomeric composites, directly in terms of the behavior of their constituents --- i.e., the elastomeric matrix and the filler particles --- and their microstructure --- i.e., the content, size, shape, and spatial distribution of the filler particles. This will be accomplished via a combination of novel iterative and variational homogenization techniques capable of accounting for interphasial phenomena and finite deformations. Exact and approximate analytical solutions for the fundamental nonlinear elastic response of dilute suspensions of rigid spherical particles (either firmly bonded or bonded through finite size interphases) in Gaussian rubber are first generated. These results are in turn utilized to construct approximate solutions for the nonlinear elastic response of non-Gaussian elastomers filled with a random distribution of rigid particles (again, either firmly

  4. ZnO as a cheap and effective filler for high breakdown strength elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    . In this article, we explore the use of a cheap and abundant metal oxide filler, namely ZnO, as a filler in silicone-based dielectric elastomers. The electro-mechanical properties of the elastomer composites are investigated, and their performance is evaluated by means of figures of merit. Various commercial...

  5. Role of Magnetorheological Fluids and Elastomers in Today’s World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalski Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the role of magnetorheological fluids and elastomers in today’s world. A review of applications of magnetorheological fluids and elastomers in devices and machines is presented. Magnetorheological fluids and elastomers belong to the smart materials family. Properties of magnetorheological fluids and elastomers can be controlled by a magnetic field. Compared with magnetorheological fluids, magnetorheological elastomers overcome the problems accompanying applications of MR fluids, such as sedimentation, sealing issues and environmental contamination. Magnetorheological fluids and elastomers, due to their ability of dampening vibrations in the presence of a controlled magnetic field, have great potential present and future applications in transport. Magnetorheological fluids are used e.g. dampers, shock absorbers, clutches and brakes. Magnetorheological dampers and magnetorheological shock absorbers are applied e.g. in damping control, in the operation of buildings and bridges, as well as in damping of high-tension wires. In the automotive industry, new solutions involving magnetorheological elastomer are increasingly patented e.g. adaptive system of energy absorption, system of magnetically dissociable [hooks/detents/grips], an vibration reduction system of the car’s drive shaft. The application of magnetorheological elastomer in the aviation structure is presented as well.

  6. Phase Behavior of Three PBX Elastomers in High-Pressure Chlorodifluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Chul

    2017-10-01

    The phase equilibrium behavior data are presented for three kinds of commercial polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) elastomers in chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC22). Levapren^{{registered }} ethylene- co-vinyl acetate (LP-EVA), HyTemp^{{registered }} alkyl acrylate copolymer (HT-ACM), and Viton^{{registered }} fluoroelastomer (VT-FE) were used as the PBX elastomers. For each elastomer + HCFC22 system, the cloud point (CP) and/or bubble point (BP) pressures were measured while varying the temperature and elastomer composition using a phase equilibrium apparatus fitted with a variable-volume view cell. The elastomers examined in this study indicated a lower critical solution temperature phase behavior in the HCFC22 solvent. LP-EVA showed the CPs at temperatures of 323 K to 343 K and at pressures of 3 MPa to 10 MPa, whereas HT-ACM showed the CPs at conditions between 338 K and 363 K and between 4 MPa and 12 MPa. For the LP-EVA and HT-ACM elastomers, the BP behavior was observed at temperatures below about 323 K. For the VT-FE + HCFC22 system, only the CP behavior was observed at temperatures between 323 K and 353 K and at pressures between 6 MPa and 21 MPa. As the elastomer composition increased, the CP pressure increased, reached a maximum value at a specific elastomer composition, and then remained almost constant.

  7. Self-sorting of guests and hard blocks in bisurea-based thermoplastic elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterhuis, N.E.; Karthikeyan, S.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Self-sorting in thermoplastic elastomers was studied using bisurea-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) which are known to form hard blocks via hierarchical aggregation of bisurea segments into ribbons and of ribbons into fibers. Self-sorting of different bisurea hard blocks in mixtures of polymers

  8. Glycerol as high-permittivity liquid filler in dielectric silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Yu, Liyun; Gerhard, R.

    2016-01-01

    A recently reported novel class of elastomers was tested with respect to its dielectric properties. The new elastomer materialis based on a commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) composition, which has been modified by embedding glycerol droplets intoits matrix. The approach has two major ......, and the applicability ofthe models is discussed. VC 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2016, 133, 44153....

  9. A simple method for reducing inevitable dielectric loss in high-permittivity dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    elastomer matrix, with high dielectric permittivity and a low Young's modulus, aligned with no loss of mechanical stability, was prepared through the use of commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil mixed into a tough commercial liquid silicone rubber silicone elastomer. The addition...... also decreased the dielectric losses of an elastomer containing dielectric permittivity-enhancing TiO2 fillers. Commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil thus constitutes a facile method for improved silicone DEs, with very low dielectric losses.......Commercial viability of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is currently limited by a few obstacles, including high driving voltages (in the kV range). Driving voltage can be lowered by either decreasing the Young's modulus or increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers, or a combination...

  10. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  11. Magic Coset Decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciatori, Sergio L; Marrani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting a "mixed" non-symmetric Freudenthal-Rozenfeld-Tits magic square, two types of coset decompositions are analyzed for the non-compact special K\\"ahler symmetric rank-3 coset E7(-25)/[(E6(-78) x U(1))/Z_3], occurring in supergravity as the vector multiplets' scalar manifold in N=2, D=4 exceptional Maxwell-Einstein theory. The first decomposition exhibits maximal manifest covariance, whereas the second (triality-symmetric) one is of Iwasawa type, with maximal SO(8) covariance. Generalizations to conformal non-compact, real forms of non-degenerate, simple groups "of type E7" are presented for both classes of coset parametrizations, and relations to rank-3 simple Euclidean Jordan algebras and normed trialities over division algebras are also discussed.

  12. Nanomechanical probing of thin-film dielectric elastomer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Bekim; Seifi, Saman; Park, Harold S.; Leung, Vanessa; Töpper, Tino; Müller, Bert

    2017-08-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs) have attracted interest as generators, actuators, sensors, and even as self-sensing actuators for applications in medicine, soft robotics, and microfluidics. Their performance crucially depends on the elastic properties of the electrode-elastomer sandwich structure. The compressive displacement of a single-layer DET can be easily measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the contact mode. While polymers used as dielectric elastomers are known to exhibit significant mechanical stiffening for large strains, their mechanical properties when subjected to voltages are not well understood. To examine this effect, we measured the depths of 400 nanoindentations as a function of the applied electric field using a spherical AFM probe with a radius of (522 ± 4) nm. Employing a field as low as 20 V/μm, the indentation depths increased by 42% at a load of 100 nN with respect to the field-free condition, implying an electromechanically driven elastic softening of the DET. This at-a-glance surprising experimental result agrees with related nonlinear, dynamic finite element model simulations. Furthermore, the pull-off forces rose from (23.0 ± 0.4) to (49.0 ± 0.7) nN implying a nanoindentation imprint after unloading. This embossing effect is explained by the remaining charges at the indentation site. The root-mean-square roughness of the Au electrode raised by 11% upon increasing the field from zero to 12 V/μm, demonstrating that the electrode's morphology change is an undervalued factor in the fabrication of DET structures.

  13. Thermal Oxidation Resistance of Rare Earth-Containing Composite Elastomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱关明; 张明; 周兰香; 中北里志; 井上真一; 冈本弘

    2001-01-01

    The rare earth-containing composite elastomer was obtained by the reaction of vinyl pyridine-SBR (PSBR) latex with rare earth alkoxides, and its thermal oxidation resistance was studied. After aging test, it is found that its retention rate of mechanical properties is far higher than that of the control sample. The results of thermogravimetric analysis show that its thermal-decomposing temperature rises largely. The analysis of oxidation mechanisms indicates that the main reasons for thermal oxidation resistance are that rare earth elements are of the utility to discontinue autoxidation chain reaction and that the formed complex structure has steric hindrance effect on oxidation.

  14. Band structures in the nematic elastomers phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuai [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Liang, Tianshu [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2017-02-01

    As one kind of new intelligent materials, nematic elastomers (NEs) represent an exciting physical system that combines the local orientational symmetry breaking and the entropic rubber elasticity, producing a number of unique physical phenomena. In this paper, the potential application of NEs in the band tuning is explored. The band structures in two kinds of NE phononic crystals (PCs) are investigated. Through changing NE intrinsic parameters, the influence of the porosity, director rotation and relaxation on the band structures in NE PCs are analyzed. This work is a meaningful try for application of NEs in acoustic field and proposes a new intelligent strategy in band turning.

  15. Band structures in the nematic elastomers phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu

    2017-01-01

    As one kind of new intelligent materials, nematic elastomers (NEs) represent an exciting physical system that combines the local orientational symmetry breaking and the entropic rubber elasticity, producing a number of unique physical phenomena. In this paper, the potential application of NEs in the band tuning is explored. The band structures in two kinds of NE phononic crystals (PCs) are investigated. Through changing NE intrinsic parameters, the influence of the porosity, director rotation and relaxation on the band structures in NE PCs are analyzed. This work is a meaningful try for application of NEs in acoustic field and proposes a new intelligent strategy in band turning.

  16. Predicating magnetorheological effect of magnetorheological elastomers under normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, X; Qi, M; Ma, N; Ou, J

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) present reversible change in shear modulus in an applied magnetic field. For applications and tests of MREs, a normal pressure must be applied on the materials. However, little research paid attention on the effect of the normal pressure on properties of MREs. In this study, a theoretical model is established based on the effective permeability rule and the consideration of the normal pressure. The results indicate that the normal pressure have great influence on magnetic field-induced shear modulus. The shear modulus of MREs increases with increasing normal pressure, such dependence is more significant at high magnetic field levels.

  17. Flammability and Thermophysical Characterization of Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    State University – M. Namani • Southern Clay Products – D. Hunter • Applied Sciences Inc. – J. Glasglow • Omega Point Laboratories – S . Romo Financial...Characterization of Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-99-C-0025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ... S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) ERC, Inc,AFRL/PRS,10 E. Saturn Blvd.,Edwards AFB,CA,93524 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER E04-082 9. SPONSORING

  18. Interdiffusion and Spinodal Decomposition in Electrically Conducting Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Takala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of phase morphology in electrically conducting polymer composites has become essential for the efficiency of the various functional applications, in which the continuity of the electroactive paths in multicomponent systems is essential. For instance in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where the light-induced electron transfer through photon absorption creating excitons (electron-hole pairs, the control of diffusion of the spatially localized excitons and their dissociation at the interface and the effective collection of holes and electrons, all depend on the surface area, domain sizes, and connectivity in these organic semiconductor blends. We have used a model semiconductor polymer blend with defined miscibility to investigate the phase separation kinetics and the formation of connected pathways. Temperature jump experiments were applied from a miscible region of semiconducting poly(alkylthiophene (PAT blends with ethylenevinylacetate-elastomers (EVA and the kinetics at the early stages of phase separation were evaluated in order to establish bicontinuous phase morphology via spinodal decomposition. The diffusion in the blend was followed by two methods: first during a miscible phase separating into two phases: from the measurement of the spinodal decomposition. Secondly the diffusion was measured by monitoring the interdiffusion of PAT film into the EVA film at elected temperatures and eventually compared the temperature dependent diffusion characteristics. With this first quantitative evaluation of the spinodal decomposition as well as the interdiffusion in conducting polymer blends, we show that a systematic control of the phase separation kinetics in a polymer blend with one of the components being electrically conducting polymer can be used to optimize the morphology.

  19. Clustering via Kernel Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Girolami, Mark A.; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Methods for spectral clustering have been proposed recently which rely on the eigenvalue decomposition of an affinity matrix. In this work it is proposed that the affinity matrix is created based on the elements of a non-parametric density estimator. This matrix is then decomposed to obtain...... posterior probabilities of class membership using an appropriate form of nonnegative matrix factorization. The troublesome selection of hyperparameters such as kernel width and number of clusters can be obtained using standard cross-validation methods as is demonstrated on a number of diverse data sets....

  20. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  1. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous...... °C. Full conversion to Lu2O3 is achieved at about 1000 °C. Whereas the temperatures and solid reaction products of the first two decomposition steps are similar to those previously reported for the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) propionate monohydrate, the final decomposition...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  2. A novel variable stiffness mechanism for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zou, Hong-Xiang; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a novel variable stiffness mechanism is proposed for the design of a variable stiffness dielectric elastomer actuator (VSDEA) which combines a flexible strip with a DEA in a dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure. The DEA induces an analog tuning of the transverse curvature of the strip, thus conveniently providing a voltage-controllable flexural rigidity. The VSDEA tends to be a fully flexible and compact structure with the advantages of simplicity and fast response. Both experimental and theoretical investigations are carried out to reveal the variable stiffness performances of the VSDEA. The effect of the clamped location on the bending stiffness of the VSDEA is analyzed, and then effects of the lengths, the loading points and the applied voltages on the bending stiffness are experimentally investigated. An analytical model is developed to verify the availability of this variable stiffness mechanism, and the theoretical results demonstrate that the bending stiffness of the VSDEA decreases as the applied voltage increases, which agree well with the experimental data. Moreover, the experimental results show that the maximum change of the relative stiffness can reach about 88.80%. It can be useful for the design and optimization of active variable stiffness structures and DEAs for soft robots, vibration control, and morphing applications.

  3. Superhydrophobic/superoleophilic magnetic elastomers by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milionis, Athanasios, E-mail: am2vy@virginia.edu [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Fragouli, Despina; Brandi, Fernando; Liakos, Ioannis; Barroso, Suset [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Ruffilli, Roberta [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Athanassiou, Athanassia, E-mail: athanassia.athanassiou@iit.it [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • We report the development of magnetic nanocomposite sheets. • Laser irradiation of the nanocomposites induces chemical and structural changes to the surface. • The laser-patterned surfaces exhibit superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. • The particle contribution in altering the surface and bulk properties of the material is studied. - Abstract: We report the development of magnetic nanocomposite sheets with superhydrophobic and supeoleophilic surfaces generated by laser ablation. Polydimethylsiloxane elastomer free-standing films, loaded homogeneously with 2% wt. carbon coated iron nanoparticles, were ablated by UV (248 nm), nanosecond laser pulses. The laser irradiation induces chemical and structural changes (both in micro- and nano-scale) to the surfaces of the nanocomposites rendering them superhydrophobic. The use of nanoparticles increases the UV light absorption efficiency of the nanocomposite samples, and thus facilitates the ablation process, since the number of pulses and the laser fluence required are greatly reduced compared to the bare polymer. Additionally the magnetic nanoparticles enhance significantly the superhydrophobic and oleophilic properties of the PDMS sheets, and provide to PDMS magnetic properties making possible its actuation by a weak external magnetic field. These nanocomposite elastomers can be considered for applications requiring magnetic MEMS for the controlled separation of liquids.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of energetic thermoplastic elastomers for propellant formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of energetic ABA-type thermoplastic elastomers for propellant formulations has been carried out. Following the working plan elaborated, the synthesis and characterization of Poly 3- bromomethyl-3-methyl oxetane (PolyBrMMO, Poly 3- azidomethyl-3-methyl oxetane (PolyAMMO, Poly 3,3-bis-azidomethyl oxetane (PolyBAMO and Copolymer PolyBAMO/AMMO (by TDI end capping has been successfully performed. The thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs were synthesized using the chain elongation process PolyAMMO, GAP and PolyBAMO by diisocyanates. In this method 2.4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI is used to link block A (hard and mono- functional to B (soft and di-functional. For the hard A-block we used PolyBAMO and for the soft B-block we used PolyAMMO or GAP.This is a joint project set up, some years ago, between the Chemistry Division of the Institute of Aeronautics and Space (IAE - subordinated to the Brazilian Ministry of Defense - and the Fraunhofer Institut Chemische Technologie (ICT, in Germany. The products were characterized by different techniques as IR- and (1H,13CNMR spectroscopies, elemental and thermal analyses. New methodologies based on FT-IR analysis have been developed as an alternative for the determination of the molecular weight and CHNO content of the energetic polymers.

  5. Toward a predictive model for the failure of elastomer seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Nicola; Khawaja, Musab; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash; Baker Hughes Collaboration

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and hydrogenated-NBR (HNBR) are widely used elastomers, especially as seals in oil and gas industry. During exposure to the extreme temperatures and pressures typical of well-hole conditions, ingress of gases causes degradation of performance, including mechanical failure. Using computer simulations, we investigate this problem at two different length- and time-scales. First, starting with our model of NBR based on the OPLS all-atom force-field, we develop a chemically-inspired description of HNBR, where C=C double bonds are saturated with either hydrogen or intramolecular cross-links, mimicking the hydrogenation of NBR to form HNBR. We validate against trends for the mass density and glass transition temperature for HNBR as a function of cross-link density, and for NBR as a function of the fraction of acrylonitrile in the copolymer. Second, a coarse-grained approach is taken in order to study mechanical behaviour and to overcome the length- and time-scale limitations inherent to the all-atom model. The effect of nanoparticle fillers added to the elastomer matrix is investigated. Our initial focus is on understanding the mechanical properties at the elevated temperatures and pressures experienced in well-hole conditions. Baker Hughes.

  6. Novel Arrangements for High Performance and Durable Dielectric Elastomer Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runan Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the design of Rod Pre-strained Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (RP-DEAs in their capability to generate comparatively large static actuation forces with increased lifetime via optimized electrode arrangements. RP-DEAs utilize thin stiff rods to constrain the expansion of the elastomer and maintain the in-plane pre-strain in the rod longitudinal direction. The aim is to study both the force output and the durability of the RP-DEA. Initial design of the RP-DEA had poor durability, however, it generated significantly larger force compared with the conventional DEA due to the effects of pre-strain and rod constraints. The durability study identifies the in-electro-active-region (in-AR lead contact and the non-uniform deformation of the structure as causes of pre-mature failure of the RP-DEA. An optimized AR configuration is proposed to avoid actuating undesired areas in the structure. The results show that with the optimized AR, the RP-DEA can be effectively stabilized and survive operation at least four times longer than with a conventional electrode arrangement. Finally, a Finite Element simulation was also performed to demonstrate that such AR design and optimization can be guided by analyzing the DEA structure in the state of pre-activation.

  7. Resonant wave energy harvester based on dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Giacomo; Pietro Rosati Papini, Gastone; Righi, Michele; Forehand, David; Ingram, David; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are a class of capacitive solid-state devices that employ highly stretchable dielectrics and conductors to convert mechanical energy into high-voltage direct-current electricity. Their promising performance in terms of convertible energy and power density has been mostly proven in quasi-static experimental tests with prescribed deformation. However, the assessment of their ability in harvesting energy from a dynamic oscillating source of mechanical energy is crucial to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical applications. This paper reports a first demonstration of a DEG system that is able to convert the oscillating energy carried by water waves into electricity. A DEG prototype is built using a commercial polyacrylate film (VHB 4905 by 3M) and an experimental campaign is conducted in a wave-flume facility, i.e. an artificial basin that makes it possible to generate programmed small-scale waves at different frequencies and amplitudes. In resonant conditions, the designed system demonstrates the delivery of a maximum of 0.87 W of electrical power output and 0.64 J energy generated per cycle, with corresponding densities per unit mass of dielectric elastomer of 197 W kg-1 and 145 J kg-1. Additionally, a notable maximum fraction of 18% of the input wave energy is converted into electricity. The presented results provide a promising demonstration of the operation and effectiveness of ocean wave energy converters based on elastic capacitive generators.

  8. Magnetic and viscoelastic response of elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarenko, E Yu; Chertovich, A V; Semisalova, A S; Makarova, L A; Perov, N S; Khokhlov, A R; Stepanov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic elastomers (MEs) based on a silicone matrix and magnetically hard NdFeB particles have been synthesized and their magnetic and viscoelastic properties have been studied depending on the size and concentration of magnetic particles and the magnetizing field. It has been shown that magnetic particles can rotate in soft polymer matrix under applied magnetic field, this fact leading to some features in both magnetic and viscoelastic properties. In the maximum magnetic field used magnetization of MEs with smaller particles is larger while the coercivity is smaller due to higher mobility of the particles within the polymer matrix. Viscoelastic behavior is characterized by long relaxation times due to restructuring of the magnetic filler under the influence of an applied mechanical force and magnetic interactions. The storage and loss moduli of magnetically hard elastomers grow significantly with magnetizing field. The magnetic response of the magnetized samples depends on the mutual orientation of the external magnetic field and the internal sample magnetization. Due to the particle rotation within the polymer matrix, the loss factor increases abruptly when the magnetic field is turned on in the opposite direction to the sample magnetization, further decreasing with time. Moduli versus field dependences have minimum at non-zero field and are characterized by a high asymmetry with respect to the field direction. (paper)

  9. Magnetoactive elastomer as an element of a magnetic retina fixator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. A.; Nadzharyan, T. A.; Alekhina, Yu A.; Stepanov, G. V.; Kazimirova, E. G.; Perov, N. S.; Kramarenko, E. Yu

    2017-09-01

    We explore the possibility of creating an effective retinal fixator on the basis of magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) and systems of permanent magnets. MAEs consist of silicone elastomer matrix with embedded magnetic iron microparticles. We study theoretically and experimentally magnetic forces acting between MAE samples and permanent magnets in various configurations. The theoretical model is based around classical magnetostatics and Maxwell equations with different parameters accounting for peculiarities of the material and the setup. Approximation of the experimentally measured magnetization curves for MAE samples was used to find input parameters for the theoretical model. To test the model, we conducted a series of experimental measurements of magnetic forces accompanied by model predictions for the system of one cylindrical magnet and a cuboid MAE sample. Calculated dependences of the average pressure arising from magnetic interactions on the distance between the closest faces of MAE samples and a permanent magnet are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The proof on concept for smaller magnetic systems required for eye surgery includes data for 10 magnets configuration and a thin MAE band. This research demonstrates high prospects of using MAE as an element of a magnetic fixator for treatment of complicated retinal detachments.

  10. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON EPDM ELASTOMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.

    2009-12-11

    Samples of four formulations of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer were exposed to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for various times up to about 420 days in closed containers. Two formulations were carbon-black-filled commercial formulations, and two were the equivalent formulations without filler synthesized for this work. Tritium effects on the samples were characterized by measuring the sample volume, mass, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties and by noting changes in appearance. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature increased significantly with tritium exposure, and the unfilled formulations ceased to behave as elastomers after the longest tritium exposure. The filled formulations were more resistant to tritium exposure. Tritium exposure made all samples significantly stiffer and therefore much less able to form a reliable seal when employed as O-rings. No consistent change of volume or density was observed; there was a systematic lowering of sample mass with tritium exposure. In addition, the significant radiolytic production of gas, mainly protium (H{sub 2}) and HT, by the samples when exposed to tritium was characterized by measuring total pressure in the container at the end of each exposure and by mass spectroscopy of a gas sample at the end of each exposure. The total pressure in the containers more than doubled after {approx}420 days tritium exposure.

  11. Biaxial experimental and analytical characterization of a dielectric elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Alexander; Doumit, Marc; Shaheen, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) have emerged as a strong contender for use in low-cost efficient actuators in multiple applications especially related to biomimetic and mobile-assistive devices. Dielectric elastomers (DE), a subcategory of these smart materials, have been of particular interest due to their large achievable deformation and favourable mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. Previous work has been completed to understand the behaviour of these materials; however, their properties require further investigation to properly integrate them into real-world applications. In this study, a biaxial tensile experimental evaluation of 3M™ VHB 4905 and VHB 4910 is presented with the purpose of illustrating the elastomers' transversely isotropic mechanical behaviours. These tests were applied to both tapes for equibiaxial stretch rates ranging between 0.025 and 0.300 s-1. Subsequently, a dynamic planar biaxial visco-hyperelastic constitutive relationship was derived from a Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and the general Hooke's law for transversely isotropic materials. The model was then fitted to the experimental data to obtain three general material parameters for either tapes. The model's ability to predict tensile stress response and internal energy dissipation, with respect to experimental data, is evaluated with good agreement. The model's ability to predict variations in mechanical behaviour due to changes in kinematic variables is then illustrated for different conditions.

  12. Model and design of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, Samuel; Araromi, Oluwaseun A; Shintake, Jun; Shea, Herbert R

    2014-01-01

    Fixing a prestretched dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) on a flexible frame allows transformation of the intrinsic in-plane area expansion of DEAs into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures whose shape is determined by a configuration that minimizes the elastic energy of the actuator and the bending energy of the frame. These stuctures can then unfold upon the application of a voltage. This article presents an analytical modelling of the dielectric elastomer minimal energy structure in the case of a simple rectangular geometry and studies the influence of the main design parameters on the actuator's behaviour. The initial shape of DEMES, as well as the actuation range, depends on the elastic strain energy stored in the elastomeric membrane. This energy depends on two independent parameters: the volume of the membrane and its initial deformation. There exist therefore different combinations of membrane volume and prestretch, which lead to the same initial shape, such as a highly prestretched thin membrane, or a slightly prestretched thick membrane. Although they have the same initial shape, these different membrane states lead to different behaviour once the actuation voltage is applied. Our model allows one to predict which choice of parameters leads to the largest actuation range, while specifying the impact of the different membrane conditions on the spring constant of the device. We also explore the effects of non-ideal material behaviour, such as stress relaxation, on device performance. (paper)

  13. A new soft dielectric silicone elastomer matrix with high mechanical integrity and low losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favourable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Driving voltage can be lowered by decreasing the Young's modulus and increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers. A decrease...... in Young's modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE. A new soft elastomer matrix, with no loss of mechanical stability and high dielectric permittivity, was prepared through the use of alkyl chloride-functional siloxane copolymers...

  14. Dielectric elastomers, with very high dielectric permittivity, based on silicone and ionic interpenetrating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    permittivity and the Young's modulus of the elastomer. One system that potentially achieves this involves interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs), based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks from amino- and carboxylic acid-functional silicones. The applicability of these materials as DEs...... are obtained while dielectric breakdown strength and Young's modulus are not compromised. These good overall properties stem from the softening effect and very high permittivity of ionic networks – as high as ε′ = 7500 at 0.1 Hz – while the silicone elastomer part of the IPN provides mechanical integrity...

  15. Numerical Modelling of Metal-Elastomer Spring Nonlinear Response for Low-Rate Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Wojciech

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced knowledge of mechanical characteristics of metal-elastomer springs is useful in their design process and selection. It can also be used in simulating dynamics of machine where such elements are utilized. Therefore this paper presents a procedure for preparing and executing FEM modelling of a single metal-elastomer spring, also called Neidhart’s spring, for low-rate deformations. Elastomer elements were made of SBR rubber of two hardness values: 50°Sh and 70°Sh. For the description of material behaviour the Bergström-Boyce model has been used.

  16. Composite magnetorheological elastomers as dielectrics for plane capacitors: Effects of magnetic field intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balasoiu

    Full Text Available The fabrication of composite magnetorheological elastomers (MRECs based on silicone rubber, carbonyl iron microparticles (10% vol. and polyurethane elastomer doped with 0%, 10% and 20% volume concentration TiO2 microparticles is presented. The obtained MRECs have the shape of thin foils and are used as dielectric materials for manufacturing plane capacitors. Using the plane capacitor method and expression of capacitance as a function of magnetic field intensity, combined with linear elasticity theory, the static magnetoelastic model of the composite is obtained and analyzed. Keywords: Magnetorheological elastomer, TiO2 microparticles, Silicone rubber, Carbonyl iron, Plane capacitor, Magnetoelasticity

  17. Weibull Analysis of Electrical Breakdown Strength as an Effective Means of Evaluating Elastomer Thin Film Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silau, Harald; Stabell, Nicolai Bogø; Petersen, Frederik Riddersholm

    2018-01-01

    To realize the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers, reliable, large-scale film production is required. Ensuring proper mixing and subsequently avoiding demixing after, for example, pumping and coating of elastomer premix in an online process is not facile. Weibull analysis...... of the electrical breakdown strength of dielectric elastomer films is shown to be an effective means of evaluating the film quality. The analysis is shown to be capable of distinguishing between proper and improper mixing schemes where similar analysis of ultimate mechanical properties fails to distinguish....

  18. Toughened nanocomposites of polyamide-6 and polyepichlorohydrin elastomer: mechanical and morphological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinotti, Caio A.; Goncalves, Maria C.; Felisberti, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    Blends of polyamide 6, P A6, and polyepichlorohydrin elastomer, PE Pi, nano composites of P A6 and OMMT and toughened nano composites, P A6/PE Pi/OMMT were prepared by twin-screw extrusion. Nanocomposites of P A6 and organophilic clay presented morphology of exfoliated clay with the presence of some tactoids, which were investigated by XRD and TEM. The blends P A6/PE Pi are immiscible with morphology of elastomer disperse phase. The size of the elastomer phase in the PA6 matrix and a better distribution of these phase were achieved with the incorporation of the clay in the ternary nanocomposites. Toughened nano composites presented increases in Young's modulus, Izod impact strength and yield stress, comparing with the blends of P A6 and polyepichlorohydrin elastomer. (author)

  19. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Dat Nguyen, Tien; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2014-06-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators.

  20. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping of elastomers in engineering applications, part 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, A.; Burgess, G.; Zorzi, E.

    1980-01-01

    An elastomer damper was designed, tested, and compared with the performance of a hydraulic damper for a power transmission shaft. The six button Viton-70 damper was designed so that the elastomer damper or the hydraulic damper could be activated without upsetting the imbalance condition of the assembly. This permitted a direct comparison of damper effectiveness. The elastomer damper consistently performed better than the hydraulic mount and permitted stable operation of the power transmission shaft to speeds higher than obtained with the squeeze film damper. Tests were performed on shear specimens of Viton-79, Buna-N, EPDM, and Neoprene to determine performance limitations imposed by strain, temperature, and frequency. Frequencies of between 110 Hz and 1100 Hz were surveyed with imposed strains between 0.0005 and 0.08 at temperatures of 32 C, 66 C, and 80 C. A set of design curves was generated in a unified format for each of the elastomer materials.

  1. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Nguyen, Tien Dat; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Nam, Jae-do

    2014-01-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators. (paper)

  2. Coaxial Thermoplastic Elastomer-Wrapped Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Deformable and Wearable Strain Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Xu, Xuezhu; Xin, Yangyang; Lubineau, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    performances in these design requirements. Here, achieving highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors by using a coaxial structure, prepared via coaxial wet spinning of thermoplastic elastomer-wrapped carbon nanotube fibers, is proposed. The sensors attain

  3. Optimization Techniques for Improving the Performance of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Yu, Liyun

    2017-01-01

    the electro-mechanical performance of dielectric elastomers are highlighted. Various optimization methods for improved energy transduction are investigated and discussed, with special emphasis placed on the promise each method holds. The compositing and blending of elastomers are shown to be simple, versatile...... methods that can solve a number of optimization issues. More complicated methods, involving chemical modification of the silicone backbone as well as controlling the network structure for improved mechanical properties, are shown to solve yet more issues. From the analysis, it is obvious...... that there is not a single optimization technique that will lead to the universal optimization of dielectric elastomer films, though each method may lead to elastomers with certain features, and thus certain potentials....

  4. Proton mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Draper, Terrence; Liang, Jian; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2018-03-01

    We report the results on the proton mass decomposition and also on the related quark and glue momentum fractions. The results are based on overlap valence fermions on four ensembles of Nf = 2 + 1 DWF configurations with three lattice spacings and volumes, and several pion masses including the physical pion mass. With 1-loop pertur-bative calculation and proper normalization of the glue operator, we find that the u, d, and s quark masses contribute 9(2)% to the proton mass. The quark energy and glue field energy contribute 31(5)% and 37(5)% respectively in the MS scheme at µ = 2 GeV. The trace anomaly gives the remaining 23(1)% contribution. The u, d, s and glue momentum fractions in the MS scheme are consistent with the global analysis at µ = 2 GeV.

  5. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  6. Art of spin decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangsong; Sun Weimin; Wang Fan; Goldman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the problem of spin decomposition for an interacting system from a natural perspective of constructing angular-momentum eigenstates. We split, from the total angular-momentum operator, a proper part which can be separately conserved for a stationary state. This part commutes with the total Hamiltonian and thus specifies the quantum angular momentum. We first show how this can be done in a gauge-dependent way, by seeking a specific gauge in which part of the total angular-momentum operator vanishes identically. We then construct a gauge-invariant operator with the desired property. Our analysis clarifies what is the most pertinent choice among the various proposals for decomposing the nucleon spin. A similar analysis is performed for extracting a proper part from the total Hamiltonian to construct energy eigenstates.

  7. Decomposition methods for unsupervised learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of decomposition methods for Unsupervised Learning. It covers topics from classical factor analysis based decomposition and its variants such as Independent Component Analysis, Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Sparse Coding...... methods and clustering problems is derived both in terms of classical point clustering but also in terms of community detection in complex networks. A guiding principle throughout this thesis is the principle of parsimony. Hence, the goal of Unsupervised Learning is here posed as striving for simplicity...... in the decompositions. Thus, it is demonstrated how a wide range of decomposition methods explicitly or implicitly strive to attain this goal. Applications of the derived decompositions are given ranging from multi-media analysis of image and sound data, analysis of biomedical data such as electroencephalography...

  8. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 4: Testing of elastomers under a rotating load. [resonance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M. S.; Smalley, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A test rig designed to measure stiffness and damping of elastomer cartridges under a rotating load excitation is described. The test rig employs rotating unbalance in a rotor which runs to 60,000 RPM as the excitation mechanism. A variable resonant mass is supported on elastomer elements and the dynamic characteristics are determined from measurements of input and output acceleration. Five different cartridges are considered: three of these are buttons cartridges having buttons located in pairs, with 120 between each pair. Two of the cartridges consist of 360 elastomer rings with rectangular cross-sections. Dynamic stiffness and damping are measured for each cartridge and compared with predictions at different frequencies and different strains.

  9. Fracture studies of poly(propylene)/elastomer blend with β-form nucleating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hongwei; Wang Yong; Zhang Danli; Xiao Chengquan; Song Bo; Li Yanli; Han Liang

    2009-01-01

    Poly(propylene)/elastomer blends with β-form nucleating agent (β-NA) aryl amides compound (TMB-5) were prepared. The effects of β-NA on crystallization, melting behaviors and elastomer morphologies of PP/elastomer blends were studied through polarization optical microscope (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The fracture behaviors, including notched Izod impact fracture and single-edge notched tensile (SENT) fracture, were comparatively studied to establish the role of NA in improving the fracture toughness of PP/elastomer blends. Our results showed that the presence of β-NA leads to determinable β-PP formation in the blends, and as a consequence the fracture toughness of the blend is improved dramatically. Compared with notched Izod impact testing, which can efficiently characterize the fracture toughness of the blends only at lower elastomer content, SENT testing provides more detail of fracture behavior in all the compositions. Furthermore, SENT test shows that the significant improvement in fracture toughness of PP/elastomer/β-NA is contributed to the simultaneous enhancement of crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy, but largely dominated by crack propagation stage.

  10. PLA-based biodegradable and tunable soft elastomers for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrane, Amine; Leroy, Adrien; Nouailhas, Hélène; Garric, Xavier; Coudane, Jean; Nottelet, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Although desirable for biomedical applications, soft degradable elastomers having balanced amphiphilic behaviour are rarely described in the literature. Indeed, mainly highly hydrophobic elastomers or very hydrophilic elastomers with hydrogel behaviours are found. In this work, we developed thermoset degradable elastomers based on the photo-cross-linking of poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) triblock prepolymers. The originality of the proposed elastomers comes from the careful choice of the prepolymer amphiphilicity and from the possible modulation of their mechanical properties and degradation rates provided by cross-linkers of different nature. This is illustrated with the hydrophobic and rigid 2,4,6-triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine compared to the hydrophilic and soft pentaerythritol triallyl ether. Thermal properties, mechanical properties, swelling behaviours, degradation rates and cytocompatibility have been evaluated. Results show that it is possible to generate a family of degradable elastomers covering a broad range of properties from a single biocompatible and biodegradable prepolymer.

  11. Electromechanical performance analysis of inflated dielectric elastomer membrane for micro pump applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Abhishek; Ahmad, Dilshad; Patra, Karali

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers have received a great deal of attention recently as potential materials for many new types of sensors, actuators and future energy generators. When subjected to high electric field, dielectric elastomer membrane sandwiched between compliant electrodes undergoes large deformation with a fast response speed. Moreover, dielectric elastomers have high specific energy density, toughness, flexibility and shape processability. Therefore, dielectric elastomer membranes have gained importance to be applied as micro pumps for microfluidics and biomedical applications. This work intends to extend the electromechanical performance analysis of inflated dielectric elastomer membranes to be applied as micro pumps. Mechanical burst test and cyclic tests were performed to investigate the mechanical breakdown and hysteresis loss of the dielectric membrane, respectively. Varying high electric field was applied on the inflated membrane under different static pressure to determine the electromechanical behavior and nonplanar actuation of the membrane. These tests were repeated for membranes with different pre-stretch values. Results show that pre-stretching improves the electromechanical performance of the inflated membrane. The present work will help to select suitable parameters for designing micro pumps using dielectric elastomer membrane. However this material lacks durability in operation.This issue also needs to be investigated further for realizing practical micro pumps.

  12. Disclosed dielectric and electromechanical properties of hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Dong, Yingchao; Liu, Haoliang; Yu, Yingchun; Zhang, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of acrylonitrile content, crosslink density and plasticization on the dielectric and electromechanical performances of hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric elastomer. It was found that by increasing the acrylonitrile content of hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric elastomer, the dielectric constant will be improved accompanied with a sharp decrease of electrical breakdown strength leading to a small actuated strain. At a fixed electric field, a high crosslink density increased the elastic modulus of dielectric elastomer, but it also enhanced the electrical breakdown strength leading to a high actuated strain. Adding a plasticizer into the dielectric elastomer decreased the dielectric constant and electrical breakdown strength slightly, but reduced the elastic modulus sharply, which was beneficial for obtaining a large strain at low electric field from the dielectric elastomer. The largest actuated strain of 22% at an electric field of 30 kV mm −1 without any prestrain was obtained. Moreover, the hydrogenated nitrile–butadiene dielectric actuator showed good history dependence. This proposed material has great potential to be an excellent dielectric elastomer. (paper)

  13. Magnetically-tunable rebound property for variable elastic devices made of magnetic elastomer and polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Tsubasa; Endo, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Mika; Mitsumata, Tetsu

    2017-12-01

    A device consisting of a phase of magnetic elastomer, a phase of polyurethane foam (PUF), and permanent magnet was fabricated and the stress-strain curves for the two-phase magnetic elastomer were measured by a uniaxial compression measurement. A disk of magnetic elastomer was adhered on a disk of PUF by an adhesive agent. The PUF thickness was varied from 1 mm to 5 mm while the thickness of magnetic elastomers was constant at 5 mm. The stress at a strain of 0.15 for the two-phase magnetic elastomers was evaluated in the absence and in the presence of a magnetic field of 410 mT. The stress at 0 mT decreased remarkably with the PUF thickness due to the deformation of the PUF phase. On the other hand, the stress at 410 mT slightly decreased with the thickness; however, it kept high values even at high thickness. When the PUF thickness was 5 mm, the maximum stress increment with 45 times to the off-field stress was observed. An experiment using ping-pong balls demonstrated that the coefficient of restitution for the two-phase magnetic elastomers can be dramatically altered by the magnetic field.

  14. Investigations on response time of magnetorheological elastomer under compression mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mi; Yu, Miao; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie

    2018-05-01

    For efficient fast control of vibration system with magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based smart device, the response time of MRE material is the key parameter which directly affects the control performance of the vibration system. For a step coil current excitation, this paper proposed a Maxwell behavior model with time constant λ to describe the normal force response of MRE, and the response time of MRE was extracted through the separation of coil response time. Besides, the transient responses of MRE under compression mode were experimentally investigated, and the effects of (i) applied current, (ii) particle distribution and (iii) compressive strain on the response time of MRE were addressed. The results revealed that the three factors can affect the response characteristic of MRE quite significantly. Besides the intrinsic importance for contributing to the response evaluation and effective design of MRE device, this study may conduce to the optimal design of controller for MRE control system.

  15. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  16. Collapse of Non-Rectangular Channels in a Soft Elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepayotl-Ramirez, Daniel; Park, Yong-Lae; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    We examine the collapse of microchannels in a soft elastomer by treating the sidewalls as in- denters that penetrate the channel base. This approach leads to a closed-form algebraic mapping between applied pressure and cross-sectional deformation that are in strong agreement with ex- perimental measurements and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation. Applications of this new approach to modeling soft microchannel collapse range from lab-on-a-chip microfluidics for pressure-controlled protein filtration to soft-matter pressures sensing. We demonstrate the latter by comparing theoretical predictions with experimental measurements of the pressure-controlled electrical resistance of liquid-phase Gallium alloy microchannels embedded in a soft silicone elas- tomer.

  17. Four-dimensional Printing of Liquid Crystal Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulo, Cedric P; Burroughs, Julia J; Boothby, Jennifer M; Kim, Hyun; Shankar, M Ravi; Ware, Taylor H

    2017-10-25

    Three-dimensional structures capable of reversible changes in shape, i.e., four-dimensional-printed structures, may enable new generations of soft robotics, implantable medical devices, and consumer products. Here, thermally responsive liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) are direct-write printed into 3D structures with a controlled molecular order. Molecular order is locally programmed by controlling the print path used to build the 3D object, and this order controls the stimulus response. Each aligned LCE filament undergoes 40% reversible contraction along the print direction on heating. By printing objects with controlled geometry and stimulus response, magnified shape transformations, for example, volumetric contractions or rapid, repetitive snap-through transitions, are realized.

  18. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  19. Hyperelastic pressure sensing with a liquid-embedded elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Wood, Robert J; Majidi, Carmel; Kramer, Rebecca; Bérard, Phillipe

    2010-01-01

    A hyperelastic pressure transducer is fabricated by embedding silicone rubber with microchannels of conductive liquid eutectic gallium–indium. Pressing the surface of the elastomer with pressures in the range of 0–100 kPa will deform the cross-section of underlying channels and change their electric resistance by as much as 50%. Microchannels with dimensions as small as 25 µm are obtained with a maskless, soft lithography process that utilizes direct laser exposure. Change in electrical resistance is measured as a function of the magnitude and area of the surface pressure as well as the cross-sectional geometry, depth and relative lateral position of the embedded channel. These experimentally measured values closely match closed-form theoretical predictions derived from plane strain elasticity and contact mechanics

  20. The pressure-dependent MR effect of magnetorheological elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Chen, Ran; Ma, Ning; Li, Jinhai; Ou, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for the influence of the normal pressure on the magnetic-induced shear modulus of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) was analyzed. Pre-structured MRE samples with 30% micro-sized (∼4 μm) carbonyl iron particles by volume fraction and silicon rubber were prepared under a constant magnetic field of 200 kA m −1 . A parallel-plate MR rheometer was used to conduct dynamic measurements. Under constant strain amplitude (1%) and frequency (10 Hz), different normal pressures (32–128 kPa) were applied on the samples to investigate the normal pressure-dependence properties of MREs. The results indicated that as the normal pressure increases, the magnetic-induced shear modulus of an MRE increases, while the relative MR effect decreases. (paper)

  1. Nematic elastomers: from a microscopic model to macroscopic elasticity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiangjun; Pfahl, Stephan; Mukhopadhyay, Swagatam; Goldbart, Paul M; Zippelius, Annette

    2008-05-01

    A Landau theory is constructed for the gelation transition in cross-linked polymer systems possessing spontaneous nematic ordering, based on symmetry principles and the concept of an order parameter for the amorphous solid state. This theory is substantiated with help of a simple microscopic model of cross-linked dimers. Minimization of the Landau free energy in the presence of nematic order yields the neoclassical theory of the elasticity of nematic elastomers and, in the isotropic limit, the classical theory of isotropic elasticity. These phenomenological theories of elasticity are thereby derived from a microscopic model, and it is furthermore demonstrated that they are universal mean-field descriptions of the elasticity for all chemical gels and vulcanized media.

  2. Impregnation of soft biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagens, G

    1979-06-01

    A new method for impregnation of biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers is described. The method has the advantage that the original relief of the surface is retained. The impregnation is carried out by utilizing the difference between the high vapor tension of the intermedium (e.g., methylene chloride) and the low vapor tension of the solution to be polymerized. After impregnation, the specimen is subject to polymerization conditions without surrounding embedding material. The optical and mechanical properties can be selected by proper choice from various kinds of resins and different procedures, for example, by complete or incomplete impregnation. Acrylic resins, polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethanes and silicone rubber have been found suitable for the method. Excellent results have been obtained using transparent silicone rubber since after treatment the specimens are still flexible and resilient, and have retained their natural appearance.

  3. Influence of melt mixer on injection molding of thermoset elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Arif; Zahra, Keith

    2016-10-01

    One of the drawbacks in injection molding is that the plasticizing screw is short such that polymers having high concentrations of additives, such as thermoset elastomers, might not mix homogeneously within the short period of time during the plasticizing stage. In this study, various melt mixers inside the nozzle chamber, together forming a mixing nozzle, were developed. Three different materials were investigated, namely nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), ethylene propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and fluorocarbon (FKM). The use of these melt mixers resulted in better homogeneity and properties of the molded parts despite a curing time reduction of 10 s. This was due to the increase in mixing and shearing introduced a higher rate of crosslinking formation in the molded parts.

  4. Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomer Nanocomposites: Morphology, Thermophysical, and Flammability Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai K. Ho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel materials based on nanotechnology creating nontraditional ablators are rapidly changing the technology base for thermal protection systems. Formulations with the addition of nanoclays and carbon nanofibers in a neat thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU were melt-compounded using twin-screw extrusion. The TPU nanocomposites (TPUNs are proposed to replace Kevlar-filled ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber, the current state-of-the-art solid rocket motor internal insulation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to study the char characteristics of the TPUNs at elevated temperatures. Specimens were examined to analyze the morphological microstructure during the pyrolysis reaction and in fully charred states. Thermophysical properties of density, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity of the different TPUN compositions were determined. To identify dual usage of these novel materials, cone calorimetry was employed to study the flammability properties of these TPUNs.

  5. Magnetorheological elastomer and its application on impact buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J; Yu, M; Zhu, L X; Dong, X M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) based buffer is proposed and its vibration isolation performance is investigated. The MRE buffer with a compact structure is first designed in order to accomplish the maximization of the variable stiffness range. The working characteristics of the MRE buffer are then measured and the model of MRE is established. On the basis of the experimental data, the control model of the MRE buffer is also formulated. A two-degree-of-freedom dynamic model with an MRE buffer is then developed. An intelligent control strategy, human simulated intelligent control (HSIC), is proposed to reduce the impact during the drop crash. Finally, the proposed MRE buffer and controller are validated numerically and experimentally. The results show that the proposed MRE buffer and the control strategy can reduce the impact acceleration effectively.

  6. Micromechanical analysis on anisotropy of structured magneto-rheological elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R; Zhang, Z; Wang, X J; Chen, S W

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the equivalent elastic modulus of structured magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) in the absence of magnetic field. We assume that both matrix and ferromagnetic particles are linear elastic materials, and ferromagnetic particles are embedded in matrix with layer-like structure. The structured composite could be divided into matrix layer and reinforced layer, in which the reinforced layer is composed of matrix and the homogenously distributed ferromagnetic particles in matrix. The equivalent elastic modulus of reinforced layer is analysed by the Mori-Tanaka method. Finite Element Method (FEM) is also carried out to illustrate the relationship between the elastic modulus and the volume fraction of ferromagnetic particles. The results show that the anisotropy of elastic modulus becomes noticeable, as the volume fraction of particles increases. (paper)

  7. Thermal stability of segmented polyurethane elastomers reinforced by clay particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavličević Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of clay nanoparticles on thermal properties of segmented polyurethanes based on hexamethylene- diisocyanate, aliphatic polycarbonate diol and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. The organically modified particles of montmorillonite and bentonite were used as reinforcing fillers. The structure of elastomeric materials was varied either by diol type or chain extender content. The ratio of OH groups from diol and chain extender (R was either 1 or 10. Thermal properties of prepared materials were determined using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC. Thermal stability of obtained elastomers has been studied by simultaneously thermogravimetry coupled with DSC. The glass transition temperature, Tg, of soft segments for all investigated samples was about -33°C. On the basis of DTG results, it was concluded that obtained materials were very stable up to 300°C.

  8. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  9. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.; Taikum, Orawan

    1994-01-01

    The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. In part I of the program the swell behavior in the test fluids has been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed fro the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants. Part II of the testing program includes the evaluation of tensile strength, hardness, weight, and dimensional changes after immersion aging in refrigerant/lubricant mixtures of selected elastomer formulations at elevated temperature and pressure.

  10. Pattern formation in plastic liquid films on elastomers by ratcheting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangshui; Yang, Jiawei; Jin, Lihua; Clarke, David R; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-04-20

    Plastic liquids, also known as Bingham liquids, retain their shape when loads are small, but flow when loads exceed a threshold. We discovered that plastic liquid films coated on elastomers develop wavy patterns under cyclic loads. As the number of cycles increases, the wavelength of the patterns remains unchanged, but the amplitude of the patterns increases and then saturates. Because the patterns develop progressively under cyclic loads, we call this phenomenon as "patterning by ratcheting". We observe the phenomenon in plastic liquids of several kinds, and studied the effects of thickness, the cyclic frequency of the stretch, and the range of the stretch. Finite element simulations show that the ratcheting phenomenon can occur in materials described by a commonly used model of elastic-plastic deformation.

  11. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  12. Experimental study and modeling of a novel magnetorheological elastomer isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Weihua; Sun, Shuaishuai; Du, Haiping; Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun; Deng, H X

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental setup aiming at evaluating the performance of a newly designed magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) seismic isolator. As a further effort to explore the field-dependent stiffness/damping properties of the MRE isolator, a series of experimental testing were conducted. Based upon the analysis of the experimental responses and the characteristics of the MRE isolator, a new model that is capable of reproducing the unique MRE isolator dynamics behaviors is proposed. The validation results verify the model’s effectiveness to portray the MRE isolator. A study on the field-dependent parameters is then provided to make the model valid with fluctuating magnetic fields. To fully explore the mechanism of the proposed model, an investigation relating the dependence of the proposed model on every parameter is carried out. (technical note)

  13. Synthesis of thermoplastic poly(ester-olefin elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasijević Branka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of thermoplastic poly(ester-olefin elastomers, based on poly(ethylene-stat-butylene, HO-PEB-OH, as the soft segment and poly (butylene terephthalate, PBT, as the hard segment, were synthesized by a catalyzed transesterification reaction in solution. The incorporation of soft hydrogenated poly(butadiene segments into the copolyester backbone was accomplished by the polycondensation of α, ω-dihydroxyl telechelic HO-PEB-OH, (PEB Mn = 3092 g/mol with 1,4-butanediol (BD and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT in the presence of a 50 wt-% high boiling solvent i.e., 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. The molar ratio of the starting comonomers was selected to result in a constant hard to soft weight ratio of 60:40. The synthesis was optimized in terms of both the concentration of catalyst, tetra-n-butyl-titanate (Ti(OBu4, and stabilizer, N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD, as well as the reaction time. It was found that the optimal catalyst concentration (Ti(OBu4 for the synthesis of these thermoplastic elastomers was 1.0 mmol/mol ester and the optimal DPPD concentration was 1.0 wt-%. The extent of the reaction was followed by measuring the inherent viscosity of the reaction mixture. The effectiveness of the incorporation of the soft segments into the copolymer chains was proved by Soxhlet extraction with chloroform. The molecular structures, composition and the size of the synthesized poly(ester-butylenes were verified by 1H NMR spectroscopy, viscometry of dilute solutions and the complex dynamic melt viscosity. The thermal properties of poly(ester-olefins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The degree of crystallinity was also determined by DSC. The thermal and thermo-oxidative stability were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The rheological properties of poly(ester-olefins were investigated by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy in the melt and solid state.

  14. Synthesis and properties of butadiene-alpha-methylstyrene thermoplastic elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Firsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Butadiene-α-methylstyrene block – copolymer – a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE-R DMST occupies a special place among the ethylene – vinyl aromatic block copolymers. TPE-R DMST comprising as plastic – poly-α-methylstyrene unit and elastic – polybutadiene block. TPE-R DMST has high heat resistance, flexibility, abrasion resistance compared to butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomer (TPE DST. The synthesis of block copolymers of butadiene and α-methylstyrene was carried out. The process of polymerization the α-methylstyrene characterized the high speed of polymerization in polar medium and low reaction speed in hydrocarbon solvents. Anionic catalyst nbutyllithium (n-BuLi and high concentration – 60–80% α-methylstyrene in the mixture influenced by synthesis of the 1st block of TPE-R DMST, it’s technologically difficult. Found that the low temperature of polymerization α-methylstyrene (+61 o C, the reversibility of these reactions and the high concentration of residual monomer are very importance. It was revealed that a high polymerization rate α-methylstyrene can be achieved by conducting the reaction in a hydrocarbon solvent with polar additives compounds such as tetrahydrofuran (THF and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE. The conditions for the synthesis of P-DMST were developed. The kinetics of polymerization for the first DMST-P unit was obtained. Analysis of physical and mechanical properties DMST-P samples was conducted. The optimum content of bound α-methylstyrene block copolymer provides a good combination of properties in a relatively wide temperature range. The tensile strength at normal and elevated temperatures, the hardness and the stiffness of the polymer increased by increasing the content of bound α-methylstyrene. The elongation and the elasticity reduced by increasing the content of bound α-methylstyrene.

  15. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  16. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  17. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes

  18. NRSA enzyme decomposition model data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme activities measured at more than 2000 US streams and rivers. These enzyme data were then used to predict organic matter decomposition and microbial...

  19. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  20. Real interest parity decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  1. Parameters design of the dielectric elastomer spring-roll bending actuator (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers are novel soft smart material that could deform sustainably when subjected to external electric field. That makes dielectric elastomers promising materials for actuators. In this paper, a spring-roll actuator that would bend when a high voltage is applied was fabricated based on dielectric elastomer. Using such actuators as active parts, the flexible grippers and inchworm-inspired crawling robots were manufactured, which demonstrated some examples of applications in soft robotics. To guide the parameters design of dielectric elastomer based spring-roll bending actuators, the theoretical model of such actuators was established based on thermodynamic theories. The initial deformation and electrical induced bending angle of actuators were formulated. The failure of actuators was also analyzed considering some typical failure modes like electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown, loss of tension and maximum tolerant stretch. Thus the allowable region of actuators was determined. Then the bending angle-voltage relations and failure voltages of actuators with different parameters, including stretches of the dielectric elastomer film, number of active layers, and dimensions of spring, were investigated. The influences of each parameter on the actuator performances were discussed, providing meaningful guidance to the optical design of the spring-roll bending actuators.

  2. Study on the control of the compositions and properties of a biodegradable polyester elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Quanyong; Weng Jingyi; Zhang Liqun [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tan Tianwei, E-mail: liu_quanyong@126.co, E-mail: zhanglq@mail.buct.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Bioprocess of Beijing, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Biodegradable polyester elastomers are widely reported to be applied in varied biomedical fields. In this paper, we attempt to investigate how both the thermal-curing time and molar ratio of the monomers affect the final compositions and properties of the novel poly(glycerol-sebacate-citrate) (PGSC) elastomers. First, PGSC elastomers are obtained after the thermal curing of the moldable mixtures consisting of citric acid and poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) prepolymers synthesized in the lab. Then further studies show that, on the one hand, the control of longer thermal-curing time results in elastomers with less sol, lower swelling degree, slower degradation, greater mechanical strength and higher glass transition temperature and, on the other hand, the crosslink with more citric acid is advantageous to greatly improving their mechanical strength and glass transition temperatures, simultaneously decreasing their sol contents, swelling degrees and degradation rates. The PGSC elastomers show thermosetting properties, certain strength, mass losses lower than 20% after 4-week degradation and durative water absorption during degradation. Thus they might be potentially used as degradable bio-coatings, varied soft biomedical membranes and drug delivery matrices.

  3. Degradation of physical properties of different elastomers upon exposure to palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Jun, T.S.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, is gradually receiving more popularity for use in internal combustion engines. However questions continue to arise with regard to its compatibility with elastomeric materials. The present work aims to investigate the comparative degradation of physical properties for different elastomers [e.g. ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), silicone rubber (SR), polychloroprene (CR), polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) and nitrile rubber (NBR)] upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Static immersion tests in B0(diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50 and B100(biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 o C) for 1000 h. Different physical properties like, changes in weight and volume, hardness and tensile strength were measured at every 250 h of immersion time. Compositional changes in biodiesel due to exposure of different elastomers were investigated by Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS). The overall sequence of compatible elastomers in palm biodiesel is found to be PTFE > SR > NBR > EPDM > CR. -- Research highlights: → Biodiesel and its blends swelled polychloroprene (CR) and nitrile rubber (NBR) to a greater extent than did diesel. → Although PTFE seems to be the most compatible elastomer among those tested, it undergoes a slight reduction of main constituents. →The overall sequence of compatible elastomers in palm biodiesel is PTFE > SR > NBR > EPDM > CR.

  4. Finite element analysis and validation of dielectric elastomer actuators used for active origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGough, Kevin; Ahmed, Saad; Frecker, Mary; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2014-01-01

    The field of active origami explores the incorporation of active materials into origami-inspired structures in order to serve as a means of actuation. Active origami-inspired structures capable of folding into complex three-dimensional (3D) shapes have the potential to be lightweight and versatile compared to traditional methods of actuation. This paper details the finite element analysis and experimental validation of unimorph actuators. Actuators are fabricated by adhering layers of electroded dielectric elastomer (3M VHB F9473PC) onto a passive substrate layer (3M Magic Scotch Tape). Finite element analysis of the actuators simulates the electromechanical coupling of the dielectric elastomer under an applied voltage by applying pressures to the surfaces of the dielectric elastomer where the compliant electrode (conductive carbon grease) is present. 3D finite element analysis of the bending actuators shows that applying contact boundary conditions to the electroded region of the active and passive layers provides better agreement to experimental data compared to modeling the entire actuator as continuous. To improve the applicability of dielectric elastomer-based actuators for active origami-inspired structures, folding actuators are developed by taking advantage of localized deformation caused by a passive layer with non-uniform thickness. Two-dimensional analysis of the folding actuators shows that agreement to experimental data diminishes as localized deformation increases. Limitations of using pressures to approximate the electromechanical coupling of the dielectric elastomer under an applied electric field and additional modeling considerations are also discussed. (paper)

  5. Semi-active control of a sandwich beam partially filled with magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with the semi-active control of vibrations of structural elements. Elastomer composites with ferromagnetic particles that act as magnetorheological fluids are used. The damping coefficient and the shear modulus of the elastomer increases when it is exposed to an electro-magnetic field. The control of this process in time allows us to reduce vibrations more effectively than if the elastomer is permanently exposed to a magnetic field. First the analytical solution for the vibrations of a sandwich beam filled with an elastomer is given. Then the control problem is defined and applied to the analytical formula. The numerical solution of the minimization problem results in a periodic, perfectly rectangular control function if free vibrations are considered. Such a temporarily acting magnetic field is more efficient than a constantly acting one. The surplus reaches 20-50% or more, depending on the filling ratio of the elastomer. The resulting control was verified experimentally in the vibrations of a cantilever sandwich beam. The proposed semi-active control can be directly applied to engineering vibrating structural elements, for example helicopter rotors, aircraft wings, pads under machines, and vehicles.

  6. A micro-macro constitutive model for finite-deformation viscoelasticity of elastomers with nonlinear viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.

    2018-01-01

    Elastomers are known to exhibit viscoelastic behavior under deformation, which is linked to the diffusion processes of the highly mobile and flexible polymer chains. Inspired by the theories of polymer dynamics, a micro-macro constitutive model is developed to study the viscoelastic behaviors and the relaxation process of elastomeric materials under large deformation, in which the material parameters all have a microscopic foundation or a microstructural justification. The proposed model incorporates the nonlinear material viscosity into the continuum finite-deformation viscoelasticity theories which represent the polymer networks of elastomers with an elastic ground network and a few viscous subnetworks. The developed modeling framework is capable of adopting most of strain energy density functions for hyperelastic materials and thermodynamics evolution laws of viscoelastic solids. The modeling capacity of the framework is outlined by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data of three commonly used elastomeric materials, namely, VHB4910, HNBR50 and carbon black (CB) filled elastomers. The comparison shows that the stress responses and some typical behaviors of filled and unfilled elastomers can be quantitatively predicted by the model with suitable strain energy density functions. Particularly, the strain-softening effect of elastomers could be explained by the deformation-dependent (nonlinear) viscosity of the polymer chains. The presented modeling framework is expected to be useful as a modeling platform for further study on the performance of different type of elastomeric materials.

  7. Synthesis of novel lidocaine-releasing poly(diol-co-citrate) elastomers by using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M Concepción; Gutiérrez, María C; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferrer, M Luisa; del Monte, Francisco

    2012-01-14

    Poly(octanediol-co-citrate) elastomers containing high loading of lidocaine were synthesized at temperatures below 100 °C by means of using deep eutectic mixtures of 1,8-octanediol and lidocaine. The preservation of lidocaine integrity resulted in high-capacity drug-eluting elastomers. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  8. Mechanical and Electrical Ageing Effects on the Long-Term Stretching of Silicone Dielectric Elastomers with Soft Fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Yu, Liyun

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer materials for actuators need to be soft and stretchable while possessing high dielectric permittivity. Soft silicone elastomers can be obtained through the use of silicone oils, while enhanced permittivity can be obtained through the use of dipolar groups on the polymer backb...

  9. Study of magnetorheology and sensing capabilities of MR elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, T F; Li, W H; Alici, G

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the magnetorheology and sensing capability of graphite based Magnetorheological Elastomers (Gr MREs). By introducing graphite (Gr) to conventional MREs, the Gr MREs are derived. The anisotropic sample with 20% graphite weight fraction was selected to be compared with anisotropic conventional MREs. The microstructures of anisotropic Gr MREs and conventional MREs were observed. Both steady state tests and dynamic tests were conducted to study rheological properties of the samples. For dynamic tests, the effects of strain amplitude, and frequency on both storage modulus and loss modulus were measured. For sensing capability, the resistance of selected Gr MREs under different magnetic fields and external loadings is measured with a multi-meter. Either higher magnetic field or more external loading results in the resistance increment. Based on an ideal assumption of perfect chain structure, a mathematical model was proposed to investigate the relationship between the MRE resistance with the external loadings. In this model, the current flowing through the chain structure consists of both tunnel current and conductivity current, both of which depends on external loadings. The modelling parameters were identified and reconstructed from comparison with experimental results. The comparison indicates that both experimental results and modelling prediction agree favourably well.

  10. A Soft Gripper with Rigidity Tunable Elastomer Strips as Ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasab, Amir Mohammadi; Sabzehzar, Amin; Tatari, Milad; Majidi, Carmel; Shan, Wanliang

    2017-12-01

    Like their natural counterparts, soft bioinspired robots capable of actively tuning their mechanical rigidity can rapidly transition between a broad range of motor tasks-from lifting heavy loads to dexterous manipulation of delicate objects. Reversible rigidity tuning also enables soft robot actuators to reroute their internal loading and alter their mode of deformation in response to intrinsic activation. In this study, we demonstrate this principle with a three-fingered pneumatic gripper that contains "programmable" ligaments that change stiffness when activated with electrical current. The ligaments are composed of a conductive, thermoplastic elastomer composite that reversibly softens under resistive heating. Depending on which ligaments are activated, the gripper will bend inward to pick up an object, bend laterally to twist it, and bend outward to release it. All of the gripper motions are generated with a single pneumatic source of pressure. An activation-deactivation cycle can be completed within 15 s. The ability to incorporate electrically programmable ligaments in a pneumatic or hydraulic actuator has the potential to enhance versatility and reduce dependency on tubing and valves.

  11. Reduced Order Models for Dynamic Behavior of Elastomer Damping Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, B.; Legay, A.; Deü, J.-F.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of passive damping, various mechanical systems from the space industry use elastomer components (shock absorbers, silent blocks, flexible joints...). The material of these devices has frequency, temperature and amplitude dependent characteristics. The associated numerical models, using viscoelastic and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, may become computationally too expensive during a design process. The aim of this work is to propose efficient reduced viscoelastic models of rubber devices. The first step is to choose an accurate material model that represent the viscoelasticity. The second step is to reduce the rubber device finite element model to a super-element that keeps the frequency dependence. This reduced model is first built by taking into account the fact that the device's interfaces are much more rigid than the rubber core. To make use of this difference, kinematical constraints enforce the rigid body motion of these interfaces reducing the rubber device model to twelve dofs only on the interfaces (three rotations and three translations per face). Then, the superelement is built by using a component mode synthesis method. As an application, the dynamic behavior of a structure supported by four hourglass shaped rubber devices under harmonic loads is analysed to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  12. Modelling and characterization of dielectric elastomer stack actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, Henry; Matysek, Marc; Mößinger, Holger; Schlaak, Helmut F

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to establish and evaluate an electrical and mechanical model for dielectric elastomer stack actuators. Based on the structure of an electrically interconnected actuator a simplified electrical and mechanical network is deduced. The electrical model results in a low-pass filter. The model is evaluated by measurements of the electrical impedance and contact, electrode and parallel resistances. Measurement results show good agreement of the model with the electrical behaviour of the real actuator over a wide frequency range, from below 0.1 Hz to above 10 kHz. The mechanical modelling is split into dynamic and static behaviour. The dynamic mechanical behaviour is modelled as a mechanical equivalent network using fractional elements. The static mechanical model uses the uniaxial compressive modulus of the actuator material to describe the static characteristic. The combination of static and dynamic models allows a realistic prediction of the static and dynamic deflection of the actuators under an applied electrical voltage. This electro-mechanical model has been validated in a frequency range of 4 Hz to 4 kHz. (paper)

  13. Testing of elastomer seals using small-size rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.; Dunford, B.; Barnfield, J.H.; Gray, I.L.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the use of small size seal leakage test rigs to demonstrate the compliance of full size container seals against the IAEA Transport Regulation's limits for activity release for normal transport and accident conditions. The detailed requirements of the regulations are discussed and it is concluded that an appropriate test programme to meet these requirements using only small size test rigs, can normally be set up and carried out on a relatively short time scale. It is important that any small test rigs should be designed to represent the relevant features of the seal arrangement and the overall test programme should cover all of the conditions, specified by the regulations, for the type, classification and contents of the container under consideration. The parameters of elastomer O-rings, which affect their sealing ability, are considered and those which are amenable to small scale testing or have to be modelled at full size are identified. Generally, the seals used in leakage tests have to be modelled with a full size cross-section but can have a reduced peripheral length. (Author)

  14. Modeling of dielectric elastomer oscillators for soft biomimetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F M; Wilson, Katherine E; Anderson, I A

    2018-06-26

    Biomimetic, entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. However, until now, most presented studies on soft robots were limited to only partly soft designs, since all solutions at least needed conventional, stiff electronics to sense, process signals and activate actuators. We present a novel approach for a set up and the experimental validation of an artificial pace maker that is able to drive basic robotic structures and act as artificial central pattern generator. The structure is based on multi-functional dielectric elastomers (DEs). DE actuators, DE switches and DE resistors are combined to create complex DE oscillators (DEOs). Supplied with only one external DC voltage, the DEO autonomously generates oscillating signals that can be used to clock a robotic structure, control the cyclic motion of artificial muscles in bionic robots or make a whole robotic structure move. We present the basic functionality, derive a mathematical model for predicting the generated signal waveform and verify the model experimentally.

  15. Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

  16. The prestress-dependent mechanical response of magnetorheological elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jiabin; Xuan, Shouhu; Liu, Taixiang; Ge, Lin; Zhou, Hong; Gong, Xinglong; Yan, Lixun

    2015-01-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are intelligent materials consisting of a rubber matrix filled with magnetizable particles. In many engineering applications, MREs are usually pre-confined and work with constraint-induced prestress. The prestress can significantly change the mechanical properties of MREs. In this work, the influence of prestress on the mechanical response of MREs is studieds both experimentally and theoretically. The storage modulus as well as the magneto-induced modulus change non-linearly with increasing prestress and three regions can be found in the non-linear change. In the non-full contact region, the MREs present poor mechanical properties at small prestress due to the unevenness of the sample surface. In the full contact region, the MREs are under suitable prestress, thus they present good mechanical properties. In the overload region, the pre-configured microstructure of the MREs is destroyed under the large prestress. Moreover, an analytical model is proposed to study the prestress-dependent mechanical properties of MREs. It is revealed that the prestress can change the inter-particle distance, thus further affecting the mechanical response of MREs. (paper)

  17. Electromechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomer membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on its large deformation, light weight, and high energy density, dielectric elastomer (DE has been used as driven muscle in many areas. We design the fiber-reinforced DE membrane by adding fibers in the membrane. The deformation and driven force direction of the membrane can be tuned by changing the fiber arrangements. The actuation in the perpendicular direction of the DE membrane with long fibers first increases and then decreases by the increasing of the fiber spacing in the perpendicular direction. The horizontal actuation of the membrane decreases by decreasing the spacing of short fibers. In the membrane-inflating structure, the radially arranged fibers will break the axisymmetric behavior of the structure. The top area of the inflated balloon without fiber will buckle up when the voltage reaches a certain level. Finite element simulations based on nonlinear field theory are conducted to investigate the effects of fiber arrangement and verify the experimental results. This work can guide the design of fiber-reinforced DE.

  18. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-09-25

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.

  19. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-01-01

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms. (paper)

  20. Experimental investigation of torsional vibration isolation using Magneto Rheological Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Shenoy K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating systems suffer from lateral and torsional vibrations which have detrimental effect on the roto-dynamic performance. Many available technologies such as vibration isolators and vibration absorbers deal with the torsional vibrations to a certain extent, however passive isolators and absorbers find less application when the input conditions are dynamic. The present work discusses use of a smart material called as Magneto Rheological Elastomer (MRE, whose properties can be changed based on magnetic field input, as a potential isolator for torsional vibrations under dynamic loading conditions. Carbonyl Iron Particles (CIP of average size 5 μm were mixed with RTV Silicone rubber to form the MRE. The effect of magnetic field on the system parameters was comprehended under impulse loading conditions using a custom built in-house system. Series arrangement of accelerometers were used to differentiate between the torsional and the bending modes of vibration of the system. Impact hammer tests were carried out on the torsional system to study its response, in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The tests revealed a shift in torsional frequency in the presence of magnetic field which elucidates the ability of MRE to work as a potential vibration isolator for torsional systems.

  1. Soft mobile robots driven by foldable dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenjie; Liu, Fan; Ma, Ziqi; Li, Chenghai; Zhou, Jinxiong, E-mail: jxzhouxx@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-08-28

    A cantilever beam with elastic hinge pulled antagonistically by two dielectric elastomer (DE) membranes in tension forms a foldable actuator if one DE membrane is subject to a voltage and releases part of tension. Simply placing parallel rigid bars on the prestressed DE membranes results in enhanced actuators working in a pure shear state. We report design, analysis, fabrication, and experiment of soft mobile robots that are moved by such foldable DE actuators. We describe systematic measurement of the foldable actuators and perform theoretical analysis of such actuators based on minimization of total energy, and a good agreement is achieved between model prediction and measurement. We develop two versions of prototypes of soft mobile robots driven either by two sets of DE membranes or one DE membrane and elastic springs. We demonstrate locomotion of these soft mobile robots and highlight several key design parameters that influence locomotion of the robots. A 45 g soft robot driven by a cyclic triangle voltage with amplitude 7.4 kV demonstrates maximal stroke 160 mm or maximal rolling velocity 42 mm/s. The underlying mechanics and physics of foldable DE actuators can be leveraged to develop other soft machines for various applications.

  2. Expansion of Tubular with Elastomers in Multilateral Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Velden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid expandable tubular technology during the last decade has focused on solving many challenges in well drilling and delivery including zonal isolation, deep drilling, conservation of hole sizes, etc. not only as pioneered solution but also providing cost effective and long lasting solutions. Concurrently, the technology was extended for construction of multilateral in typical wells. The process of horizontal tubular expansion is similar to the vertical expansion of expandable tubular in down-hole environment with the addition of uniformly distributed force due to its weight. The expansion is targeted to increase its diameter such that post expansion characteristics remain within allowable limits. In this study a typical expandable tubular of 57.15 mm outer diameter and 6.35 mm wall thickness was used with two different elastomer seals of 5 and 7 mm thickness placed at equal spacing of 200 mm. The developed stress contours during expansion process clearly showed the high stress areas in the vicinity of expansion region which lies around the mandrel. These high stresses may result in excessive wear of the mandrel. It was also found out that the drawing force increases as the mandrel angle, expansion ratio, and friction coefficient increases. A mandrel angle of 20o  requires minimum expansion force and can be considered as an optimum geometrical parameter to lower the power required for expansion.

  3. Photo-Induced Deformations of Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Nathan; Kuzyk, Mark; Neal, Jeremy; Luchette, Paul; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Over a century ago, Alexander Graham Bell transmitted mechanical information on a beam of light using the ``photophone.'' We report on the use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to encode and detect mechanical information of an illuminated liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) that is placed at a critical point between the reflectors. Furthermore, we show that cascading of macroscopic LCE-interferometer devices is possible. These are the first steps in the creation of ultra smart materials. Such applications require materials with a large photomechanical response. Thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical. Only limited studies of the mechanisms of photomechanical effects have been studied in azo-dye-doped LCEs. The focus of our present work is to use the Fabry-Perot transducer geometry to study the underlying mechanisms and to determine the relevant material parameters that are used to develop theoretical models of the response. We use various intensity-modulated optical wave forms to determine the frequency response of the material, which are used to predict the material response in the time domain.

  4. Mechanisms of Photo-Induced Deformations of Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Nathan; Kuzyk, Mark; Neal, Jeremy; Luchette, Paul; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Over a century ago, Alexander Graham Bell invented the photophone, which he used to transmit mechanical information on a beam of light. We report on the use of an active Fabry-Perot interferometer to encode and detect mechanical information using the photomechanical effect of a liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) that is placed at a critical point between the reflectors. These are the first steps in the creation of ultra smart materials which require a large photomechanical response. Thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical. Only limited studies of the mechanisms of the photomechanical effect, such as photo-isomerization, photo-reorientation and thermal effects have been studied in azo-dye-doped LCEs and in azo-dye-doped polymer fibers have been reported. The focus of our present work is to use the Fabry-Perot transducer geometry to study the underlying mechanisms and to determine the relevant material parameters that are used to develop theoretical models of the response. We use various intensity-modulated optical wave forms to determine the frequency response of the material, which are used to predict the material response.

  5. Sustainable Triblock Copolymers for Application as Thermoplastic Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenyue; Wang, Shu; Ganewatta, Mitra; Tang, Chuanbing; Robertson, Megan

    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), combining the processing advantages of thermoplastics with the flexibility and extensibility of elastomeric materials, have found versatile applications in industry, including electronics, clothing, adhesives, and automotive components. ABA triblock copolymers, in which A represents glassy endblocks and B the rubbery midblock, are commercially available as TPEs, such as poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) or poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) (SIS). However, the commercial TPEs are derived from fossil fuels. The finite availability of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the petroleum manufacturing have led to the increased interest in the development of alternative polymeric materials from sustainable sources. Rosin acids are promising replacement for the petroleum source due to their abundance in conifers, rigid molecular structures, and ease of functionalization. In this study, we explored the utilization of a rosin acid derivative, poly(dehydroabietic ethyl methacrylate) (PDAEMA), as a sustainable alternative for the glassy domain. The triblock copolymer poly(dehydroabietic ethyl methacrylate-b-n-butyl acylate-b-dehydroabietic ethyl methacrylate) (DnBD) was synthesized and characterized. DnBD exhibited tunable morphological and thermal properties. Tensile testing revealed elastomeric behavior.

  6. Experimental study on behaviors of dielectric elastomer based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kuangjun; Chuc, Nguyen Huu; Kwon, Hyeok Yong; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2010-04-01

    Previously, the dielectric elastomer based on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), called synthetic elastomer has been reported by our group. It has the advantages that its characteristics can be modified according to the requirements of performances, and thus, it is applicable to a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we address the effects of additives and vulcanization conditions on the overall performance of synthetic elastomer. In the present work, factors to have effects on the performances are extracted, e.g additives such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), barium titanium dioxide (BaTiO3) and vulcanization conditions such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP), cross-linking times. Also, it is described how the performances can be optimized by using DOE (Design of Experiments) technique and experimental results are analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of variance).

  7. Development of energy-harvesting system using deformation of magnetic elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Hayato; Tsumori, Fujio

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a power generation method using the deformation of a magnetic elastomer for vibration energy harvesting. The magnetic flux lines in the structure of the magnetic elastomer could be markedly changed if the properly designed structure was expanded and contracted in a static magnetic field. We set a coil on the magnetic elastomer to generate electricity by capturing this change in magnetic flux flow. We fabricated a centimeter-scale device and demonstrated that it generated 10.5 mV of maximum voltage by 10 Hz vibration. We also simulated the change in the magnetic flux flow using finite element analysis, and compared the result with the experimental data. Furthermore, we evaluated the power generation of a miniaturized device.

  8. Graphene and water-based elastomers thin-film composites by dip-moulding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliut, Maria; Silva, Claudio; Herrick, Scott; McGlothlin, Mark; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind

    2016-09-01

    Thin-film elastomers (elastic polymers) have a number of technologically significant applications ranging from sportswear to medical devices. In this work, we demonstrate that graphene can be used to reinforce 20 micron thin elastomer films, resulting in over 50% increase in elastic modulus at a very low loading of 0.1 wt%, while also increasing the elongation to failure. This loading is below the percolation threshold for electrical conductivity. We demonstrate composites with both graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, the reduction being undertaken in-situ or ex-situ using a biocompatible reducing agent in ascorbic acid. The ultrathin films were cast by dip moulding. The transparency of the elastomer films allows us to use optical microscopy image and confirm the uniform distribution as well as the conformation of the graphene flakes within the composite.

  9. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force.

  10. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorce, Cedric [Universite Paris-Saclay, Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2018-02-15

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force. (orig.)

  11. Reduction of the Adhesive Friction of Elastomers through Laser Texturing of Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Voyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that elastomers usually possess poor dry sliding friction properties due to their highly adhesive character. In order to overcome this problematic behavior in industrial applications, interfacial materials such as oils, greases, coatings, or lacks are normally used in order to separate or to functionalize the contact surfaces of elastomers. Alternatively, the high adhesion tendency of elastomers may be explicitly reduced by modifying the elastomer composition itself or by enabling a reduction of its effective contact area through, for example, surface laser texturing. This second approach, i.e., the reduction of the adhesive character of elastomers through laser structuring, will be the main topic of the present study. For this purpose, different micro-sized grooved structures were produced on flat injection molds using an ultra-short pulsed laser. The micro-structured molds were then used to produce injection molded micro-ridged Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR sample pads. The investigations consisted firstly of determining the degree of replication of the mold micro-structures onto the surface of the LSR pads and secondly, to ascertain the degree of reduction of the friction force (or coefficient of friction of these micro-ridged LSR pads in comparison to the benchmark (unstructured LSR pads when tested under dry conditions against Aluminum alloy (Al-6082 or PA6.6-GF30 plates. For this second part of the investigation, the normal force (or contact pressure dependency of the coefficient of friction was determined through stepwise load increasing friction tests. The results of these investigations have shown that the production of micro-ridged surfaces on LSR pads through laser structuring of the injection molds could be successfully achieved and that it enables a significant reduction of the friction force for low normal forces (or contact pressures, where the component of adhesion friction is playing an important and determining

  12. Fracture and healing of elastomers: A phase-transition theory and numerical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Francfort, Gilles A.; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2018-03-01

    A macroscopic theory is proposed to describe, explain, and predict the nucleation and propagation of fracture and healing in elastomers undergoing arbitrarily large quasistatic deformations. The theory, which can be viewed as a natural generalization of the phase-field approximation of the variational theory of brittle fracture of Francfort and Marigo (1998) to account for physical attributes innate to elastomers that have been recently unveiled by experiments at high spatio-temporal resolution, rests on two central ideas. The first one is to view elastomers as solids capable to undergo finite elastic deformations and capable also to phase transition to another solid of vanishingly small stiffness: the forward phase transition serves to model the nucleation and propagation of fracture while the reverse phase transition models the possible healing. The second central idea is to take the phase transition to be driven by the competition between a combination of strain energy and hydrostatic stress concentration in the bulk and surface energy on the created/healed new surfaces in the elastomer. From an applications point of view, the proposed theory amounts to solving a system of two coupled and nonlinear PDEs for the deformation field and an order parameter, or phase field. A numerical scheme is presented to generate solutions for these PDEs in N = 2 and 3 space dimensions. This is based on an efficient non-conforming finite-element discretization, which remains stable for large deformations and elastomers of any compressibility, together with an implicit gradient flow solver, which is able to deal with the large changes in the deformation field that can ensue locally in space and time from the nucleation of fracture. The last part of this paper is devoted to presenting sample simulations of the so-called Gent-Park experiment. Those are confronted with recent experimental results for various types of silicone elastomers.

  13. Abstract decomposition theorem and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grossberg, R; Grossberg, Rami; Lessmann, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Let K be an Abstract Elementary Class. Under the asusmptions that K has a nicely behaved forking-like notion, regular types and existence of some prime models we establish a decomposition theorem for such classes. The decomposition implies a main gap result for the class K. The setting is general enough to cover \\aleph_0-stable first-order theories (proved by Shelah in 1982), Excellent Classes of atomic models of a first order tehory (proved Grossberg and Hart 1987) and the class of submodels of a large sequentially homogenuus \\aleph_0-stable model (which is new).

  14. Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers

    CERN Document Server

    Broer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly expanding interest in liquid crystalline polymers and elastomers among the liquid crystal community, researchers are currently exploring the wide range of possible application areas for these unique materials, including optical elements on displays, tunable lasers, strain gauges, micro-structures, and artificial muscles. Written by respected scientists from academia and industry around the world, who are not only active in the field but also well-known in more traditional areas of research, "Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems: From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers&qu

  15. Friction of elastomer-on-glass system and direct observation of its frictional interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Sugiura, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Motohisa; Nitta, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    We performed a study on the static friction of PDMS elastomers with well-defined surface topography sliding over glass. An experimental setup for simultaneous measurements of friction force and direct observations of frictional interface has been developed. The static friction force was nearly proportional to normal load. The static friction force was independent of stick time. The simultaneous measurements revealed that the static friction force was proportional to the total area of contact. The coefficient was nearly independent of the surface topography of PDMS elastomers

  16. Optimisation of Silicone-based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers by Means of Block Copolymers - Synthesis and Compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam

    through the use of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in a PDMS-PEG matrix as a compliant electrode of dielectric elastomers. The conductive PDMS-PEG copolymer was incorporated with surface-treated MWCNT, in order to obtain highly conductive elastomer. The prepared sample with 4 parts per hundred...... enhancing the electrical breakdown strength of silicone by using an aromatic voltage stabiliser. Here, polyphenylmethylsiloxane (PPMS), which contained aromatic voltage stabilisers, was bonded covalently to PDMS through a hydrosilylation reaction obtaining PDMS-PPMS copolymers. The synthesised copolymers...

  17. Degradation patterns of silicone-based dielectric elastomers in electrical fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    . This shortcoming has been attempted optimized through different approaches during recent years. Material optimization with the sole purpose of increasing the dielectric permittivity may lead to the introduction of problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown due to high leakage currents of the thin...... elastomer film. Within this work, electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers are investigated. Results showed that different types of polymer backbone chemistries lead to differences in electrical breakdown patterns, which were revealed through SEM imaging...

  18. Thermal decomposition of biphenyl (1963); Decomposition thermique du biphenyle (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The rates of formation of the decomposition products of biphenyl; hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, as well as triphenyl have been measured in the vapour and liquid phases at 460 deg. C. The study of the decomposition products of biphenyl at different temperatures between 400 and 460 deg. C has provided values of the activation energies of the reactions yielding the main products of pyrolysis in the vapour phase. Product and Activation energy: Hydrogen 73 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Meta-triphenyl 53 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Biphenyl decomposition 64 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; The rate of disappearance of biphenyl is only very approximately first order. These results show the major role played at the start of the decomposition by organic impurities which are not detectable by conventional physico-chemical analysis methods and the presence of which accelerates noticeably the decomposition rate. It was possible to eliminate these impurities by zone-melting carried out until the initial gradient of the formation curves for the products became constant. The composition of the high-molecular weight products (over 250) was deduced from the mean molecular weight and the dosage of the aromatic C - H bonds by infrared spectrophotometry. As a result the existence in tars of hydrogenated tetra, penta and hexaphenyl has been demonstrated. (author) [French] Les vitesses de formation des produits de decomposition du biphenyle: hydrogene, methane, ethane, ethylene, ainsi que des triphenyles, ont ete mesurees en phase vapeur et en phase liquide a 460 deg. C. L'etude des produits de decomposition du biphenyle a differentes temperatures comprises entre 400 et 460 deg. C, a fourni les valeurs des energies d'activation des reactions conduisant aux principaux produits de la pyrolyse en phase vapeur. Produit et Energie d'activation: Hydrogene 73 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Metatriphenyle, 53 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Decomposition du biphenyle 64 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; La

  19. Fabrication and electromechanical examination of a spherical dielectric elastomer actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, S; Gooyers, M; Soleimani, M; Menon, C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure for fabricating and testing a seamless spherical dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented. In previously developed spherical prototypes, the DEA material is pre-strained by a rigid frame to improve the actuator’s output force; however, it is possible to pre-strain a spherical DEA by inflating the sample with a liquid or gas as long as the sample contains the pressure. In this work, a very compliant silicone-based material was used to fabricate a nearly spherical balloon-shaped prototype. The DEA sample was inflated by air and various electrical-actuation regimes were considered. The performance of the DEA sample was studied using an analytical and a finite element-based model. An Ogden hyperelastic model was used in formulation of the analytical model to include nonlinear behavior of the silicone material. Full statistical analysis of the experimental and numerical results was carried out using the root-mean-square (RMS) error and the normalized RMS error. The analytical and FEM results were in good agreement with the experimental data. According to modeling results, it was found that the DEA’s actuation force can be mainly improved by increasing the voltage, reducing the thickness, lowering the stiffness, and/or increasing the initial pressure. As an example, a three-fold increase of the actuation force was found when the thickness was reduced to half of its initial value. This improvement of the efficiency suggests that the spherical DEA is suitable for use in several applications if an appropriate design with optimal governing parameters is developed. (paper)

  20. Soft segmented inchworm robot with dielectric elastomer muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Andrew T.; Hinitt, Andrew D.; Wang, Pengchuan

    2014-03-01

    Robotic devices typically utilize rigid components in order to produce precise and robust operation. Rigidity becomes a significant impediment, however, when navigating confined or constricted environments e.g. search-and-rescue, industrial pipe inspection. In such cases adaptively conformable soft structures become optimal. Dielectric elastomers (DEs) are well suited for developing such soft robots since they are inherently compliant and can produce large musclelike actuation strains. In this paper, a soft segmented inchworm robot is presented that utilizes pneumatically-coupled DE membranes to produce inchworm-like locomotion. The robot is constructed from repeated body segments, each with a simple control architecture, so that the total length can be readily adapted by adding or removing segments. Each segment consists of a soft inflatable shell (internal pressure in range of 1.0-15.9 mBar) and a pair of antagonistic DE membranes (VHB 4905). Experimental testing of a single body segment is presented and the relationship between drive voltage, pneumatic pressure and active displacement is characterized. This demonstrates that pneumatic coupling of DE membranes induces complex non-linear electro-mechanical behaviour as drive voltage and pneumatic pressure are altered. Locomotion of a two-segment inchworm robot prototype with a passive length of 80 mm is presented. Artificial setae are included on the body shell to generate anisotropic friction for locomotion. A maximum locomotion speed of 4.1 mm/s was recorded at a drive frequency of 1.5 Hz, which compares favourably to biological counterparts. Future development of the soft inchworm robot are discussed including reflexive low-level control of individual segments.

  1. Elastodynamic spot testing - assessing serviceability of aging elastomer parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracie, B.; Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of all polymers change with time as a function of their environment. Traditional practice has been to replace these parts according to generic time limits based on estimates of worst case material properties and conditions. This is overly-conservative in many cases, and creates unnecessary maintenance work and costs for replacement and disposal. Much of this could be avoided if the serviceability of elastomeric parts such as seals, diaphragms, gaskets, cable insulation and hoses could be reassessed on a routine basis. Elastodynamic spot testing offers a way to do this. Parts can be sampled while in service or storage to compare their as-new and used (or aged) elastodynamic properties. This data can usually be correlated with the results of functional tests to prove that material properties have not degraded to the point where the part could fail. This spot testing is similar to a micro-hardness test, but includes stress-relaxation and subsequent recovery. It provides a nondestructive means to assess the effective age of the material at a point, or several points, on a part. Sampling of hardness alone is rarely sufficient to know whether a part is still functional because this overlooks the material's viscoelastic and strength properties. An elastodynamic spot tester has been used to test different sizes, shapes and hardnesses of elastomeric parts at different levels of strain, i.e., indentation depths. An initial test program has given informative relaxation and recovery data, showing repeatability and comparing well with finite element analysis of the indentation process. Tests of aged 0-rings and diaphragms have revealed different elastodynamic properties, depending on the elastomer compound and aging conditions. (author)

  2. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Laura Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis

  3. Evaluation of visible implant elastomer tags in zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hohn

    2013-11-01

    The use of the visible implant elastomer (VIE tagging system in zebrafish (Danio rerio was examined. Two tag orientations (horizontal and vertical at the dorsal fin base were tested for tag retention, tag fragmentation and whether VIE tags affected growth and survival of juvenile zebrafish (1–4 month post hatch. Six tag locations (abdomen, anal fin base, caudal peduncle, dorsal fin base, pectoral fin base, isthmus and 5 tag colors (yellow, red, pink, orange, blue were evaluated for ease of VIE tag application and tag visibility in adult zebrafish. Long-term retention (1 year and multiple tagging sites (right and left of dorsal fin and pectoral fin base were examined in adult zebrafish. Lastly, survival of recombination activation gene 1−/− (rag1−/− zebrafish was evaluated after VIE tagging. The best tag location was the dorsal fin base, and the most visible tag color was pink. Growth rate of juvenile zebrafish was not affected by VIE tagging. Horizontal tagging is recommended in early stages of fish growth (1–2 months post hatch. VIE tags were retained for 1 year and tagging did not interfere with long-term growth and survival. There was no mortality associated with VIE tagging in rag1−/− zebrafish. The VIE tagging system is highly suitable for small-sized zebrafish. When familiar with the procedure, 120 adult zebrafish can be tagged in one hour. It does not increase mortality in adult zebrafish or interfere with growth in juvenile or adult zebrafish.

  4. A nonaffine network model for elastomers undergoing finite deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we construct a new physics-based model of rubber elasticity to capture the strain softening, strain hardening, and deformation-state dependent response of rubber materials undergoing finite deformations. This model is unique in its ability to capture large-stretch mechanical behavior with parameters that are connected to the polymer chemistry and can also be easily identified with the important characteristics of the macroscopic stress-stretch response. The microscopic picture consists of two components: a crosslinked network of Langevin chains and an entangled network with chains confined to a nonaffine tube. These represent, respectively, changes in entropy due to thermally averaged chain conformations and changes in entropy due to the magnitude of these conformational fluctuations. A simple analytical form for the strain energy density is obtained using Rubinstein and Panyukov's single-chain description of network behavior. The model only depends on three parameters that together define the initial modulus, extent of strain softening, and the onset of strain hardening. Fits to large stretch data for natural rubber, silicone rubber, VHB 4905 (polyacrylate rubber), and b186 rubber (a carbon black-filled rubber) are presented, and a comparison is made with other similar constitutive models of large-stretch rubber elasticity. We demonstrate that the proposed model provides a complete description of elastomers undergoing large deformations for different applied loading configurations. Moreover, since the strain energy is obtained using a clear set of physical assumptions, this model may be tested and used to interpret the results of computer simulation and experiments on polymers of known microscopic structure.

  5. Lie bialgebras with triangular decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andruskiewitsch, N.; Levstein, F.

    1992-06-01

    Lie bialgebras originated in a triangular decomposition of the underlying Lie algebra are discussed. The explicit formulas for the quantization of the Heisenberg Lie algebra and some motion Lie algebras are given, as well as the algebra of rational functions on the quantum Heisenberg group and the formula for the universal R-matrix. (author). 17 refs

  6. Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)

  7. Probability inequalities for decomposition integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 315, č. 1 (2017), s. 240-248 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decomposition integral * Superdecomposition integral * Probability inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0470959.pdf

  8. Thermal decomposition of ammonium hexachloroosmate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asanova, T I; Kantor, Innokenty; Asanov, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of (NH4)2[OsCl6] occurring during thermal decomposition in a reduction atmosphere have been studied in situ using combined energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ED-XAFS) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). According to PXRD, (NH4)2[OsCl6] transforms directly to meta...

  9. Silicone rubbers for dielectric elastomers with improved dielectric and mechanical properties as a result of substituting silica with titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    One prominent method of modifying the properties of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is by adding suitable metal oxide fillers. However, almost all commercially available silicone elastomers are already heavily filled with silica to reinforce the otherwise rather weak silicone network and the resulting...... and dynamic viscosity. Filled silicone elastomers with high loadings of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles were also studied. The best overall performing formulation had 35 wt.% TiO2 nanoparticles in the POWERSIL® XLR LSR, where the excellent ensemble of relative dielectric permittivity of 4.9 at 0...

  10. High dielectric permittivity elastomers from well-dispersed expanded graphite in low concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The development of elastomer materials with a high dielectric permittivity has attracted increased interest over the last years due to their use in for example dielectric electroactive polymers. For this particular use, both the electrically insulating properties - as well as the mechanical...

  11. Wave Energy Converters based on Dielectric Elastomer generators: Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Marco; Vertechy, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric Elastomers (DEs) are a very promising technology for the development of energy harvesting devices based on the variable-capacitance electrostatic generator principle. This paper discusses the potentialities of DE technology for advancing the ocean wave energy sector. In particular, three innovative concepts of wave energy converters with DE-based power take-off system are introduced and described.

  12. Soft Functional Silicone Elastomers with High Dielectric Permittivty: Simple Additives vs. Cross-Linked Synthesized Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity of the elas......Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favorable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Improved actuation at lower voltages can be obtained by decreasing the Young’s modulus and/or decreasing the dielectric permittivity...... of the elastomer. A decrease in Young’s modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE whereas addition of high permittivity fillers such as metal oxides often increases Young’s modulus such that improved actuation is not accomplished. New soft...... silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity were prepared through the use of chloropropyl-functional silicones. One method was through the synthesis of modular cross-linkable chloropropyl-functional copolymers that allow for a high degree of chemical freedom such that a tuneable silicone...

  13. Glycerol as high-permittivity liquid filler in dielectric silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    of the composite. In combination with very low cost and easy preparation, the two property enhancements lead to a very attractive dielectric elastomer material. Experimental permittivity data are compared to various theoretical models that predict relative-permittivity changes as a function of filler loading...

  14. Bi-axially crumpled silver thin-film electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Sze-Hsien; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Metal thin films, which have high conductivity, are much stiffer and may fracture at a much lower strain than dielectric elastomers. In order to fabricate compliant electrodes for use in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), metal thin films have been formed into either zigzag patterns or corrugations, which favour bending and only allow uniaxial DEA deformations. However, biaxially compliant electrodes are desired in order to maximize generated forces of DEA. In this paper, we present crumpled metal thin-film electrodes that are biaxially compliant and have full area coverage over the dielectric elastomer. These crumpled metal thin-film electrodes are more stretchable than flat metal thin films; they remain conductive beyond 110% radial strain. Also, crumpling reduced the stiffening effect of metal thin films on the soft elastomer. As such, DEAs using crumpled metal thin-film electrodes managed to attain relatively high actuated area strains of up to 128% at 1.8 kV (102 Vμm −1 ). (paper)

  15. Swelling behavior of γ-ray irradiated elastomers in boiling spray solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Toshiaki; Kusama, Yasuo; Ito, Masayuki; Okada, Sohei; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Yoshida, Kenzo

    1983-05-01

    Elastomers swelled significantly by water sorption during a simulated LOCA test, and this phenomenon could cause the deterioration of their mechanical and electrical properties. Many factors like as radiation, heat, the composition of spray solution, types of elastomers and their formulation, related to the phenomenon. A relationship between swelling properties of the formulation-known various elastomers and the pre-aging conditions such as radiation dose and thermal aging period was studied by measuring their swelling behaviors in boiling spray solution (water and chemical solution). All eight elastomers tested showed remarkable swelling with an increase of radiation dose when they irradiated in air. A swelling in boiling water was about twice of in chemical solution. Some types of Neoprene and Hypalons had an optimum swelling dose where they showed the maxima. Over this dose, the swelling ratio decreased with dose. When irradiated under vacuum, its swelling ratio became significantly lower than that of exposed in air. This attributed the swelling phenomena closely related to radiation oxidation degradation. (author)

  16. Hydrolytic stability of polycarbonate-based polyurethane elastomers tested in physiologically simulated conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serkis, Magdalena; Špírková, Milena; Poreba, Rafal; Hodan, Jiří; Kredatusová, Jana; Kubies, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, September (2015), s. 23-34 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane * elastomer * hydrolytic stability Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.120, year: 2015

  17. Polycarbonate-based polyurethane elastomers: temperature-dependence of tensile properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdlička, Z.; Kuta, A.; Poreba, Rafal; Špírková, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2014), s. 233-238 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane * elastomer * polycarbonate diol Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  18. Aliphatic polycarbonate-based polyurethane elastomers and nanocomposites. II. Mechanical, thermal, and gas transport properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poreba, Rafal; Špírková, Milena; Brožová, Libuše; Lazić, N.; Pavličevič, Jelena; Strachota, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 1 (2013), s. 329-341 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyurethane elastomer * nanocomposite * polycarbonate diol Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.640, year: 2013

  19. Blended Polyurethane and Tropoelastin as a Novel Class of Biologically Interactive Elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Steven G.; Liu, Hongjuan; Yeo, Giselle C.; Michael, Praveesuda L.; Chan, Alex H.P.; Ngo, Alan K.Y.; Bilek, Marcela M.M.; Bao, Shisan

    2016-01-01

    Polyurethanes are versatile elastomers but suffer from biological limitations such as poor control over cell attachment and the associated disadvantages of increased fibrosis. We address this problem by presenting a novel strategy that retains elasticity while modulating biological performance. We describe a new biomaterial that comprises a blend of synthetic and natural elastomers: the biostable polyurethane Elast-Eon and the recombinant human tropoelastin protein. We demonstrate that the hybrid constructs yield a class of coblended elastomers with unique physical properties. Hybrid constructs displayed higher elasticity and linear stress–strain responses over more than threefold strain. The hybrid materials showed increased overall porosity and swelling in comparison to polyurethane alone, facilitating enhanced cellular interactions. In vitro, human dermal fibroblasts showed enhanced proliferation, while in vivo, following subcutaneous implantation in mice, hybrid scaffolds displayed a reduced fibrotic response and tunable degradation rate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a blend of synthetic and natural elastomers and is a promising approach for generating tailored bioactive scaffolds for tissue repair. PMID:26857114

  20. Multifunctional Graphene-Silicone Elastomer Nanocomposite, Method of Making the Same, and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuyang (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A nanocomposite composition having a silicone elastomer matrix having therein a filler loading of greater than 0.05 wt %, based on total nanocomposite weight, wherein the filler is functional graphene sheets (FGS) having a surface area of from 300 sq m/g to 2630 sq m2/g; and a method for producing the nanocomposite and uses thereof.

  1. Synthesis of thermoplastic elastomer using potassium persulfate and ammonium peroxydisulfate initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi Sondari; Agus Haryono; M Ghozali; Ahmad Randy; Kuntari Adi Suhardjo; Ariyadi B; Surasno

    2010-01-01

    Thermoplastic elastomer is polymeric material that has elastomer and thermoplastic properties. This material can be easily molded into finished and recyclable goods, thus environmentally safe for long term application. In this study we synthesize thermoplastic elastomer using two initiator that are potassium persulfate and ammonium peroxydisulfate with natural rubber to monomer (styrene/methyl methacrylate) ratio of 50 : 50 and 60 : 40 (v/v). The process of thermoplastic elastomer synthesis was conducted with emulsion grafting polymerization method for 6 hours at 65 °C. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate as emulsifier. FT-IR analysis result shows that grafting process had already occurred shown by new peaks that were observed in 1743 and 1519 cm"-"1. These peaks was assigned to carbonyl (C=O) group of methyl methacrylate and C=C benzene of styrene respectively. From "1H-NMR new peaks at δ = 7.1 ppm was aromatic proton from phenyl group of styrene, at δ = 3.5 ppm was methoxy proton of grafted methyl methacrylate acrylic group, and at δ = 5.1 ppm that is resonance of isoprene methine proton. This result showed that methyl methacrylate and styrene had already grafted onto natural rubber backbone. Initiator influenced grafting efficiency. Potassium persulfate gave 97.6 % grafting efficiency while ammonium peroxydisulfate gave 90.2 % grafting efficiency. (author)

  2. Numerical study of liquid crystal elastomers by a mixed finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    LUO, C.

    2011-08-22

    Liquid crystal elastomers present features not found in ordinary elastic materials, such as semi-soft elasticity and the related stripe domain phenomenon. In this paper, the two-dimensional Bladon-Terentjev-Warner model and the one-constant Oseen-Frank energy expression are combined to study the liquid crystal elastomer. We also impose two material constraints, the incompressibility of the elastomer and the unit director norm of the liquid crystal. We prove existence of minimiser of the energy for the proposed model. Next we formulate the discrete model, and also prove that it possesses a minimiser of the energy. The inf-sup values of the discrete linearised system are then related to the smallest singular values of certain matrices. Next the existence and uniqueness of the Lagrange multipliers associated with the two material constraints are proved under the assumption that the inf-sup conditions hold. Finally numerical simulations of the clamped-pulling experiment are presented for elastomer samples with aspect ratio 1 or 3. The semi-soft elasticity is successfully recovered in both cases. The stripe domain phenomenon, however, is not observed, which might be due to the relative coarse mesh employed in the numerical experiment. Possible improvements are discussed that might lead to the recovery of the stripe domain phenomenon. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity of maxillofacial silicone elastomers: effect of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Bilge Turhan; Yilmaz, Handan; Aydin, Cemal; Karakoca, Seçil; Yilmaz, Sükran

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three maxillofacial silicone elastomers at 24, 48, and 72 h on L-929 cells and to determine the effect of accelerated aging on the cytotoxicity of these silicone elastomers. Disc-shaped test samples of maxillofacial silicone elastomers (Cosmesil, Episil, Multisil) were fabricated according to manufacturers' instructions under aseptic conditions. Samples were then divided into three groups: (1) not aged; (2) aged for 150 h with an accelerated weathering tester; and (3) aged for 300 h. Then the samples were placed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12) for 24, 48, and 72 h. After the incubation periods, cytotoxicity of the extracts to cultured fibroblasts (L-929) was measured by MTT assay. The degree of cytotoxicity of each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells with a control (culture without sample). Statistical significance was determined by repeated measurement ANOVA (p test (p test materials in each group demonstrated high survival rates in MTT assay (Episil; 93.84%, Multisil; 88.30%, Cosmesil; 87.50%, respectively); however, in all groups, Episil material demonstrated significantly higher cell survival rate after each of the experimental incubation periods (p Accelerated aging for 150 and 300 h had no significant effect on the biocompatibility of maxillofacial silicone elastomers tested (p > 0.05).

  4. Elastomer modified polypropylene–polyethylene blends as matrices for wood flour–plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Blends of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) could potentially be used as matrices for wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mechanical performance and morphology of both the unfilled blends and wood-filled composites with various elastomers and coupling agents were investigated. Blending of the plastics resulted in either small domains of the minor phase in a...

  5. Large amplitude oscillatory measurements as mechanical characterization methods for soft elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2012-01-01

    oscillating elongation (LAOE)1 and planar elongation2, 3 make the ideal set of experiments to evaluate the mechanical performance of DEAPs. We evaluate the mechanical performance of several soft elastomers applicable for DEAP purposes such as poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) networks3, 4 and traditional unfilled...

  6. Dielectric elastomer actuators using Slide-Ring Material® with increased permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchitani, Shigeki; Miki, Hirofumi; Sunahara, Tokiharu

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of high permittivity nanoparticles in elastomeric materials for dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) is one promising method to achieve large strain at relatively low applied voltages. However, the addition of these nanoparticles tends to increase the stiffness of the elastomer and disturbs the actuation of the DEA. This is attributed to restriction of the chain motion in the elastomer by the nanoparticles. Slide-Ring Material ® (SRM) is a cross-linked polymeric material with freely movable cross-linking sites. The internal stresses in this structure are dramatically homogenized by the pulley effect; therefore, the restriction of chain motion due to the nanoparticles is expected to be significantly reduced. We have employed SRM as a host elastomer for a DEA with the addition of ferroelectric BaTiO 3 (BT) nanoparticles. The effects of BT addition on the permittivity, stiffness and viscosity of the SRM–BT nanocomposites, and the actuation strain of DEAs using SRM were evaluated. The permittivity of the nanocomposites increased linearly with the concentration of BT and reached 3.6 times that for pure SRM at 50 wt%. The elastic modulus and the viscosity remained almost constant up to 20 wt% and then decreased above this concentration. The actuation strain of a planar actuator using SRM and 50 wt% BT was four times larger than that of the DEA with pure SRM. (paper)

  7. Numerical study of liquid crystal elastomers by a mixed finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    LUO, C.; CALDERER, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid crystal elastomers present features not found in ordinary elastic materials, such as semi-soft elasticity and the related stripe domain phenomenon. In this paper, the two-dimensional Bladon-Terentjev-Warner model and the one-constant Oseen

  8. Tensile and impact properties of three-component PP/wood/elastomer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pukanszky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP was reinforced with wood flour and impact modified with elastomers to increase stiffness and impact resistance simultaneously. Elastomer content changed in four (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt%, while that of wood content in seven steps, the latter from 0 to 60 wt% in 10 wt% steps. Structure and adhesion were controlled by the addition of functionalized (maleated polymers. Composites were homogenized in a twin-screw extruder and then injection molded to tensile bars. Fracture resistance was characterized by standard and instrumented impact tests. The results showed that the components are dispersed independently of each other even when a functionalized elastomer is used for impact modification, at least under the conditions of this study. Impact resistance does not change much as a function of wood content in PP/wood composites, but decreases drastically from the very high level of the PP/elastomer blend to almost the same value obtained without impact modifier in the three-component materials. Increasing stiffness and fiber related local deformation processes led to small fracture toughness at large wood content. Micromechanical deformation processes depend mainly on the strength of PP/wood interaction; debonding and pull-out take place at poor adhesion, while fiber fracture dominates when adhesion is strong. Composites with sufficiently large impact resistance cannot be prepared in the usual range of wood contents (50–60 wt%.

  9. Kinetic limitation in the formation of end-linked elastomer networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meissner, Bohumil; Matějka, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 24 (2005), s. 10618-10625 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2252 Keywords : end-linked elastomer networks * effect of stoichiometry * kinetic limitations Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.849, year: 2005

  10. Rotation of magnetic particles inside the polymer matrix of magnetoactive elastomers with a hard magnetic filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, G.V., E-mail: gstepanov@mail.ru [State Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 105118 Moscow (Russian Federation); Borin, D.Yu. [TU Dresden, Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Dresden 01062 (Germany); Storozhenko, P.A. [State Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 105118 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    We propose the results of research on the magnetic properties of magnetoactive elastomers containing particles of a hard magnetic filler. According to our understanding, the mechanism of re-magnetizing of the composite is based on two competing processes, being the re-magnetizing of the magnetic filler and mechanical rotation of particles inside of the polymer matrix.

  11. Cross-linking and modification of saturated elastomers using functionalized azides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinska, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The main advantage of saturated elastomers, such as EPM and EPDM over their unsaturated counter-parts is the absence of carbon-carbon unsaturation in the main polymer chain, resulting in excellent ozone and heat resistance. A consequent disadvantage of the absence of unsaturation is the lack of

  12. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content...

  13. Effect of graphite nanoplatelets on the structure and properties of PA6-elastomer nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thanh, Tran Duy; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Hromádková, Jiřina; Kelnar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, January (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : graphite nanoplatelets * polyamide 6 * elastomer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  14. Two-way actuation behavior of shape memory polymer/elastomer core/shell composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Youk, Ji Ho; Ryu, Hee Wook

    2012-01-01

    Semi-crystalline shape memory polymers (SMPs) show net two-way shape memory (2W-SM) behavior under constant stresses by the recoverable creep strain upon heating and stress-induced crystallization under the application of creep stress upon cooling. The applied constant stress is the key factor in this 2W-SM behavior. A core/shell structure is manufactured for the purpose of imparting a constant stress upon SMPs. An SMP in film or fiber form is dipped into a solution of an elastomer, photoinitiator, and curing agent and then dried out. After this dip coating process is repeatedly carried out, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite is deformed into a temporary shape after being heated up above the transition temperature of the SMP. Under constant strain conditions, the composite is cooled down, after which the shell elastomer is cured using ultraviolet light. Then, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite extends and contracts upon cooling and heating, respectively, without any external load. This cyclic deformation behavior is characterized, demonstrating that the current method offers a simple macroscopic processing technique to manufacture 2W-SM polymer composites. (paper)

  15. Plasma polymerization surface modification of Carbon black and its effect in elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, T.; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Talma, Auke; Ooij, W.J.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of carbon black by plasma polymerization was aimed to reduce its surface energy in order to compatibilize the filler with various elastomers. A fullerenic carbon black was used for the modification process. Thermogravimetric analysis, wetting behavior with liquids of known

  16. Electric Conductivity and Dielectric-Breakdown Behavior for Polyurethane Magnetic Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shuhei; Tsujiei, Yuri; Kawai, Mika; Mitsumata, Tetsu

    2017-02-23

    The electric-voltage dependence of the electric conductivity for cross-linked and un-cross-linked magnetic elastomers was measured at various magnetic fields, and the effect of cross-linking on the electric conductivity and the dielectric-breakdown behavior was investigated. The electric conductivity for un-cross-linked elastomers at low voltages was independent of magnetic fields and the volume fraction of magnetic particles, indicating the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At high voltages, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, showing the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. On the other hand, the electric conductivity at low voltages for cross-linked elastomers with volume fractions below 0.06 was independent of the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.14, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. At high voltages, the electric conductivity for cross-linked elastomers with a volume fraction of 0.02 was independent of the magnetic field, indicating the electric conduction through the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.06, the electric conductivity suddenly increased at a critical voltage, exhibiting the dielectric breakdown at the bound layer of magnetic particles and/or the discontinuous part between chains.

  17. Investigating hydrogel dosimeter decomposition by chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The chemical oxidative decomposition of leucocrystal violet micelle hydrogel dosimeters was investigated using the reaction of ferrous ions with hydrogen peroxide or sodium bicarbonate with hydrogen peroxide. The second reaction is more effective at dye decomposition in gelatin hydrogels. Additional chemical analysis is required to determine the decomposition products

  18. Effect of chemical disinfectants and accelerated aging on maxillofacial silicone elastomers: An In vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Serene Babu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Maxillofacial prostheses need frequent refabrication due to degradation of color and deterioration of physical properties of the elastomer. Aims: This study attempted to evaluate the change in color stability, Shore A hardness, and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones, A-2186 and Cosmesil M511, when submitted to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging. Settings and Design: This was a comparative in vitro study. Subjects and Methods: The materials included two silicone elastomers – A-2186 and Cosmesil M511 (Factor II Incorporated – functional intrinsic red pigment and three disinfectants – Fittydent tablet, chlorhexidine gluconate 4%, and neutral soap. The specimens in each group of elastomer were evaluated initially for color, hardness, and surface roughness, which were further divided into subgroups and subjected to disinfection and accelerated aging. The evaluation of color was performed with the help of an ultraviolet reflectance spectrophotometer. Shore A hardness was evaluated using a durometer and surface roughness, with a digital roughness tester followed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Accelerated aging caused a significant decrease in color, increase in Shore A hardness, and variation in surface roughness in both silicone elastomer groups. Chemical disinfection presented significant changes in color and surface roughness whereas no significant effect on Shore hardness, irrespective of the disinfectant used. Conclusions: The maxillofacial silicone elastomers presented deterioration in color, hardening, and significant variations in surface roughness when subjected to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging, which provides a valid baseline for future research.

  19. Dictionary-Based Tensor Canonical Polyadic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Gillis, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    To ensure interpretability of extracted sources in tensor decomposition, we introduce in this paper a dictionary-based tensor canonical polyadic decomposition which enforces one factor to belong exactly to a known dictionary. A new formulation of sparse coding is proposed which enables high dimensional tensors dictionary-based canonical polyadic decomposition. The benefits of using a dictionary in tensor decomposition models are explored both in terms of parameter identifiability and estimation accuracy. Performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated on the decomposition of simulated data and the unmixing of hyperspectral images.

  20. Decomposition of diesel oil by various microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Netzsch-Lehner, A

    1969-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated the decomposition of diesel oil in different soils. In this experiment the decomposition of /sup 14/C-n-Hexadecane labelled diesel oil by special microorganisms was studied. The results were as follows: (1) In the experimental soils the microorganisms Mycoccus ruber, Mycobacterium luteum and Trichoderma hamatum are responsible for the diesel oil decomposition. (2) By adding microorganisms to the soil an increase of the decomposition rate was found only in the beginning of the experiments. (3) Maximum decomposition of diesel oil was reached 2-3 weeks after incubation.

  1. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maître, O P; Knio, O M; Moraes, A

    2015-06-28

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  2. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maître, O. P.; Knio, O. M.; Moraes, A.

    2015-06-01

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  3. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Maître, O. P., E-mail: olm@limsi.fr [LIMSI-CNRS, UPR 3251, Orsay (France); Knio, O. M., E-mail: knio@duke.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Moraes, A., E-mail: alvaro.moraesgutierrez@kaust.edu.sa [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-06-28

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  4. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maî tre, O. P.; Knio, O. M.; Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  5. Excimer laser decomposition of silicone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, L.D.; Cochrane, C.; Dicara, Cl.; Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Kolev, K.

    2003-01-01

    Excimer laser irradiation of silicone foils is shown in this work to induce decomposition, ablation and activation of such materials. Thin (100 μm) laminated silicone foils are irradiated at 248 nm as a function of impacting laser fluence and number of pulsed irradiations at 1 s intervals. Above a threshold fluence of 0.7 J/cm 2 , material starts decomposing. At higher fluences, this decomposition develops and gives rise to (i) swelling of the irradiated surface and then (ii) emission of matter (ablation) at a rate that is not proportioned to the number of pulses. Taking into consideration the polymer structure and the foil lamination process, these results help defining the phenomenology of silicone ablation. The polymer decomposition results in two parts: one which is organic and volatile, and another part which is inorganic and remains, forming an ever thickening screen to light penetration as the number of light pulses increases. A mathematical model is developed that accounts successfully for this physical screening effect

  6. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 8-12 parts of butadiene/styrene elastomer... limitations are determined by an infrared spectro-photo-metric method titled “Infrared Spectro-photo-metric...

  7. Seismic performance evaluation of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system using real-time hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eem, S H; Jung, H J; Koo, J H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magneto-rheological (MR) elastomer-based base isolation systems have been actively studied as alternative smart base isolation systems because MR elastomers are capable of adjusting their modulus or stiffness depending on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. By taking advantage of the MR elastomers’ stiffness-tuning ability, MR elastomer-based smart base isolation systems strive to alleviate limitations of existing smart base isolation systems as well as passive-type base isolators. Until now, research on MR elastomer-based base isolation systems primarily focused on characterization, design, and numerical evaluations of MR elastomer-based isolators, as well as experimental tests with simple structure models. However, their applicability to large civil structures has not been properly studied yet because it is quite challenging to numerically emulate the complex behavior of MR elastomer-based isolators and to conduct experiments with large-size structures. To address these difficulties, this study employs the real-time hybrid simulation technique, which combines physical testing and computational modeling. The primary goal of the current hybrid simulation study is to evaluate seismic performances of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system, particularly its adaptability to distinctly different seismic excitations. In the hybrid simulation, a single-story building structure (non-physical, computational model) is coupled with a physical testing setup for a smart base isolation system with associated components (such as laminated MR elastomers and electromagnets) installed on a shaking table. A series of hybrid simulations is carried out under two seismic excitations having different dominant frequencies. The results show that the proposed smart base isolation system outperforms the passive base isolation system in reducing the responses of the structure for the excitations considered in this study. (paper)

  8. Thermic decomposition of biphenyl; Decomposition thermique du biphenyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Liquid and vapour phase pyrolysis of very pure biphenyl obtained by methods described in the text was carried out at 400 C in sealed ampoules, the fraction transformed being always less than 0.1 per cent. The main products were hydrogen, benzene, terphenyls, and a deposit of polyphenyls strongly adhering to the walls. Small quantities of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons were also found. The variation of the yields of these products with a) the pyrolysis time, b) the state (gas or liquid) of the biphenyl, and c) the pressure of the vapour was measured. Varying the area and nature of the walls showed that in the absence of a liquid phase, the pyrolytic decomposition takes place in the adsorbed layer, and that metallic walls promote the reaction more actively than do those of glass (pyrex or silica). A mechanism is proposed to explain the results pertaining to this decomposition in the adsorbed phase. The adsorption seems to obey a Langmuir isotherm, and the chemical act which determines the overall rate of decomposition is unimolecular. (author) [French] Du biphenyle tres pur, dont la purification est decrite, est pyrolyse a 400 C en phase vapeur et en phase liquide dans des ampoules scellees sous vide, a des taux de decomposition n'ayant jamais depasse 0,1 pour cent. Les produits provenant de la pyrolyse sont essentiellement: l' hydrogene, le benzene, les therphenyles, et un depot de polyphenyles adherant fortement aux parois. En plus il se forme de faibles quantites d'hydrocarbures aliphatiques gazeux. On indique la variation des rendements des differents produits avec la duree de pyrolyse, l'etat gazeux ou liquide du biphenyle, et la pression de la vapeur. Variant la superficie et la nature des parois, on montre qu'en absence de liquide la pyrolyse se fait en phase adsorbee. La pyrolyse est plus active au contact de parois metalliques que de celles de verres (pyrex ou silice). A partir des resultats experimentaux un mecanisme de degradation du biphenyle en phase

  9. Material Evaluation of an Elastomer, Epoxy and Lightweight Concrete Rail Attachment System for Direct Fixation Light Rail Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarner, Benjamin R.

    Sound Transit plans to extend its current light rail system, which runs along the I-5 corridor in Seattle, Washington, across the I-90 Homer Hadley floating bridge as part of a project to connect the major city centers in the region. But, no light rail has ever crossed a floating bridge due to several unique engineering challenges. One of these challenges is attaching the rails to the existing bridge deck without drilling into the bridge pontoons. This research program was developed to test and analyze a direct fixation method that uses lightweight concrete plinths and an elastomer-epoxy system to attach the rails to the bridge deck. The elastomer used was a two-part, pourable elastomer with cork particles intermixed to alter the mechanical properties of the material. A lightweight concrete mixture was analyzed for use in the plinths, and system tests investigated the system response under tensile, compressive and shear loading. The shear response of the system was examined further under varying loading conditions including different surface preparations, elastomer thicknesses, strain-rates and after freeze-thaw conditioning. Experimental data was examined for trends based on these parameters to best characterize the system, and the elastomer was evaluated in the context of modern elastomer research.

  10. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  11. Spectral Tensor-Train Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2016-01-01

    The accurate approximation of high-dimensional functions is an essential task in uncertainty quantification and many other fields. We propose a new function approximation scheme based on a spectral extension of the tensor-train (TT) decomposition. We first define a functional version of the TT...... adaptive Smolyak approach. The method is also used to approximate the solution of an elliptic PDE with random input data. The open source software and examples presented in this work are available online (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/TensorToolbox/)....

  12. Decomposition of Multi-player Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengji; Schiffel, Stephan; Thielscher, Michael

    Research in General Game Playing aims at building systems that learn to play unknown games without human intervention. We contribute to this endeavour by generalising the established technique of decomposition from AI Planning to multi-player games. To this end, we present a method for the automatic decomposition of previously unknown games into independent subgames, and we show how a general game player can exploit a successful decomposition for game tree search.

  13. Constructive quantum Shannon decomposition from Cartan involutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, Byron; Love, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here extends upon the best known universal quantum circuit, the quantum Shannon decomposition proposed by Shende et al (2006 IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 25 1000). We obtain the basis of the circuit's design in a pair of Cartan decompositions. This insight gives a simple constructive factoring algorithm in terms of the Cartan involutions corresponding to these decompositions

  14. Constructive quantum Shannon decomposition from Cartan involutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Byron; Love, Peter [Department of Physics, 370 Lancaster Ave., Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)], E-mail: plove@haverford.edu

    2008-10-03

    The work presented here extends upon the best known universal quantum circuit, the quantum Shannon decomposition proposed by Shende et al (2006 IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 25 1000). We obtain the basis of the circuit's design in a pair of Cartan decompositions. This insight gives a simple constructive factoring algorithm in terms of the Cartan involutions corresponding to these decompositions.

  15. Mathematical modelling of the decomposition of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2010-01-01

    Studies on mathematical modelling of the molecular and supramolecular structures of explosives and the elementary steps and overall processes of their decomposition are analyzed. Investigations on the modelling of combustion and detonation taking into account the decomposition of explosives are also considered. It is shown that solution of problems related to the decomposition kinetics of explosives requires the use of a complex strategy based on the methods and concepts of chemical physics, solid state physics and theoretical chemistry instead of empirical approach.

  16. Apparatus, system, and method for providing fabric-elastomer composites as pneumatic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramses V.; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-10-25

    Soft pneumatic actuators based on composites consisting of elastomers with embedded sheet or fiber structures (e.g., paper or fabric) that are flexible but not extensible are described. On pneumatic inflation, these actuators move anisotropically, based on the motions accessible by their composite structures. They are inexpensive, simple to fabricate, light in weight, and easy to actuate. This class of structure is versatile: the same principles of design lead to actuators that respond to pressurization with a wide range of motions (bending, extension, contraction, twisting, and others). Paper, when used to introduce anisotropy into elastomers, can be readily folded into three-dimensional structures following the principles of origami; these folded structures increase the stiffness and anisotropy of the elastomeric actuators, while keeping them light in weight.

  17. Evaluation of time-accelerated irradiation method of elastomer by modulus-ultimate elongation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki; Oka, Toshitaka; Hama, Yosimasa

    2009-01-01

    'Generalized modulus-ultimate elongation profile' was induced from the relationship between the modulus and the ultimate elongation of an elastomer that was quantitatively added crosslinking and scission. This profile can be used to evaluate the time-accelerated irradiation methods of ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer. The irradiation under low dose rate (0.33 kGy/h) at room temperature was the reference condition. The short-time irradiation condition was 4.2 kGy/h in 0.5 MPa oxygen at room temperature and 5.0 kGy/h in air at 70 o C. The former tended to bring about the higher ratio of scission than the reference condition; the latter tended to bring about the higher ratio of crosslinking.

  18. Materials, Mechanics, and Patterning Techniques for Elastomer-Based Stretchable Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics represent a new generation of electronics that utilize soft, deformable elastomers as the substrate or matrix instead of the traditional rigid printed circuit boards. As the most essential component of stretchable electronics, the conductors should meet the requirements for both high conductivity and the capability to maintain conductive under large deformations such as bending, twisting, stretching, and compressing. This review summarizes recent progresses in various aspects of this fascinating and challenging area, including materials for supporting elastomers and electrical conductors, unique designs and stretching mechanics, and the subtractive and additive patterning techniques. The applications are discussed along with functional devices based on these conductors. Finally, the review is concluded with the current limitations, challenges, and future directions of stretchable conductors.

  19. Green silicone elastomer obtained from a counterintuitively stable mixture of glycerol and PDMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, P.; Hvilsted, S.; Skov, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    A green and cheap silicone-based elastomer has been developed. Through the simple mixing-in of biodiesel-originating glycerol into commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pre-polymer, a glycerol-in-PDMS emulsion was produced. This counterintuitively stable mixture became a basis...... for obtaining elastomeric composites with uniformly distributed glycerol droplets. Various compositions, containing from 0 to 140 parts of glycerol per 100 parts of PDMS by weight, were prepared and investigated in terms of ATR-FTIR, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, mechanical properties as well as optical......, even in the presence of very high loadings. The conducted experiments highlight the great potential of this new type of elastomer and reveal some possible applications....

  20. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ADHESIVE CONTACT WITH ELASTOMERS: EFFECT OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Voll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between an elastomer and a steel indenter was studied experimentally and described with an analytical model. Cylindrical indenters having different roughness were brought into contact with an elastomer with various normal forces. After a “holding time”, the indenter was pulled with a constant velocity, which was the same in all experiments. We have studied the regime of relatively small initial normal loadings, large holding times and relatively large pulling velocities, so that the adhesive force did not depend on the holding time but did depend on the initially applied normal force and was approximately proportional to the pulling velocity. Under these conditions, we found that the adhesive force is inversely proportional to the roughness and proportional to the normal force. For the theoretical analysis, we used a previously published MDR-based model.

  1. A characterisation of the magnetically induced movement of NdFeB-particles in magnetorheological elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, M.; Borin, D. Y.; Huang, S.; Auernhammer, G. K.; Müller, R.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers are a type of smart hybrid material where elastic properties of a soft elastomer matrix are combined with magnetic properties of magnetic micro particles. This combination leads to a complex interplay of magnetic and elastic phenomena, of which the magnetorheological effect is the best described. In this paper, magnetically hard NdFeB-particles were used to obtain remanent magnetic properties. X-ray microtomography has been utilised to analyse the particle movement induced by magnetic fields. A particle tracking was performed; thus, it was possible to characterise the movement of individual particles. Beyond that, a comprehensive analysis of the orientation of all particles was performed at different states of magnetisation and global particle arrangements. For the first time, this method was successfully applied to a magnetorheological material with a technically relevant amount of magnetic NdFeB-particles. A significant impact of the magnetic field on the rotation and translation of the particles was shown.

  2. Magnetomechanical properties of composites and fibers made from thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) and carbonyl iron powder (CIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödner, Mario; Pflug, Günther

    2018-05-01

    Magnetoactive elastomers (MAE) made from composites of five thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) of different stiffness with carbonyl iron powder (CIP) as magnetic component were investigated. The composites were produced by melt blending of the magnetic particles with the TPEs in a twin-screw extruder. The resulting materials were characterized by ac permeability testing, stress-strain measurements with and without external magnetic field and magnetically controlled bending of long cylindrical rods in a homogenous magnetic field. The magnetic field necessary for deflection of the rods decreases with decreasing modulus and increasing iron particle content. This effect can be used e.g. for magnetically controlled actuation. Some highly filled MAE show a magnetic field induced increase of Young's modulus. Filaments could be spun from some of the composites.

  3. Mechanical and Morphological Effect of Plant Based Antimicrobial Solutions on Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Sophia; Bibb, Richard J; Martin, Simon J

    2018-05-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant based antimicrobial solutions specifically tea tree and Manuka oil on facial silicone elastomers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with plant extract solution on mechanical properties and morphology on the silicone elastomer. Test specimens were subjected to disinfection using tea tree oil, Manuka oil and the staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Furthermore, a procedure duration was used in the disinfection process to simulate up to one year of usage. Over 500 test specimens were fabricated for all tests performed namely hardness, elongation, tensile, tear strength tests, visual inspection and lastly surface characterization using SEM. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that hardness and elongation at break varied significantly over the time period, whereas this was not observed in the tear and tensile strength parameters of the test samples.

  4. Mechanical and Morphological Effect of Plant Based Antimicrobial Solutions on Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Tetteh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant based antimicrobial solutions specifically tea tree and Manuka oil on facial silicone elastomers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with plant extract solution on mechanical properties and morphology on the silicone elastomer. Test specimens were subjected to disinfection using tea tree oil, Manuka oil and the staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Furthermore, a procedure duration was used in the disinfection process to simulate up to one year of usage. Over 500 test specimens were fabricated for all tests performed namely hardness, elongation, tensile, tear strength tests, visual inspection and lastly surface characterization using SEM. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that hardness and elongation at break varied significantly over the time period, whereas this was not observed in the tear and tensile strength parameters of the test samples.

  5. Temperature effect on the performance of a dissipative dielectric elastomer generator with failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S E; Deng, L; He, Z C; Li, Eric; Li, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Research on dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) which can be utilized to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy has gained wide attention lately. However, very few works account for the operating temperature, viscoelasticity and current leakage in the analysis of DEGs simultaneously. In this study, under several compound four-stroke conversion cycles, the electromechanical performance and energy conversion of a dissipative DEG made of a very-high-bond (VHB) elastomer are investigated at different operating temperatures. The performance parameters such as energy density and conversion efficiency are calculated under different temperatures. Moreover, the common failure modes of the generator are considered: material rupture, loss of tension, electrical breakdown and electromechanical instability. The numerical results have distinctly shown that the operating temperature plays an important role in the performance of DEGs, which could possibly make a larger conversion efficiency for the DEG. (paper)

  6. Shape-memory effect of nanocomposites based on liquid-crystalline elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, A.; Lama, G. C.; Gentile, G.; Cerruti, P.; Carfagna, C.; Ambrogi, V.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, nanocomposites based on liquid crystalline (LC) elastomers were prepared and characterized in their shape memory properties. For the synthesis of materials, p-bis(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-α-methylstilbene (DOMS) was used as mesogenic epoxy monomer, sebacic acid (SA) as curing agent and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene oxide (GO) as fillers. First, an effective compatibilization methodology was set up to improve the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the carbonaceous nanofillers, thus obtaining homogeneous distribution and dispersion of the nanofillers within the polymer phase. Then, the obtained nanocomposite films were characterized in their morphological and thermal properties. In particular, the effect of the addition of the nanofillers on liquid crystalline behavior, as well as on shape-memory properties of the realized materials was investigated. It was found that both fillers were able to enhance the thermomechanical response of the LC elastomers, making them good candidates as shape memory materials.

  7. Inverse grey-box model-based control of a dielectric elastomer actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Richard William; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2012-01-01

    control performance across the operating range of the DE actuator, a gain scheduling term, which linearizes the operating characteristics of the tubular dielectric elastomer actuator, is developed and implemented in series with the IMC controller. The IMC-based approach is investigated for servo control......An accurate physical-based electromechanical model of a commercially available tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator has been developed and validated. In this contribution, the use of the physical-based electromechanical model to formulate a model-based controller is examined. The choice...... of control scheme was dictated by the desire for transparency in both controller design and operation. The internal model control (IMC) approach was chosen. In this particular application, the inverse of the linearized form of the grey-box model is used to formulate the IMC controller. To ensure consistent...

  8. Effect of plasticiser on properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzalia, S.; Farid, A.S.; O'Brien, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the properties of plasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers for possible applications in pharmaceutical, medical and food industries. Unplasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene (USBS) materials: vector 8550-D and vector 4461-D, which are developmental materials introduced by Exxon, and blends of vector 8550-D with vector 4461-D were plasticised paraffinic type plasticisers plastol 172 and plastol 352. Shore A hardness, tensile stress at break, modulus at 100% strain, elongation at break and density values showed a decrease whereas flow properties such as melt flow index (MFI) increased considerably with increasing plasticiser concentration. The properties of the plasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers were compared to the USBS materials. (author)

  9. Decomposition in pelagic marine ecosytems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    During the decomposition of plant detritus, complex microbial successions develop which are dominated in the early stages by a number of distinct bacterial morphotypes. The microheterotrophic community rapidly becomes heterogenous and may include cyanobacteria, fungi, yeasts and bactivorous protozoans. Microheterotrophs in the marine environment may have a biomass comparable to that of all other heterotrophs and their significance as a resource to higher trophic orders, and in the regeneration of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, that support 'regenerated' primary production, has aroused both attention and controversy. Numerous methods have been employed to measure heterotrophic bacterial production and activity. The most widely used involve estimates of 14 C-glucose uptake; the frequency of dividing cells; the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine and exponential population growth in predator-reduced filtrates. Recent attempts to model decomposition processes and C and N fluxes in pelagic marine ecosystems are described. This review examines the most sensitive components and predictions of the models with particular reference to estimates of bacterial production, net growth yield and predictions of N cycling determined by 15 N methodology. Directed estimates of nitrogen (and phosphorus) flux through phytoplanktonic and bacterioplanktonic communities using 15 N (and 32 P) tracer methods are likely to provide more realistic measures of nitrogen flow through planktonic communities

  10. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.; McAlpine, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  11. Decomposition of Diethylstilboestrol in Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Hansen, Birte

    1964-01-01

    The rate of decomposition of DES-monoethyl-1-C14 in soil was followed by measurement of C14O2 released. From 1.6 to 16% of the added C14 was recovered as C14O2 during 3 months. After six months as much as 12 to 28 per cent was released as C14O2.Determination of C14 in the soil samples after the e...... not inhibit the CO2 production from the soil.Experiments with γ-sterilized soil indicated that enzymes present in the soil are able to attack DES.......The rate of decomposition of DES-monoethyl-1-C14 in soil was followed by measurement of C14O2 released. From 1.6 to 16% of the added C14 was recovered as C14O2 during 3 months. After six months as much as 12 to 28 per cent was released as C14O2.Determination of C14 in the soil samples after...

  12. Fatigue Properties and Fracture Morphology of Micronised Rubber Powder (MRP) from Waste Tyres in Unfilled Elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Habibah A.I.H., D; Abraham, F; Summerscales, J; Brown, P

    2018-01-01

    Ground rubber from waste tyres may be added to elastomers with economic and environmental benefits. The untreated or treated fillers have been investigated in different types of virgin rubber matrix. A principal concern is their crosslinked structure and large particle sizes. These additives introduce flaws leading to micro-crack initiation especially under dynamic loading. The incorporation of smaller particles at a suitable concentration may avoid deterioration in the key properties. The pr...

  13. The Effect of Switch-Loading Fuels on Fuel-Wetted Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-10

    material and age of the material”. In summing up past experience, the bulletin stated that “the common denominator is expected to be nitrile rubber ...The expert also noted that “most, if not all manufacturers, responded by eliminating nitrile rubber seals and replacing them with fluorocarbon...materials identified as from the Acrylonitrile- 4 Viton is a name trademarked by DuPont Performance Elastomers L.L.C. Butadiene family (nitrile, NBR

  14. Fluorogel Elastomers with Tunable Transparency, Elasticity, Shape-Memory, and Antifouling Properties**

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xi; Dunn, Stuart; Kim, Philseok; Duffy, Meredith; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-04-22

    Omniphobic fluorogel elastomers were prepared by photocuring perfluorinated acrylates and a perfluoropolyether crosslinker. By tuning either the chemical composition or the temperature that control the crystallinity of the resulting polymer chains, a broad range of optical and mechanical properties of the fluorogel can be achieved. After infusing with fluorinated lubricants, the fluorogels showed excellent resistance to wetting by various liquids and anti-biofouling behavior, while maintaining cytocompatiblity.

  15. Fluorogel Elastomers with Tunable Transparency, Elasticity, ShapeMemory, and Antifouling Properties**

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, X; Dunn, SS; Kim, P; Duffy, M; Alvarenga, J; Aizenberg, J

    2014-03-18

    Omniphobic fluorogel elastomers were prepared by photocuring perfluorinated acrylates and a perfluoropolyether crosslinker. By tuning either the chemical composition or the temperature that control the crystallinity of the resulting polymer chains, a broad range of optical and mechanical properties of the fluorogel can be achieved. After infusing with fluorinated lubricants, the fluorogels showed excellent resistance to wetting by various liquids and anti-biofouling behavior, while maintaining cytocompatiblity.

  16. Novel high dielectric constant hybrid elastomers based on glycerol-insilicone emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid elastomers were prepared by speedmixing of two virtually immiscible liquids – glycerol and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) prepolymer. Upon crosslinking ofthe PDMS phase of the resulting glycerol-in-silicone emulsion freestanding films were obtained. In this way glycerol became uniformly...... elastomeractuators. Conductivities of samples based on various PDMS compositions with different loadings of embedded glycerol were thoroughly investigated providing useful information about the dielectric behavior....

  17. The electrical breakdown strength of pre-stretched elastomers, with and without sample volume conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In practice, the electrical breakdown strength of dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs)determines the upper limit for transduction. During DEAP actuation, the thickness of the elastomer decreases, and thus the electrical field increases and the breakdown process is determined by a coupled...... electro-mechanical failure mechanism. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind the electro-mechanical breakdown process is required for developing reliable transducers. In this study, two experimental configurations were used to determine the stretch dependence of the electrical breakdown...

  18. Improving bondability to RTV silicone elastomer using rf-activated gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellah, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    The effects of an rf-activated gas (plasma) on the bondability to RTV silicone elastomer were studied. Processing guidelines were developed, and a method was sought to satisfactorily bond RTV to the walls of a machined aluminum casting and to provide a surface on the RTV which would best accept bonding to an epoxy encapsulant. Processing parameters, such as gas type and flow rate, reaction chamber pressure, and rf power level, were developed

  19. The static actuation of dielectric elastomer actuators: how does pre-stretch improve actuation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofod, Guggi

    2008-01-01

    It has previously been shown that providing dielectric elastomer actuators with a level of pre-stretch can improve properties such as breakdown strength, actuation strain and efficiency. The actuation in such actuators depends on an interplay between the highly nonlinear hyperelastic stress-strain behaviour with the electrostatic Maxwell's stress; however, the direct effects of pre-stretch on the electromechanical coupling have still not been investigated in detail. We compare several experimental results found in the literature on the hyperelastic parameters of the Ogden model for the commonly used material VHB 4910, and introduce a more detailed and thus more accurate fit to a previous uniaxial stress-strain experiment. Electrostatic actuation models for a pure shear cuboid dielectric elastomer actuator with pre-stretch are introduced, for both intensive and extensive variables. For both intensive and extensive variables the constant strain (blocked stress or force) as well as the actuation strain is presented. It is shown how in the particular case of isotropic amorphous elastomers the pre-stretch does not affect the electromechanical coupling directly, and that the enhancement in actuation strain due to pre-stretch occurs through the alteration of the geometrical dimensions of the actuator. Also, the presence of the optimum load is explained as being due to the plateau region in the force-stretch curve, and it is shown that pre-stretch is not able to affect its position. Finally, it is shown how the simplified Ogden fit leads to entirely different conclusions for actuation strain in terms of extensive variables as does the detailed fit, emphasizing the importance of employing accurate hyperelastic models for the stress-stretch behaviour of the elastomer.

  20. Molecular Dynamics and Morphology of High Performance Elastomers and Fibers by Solid State NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy to investigate the chemical structure and physical state of the residual phosphorous in PBO fiber...ssNMR) spectroscopy to investigate the chemical structure and physical state of the residual phosphorous in PBO fiber, which has been long suspected to...Jason Cain, Jian H. Yu, David Veysset, Keith A. Nelson . Probing the Influence of Molecular Dynamics of Matrix Elastomers on Ballistic Impact Back-face

  1. 3D Printing PDMS Elastomer in a Hydrophilic Support Bath via Freeform Reversible Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Thomas J.; Hudson, Andrew; Pusch, Kira; Lee, Andrew; Feinberg, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is used in a wide range of biomaterial applications including microfluidics, cell culture substrates, flexible electronics, and medical devices. However, it has proved challenging to 3D print PDMS in complex structures due to its low elastic modulus and need for support during the printing process. Here we demonstrate the 3D printing of hydrophobic PDMS prepolymer resins within a hydrophilic Carbopol gel support via freeform reversible embedding (FRE). In...

  2. The effect of a tribo-modified surface layer on friction in elastomer contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Friction between rubber and a counter surface has interested many researchers because of its huge practical importance. Rubber components are applied in various industrial applications such as tires, rubber seals, wiper blades, conveyor belts and syringes. The friction between a rubber surface in contact with a rigid surface is still not fully understood. The complexity lies partially in the viscoelastic nature of elastomers next to various parameters such as roughness, contact pressure and s...

  3. Thermoplastic elastomers containing 2D nanofillers: montmorillonite, graphene nanoplatelets and oxidized graphene platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Paszkiewicz Sandra; Pawelec Iwona; Szymczyk Anna; Rosłaniec Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on which type of platelets nanofiller, organic or inorganic, will affect the properties of thermoplastic elastomer matrix in the stronger manner. Therefore, poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide) copolymer (PTT-PTMO) based nanocomposites with 0.5 wt.% of clay (MMT), graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by in situ polymerization. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by transmis...

  4. Nonlinear electroelastic deformations of dielectric elastomer composites: II - Non-Gaussian elastic dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Victor; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework to construct approximate homogenization solutions for the macroscopic elastic dielectric response - under finite deformations and finite electric fields - of dielectric elastomer composites with two-phase isotropic particulate microstructures. The central idea consists in employing the homogenization solution derived in Part I of this work for ideal elastic dielectric composites within the context of a nonlinear comparison medium method - this is derived as an extension of the comparison medium method of Lopez-Pamies et al. (2013) in nonlinear elastostatics to the coupled realm of nonlinear electroelastostatics - to generate in turn a corresponding solution for composite materials with non-ideal elastic dielectric constituents. Complementary to this analytical framework, a hybrid finite-element formulation to construct homogenization solutions numerically (in three dimensions) is also presented. The proposed analytical framework is utilized to work out a general approximate homogenization solution for non-Gaussian dielectric elastomers filled with nonlinear elastic dielectric particles that may exhibit polarization saturation. The solution applies to arbitrary (non-percolative) isotropic distributions of filler particles. By construction, it is exact in the limit of small deformations and moderate electric fields. For finite deformations and finite electric fields, its accuracy is demonstrated by means of direct comparisons with finite-element solutions. Aimed at gaining physical insight into the extreme enhancement in electrostriction properties displayed by emerging dielectric elastomer composites, various cases wherein the filler particles are of poly- and mono-disperse sizes and exhibit different types of elastic dielectric behavior are discussed in detail. Contrary to an initial conjecture in the literature, it is found (inter alia) that the isotropic addition of a small volume fraction of stiff (semi

  5. Deuteron NMR resolved mesogen vs. crosslinker molecular order and reorientational exchange in liquid single crystal elastomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milavec, J.; Domenici, V.; Zupančič, B.; Rešetič, A.; Bubnov, Alexej; Zalar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2016), s. 4071-4077 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02843S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007 Grant - others:EU - ICT(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid single crystal elastomer * NMR * liquid crystal * molecular order * monomers Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  6. On the decrease of ultimate elongation of gum elastomer by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki

    1986-01-01

    The reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation was studied. The sample used is tetrafluoroethylenepropylene copolymer vulcanized which is a heat resistant elastomer. The sample was irradiated by a electron beam at room temperature. Cross-linking predominate in the operation. (Case 1) Scission predominant condition (Case 2) was given by irradiation of Co-60 γ ray at 100 deg C. Alternative irradiation of γ ray and electron beam under above condition can keep the original cross-linking density by the appropriate choice of each of the doses. (Case 3) The three cases mentioned above involve all of the cases of radiation induced aging of elastomers. Therefor, the following explanation for three cases shows the reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation. Case 1. Cross-linking predominant condition. Ultimate elongation is proportional to -0.5 power of the dose. This fact can be explicable by the model of Buche, i.e. the breaking of a short chain causes another to break and that so on throughout the whole sample. Case 2. Chain scission predominant condition. Ultimate elongation increases by irradiation for a certain dose. This fact can understand by the model of Buche. But from a certain dose ultimate elongation does not increase. In the period the structure of the sample turned to be the same structure as the low molecular weight amorphose polymer vulcanized. Case 3. Rate of cross-linking and scission is the same. The average chain length does not chainge in the condition. But the distribution of chain length became wider and wider by irradiation. The increase of short chain result the decrease in ultimate elongation. (author)

  7. Towards holonomic electro-elastomer actuators with six degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, A T; Rossiter, J

    2012-01-01

    Functionally efficient six degree of freedom (DOF) actuators have not yet been developed in a scale-invariant and inherently compliant unified form. This has primarily been due to the use of conventional serial or parallel kinematical configurations and electromagnetic motors, pneumatics and hydraulics. Contrary to traditional technologies, utilizing electro-active elastomers enables multi-DOF actuation and holonomic operation with minimal structural complexity. Conical dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are compact multi-DOF actuator–sensors that are scalable and can be entirely polymeric, making them suitable for a variety of applications including minimally invasive medical devices. In this paper, cone DEAs are developed towards integrated 6-DOF actuation with muscle-like performance from a single structure. This is achieved by demonstrating the feasibility of holonomic 6-DOF actuation and through experimental characterization of a 5-DOF prototype. The 5-DOF prototype (50 mm length, 60 mm diameter) produced rotational actuation outputs of ±21.7° and ±9.42 mN m and linear actuation outputs of ±4.45 mm (±9.1%) and ±0.55 N. Finally, combined multi-DOF actuation is demonstrated as part of development towards scalable holonomic electro-active elastomer actuators. (paper)

  8. Polydopamine-Coated Main-Chain Liquid Crystal Elastomer as Optically Driven Artificial Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongmiao; Wang, Zhijian; Chen, Yilong; Shao, Jinyou; Gao, Tong; Cai, Shengqiang

    2018-03-07

    Optically driven active materials have received much attention because their deformation and motion can be controlled remotely, instantly, and precisely in a contactless way. In this study, we investigated an optically actuated elastomer with rapid response: polydopamine (PDA)-coated liquid crystal elastomer (LCE). Because of the photothermal effect of PDA coating and thermal responsiveness of LCE, the elastomer film contracted significantly with near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. With a fixed strain, light-induced actuating stress in the film could be as large as 1.5 MPa, significantly higher than the maximum stress generated by most mammalian skeletal muscle (0.35 MPa). The PDA-coated LCE films could also bend or roll up by surface scanning of an NIR laser. The response time of the film to light exposure could be as short as 1/10 of a second, comparable to or even faster than that of mammalian skeletal muscle. Using the PDA-coated LCE film, we designed and fabricated a prototype of robotic swimmer that was able to swim near the water-air interface by performing "swimming strokes" through reversible bending and unbending motions induced and controlled by an NIR laser. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated that PDA-coated LCE is a promising optically driven artificial muscle, which may have great potential for applications of soft robotics and optomechanical coupling devices.

  9. Towards holonomic electro-elastomer actuators with six degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, A. T.; Rossiter, J.

    2012-03-01

    Functionally efficient six degree of freedom (DOF) actuators have not yet been developed in a scale-invariant and inherently compliant unified form. This has primarily been due to the use of conventional serial or parallel kinematical configurations and electromagnetic motors, pneumatics and hydraulics. Contrary to traditional technologies, utilizing electro-active elastomers enables multi-DOF actuation and holonomic operation with minimal structural complexity. Conical dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are compact multi-DOF actuator-sensors that are scalable and can be entirely polymeric, making them suitable for a variety of applications including minimally invasive medical devices. In this paper, cone DEAs are developed towards integrated 6-DOF actuation with muscle-like performance from a single structure. This is achieved by demonstrating the feasibility of holonomic 6-DOF actuation and through experimental characterization of a 5-DOF prototype. The 5-DOF prototype (50 mm length, 60 mm diameter) produced rotational actuation outputs of ±21.7° and ±9.42 mN m and linear actuation outputs of ±4.45 mm (±9.1%) and ±0.55 N. Finally, combined multi-DOF actuation is demonstrated as part of development towards scalable holonomic electro-active elastomer actuators.

  10. The Effect of Clay/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Fillers on the Properties of Elastomer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid fillers of 1D multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT and 2D montmorillonite (MMT have led to excellent physical and chemical properties in high performance elastomer nanocomposites. In this study, the hybridization of PDDA (polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride functionalized MWNT (P-MWNT and hydroxyl-functionalized MMT (H-MMT was prepared by the electrostatic interaction between the positive charge on the MWNT and the negative charge on the MMT using a simple solution mixing process. Also, a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR nanocomposite containing the hybrid nanofillers was prepared to improve the dispersion of nanofillers with SBR latex. The SBR nanocomposites with the hybrid nanofillers exhibited outstanding mechanical properties including modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break, due to the enhanced interfacial bonding with the elastomer matrix. Furthermore, the hybrid nanofillers in the SBR matrix showed superior thermal and electrical properties and gas barrier performance at low loadings. The synergistic effects of the SBR produced by the hybridized nanofillers will open up new opportunities for elastomer composites with high performance.

  11. An all-polymer airflow sensor using a piezoresistive composite elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, Avishek R; Allen, Mark G; Song, Chao; Kim, Seong-Hyok

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an all-polymer flexible micromachined flow sensor using a carbon-black based conductive composite elastomer as a piezoresistor. The device is composed of an out-of-plane curved flow sensing element formed using a polyimide film. The conductive composite elastomer combines a low Young's modulus (∼1.72 MPa) and a high piezoresistive gage factor (∼7.3), making it an ideal material for the sensing application. Moreover, the use of the polyimide film, which can be easily laser micromachined, as the material for device fabrication enables the use of planar micromachining techniques, which minimizes process complexities. The proposed fabrication sequence combines the benefits of the polymeric materials used, while simultaneously enabling a backside interconnect scheme for an array of devices, without additional processing steps. The backside interconnect scheme allows for flow field mapping with minimum interference due to the sensing circuitry. Individual sensors as small as 1.5 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width, with 70 µm wide and 20–50 µm thick piezoresistor lines, have been fabricated. Wind tunnel testing demonstrated sensitivities as high as 66Ω/(m s −1 ). The integration of polyimide films and conductive elastomers into a flow sensing device using the simple planar fabrication technologies discussed is suitable for reduced cost, large area sensor array development, and can also leverage traditional flexible circuit fabrication

  12. Tough Self-Healing Elastomers by Molecular Enforced Integration of Covalent and Reversible Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinrong; Cai, Li-Heng; Weitz, David A

    2017-10-01

    Self-healing polymers crosslinked by solely reversible bonds are intrinsically weaker than common covalently crosslinked networks. Introducing covalent crosslinks into a reversible network would improve mechanical strength. It is challenging, however, to apply this concept to "dry" elastomers, largely because reversible crosslinks such as hydrogen bonds are often polar motifs, whereas covalent crosslinks are nonpolar motifs. These two types of bonds are intrinsically immiscible without cosolvents. Here, we design and fabricate a hybrid polymer network by crosslinking randomly branched polymers carrying motifs that can form both reversible hydrogen bonds and permanent covalent crosslinks. The randomly branched polymer links such two types of bonds and forces them to mix on the molecular level without cosolvents. This enables a hybrid "dry" elastomer that is very tough with fracture energy 13500 Jm -2 comparable to that of natural rubber. Moreover, the elastomer can self-heal at room temperature with a recovered tensile strength 4 MPa, which is 30% of its original value, yet comparable to the pristine strength of existing self-healing polymers. The concept of forcing covalent and reversible bonds to mix at molecular scale to create a homogenous network is quite general and should enable development of tough, self-healing polymers of practical usage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Investigation on the performance of a viscoelastic dielectric elastomer membrane generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E

    2015-04-21

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs), as a recent transduction technology, harvest electrical energy by scavenging mechanical energy from diverse sources. Their performance is affected by various material properties and failure modes of the dielectric elastomers. This work presents a theoretical analysis on the performance of a dielectric elastomer membrane generator under equi-biaxial loading conditions. By comparing our simulation results with the experimental observations existing in the literature, this work considers the fatigue life of DE-based devices under cyclic loading for the first time. From the simulation results, it is concluded that the efficiency of the DEG can be improved by raising the deforming rate and the prescribed maximum stretch ratio, and applying an appropriate bias voltage. However, the fatigue life expectancy compromises the efficiency improvement of the DEG. With the consideration of the fatigue life, applying an appropriate bias voltage appears to be a more desirable way to improve the DEG performance. The general framework developed in this work is expected to provide an increased understanding on the energy harvesting mechanisms of the DEGs and benefit their optimal design.

  14. The shape-memory effect in ionic elastomers: fixation through ionic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Antonio; Malmierca, Marta A; Bernal-Ortega, Pilar; Posadas, Pilar; Pérez-Aparicio, Roberto; Marcos-Fernández, Ángel; Mather, Patrick T; Valentín, Juan L

    2017-04-19

    Shape-memory elastomers based on a commercial rubber cross-linked by both ionic and covalent bonds have been developed. The elastomeric matrix was a carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) vulcanized with magnesium oxide (MgO) providing ionic interactions that form hierarchical structures. The so-named ionic transition is used as the unique thermal transition responsible for the shape-memory effect (SME) in these elastomers. These ionic interactions fix the temporary shape due to their behavior as dynamic cross-links with temperature changes. Covalent cross-links were incorporated with the addition of different proportions of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) to the ionic elastomer to establish and recover the permanent shape. In this article, the SME was modulated by modifying the degree of covalent cross-linking, while keeping the ionic contribution constant. In addition, different programming parameters, such as deformation temperature, heating/cooling rate, loading/unloading rate and percentage of tensile strain, were evaluated for their effects on shape-memory behavior.

  15. The implicit effect of texturizing field on the elastic properties of magnetic elastomers revealed by SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasoiu, M., E-mail: balas@jinr.ru [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Lebedev, V.T. [St.Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Raikher, Yu.L. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Perm (Russian Federation); Bica, I.; Bunoiu, M. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Physics (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    Small angle neutron scattering method (SANS) is used to characterize the structure properties of the polymer matrix of magnetic elastomers (MEs) of the same material content but with different magnetic textures. For that, series of silicone-rubber elastomers mixed with a ferrofluid and polymerized with/without external magnetic field were studied. In the species of pure rubber and the ME samples synthesized without field, SANS reveals a substantial number of large polymer coils (blobs) which are vertically prolate. The case of MEs polymerized under the magnetic field that is also vertically directed, is different. SANS data indicates that there the blobs are preferably elongated in the direction normal to the field. - Highlights: • SANS method is used to determine the structure of SR elastomers polymerized with ferrofluid in/no external magnetic field. • In the rubber and ME samples synthesized without field, SANS reveals a substantial number of vertically prolate blobs. • For MEs polymerized in vertical magnetic field, results that the blobs are elongated in the direction normal to the field. • Isotropic and texturized MEs differ by the filler structure and by intrinsic elastic properties of the matrix as well.

  16. Steady shear characteristic and behavior of magneto-thermo-elasticity of isotropic MR elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Xingzhe

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-thermo-elastic steady shear behaviors of isotropic smart composites of silicon rubber matrix randomly filled with ferromagnetic particles, commonly referred to as magnetorheological (MR) elastomers, are investigated experimentally and theoretically in the present study. The strip specimens of the MR elastomer composite with different ferromagnetic particle concentrations are fabricated and implemented for lap-shear tests under both magnetic and thermal fields. It is illustrated that the magneto-thermo-elastic shear modulus of the MR elastomer is markedly enhanced with the volume fraction of ferromagnetic particles and the applied external magnetic field, while the shear modulus is decreased with the environment temperature. To qualitatively elucidate the magneto-thermo-elastic shear performance of this kind of magnetic smart composites, a modified constitutive of hyperelasticity is suggested taking into account the influence of magnetic field and temperature on the magnetic potential energy and strain energy. The theoretical modeling predictions on the stress–strain behaviors for different applied magnetic fields and environment temperatures are compared to experimental observations to demonstrate a good agreement. (paper)

  17. The influence of modification of elastomer compositions in polyethylene oxides on their resistance to mineral oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Uss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modifying of elastomer compositions based on nitrile rubber in the medium of low molecular weight polyethylene oxide on resistance of rubbers to liquid aggressive mediawas studied. Standard hydrocarbon oils – oil ASTM №1 and ASTM №3, having a constant chemical composition and properties, were used as aggressive fluids. Resistance of elastomer compositions to standard oil was evaluated by change in weight, volume and relative compression set after keeping the samples in these oils at elevated temperatures. The influence of aggressive environment on the degree of swelling and the value of compression set of compositions modified in polyethylene oxides medium was established. It has been shown that the mass/volume of modified rubbers during aging in oil ASTM №1 reduced to a lesser degree compared to unmodified samples, which is probably due to the influence of low molecular weight polyethylene oxides for the formation of vulcanizates structure. At the same time exposure to oil ASTM №3 of elastomer compositions increases the degree of swelling of modified rubber more than unmodified, which can be due to destruction by the action of aggressive medium additional intermolecular bonds between macromolecules of polyethylene oxide and rubber, resulting in increased flexibility of the elastomeric matrix segments. It revealed that modification of rubbers in low molecular weightpolyethylene oxides facilitates preparation of rubber with low compression set after aging in standard oils at elevated temperatures.

  18. In Situ Polymorphic Alteration of Filler Structures for Biomimetic Mechanically Adaptive Elastomer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Tamil Selvan; Okamoto, Shigeru; Stöckelhuber, Klaus Werner; Wießner, Sven; Reuter, Uta; Fischer, Dieter; Ghosh, Anik Kumar; Heinrich, Gert; Das, Amit

    2018-04-30

    A mechanically adaptable elastomer composite is prepared with reversible soft-stiff properties that can be easily controlled. By the exploitation of different morphological structures of calcium sulfate, which acts as the active filler in a soft elastomer matrix, the magnitude of filler reinforcement can be reversibly altered, which will be reflected in changes of the final stiffness of the material. The higher stiffness, in other words, the higher modulus of the composites, is realized by the in situ development of fine nanostructured calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals, which are formed during exposure to water and, further, these highly reinforcing crystals can be transformed to a nonreinforcing hemihydrate mesocrystalline structure by simply heating the system in a controlled way. The Young's modulus of the developed material can be reversibly altered from ∼6 to ∼17 MPa, and the dynamic stiffness (storage modulus at room temperature and 10 Hz frequency) alters its value in the order of 1000%. As the transformation is related to the presence of water molecules in the crystallites, a hydrophilic elastomer matrix was selected, which is a blend of two hydrophilic polymers, namely, epichlorohydrin-ethylene oxide-allyl glycidyl ether terpolymer and a terpolymer of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide-allyl glycidyl ether. For the first time, this method also provides a route to regulate the morphology and structure of calcium sulfate nanocrystals in a confined ambient of cross-linked polymer chains.

  19. Phenomena of nonlinear oscillation and special resonance of a dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure rotary joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Niu, Junyang; McCoul, David; Ren, Zhi; Pei, Qibing

    2015-03-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer, so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Driven with an alternating electric field, the joint deformation vibrational frequency follows the input voltage frequency. However, the authors find that if the rotational inertia increases such that the inertial torque makes the frame deform over a negative angle, then the joint motion will become complicated and the vibrational mode will alter with the change of voltage frequency. The vibration with the largest amplitude does not occur while the voltage frequency is equal to natural response frequency of the joint. Rather, the vibrational amplitude will be quite large over a range of other frequencies at which the vibrational frequency is half of the voltage frequency. This phenomenon was analyzed by a comparison of the timing sequences between voltage and joint vibration. This vibrational mode with the largest amplitude can be applied to the generation lift in a flapping wing actuated by dielectric elastomers.

  20. Polysiloxane-based luminescent elastomers prepared by thiol-ene "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Lu, Haifeng; Xue, Lei; Wang, Xianming; Wu, Lianfeng; Feng, Shengyu

    2014-09-26

    Side-chain vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) has been modified with mercaptopropionic acid, methyl 3-mercaptopropionate, and mercaptosuccinic acid. Coordinative bonding of Eu(III) to the functionalized polysiloxanes was then carried out and crosslinked silicone elastomers were prepared by thiol-ene curing reactions of these composites. All these europium complexes could be cast to form transparent, uniform, thin elastomers with good flexibility and thermal stability. The networks were characterized by FTIR, NMR, UV/Vis, and luminescence spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The europium elastomer luminophores exhibited intense red light at 617 nm under UV excitation at room temperature due to the (5)D0 →(7)F2 transition in Eu(III) ions. The newly synthesized luminescent materials offer many advantages, including the desired mechanical flexibility. They cannot be dissolved or fused, and so they have potential for use in optical and electronic applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Decomposition kinetics of plutonium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, J.M.; Stakebake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic data for decomposition of PuH/sub 1/ /sub 95/ provides insight into a possible mechanism for the hydriding and dehydriding reactions of plutonium. The fact that the rate of the hydriding reaction, K/sub H/, is proportional to P/sup 1/2/ and the rate of the dehydriding process, K/sub D/, is inversely proportional to P/sup 1/2/ suggests that the forward and reverse reactions proceed by opposite paths of the same mechanism. The P/sup 1/2/ dependence of hydrogen solubility in metals is characteristic of the dissociative absorption of hydrogen; i.e., the reactive species is atomic hydrogen. It is reasonable to assume that the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are controlled by the surface concentration of atomic hydrogen, (H/sub s/), that K/sub H/ = c'(H/sub s/), and that K/sub D/ = c/(H/sub s/), where c' and c are proportionality constants. For this surface model, the pressure dependence of K/sub D/ is related to (H/sub s/) by the reaction (H/sub s/) reversible 1/2H/sub 2/(g) and by its equilibrium constant K/sub e/ = (H/sub 2/)/sup 1/2//(H/sub s/). In the pressure range of ideal gas behavior, (H/sub s/) = K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/ and the decomposition rate is given by K/sub D/ = cK/sub e/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. For an analogous treatment of the hydriding process with this model, it can be readily shown that K/sub H/ = c'K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. The inverse pressure dependence and direct temperature dependence of the decomposition rate are correctly predicted by this mechanism which is most consistent with the observed behavior of the Pu--H system.

  2. Spinodal decomposition in fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kyozi; Koga, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    We study the late stage dynamics of spinodal decomposition in binary fluids by the computer simulation of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. We obtain a temporary linear growth law of the characteristic length of domains in the late stage. This growth law has been observed in many real experiments of binary fluids and indicates that the domain growth proceeds by the flow caused by the surface tension of interfaces. We also find that the dynamical scaling law is satisfied in this hydrodynamic domain growth region. By comparing the scaling functions for fluids with that for the case without hydrodynamic effects, we find that the scaling functions for the two systems are different. (author)

  3. Early stage litter decomposition across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ika Djukic; Sebastian Kepfer-Rojas; Inger Kappel Schmidt; Klaus Steenberg Larsen; Claus Beier; Björn Berg; Kris Verheyen; Adriano Caliman; Alain Paquette; Alba Gutiérrez-Girón; Alberto Humber; Alejandro Valdecantos; Alessandro Petraglia; Heather Alexander; Algirdas Augustaitis; Amélie Saillard; Ana Carolina Ruiz Fernández; Ana I. Sousa; Ana I. Lillebø; Anderson da Rocha Gripp; André-Jean Francez; Andrea Fischer; Andreas Bohner; Andrey Malyshev; Andrijana Andrić; Andy Smith; Angela Stanisci; Anikó Seres; Anja Schmidt; Anna Avila; Anne Probst; Annie Ouin; Anzar A. Khuroo; Arne Verstraeten; Arely N. Palabral-Aguilera; Artur Stefanski; Aurora Gaxiola; Bart Muys; Bernard Bosman; Bernd Ahrends; Bill Parker; Birgit Sattler; Bo Yang; Bohdan Juráni; Brigitta Erschbamer; Carmen Eugenia Rodriguez Ortiz; Casper T. Christiansen; E. Carol Adair; Céline Meredieu; Cendrine Mony; Charles A. Nock; Chi-Ling Chen; Chiao-Ping Wang; Christel Baum; Christian Rixen; Christine Delire; Christophe Piscart; Christopher Andrews; Corinna Rebmann; Cristina Branquinho; Dana Polyanskaya; David Fuentes Delgado; Dirk Wundram; Diyaa Radeideh; Eduardo Ordóñez-Regil; Edward Crawford; Elena Preda; Elena Tropina; Elli Groner; Eric Lucot; Erzsébet Hornung; Esperança Gacia; Esther Lévesque; Evanilde Benedito; Evgeny A. Davydov; Evy Ampoorter; Fabio Padilha Bolzan; Felipe Varela; Ferdinand Kristöfel; Fernando T. Maestre; Florence Maunoury-Danger; Florian Hofhansl; Florian Kitz; Flurin Sutter; Francisco Cuesta; Francisco de Almeida Lobo; Franco Leandro de Souza; Frank Berninger; Franz Zehetner; Georg Wohlfahrt; George Vourlitis; Geovana Carreño-Rocabado; Gina Arena; Gisele Daiane Pinha; Grizelle González; Guylaine Canut; Hanna Lee; Hans Verbeeck; Harald Auge; Harald Pauli; Hassan Bismarck Nacro; Héctor A. Bahamonde; Heike Feldhaar; Heinke Jäger; Helena C. Serrano; Hélène Verheyden; Helge Bruelheide; Henning Meesenburg; Hermann Jungkunst; Hervé Jactel; Hideaki Shibata; Hiroko Kurokawa; Hugo López Rosas; Hugo L. Rojas Villalobos; Ian Yesilonis; Inara Melece; Inge Van Halder; Inmaculada García Quirós; Isaac Makelele; Issaka Senou; István Fekete; Ivan Mihal; Ivika Ostonen; Jana Borovská; Javier Roales; Jawad Shoqeir; Jean-Christophe Lata; Jean-Paul Theurillat; Jean-Luc Probst; Jess Zimmerman; Jeyanny Vijayanathan; Jianwu Tang; Jill Thompson; Jiří Doležal; Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza; Joël Merlet; Joh Henschel; Johan Neirynck; Johannes Knops; John Loehr; Jonathan von Oppen; Jónína Sigríður Þorláksdóttir; Jörg Löffler; José-Gilberto Cardoso-Mohedano; José-Luis Benito-Alonso; Jose Marcelo Torezan; Joseph C. Morina; Juan J. Jiménez; Juan Dario Quinde; Juha Alatalo; Julia Seeber; Jutta Stadler; Kaie Kriiska; Kalifa Coulibaly; Karibu Fukuzawa; Katalin Szlavecz; Katarína Gerhátová; Kate Lajtha; Kathrin Käppeler; Katie A. Jennings; Katja Tielbörger; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Ken Green; Lambiénou Yé; Laryssa Helena Ribeiro Pazianoto; Laura Dienstbach; Laura Williams; Laura Yahdjian; Laurel M. Brigham; Liesbeth van den Brink; Lindsey Rustad; al. et

    2018-01-01

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies...

  4. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  5. Climate history shapes contemporary leaf litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Strickland; Ashley D. Keiser; Mark A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is mediated by multiple variables, of which climate is expected to be a dominant factor at global scales. However, like other organisms, traits of decomposers and their communities are shaped not just by the contemporary climate but also their climate history. Whether or not this affects decomposition rates is underexplored. Here we source...

  6. The decomposition of estuarine macrophytes under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the decomposition characteristics of the most dominant submerged macrophyte and macroalgal species in the Great Brak Estuary. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different temperature regimes on the rate of decomposition of 3 macrophyte species ...

  7. Decomposition and flame structure of hydrazinium nitroformate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, J.; Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decomposition of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) was studied in a hot quartz cell and by dropping small amounts of HNF on a hot plate. The species formed during the decomposition were identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption experiments. These experiments reveal that first HONO is formed. The

  8. Multilevel index decomposition analysis: Approaches and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Y.; Ang, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing interest in using the technique of index decomposition analysis (IDA) in energy and energy-related emission studies, such as to analyze the impacts of activity structure change or to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends, the conventional single-level IDA may not be able to meet certain needs in policy analysis. In this paper, some limitations of single-level IDA studies which can be addressed through applying multilevel decomposition analysis are discussed. We then introduce and compare two multilevel decomposition procedures, which are referred to as the multilevel-parallel (M-P) model and the multilevel-hierarchical (M-H) model. The former uses a similar decomposition procedure as in the single-level IDA, while the latter uses a stepwise decomposition procedure. Since the stepwise decomposition procedure is new in the IDA literature, the applicability of the popular IDA methods in the M-H model is discussed and cases where modifications are needed are explained. Numerical examples and application studies using the energy consumption data of the US and China are presented. - Highlights: • We discuss the limitations of single-level decomposition in IDA applied to energy study. • We introduce two multilevel decomposition models, study their features and discuss how they can address the limitations. • To extend from single-level to multilevel analysis, necessary modifications to some popular IDA methods are discussed. • We further discuss the practical significance of the multilevel models and present examples and cases to illustrate

  9. In situ study of glasses decomposition layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembowitch-Deruelle, O.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the involved mechanisms during the decomposition of glasses by water and the consequences on the morphology of the decomposition layer, in particular in the case of a nuclear glass: the R 7 T 7 . The chemical composition of this glass being very complicated, it is difficult to know the influence of the different elements on the decomposition kinetics and on the resulting morphology because several atoms have a same behaviour. Glasses with simplified composition (only 5 elements) have then been synthesized. The morphological and structural characteristics of these glasses have been given. They have then been decomposed by water. The leaching curves do not reflect the decomposition kinetics but the solubility of the different elements at every moment. The three steps of the leaching are: 1) de-alkalinization 2) lattice rearrangement 3) heavy elements solubilization. Two decomposition layer types have also been revealed according to the glass heavy elements rate. (O.M.)

  10. Multilinear operators for higher-order decompositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2006-04-01

    We propose two new multilinear operators for expressing the matrix compositions that are needed in the Tucker and PARAFAC (CANDECOMP) decompositions. The first operator, which we call the Tucker operator, is shorthand for performing an n-mode matrix multiplication for every mode of a given tensor and can be employed to concisely express the Tucker decomposition. The second operator, which we call the Kruskal operator, is shorthand for the sum of the outer-products of the columns of N matrices and allows a divorce from a matricized representation and a very concise expression of the PARAFAC decomposition. We explore the properties of the Tucker and Kruskal operators independently of the related decompositions. Additionally, we provide a review of the matrix and tensor operations that are frequently used in the context of tensor decompositions.

  11. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 1: Verification of basic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was verification of basic methods which are to be used in cataloging elastomer dynamic properties (stiffness and damping) in terms of viscoelastic model constants. These constants may then be used to predict dynamic properties for general elastomer shapes and operating conditions, thereby permitting optimum application of elastomers as energy absorption and/or energy storage devices in the control of vibrations in a broad variety of applications. The efforts reported involved: (1) literature search; (2) the design, fabrication and use of a test rig for obtaining elastomer dynamic test data over a wide range of frequencies, amplitudes, and preloads; and (3) the reduction of the test data, by means of a selected three-element elastomer model and specialized curve fitting techniques, to material properties. Material constants thus obtained have been used to calculate stiffness and damping for comparison with measured test data. These comparisons are excellent for a number of test conditions and only fair to poor for others. The results confirm the validity of the basic approach of the overall program and the mechanics of the cataloging procedure, and at the same time suggest areas in which refinements should be made.

  12. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  13. LMDI decomposition approach: A guide for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Since it was first used by researchers to analyze industrial electricity consumption in the early 1980s, index decomposition analysis (IDA) has been widely adopted in energy and emission studies. Lately its use as the analytical component of accounting frameworks for tracking economy-wide energy efficiency trends has attracted considerable attention and interest among policy makers. The last comprehensive literature review of IDA was reported in 2000 which is some years back. After giving an update and presenting the key trends in the last 15 years, this study focuses on the implementation issues of the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition methods in view of their dominance in IDA in recent years. Eight LMDI models are presented and their origin, decomposition formulae, and strengths and weaknesses are summarized. Guidelines on the choice among these models are provided to assist users in implementation. - Highlights: • Guidelines for implementing LMDI decomposition approach are provided. • Eight LMDI decomposition models are summarized and compared. • The development of the LMDI decomposition approach is presented. • The latest developments of index decomposition analysis are briefly reviewed.

  14. Thermal decomposition of beryllium perchlorate tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezkina, L.G.; Borisova, S.I.; Tamm, N.S.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of Be(ClO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O was studied by the differential flow technique in the helium stream. The kinetics was followed by an exchange reaction of the perchloric acid appearing by the decomposition with potassium carbonate. The rate of CO 2 liberation in this process was recorded by a heat conductivity detector. The exchange reaction yielding CO 2 is quantitative, it is not the limiting one and it does not distort the kinetics of the process of perchlorate decomposition. The solid products of decomposition were studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy, roentgenography, thermography and chemical analysis. A mechanism suggested for the decomposition involves intermediate formation of hydroxyperchlorate: Be(ClO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O → Be(OH)ClO 4 +HClO 4 +3H 2 O; Be(OH)ClO 4 → BeO+HClO 4 . Decomposition is accompained by melting of the sample. The mechanism of decomposition is hydrolytic. At room temperature the hydroxyperchlorate is a thick syrup-like compound crystallizing after long storing

  15. Novel scalable silicone elastomer and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) composite materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    material with increased hydrophilicity in regard to virgin silicone elastomer, making it suitable as a scaffold for tissue engineering and with the concomitant possibility for delivering drug from the scaffold to the tissue. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of silicone elastomer and PHEMA......In recent years hydrogels have received increasing attention as potential materials for applications in regenerative medicine. They can be used for scaffold materials providing structural integrity to tissue constructs, for controlled delivery of drugs and proteins to cell and tissues......, and for support materials in tissue growth. However, the real challenge is to obtain sufficiently good mechanical properties of the hydrogel. The present study shows the combination of two normally non-compatible materials, silicone elastomer and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), into a novel composite...

  16. Thermal decomposition of lanthanide and actinide tetrafluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stabilities of several lanthanide/actinide tetrafluorides have been studied using mass spectrometry to monitor the gaseous decomposition products, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify solid products. The tetrafluorides, TbF 4 , CmF 4 , and AmF 4 , have been found to thermally decompose to their respective solid trifluorides with accompanying release of fluorine, while cerium tetrafluoride has been found to be significantly more thermally stable and to congruently sublime as CeF 4 prior to appreciable decomposition. The results of these studies are discussed in relation to other relevant experimental studies and the thermodynamics of the decomposition processes. 9 refs., 3 figs

  17. Decomposition of lake phytoplankton. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.; Krog, G.F.; Soendergaard, M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-time (24 h) and long-time (4-6 d) decomposition of phytoplankton cells were investigasted under in situ conditions in four Danish lakes. Carbon-14-labelled, dead algae were exposed to sterile or natural lake water and the dynamics of cell lysis and bacterial utilization of the leached products were followed. The lysis process was dominated by an initial fast water extraction. Within 2 to 4 h from 4 to 34% of the labelled carbon leached from the algal cells. After 24 h from 11 to 43% of the initial particulate carbon was found as dissolved carbon in the experiments with sterile lake water; after 4 to 6 d the leaching was from 67 to 78% of the initial 14 C. The leached compounds were utilized by bacteria. A comparison of the incubations using sterile and natural water showed that a mean of 71% of the lysis products was metabolized by microorganisms within 24 h. In two experiments the uptake rate equalled the leaching rate. (author)

  18. Decomposition of lake phytoplankton. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.; Krog, G.F.; Soendergaard, M.

    1986-01-01

    The lysis process of phytoplankton was followed in 24 h incubations in three Danish lakes. By means of gel-chromatography it was shown that the dissolved carbon leaching from different algal groups differed in molecular weight composition. Three distinct molecular weight classes (>10,000; 700 to 10,000 and < 700 Daltons) leached from blue-green algae in almost equal proportion. The lysis products of spring-bloom diatoms included only the two smaller size classes, and the molecules between 700 and 10,000 Daltons dominated. Measurements of cell content during decomposition of the diatoms revealed polysaccharides and low molecular weight compounds to dominate the lysis products. No proteins were leached during the first 24 h after cell death. By incubating the dead algae in natural lake water, it was possible to detect a high bacterial affinity towards molecules between 700 and 10,000 Daltons, although the other size classes were also utilized. Bacterial transformation of small molecules to larger molecules could be demonstrated. (author)

  19. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 2: Elastomer characteristics at constant temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P. K.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Cziglenyi, L.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamic properties of a commerical polybutadiene compound were determined at a constant temperature of 32 C by a forced-vibration resonant mass type of apparatus. The constant thermal state of the elastomer was ensured by keeping the ambient temperature constant and by limiting the power dissipation in the specimen. Experiments were performed with both compression and shear specimens at several preloads (nominal strain varying from 0 to 5 percent), and the results are reported in terms of a complex stiffness as a function of frequency. Very weak frequency dependence is observed and a simple power law type of correlation is shown to represent the data well. Variations in the complex stiffness as a function of preload are also found to be small for both compression and shear specimens.

  20. In situ multi-axial loading frame to probe elastomers using X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannier, Yannick; Proudhon, Henry; Mocuta, Cristian; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cantournet, Sabine

    2011-11-01

    An in situ tensile-shear loading device has been designed to study elastomer crystallization using synchrotron X-ray scattering at the Synchrotron Soleil on the DiffAbs beamline. Elastomer tape specimens of thickness 2 mm can be elongated by up to 500% in the longitudinal direction and sheared by up to 200% in the transverse direction. The device is fully automated and plugged into the TANGO control system of the beamline allowing synchronization between acquisition and loading sequences. Experimental results revealing the evolution of crystallization peaks under load are presented for several tension/shear loading sequences.

  1. A study of the dynamic flammability of radiation cross-linked flame-retardant HDPE/EPDM/silicon-elastomer compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shaojin E-mail: jiashaojin2@yahoo.com.cn; Zhang Zhicheng E-mail: zczhang@ustc.edu.cn; Du Zhiwen; Teng Renrui; Wang Zhengzhou

    2003-04-01

    A dynamic flammability study of flame-retardant compound consisting of HDPE, EPDM and silicon elastomer blended with additives, as wire and cable insulation was made before and after irradiation. The data of RHR, EHC, SEC and the concentration of CO and CO{sub 2} from cone colorimeter shown in the burning process were accessed. By blending silicon elastomer, CO release rate was reduced and the thermal endurance was improved. Oxygen index, mechanical property, morphology of the char formed in dynamical flame and thermal stability were also investigated.

  2. A study of the dynamic flammability of radiation cross-linked flame-retardant HDPE/EPDM/silicon-elastomer compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Shaojin; Zhang Zhicheng; Du Zhiwen; Teng Renrui; Wang Zhengzhou

    2003-01-01

    A dynamic flammability study of flame-retardant compound consisting of HDPE, EPDM and silicon elastomer blended with additives, as wire and cable insulation was made before and after irradiation. The data of RHR, EHC, SEC and the concentration of CO and CO 2 from cone colorimeter shown in the burning process were accessed. By blending silicon elastomer, CO release rate was reduced and the thermal endurance was improved. Oxygen index, mechanical property, morphology of the char formed in dynamical flame and thermal stability were also investigated

  3. Design of a rotary dielectric elastomer actuator using a topology optimization method based on pairs of curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nianfeng; Guo, Hao; Chen, Bicheng; Cui, Chaoyu; Zhang, Xianmin

    2018-05-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE), known as electromechanical transducers, have been widely used in the field of sensors, generators, actuators and energy harvesting for decades. A large number of DE actuators including bending actuators, linear actuators and rotational actuators have been designed utilizing an experience design method. This paper proposes a new method for the design of DE actuators by using a topology optimization method based on pairs of curves. First, theoretical modeling and optimization design are discussed, after which a rotary dielectric elastomer actuator has been designed using this optimization method. Finally, experiments and comparisons between several DE actuators have been made to verify the optimized result.

  4. Low temperature behaviour of elastomers in seals; Tieftemperaturverhalten von Elastomeren im Dichtungseinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunich, Matthias

    2012-04-25

    Elastomeric seals are of high importance as machine parts and construction elements, but in spite of this the low temperature limit for the use of a seal was not fully understood. Hence, the required safety relevant evaluation of the lowest acceptable operating seal temperature is difficult. Therefore the presented work was aimed to understand the temperature dependent material behaviour of representative elastomers and to conclude from this knowledge the low temperature limit down to which such seals could safely fulfil the desired requirements. Starting with the published statement that a seal can safely work below its glass transition temperature the influence of the glass-rubber-transition was investigated. At first the glass-rubber-transition temperatures of the selected elastomers were determined applying several techniques to allow a comparison with the behaviour of the seals during component tests. Furthermore a new method to characterise the low temperature behaviour of elastomers was developed that emulates the key features of the standardised compression set test used for seal materials. In comparison to the standardized test this new method allows a much faster measurement that can be automatically performed. Using a model based data analysis an extrapolation of the results to different temperatures can be performed and therefore the necessary measuring expenditure can be additionally reduced. For the temperature dependent characterisation of the failure process of real seals a measurement setup was designed and the materials behaviour was investigated. By use of the results of all applied characterisation techniques the observed dependence of the failure temperature on the degree of compression could be explained for the investigated seals under static load. Additionally information about the behaviour of such seals under dynamic load could be gained from the time dependent material behaviour by use of the time temperature superposition relationship

  5. Rubber materials from elastomers and nanocellulose powders: filler dispersion and mechanical reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Matthieu; Berriot, Julien; de Gaudemaris, Benoit; Veyland, Anne; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Molina-Boisseau, Sonia; Heux, Laurent

    2018-04-04

    Rubber materials with well-dispersed fillers and large mechanical reinforcement have been obtained by melt-processing a diene elastomer matrix and tailored nanocellulose powders having both a high specific surface area and a modified interface. Such filler powders with a specific surface area of 180 m2 g-1 and 100 m2 g-1 have been obtained by freeze-drying suspensions of short needle-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and entangled networks of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in tert-butanol/water, respectively. A quantitative and toposelective filler surface esterification was performed using a gas-phase protocol either with palmitoyl chloride (PCl) to obtain a hydrophobic but non-reactive nanocellulose interface, or with 3,3'-dithiopropionic acid chloride (DTACl) to introduce reactive groups that can covalently bind the nanocellulose interface to the dienic matrix in a subsequent vulcanization process. A set of filled materials was prepared varying the filler morphology, interface and volume fraction. Transmission electron microscopy images of ultrathin cryo-sections showed that modified nanocellulose fillers presented a relatively homogeneous distribution up to a volume fraction of 20%. The materials also exhibited a significant modulus increase, while keeping an extensibility in the same range as that of the neat matrix. Strikingly, in the case of the reactive interface, a strong stress-stiffening behavior was evidenced from the upward curvature of the tensile curve, leading to a large increase of the ultimate stress (up to 7 times that of the neat matrix). Taken together, these properties, which have never been previously reported for nanocellulose-filled elastomers, match well the mechanical characteristics of industrial carbon black or silica-loaded elastomers.

  6. A High-Voltage Class D Audio Amplifier for Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric Elastomer (DE) transducers have emerged as a very interesting alternative to the traditional electrodynamic transducer. Lightweight, small size and high maneuverability are some of the key features of the DE transducer. An amplifier for the DE transducer suitable for audio applications...... is proposed and analyzed. The amplifier addresses the issue of a high impedance load, ensuring a linear response over the midrange region of the audio bandwidth (100 Hz – 3.5 kHz). THD+N below 0.1% are reported for the ± 300 V prototype amplifier producing a maximum of 125 Var at a peak efficiency of 95 %....

  7. fs- and ns-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer: Comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: nestankova@yahoo.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Amoruso, S.; Wang, X.; Bruzzese, R. [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Grochowska, K.; Śliwiński, G. [Photophysics Department, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Baert, K.; Hubin, A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Faculty of Engineering, Research group, SURF “Electrochemical and Surface Engineering” (Belgium); Delplancke, M.P.; Dille, J. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Materials Engineering, Characterization, Synthesis and Recycling (Service 4MAT), Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • fs- and ns-laser (266 and 532 nm) processing of PDMS-elastomer, in air, is studied. • High definition tracks (on the PDMS-elastomer surface) for electrodes are produced. • Selective Pt or Ni metallization of the tracks is produced via electroless plating. • Irradiated and metallized tracks are characterized by μ-Raman spectrometry and SEM. • DC resistance of Pt and Ni tracks is always between 0.5 and 15 Ω/mm. - Abstract: Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a widely used biomaterial as encapsulation and/or as substrate insulator carrier for long term neural implants because of its remarkable properties. Femtosecond (λ = 263 and 527 nm) and nanosecond (266 and 532 nm) laser processing of PDMS-elastomer surface, in air, is investigated. The influence of different processing parameters, including laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlapping of the subsequent pulses, on the surface activation and the surface morphology are studied. High definition tracks and electrodes are produced. Remarkable alterations of the chemical composition and structural morphology of the ablated traces are observed in comparison with the native material. Raman spectra illustrate well-defined dependence of the chemical composition on the laser fluence, pulse duration, number of pulses and wavelength. An extra peak about ∼512–518 cm{sup −1}, assigned to crystalline silicon, is observed after ns- or visible fs-laser processing of the surface. In all cases, the intensities of Si−O−Si symmetric stretching at 488 cm{sup −1}, Si−CH{sub 3} symmetric rocking at 685 cm{sup −1}, Si−C symmetric stretching at 709 cm{sup −1}, CH{sub 3} asymmetric rocking + Si−C asymmetric stretching at 787 cm{sup −1}, and CH{sub 3} symmetric rocking at 859 cm{sup −1}, modes strongly decrease. The laser processed areas are also analyzed by SEM and optical microscopy. Selective Pt or Ni metallization of the laser processed

  8. Theory of liquid crystal elastomers and polymer networks : Connection between neoclassical theory and differential geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Selinger, Jonathan V

    2017-09-01

    In liquid crystal elastomers and polymer networks, the orientational order of liquid crystals is coupled with elastic distortions of crosslinked polymers. Previous theoretical research has described these materials through two different approaches: a neoclassical theory based on the liquid crystal director and the deformation gradient tensor, and a geometric elasticity theory based on the difference between the actual metric tensor and a reference metric. Here, we connect those two approaches using a formalism based on differential geometry. Through this connection, we determine how both the director and the geometry respond to a change of temperature.

  9. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives. [bonding metal and composite material structures for aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rubber-toughened, addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber-containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride has been mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  10. Vogel-Fulcher dependence of relaxation rates in a nematic monomer and elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, D.; Filippov, S.; Aliev, F.; Keller, P.; Thomsen, D.; Ratna, B.

    2000-12-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy is used to study the relaxation processes in a nematic monomer and the corresponding cross-linked polymer nematic liquid crystal (elastomer). In the frequency window 10 mHz to 2 GHz the monomer liquid crystal shows a single relaxation whereas the polymer exhibits three relaxation processes, two of which are quantitatively analyzed. The temperature dependence of relaxation times in both the monomer and polymer follows a Vogel-Fulcher behavior. The relaxation processes are identified with specific molecular motions and activation energies are calculated in a linear approximation for comparison with literature data.

  11. Optimizing the network topology of block copolymer liquid crystal elastomers for enhanced extensibility and toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Christian; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2017-08-01

    Molecular simulations are used to study the effect of synthesis conditions on the tensile response of liquid-crystalline elastomers formed by block copolymer chains. Remarkably, it is found that despite the significant presence of trapped entanglements, these networks can exhibit the sawtooth tensile response previously predicted for ideal unentangled networks. It is also found that the monomer concentration during crosslinking can be tuned to limit the extent of entanglements and inhomogeneities while also maximizing network extensibility. It is predicted that networks synthesized at a "critical" concentration will have the greatest toughness.

  12. Coaxial Thermoplastic Elastomer-Wrapped Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Deformable and Wearable Strain Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2018-01-22

    Highly conductive and stretchable fibers are crucial components of wearable electronics systems. Excellent electrical conductivity, stretchability, and wearability are required from such fibers. Existing technologies still display limited performances in these design requirements. Here, achieving highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors by using a coaxial structure, prepared via coaxial wet spinning of thermoplastic elastomer-wrapped carbon nanotube fibers, is proposed. The sensors attain high sensitivity (with a gauge factor of 425 at 100% strain), high stretchability, and high linearity. They are also reproducible and durable. Their use as safe sensing components on deformable cable, expandable surfaces, and wearable textiles is demonstrated.

  13. Mechanically compliant electrodes and dielectric elastomers from PEG-PDMS copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Soft conducting elastomers have been prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-polyethyleneglycol (PDMS-PEG) copolymer and surfactant-stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The copolymer was chain-extended with PDMS of molecular weight 17.2 kg mol-1 in order to obtain a crosslinkable PDMS...... showed high conductivity combined with inherent softness. The high conductivity and softness, PDMS-PEG copolymers with incorporated MWCNTs hold great promises as compliant and highly stretchable electrodes for stretchable devices such as electro-mechanical transducers....

  14. Effect of Filler Concentration on Thermal Stability of Vinyl Copolymer Elastomer (VCE) Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devlin, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henderson, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pacheco, Robin Montoya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-06

    To study the thermal stability of vinyl copolymer elastomer (VCE) in its composite form, systematic TGA characterizations were conducted in both nonisothermal and isothermal modes. The effects of filler concentration on the aging behaviors of the VCE/filler composites were investigated under nitroplasticizer (NP) environment. FTIR characterization was used to probe the structural changes in the VCE polymer before and after the thermal treatments. This study suggests that the filler concentration significantly deteriorates the thermal stability of NP at a moderate temperature (< 70 °C). The degradation of NP, in turn, accelerates the aging process of the VCE polymer in its composite form.

  15. Factors influencing the design and assessment of elastomer seals for nuclear fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; George, A.F.

    1984-06-01

    Elastomeric seals offer considerable advantages in the achievement of high integrity sealing. This report discusses the factors limiting the performance of elastomers under fault conditions, with particular attention to Nuclear Fuel Transport Flask seals. There is emphasis on seal compression and its optimisation, so that it is high enough to ensure adequate surface roughness infilling, and low enough to avoid damaging tensile stresses. The assessment of seal performance is discussed, and includes consideration of pressure actuation and extrusion, permeation losses and rig testing. It is concluded that to reach a satisfactory design requires considerable information on different aspects of elastomeric performance. (author)

  16. Magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation of tunable three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen

    2018-03-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are used as cladding in three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (LRAM) cores. The metamaterial units are combined into a vibration isolator. Two types of LRAMs, namely, cubic and spherical kernels, are constructed. The finite element method is used to analyze the elastic band structures, transmittances, and vibration modes of the incident elastic waves. Results show that the central position and width of the LRAM elastic bandgap can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic field; furthermore, they can be adjusted by changing the MRE cladding thickness. These methods contribute to the design of metamaterial MRE vibration isolators.

  17. Effects of Hypervelocity Impacts on Silicone Elastomer Seals and Mating Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    While in space silicone based elastomer seals planned for use on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are exposed to threats from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD). An understanding of these threats is required to assess risks to the crew, the CEV orbiter, and missions. An Earth based campaign of hypervelocity impacts on small scale seal rings has been done to help estimate MMOD threats to the primary docking seal being developed for the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). LIDS is being developed to enable the CEV to dock to the ISS (International Space Station) or to Altair (NASA's next lunar lander). The silicone seal on LIDS seals against aluminum alloy flanges on ISS or Altair. Since the integrity of a seal depends on both sealing surfaces, aluminum targets were also impacted. The variables considered in this study included projectile mass, density, speed, incidence angle, seal materials, and target surface treatments and coatings. Most of the impacts used a velocity near 8 km/s and spherical aluminum projectiles (density = 2.7 g/cubic cm), however, a few tests were done near 5.6 km/s. Tests were also performed using projectile densities of 7.7, 2.79, 2.5 or 1.14 g/cubic cm. Projectile incidence angles examined included 0 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg from normal to the plane of the target. Elastomer compounds impacted include Parker's S0383-70 and Esterline's ELA-SA-401 in the as received condition, or after an atomic oxygen treatment. Bare, anodized and nickel coated aluminum targets were tested simulating the candidate mating seal surface materials. After impact, seals and aluminum plates were leak tested: damaged seals were tested against an undamaged aluminum plate; and undamaged seals were placed at various locations over craters in aluminum plates. It has been shown that silicone elastomer seals can withstand an impressive level of damage before leaking beyond allowable limits. In general on the tests performed to date, the diameter of the crater in

  18. Preparation and Characterizing of PANI/PDMS Elastomer for Artificial Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Genlin; Zhang, Ming; Luo, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    A dielectric elastomer has been synthesized using organic soluble PANI and PDMS through solution blending method for applications as artificial muscles. The dielectric constant of PANI/PDMS composite reached 4.82 with a filling amount of 0.8 wt.%, which was 2.24 times of pure silicone, due to the dipole polarization in matrix network and electron polarization in conductive polyaniline. The actuated strain of 0.8w.t % PANI/PDMS was 16.57% compared to 8.52% of pure silicone at an electric field of 10V/μm, and can be applied as a soft actuator.

  19. Alignment engineering in liquid crystalline elastomers: Free-form microstructures with multiple functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hao; Cerretti, Giacomo; Wiersma, Diederik S., E-mail: camilla.parmeggiani@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: wiersma@lens.unifi.it [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Wasylczyk, Piotr [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Faculty of Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, Warszawa 00-681 (Poland); Martella, Daniele [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff,” University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3-13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Parmeggiani, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.parmeggiani@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: wiersma@lens.unifi.it [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR-INO, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    We report a method to fabricate polymer microstructures with local control over the molecular orientation. Alignment control is achieved on molecular level in a structure of arbitrary form that can be from 1 to 100 μm in size, by fixing the local boundary conditions with micro-grating patterns. The method makes use of two-photon polymerization (Direct Laser Writing) and is demonstrated specifically in liquid-crystalline elastomers. This concept allows for the realization of free-form polymeric structures with multiple functionalities which are not possible to realize with existing techniques and which can be locally controlled by light in the micrometer scale.

  20. A Decomposition Theorem for Finite Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Coloma, Teresa L.; Tucci, Ralph P.

    1990-01-01

    Described is automata theory which is a branch of theoretical computer science. A decomposition theorem is presented that is easier than the Krohn-Rhodes theorem. Included are the definitions, the theorem, and a proof. (KR)

  1. Spatial domain decomposition for neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    A spatial Domain Decomposition method is proposed for modifying the Source Iteration (SI) and Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) algorithms for solving discrete ordinates problems. The method, which consists of subdividing the spatial domain of the problem and performing the transport sweeps independently on each subdomain, has the advantage of being parallelizable because the calculations in each subdomain can be performed on separate processors. In this paper we describe the details of this spatial decomposition and study, by numerical experimentation, the effect of this decomposition on the SI and DSA algorithms. Our results show that the spatial decomposition has little effect on the convergence rates until the subdomains become optically thin (less than about a mean free path in thickness)

  2. Joint Matrices Decompositions and Blind Source Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chabriel, G.; Kleinsteuber, M.; Moreau, E.; Shen, H.; Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2014), s. 34-43 ISSN 1053-5888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : joint matrices decomposition * tensor decomposition * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 5.852, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/tichavsky-0427607.pdf

  3. Review on Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Shalini; Dave, Pragnesh N.

    2013-01-01

    In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition are summarized. The effect of additives like oxides, cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds, phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed. The effect of an additive mainly occurs at the exothermic peak of pure AN in a temperature range of 200°C to 140°C.

  4. Note on Symplectic SVD-Like Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOUJIL Said

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a constructive method to compute a symplectic singular value decomposition (SVD-like decomposition of a 2n-by-m rectangular real matrix A, based on symplectic refectors.This approach used a canonical Schur form of skew-symmetric matrix and it allowed us to compute eigenvalues for the structured matrices as Hamiltonian matrix JAA^T.

  5. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  6. Decomposition of tetrachloroethylene by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, T.; Hirota, K.; Hashimoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    Decomposition of tetrachloroethylene and other chloroethenes by ionizing radiation were examined to get information on treatment of industrial off-gas. Model gases, airs containing chloroethenes, were confined in batch reactors and irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray. The G-values of decomposition were larger in the order of tetrachloro- > trichloro- > trans-dichloro- > cis-dichloro- > monochloroethylene in electron beam irradiation and tetrachloro-, trichloro-, trans-dichloro- > cis-dichloro- > monochloroethylene in gamma ray irradiation. For tetrachloro-, trichloro- and trans-dichloroethylene, G-values of decomposition in EB irradiation increased with increase of chlorine atom in a molecule, while those in gamma ray irradiation were almost kept constant. The G-value of decomposition for tetrachloroethylene in EB irradiation was the largest of those for all chloroethenes. In order to examine the effect of the initial concentration on G-value of decomposition, airs containing 300 to 1,800 ppm of tetrachloroethylene were irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray. The G-values of decomposition in both irradiation increased with the initial concentration. Those in electron beam irradiation were two times larger than those in gamma ray irradiation

  7. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  8. Aridity and decomposition processes in complex landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nyman, Petter

    2015-04-01

    Decomposition of organic matter is a key biogeochemical process contributing to nutrient cycles, carbon fluxes and soil development. The activity of decomposers depends on microclimate, with temperature and rainfall being major drivers. In complex terrain the fine-scale variation in microclimate (and hence water availability) as a result of slope orientation is caused by differences in incoming radiation and surface temperature. Aridity, measured as the long-term balance between net radiation and rainfall, is a metric that can be used to represent variations in water availability within the landscape. Since aridity metrics can be obtained at fine spatial scales, they could theoretically be used to investigate how decomposition processes vary across complex landscapes. In this study, four research sites were selected in tall open sclerophyll forest along a aridity gradient (Budyko dryness index ranging from 1.56 -2.22) where microclimate, litter moisture and soil moisture were monitored continuously for one year. Litter bags were packed to estimate decomposition rates (k) using leaves of a tree species not present in the study area (Eucalyptus globulus) in order to avoid home-field advantage effects. Litter mass loss was measured to assess the activity of macro-decomposers (6mm litter bag mesh size), meso-decomposers (1 mm mesh), microbes above-ground (0.2 mm mesh) and microbes below-ground (2 cm depth, 0.2 mm mesh). Four replicates for each set of bags were installed at each site and bags were collected at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 12 months since installation. We first tested whether differences in microclimate due to slope orientation have significant effects on decomposition processes. Then the dryness index was related to decomposition rates to evaluate if small-scale variation in decomposition can be predicted using readily available information on rainfall and radiation. Decomposition rates (k), calculated fitting single pool negative exponential models, generally

  9. DIESYS—dynamically non-linear dielectric elastomer energy generating synergetic structures: perspectives and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I A; Venetsanos, D T; Papaspyridis, F G

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer based generators (DEGs) offer some unique properties over energy generators based on other materials. These properties include high energy density, high efficiency over a broad range of frequencies, low compliance, the ability to produce high strain, large area, low cost films with no toxic materials and wide range environmental tolerance. As further shown in this paper, DEG materials can also exhibit a non-linear dynamic behavior, enhancing broad-band energy transfer. More specifically, dielectric elastomer (DE) energy generating synergetic structures (DIESYS) are considered as dynamic energy absorbers. Two elementary characteristic DIESYS design concepts are examined, leading to a typical antagonistic configuration for in-plane oscillations and a typical synagonistic configuration for out-of-plane oscillations. Originally, all the DE elements of the structure are assumed to be always in tension during all the phases of the harvesting cycle, conforming to the traditional concept of operation of DE structures. As shown in this paper, the traditional always-in-tension concept results in a linear dynamic system response, despite the fact that the implemented (DE) parts are considered to have been made of a non-linear (hyperelastic) material. In contrast, the proposed loose-part concept ensures the appearance of a non-linear broad-band system response, enhancing energy transfer from the environmental source. (paper)

  10. A variational constitutive framework for the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a dielectric elastomer

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-10

    We formulate a variational constitutive framework that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior of electrically sensitive polymers, specifically Dielectric Elastomers (DEs), under large deformation. DEs are highly viscoelastic and their actuation response is greatly affected in dynamic applications. We used the generalized Maxwell model to represent the viscoelastic response of DE allowing the material to relax with multiple mechanisms. The constitutive updates at each load increment are obtained by minimizing an objective function formulated using the free energy and electrostatic energy of the elastomer, in addition to the viscous dissipation potential of the dashpots in each Maxwell branch. The model is then used to predict the electromechanical instability (EMI) of DE. The electro-elastic response of the DE is verified with available analytical solutions in the literature and then the material parameters are calibrated using experimental data. The model is integrated with finite element software to perform a variety of simulations on different types of electrically driven actuators under various electromechanical loadings. The electromechanical response of the DE and the critical conditions at which EMI occurs were found to be greatly affected by the viscoelasticity. Our model predicts that under a dead load EMI can be avoided if the DE operates at a high voltage rate. Subjected to constant, ramp and cyclic voltage, our model qualitatively predicts responses similar to the ones obtained from the analytical solutions and experimental data available in the literature. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Energy harvesting with stacked dielectric elastomer transducers: Nonlinear theory, optimization, and linearized scaling law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutcuoglu, A.; Majidi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Using principles of damped harmonic oscillation with continuous media, we examine electrostatic energy harvesting with a "soft-matter" array of dielectric elastomer (DE) transducers. The array is composed of infinitely thin and deformable electrodes separated by layers of insulating elastomer. During vibration, it deforms longitudinally, resulting in a change in the capacitance and electrical enthalpy of the charged electrodes. Depending on the phase of electrostatic loading, the DE array can function as either an actuator that amplifies small vibrations or a generator that converts these external excitations into electrical power. Both cases are addressed with a comprehensive theory that accounts for the influence of viscoelasticity, dielectric breakdown, and electromechanical coupling induced by Maxwell stress. In the case of a linearized Kelvin-Voigt model of the dielectric, we obtain a closed-form estimate for the electrical power output and a scaling law for DE generator design. For the complete nonlinear model, we obtain the optimal electrostatic voltage input for maximum electrical power output.

  12. Ionic elastomers based on carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR and magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (hydrotalcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laskowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carboxyl groups in carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR allows it to be cured with different agents. This study considers the effect of crosslinking of XNBR by magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH, known also as hydrotalcite (HT, on rheometric, mechano-dynamical and barrier properties. Results of XNBR/HT composites containing various HT loadings without conventional curatives are compared with XNBR compound crosslinked with commonly used zinc oxide. Hydrotalcite acts as an effective crosslinking agent for XNBR, as is particularly evident from rheometric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies. The existence of ionic crosslinks was also detected by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the resulting composites. DMA studies revealed that the XNBR/HT composites exhibited two transitions – one occurring at low temperature is associated to the Tg of elastomer and the second at high temperature corresponds to the ionic transition temperature Ti. Simultaneous application of HT as a curing agent and a filler may deliver not only environmentally friendly, zinc oxide-free rubber product but also ionic elastomer composite with excellent mechanical, barrier and transparent properties.

  13. Centrifugal forming and mechanical properties of silicone-based elastomers for soft robotic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Parth

    This thesis describes the centrifugal forming and resulting mechanical properties of silicone-based elastomers for the manufacture of soft robotic actuators. This process is effective at removing bubbles that get entrapped within 3D-printed, enclosed molds. Conventional methods for rapid prototyping of soft robotic actuators to remove entrapped bubbles typically involve degassing under vacuum, with open-faced molds that limit the layout of formed parts to raised 2D geometries. As the functionality and complexity of soft robots increase, there is a need to mold complete 3D structures with controlled thicknesses or curvatures on multiples surfaces. In addition, characterization of the mechanical properties of common elastomers for these soft robots has lagged the development of new designs. As such, relationships between resulting material properties and processing parameters are virtually non-existent. One of the goals of this thesis is to provide guidelines and physical insights to relate the design, processing conditions, and resulting properties of soft robotic components to each other. Centrifugal forming with accelerations on the order of 100 g's is capable of forming bubble-free, true 3D components for soft robotic actuators, and resulting demonstrations in this work include an aquatic locomotor, soft gripper, and an actuator that straightens when pressurized. Finally, this work shows that the measured mechanical properties of 3D geometries fabricated within enclosed molds through centrifugal forming possess comparable mechanical properties to vacuumed materials formed from open-faced molds with raised 2D features.

  14. Towards nanopatterning by femtosecond laser ablation of pre-stretched elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdo, Salvatore; Piazza, Simonluca; Ceseracciu, Luca; Diaspro, Alberto; Duocastella, Martí, E-mail: marti.duocastella@iit.it

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a new approach to increase the focusing capabilities of optical systems. • Laser patterning is performed over a stretched elastomeric membrane. • After releasing stress, patterns shrink according to the applied strain. • Minimum feature size is controlled by strain, enabling sub-diffraction patterning. - Abstract: Diffraction limits the focusing capabilities of an optical system seriously constraining the use of lasers for nanopatterning. In this work, we present a novel and simple approach to reduce the minimum feature size of a laser-direct write system by ablating a pre-stretched material. In particular, by focusing and scanning a femtosecond laser beam on the surface of a uniaxially pre-stretched elastomeric membrane we are able to obtain microstructures according to a desired pattern. After removing the stress applied to the elastomer, the membrane relaxes to its original size and the ablated patterns shrink while preserving their shape. In this way, the minimum feature size that is typically determined by the optical properties of the focusing system can be now controlled by the strain applied to the elastomer during the ablation process. We demonstrate this approach by ablating lines on a stretchable polymeric membrane at different strain conditions. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The proposed method opens up new interesting possibilities for the rapid prototyping of micro- and nano-structures suitable for a wide range of applications such as soft-lithography, micro-/nano-fluidics and lab-on-chip.

  15. Development of EPDM based thermoplastic elastomers for oil resistant applications: optimization of radiation grafting parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, C.V.; Dubey, K.A.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Sabharwal, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) is currently among the most industrially useful elastomers because of its certain unique properties like excellent heat resistance, resistance towards ozone deterioration, high impact strength. However EPDM has a serious drawback of weak adhesion properties and tendency to swell in contact with paraffin oil and aromatic hydrocarbons. Blending EPDM with suitable polar elastomers or grafting polar polymer chains onto EPDM is an easy method to overcome this drawback. Radiation grafting of Acrylonitrile (ACN) on EPDM provides an easy and effective method of incorporating ACN uniformly on the EPDM backbone. Grafting of ACN on EPDM is expected to result grafted copolymer with better oil resistance, hardness and better compatibility with polar polymer matrices. In the present study radiation induced grafting of ACN onto EPDM rubber film was investigated by mutual radiation grafting technique. Effect of experimental variables viz. radiation dose, dose rate, types of solvents and monomer content on extent of grafting was studied. The solvent composition of Acetone:CCl 4 (20:80) was found to be the optimum mixture which resulted in highest degree of grafting. It was found that the degree of grafting increases with radiation dose, monomer content and decreases with dose rate

  16. New approach to improve the energy density of hybrid electret-dielectric elastomer generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsini, Clara; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Monfray, Stephane; Sylvestre, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Harvesting human kinetic energy to produce electricity is an attractive alternative to batteries for applications in wearable electronic devices and smart textile. Dielectric elastomers generators (DEGs) represent one of the most promising technologies for these applications. Nevertheless, one of the main disadvantages of these structures is the need of an external polarization source to perform the energetic cycle. In the present work, a hybrid electret-dielectric elastomer generator in DEG mode is presented. In this configuration, the electret material is used as polarization source of a classical DEG, i.e. an electrostatic generator based on electrical capacitance variation. The electrical energy output in this mode (1.06mJ.g-1) could be higher than the one obtained using a classical electret mode (0.55mJ.g-1), i.e. charges recombination. In this paper, the operation principle of the hybrid generator will be fully described and the design rules for the realization of the prototype will be presented. The experimental data obtained from the prototype will be compared to the results of FEM simulations.

  17. Significant Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Polyester Elastomer by Polymer Blending and Nanoinclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manwar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic elastomer composites and nanocomposites were fabricated via melt processing technique by blending thermoplastic elastomer (TPEE with poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT thermoplastic and also by adding small amount of organo modified nanoclay and/or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. We study the effect of polymer blending on the mechanical and thermal properties of TPEE blends with and without nanoparticle additions. Significant improvement was observed by blending only TPEE and virgin PBT polymers. With a small amount (0.5 wt.% of nanoclay or PTFE particles added to the TPEE composite, there was further improvement in both the mechanical and thermal properties. To study mechanical properties, flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, tensile strength (TS, and tensile elongation (TE were all investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to analyze the thermal properties, including the heat distortion temperature (HDT, of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the polymer fracture surface morphology. The dispersion of the clay and PTFE nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. This material is proposed for use as a baffle plate in the automotive industry, where both high HDT and high modulus are essential.

  18. Shape forming by thermal expansion mismatch and shape memory locking in polymer/elastomer laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Wang, T. J.; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) structure from 2D thermo-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP)/elastomer bilayer laminate. In this method, the shape change is actuated by the thermal mismatch strain between the SMP and the elastomer layers upon heating. However, the glass transition behavior of the SMP locks the material into a new 3D shape that is stable even upon cooling. Therefore, the second shape becomes a new permanent shape of the laminate. A theoretical model that accounts for the temperature-dependent thermomechanical behavior of the SMP material and thermal mismatch strain between the two layers is developed to better understand the underlying physics. Model predictions and experiments show good agreement and indicate that the theoretical model can well predict the bending behavior of the bilayer laminate. The model is then used in the optimal design of geometrical configuration and material selection. The latter also illustrates the requirement of thermomechanical behaviors of the SMP to lock the shape. Based on the fundamental understandings, several self-folding structures are demonstrated by the bilayer laminate design.

  19. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  20. Design and Preparation of Cross-Linked Polystyrene Nanoparticles for Elastomer Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polystyrene (PS particles in a latex form were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization. The nano-PS-filled elastomer composites were prepared by the energy-saving latex compounding method. Results showed that the PS particles took a spherical shape in the size of 40–60 nm with a narrow size distribution, and the glass-transition temperature of the PS nanoparticles increased with the cross-linking density. The outcomes from the mechanical properties demonstrated that when filled into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR, and natural rubber (NR, the cross-linked PS nano-particles exhibited excellent reinforcing capabilities in all the three matrices, and the best in the SBR matrix. In comparison with that of the carbon black filled composites, another distinguished advantage of the cross-linked PS particles filled elastomer composites was found to be light weight in density, which could help to save tremendous amount of energy when put into end products.

  1. Influence of the molecular modifications on the properties of EPDM elastomers under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenas, J. E-mail: joel.davenas@univ-lyon1.fr; Stevenson, I.; Celette, N.; Vigier, G.; David, L

    2003-08-01

    The degradation of the mechanical behaviour of EPDM elastomers used as cable insulation materials has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy and tensile tests for different formulations: unvulcanised EPDM, vulcanised and stabilised elastomer with an antioxidant. In all cases, {gamma}-irradiation of EPDM under oxygen leads to a reduction of the molecular mobility indicated by the shift of the glass transition relaxation temperature towards higher temperatures. Moreover, the molecular flow occurring above T{sub g} is suppressed after irradiation for the unvulcanised EPDM providing evidence of cross-linking. The competition between cross-linking and chain scissions is shown by the decrease of the storage modulus above the crystallites melting temperature ({approx}40 deg. C) at doses larger than 100 kGy. A strong increase of the Young modulus and reduction of the elongation at break of the non-vulcanised EPDM becoming more brittle are shown by stress/strain characterisations performed at 80 deg. C. At the opposite vulcanised EPDM exhibits higher elongation at break after crystallites melting. This evolution is interpreted by the competition between cross-linking and chain scissions, being hindered by the crystallites at room temperature. The intrinsic irradiation effects can be isolated after crystallite melting. The reduction of the molecular mobility can be explained by a chemi-crystallisation process assisted by chain scissions, leading to a more rigid phase upon irradiation.

  2. Influence of the molecular modifications on the properties of EPDM elastomers under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Stevenson, I.; Celette, N.; Vigier, G.; David, L.

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of the mechanical behaviour of EPDM elastomers used as cable insulation materials has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy and tensile tests for different formulations: unvulcanised EPDM, vulcanised and stabilised elastomer with an antioxidant. In all cases, γ-irradiation of EPDM under oxygen leads to a reduction of the molecular mobility indicated by the shift of the glass transition relaxation temperature towards higher temperatures. Moreover, the molecular flow occurring above T g is suppressed after irradiation for the unvulcanised EPDM providing evidence of cross-linking. The competition between cross-linking and chain scissions is shown by the decrease of the storage modulus above the crystallites melting temperature (∼40 deg. C) at doses larger than 100 kGy. A strong increase of the Young modulus and reduction of the elongation at break of the non-vulcanised EPDM becoming more brittle are shown by stress/strain characterisations performed at 80 deg. C. At the opposite vulcanised EPDM exhibits higher elongation at break after crystallites melting. This evolution is interpreted by the competition between cross-linking and chain scissions, being hindered by the crystallites at room temperature. The intrinsic irradiation effects can be isolated after crystallite melting. The reduction of the molecular mobility can be explained by a chemi-crystallisation process assisted by chain scissions, leading to a more rigid phase upon irradiation

  3. Band-gap tunable dielectric elastomer filter for low frequency noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Wang, Mian; Lu, Tongqing; Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Tiejun

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, diverse materials and technologies for sound insulation have been widely applied in engineering. However, suppressing the noise radiation at low frequency still remains a challenge. In this work, a novel membrane-type smart filter, consisting of a pre-stretched dielectric elastomer membrane with two compliant electrodes coated on the both sides, is presented to control the low frequency noise. Since the stiffness of membrane dominates its acoustic properties, sound transmission band-gap of the membrane filter can be tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to the membrane. The impedance tube experiments have been carried out to measure the sound transmission loss (STL) of the filters with different electrodes, membrane thickness and pre-stretch conditions. The experimental results show that the center frequency of sound transmission band-gap mainly depends on the stress in the dielectric elastomer, and a large band-gap shift (more than 60 Hz) can be achieved by tuning the voltage applied to the 85 mm diameter VHB4910 specimen with pre-stretch {λ }0=3. Based on the experimental results and the assumption that applied electric field is independent of the membrane behavior, 3D finite element analysis has also been conducted to calculate the membrane stress variation. The sound filter proposed herein may provide a promising facility to control low frequency noise source with tonal characteristics.

  4. Integrated Force and Distance Sensing using Elastomer-Embedded Commodity Proximity Sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Radhen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, Rebecca E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Correll, Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We describe a combined proximity, contact and force (PCF) sensor based on a commodity infrared distance sensor embedded in a transparent elastomer with applications in robotic manipulation. Prior to contact, the sensor works as a distance sensor (0{6 cm), whereas after contact the material doubles as a spring, with force proportional to the compression of the elastomer (0{5 N). We describe its principle of operation and design parameters, including polymer thickness, mixing ratio, and emitter current, and show that the sensor response has an in ection point at contact that is independent of an object's surface properties, making it a robust detector for contact events. We then demonstrate how arrays of sensors, custom made for a standard Baxter gripper as well as embedded in the nger of the Kinova hand, can be used to (1) improve gripper alignment during grasping, (2) determine contact points with objects, (3) obtain simple 3D models using both proximity and touch, and (4) register point clouds from touch and RGB-D data.

  5. A soft and conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymer as a compliant electrode for dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymers (Mn = 3 – 5 kg/mol) were chain-extended (Mn = 30 – 45 kg/mol) using hydrosilylation reaction as presented in figure 1. Subsequently, the extended copolymers were added to a conductive nano-filler (multi-walled carbon nanotubes – MWCNTs) in order to enhance...... conductivity. The combination of soft chainextended PDMS-PEG block copolymers and conductive MWCNTs results in a soft and conductive block copolymer composite which potentially can be used as a compliant and highly stretchable electrode for dielectric elastomers. The addition of MWCNTs into the PDMS-PEG matrix...... MWCNTs is 10-3 S/cm compared to 10-1 S/cm of a non-stretchable reference conducting silicone elastomer (LR3162 from Wacker). Furthermore, PDMS-PEG block copolymer with 4 phr MWCNTs (Young’s modulus, Y = 0.26 MPa) is softer and more stretchable thanLR3162 (Y = 1.17 MPa)....

  6. Towards nanopatterning by femtosecond laser ablation of pre-stretched elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdo, Salvatore; Piazza, Simonluca; Ceseracciu, Luca; Diaspro, Alberto; Duocastella, Martí

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a new approach to increase the focusing capabilities of optical systems. • Laser patterning is performed over a stretched elastomeric membrane. • After releasing stress, patterns shrink according to the applied strain. • Minimum feature size is controlled by strain, enabling sub-diffraction patterning. - Abstract: Diffraction limits the focusing capabilities of an optical system seriously constraining the use of lasers for nanopatterning. In this work, we present a novel and simple approach to reduce the minimum feature size of a laser-direct write system by ablating a pre-stretched material. In particular, by focusing and scanning a femtosecond laser beam on the surface of a uniaxially pre-stretched elastomeric membrane we are able to obtain microstructures according to a desired pattern. After removing the stress applied to the elastomer, the membrane relaxes to its original size and the ablated patterns shrink while preserving their shape. In this way, the minimum feature size that is typically determined by the optical properties of the focusing system can be now controlled by the strain applied to the elastomer during the ablation process. We demonstrate this approach by ablating lines on a stretchable polymeric membrane at different strain conditions. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The proposed method opens up new interesting possibilities for the rapid prototyping of micro- and nano-structures suitable for a wide range of applications such as soft-lithography, micro-/nano-fluidics and lab-on-chip.

  7. Motion behaviour of magneto-sensitive elastomers controlled by an external magnetic field for sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, T.I., E-mail: tatiana.volkova@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Böhm, V., E-mail: valter.boehm@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Kaufhold, T., E-mail: tobias.kaufhold@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Popp, J., E-mail: jana.popp@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Becker, F., E-mail: felix.becker@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Borin, D.Yu., E-mail: dmitry.borin@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Stepanov, G.V., E-mail: gstepanov@mail.ru [State Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 105118 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimmermann, K., E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Mechanics Group, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The development of sensor systems with a complex adaptive regulation of the operating sensitivity and behaviour is an actual scientific and technical challenge. Smart materials like magneto-sensitive elastomers (MSE) are seen as one potential solution for this problem, since their mechanical properties may be controlled by external magnetic fields. The present paper deals with the investigation of elastic and damping properties of MSE containing magnetically soft particles under the influence of a uniform magnetic field. Based on the measurement of the first eigenfrequency of free bending vibrations of a fixed beam, the effective Young's modulus is evaluated theoretically and also numerically using Finite Element Method. It is shown that this parameter, as well as the first eigenfrequency of the beam, increases monotonically with the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The results are aimed to develop an acceleration sensor with adaptive magnetically controllable sensitivity range for the detection of external mechanical stimuli of the environment. - Highlights: • The motion behaviour of magneto-sensitive elastomers (MSE) with magnetically soft particles is investigated. • The first eigenfrequency of free bending vibrations of an MSE beam can be controlled by a uniform magnetic field. • Based on the experimental results, the effective Young's modulus of the system is evaluated theoretically and numerically. • The Young's modulus increases monotonically with the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. • The controlled mechanical compliance of MSE may be used for development of sensor systems with adaptive sensitivity range.

  8. A new magnetorheological fluid–elastomer mount: phenomenological modeling and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2009-01-01

    A new magnetorheological (MR) mount consisting of an MR fluid encapsulated in a polymeric solid is presented. The mechanical properties of the proposed mount are controllable through an externally applied magnetic field. The dynamic behavior of this system under various magnetic fields has been investigated by means of oscillatory compression cycles over a frequency range of 0.1–10 Hz for various deformations (less than 1 mm). The energy dissipation in the material is analyzed as related to strain amplitude, strain frequency and magnetic field strength. The field induced damping mechanism is discussed in terms of the damping exponent. A phenomenological model is presented to account for the dynamic behavior of the MR fluid–elastomer mount's vibration isolators under oscillatory compressive deformations. This model is a two-element system comprised of a variable friction damper and a nonlinear spring. The parameters of the model have been identified by a series of harmonic loading tests. The theoretical and experimental results are in excellent agreement. Both experimental and theoretical results have demonstrated that the proposed MR fluid–elastomer mounts show promise in applications where tuning vibration characteristics of a system are desired, such as altering natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping properties

  9. Dynamic characterization and modeling of magneto-rheological elastomers under compressive loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jeong-Hoi; Khan, Fazeel; Jang, Dong-Doo; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the research reported in this paper has been to characterize and model the compression properties of magneto-rheological elastomers (MREs). MRE samples were fabricated by curing a two-component elastomer resin with 30% content of 10 µm sized iron particles by volume. In order to vary the magnetic field during compressive testing, a test fixture was designed and fabricated in which two permanent magnets could be variably positioned on either side of the specimen. Changing the distance between the magnets of the fixture allowed the strength of the magnetic field passing uniformly through the sample to be varied. Using this test setup and a dynamic test frame, a series of compression tests of MRE samples were performed, by varying the magnetic field and the frequency of loading. The results show that the MR effect (per cent increase in the material 'stiffness') increases as the magnetic field increases and the loading frequency increases within the range of the magnetic field and input frequency considered in this study. Furthermore, a phenomenological model was developed to capture the dynamic behaviors of the MREs under compression loadings. (technical note)

  10. Control of Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers by Restriction of Crystallization of Soft Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Nakamura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers based on either polyether or polycarbonate (PC-glycols, 4,4’-dipheylmethane diisocyanate (1,1’-methylenebis(4-isocyanatobenzene, 1,4-butanediol, were controlled by restriction of crystallization of polymer glycols. For the polyether glycol based-polyurethane elastomers (PUEs, poly(oxytetramethylene glycol (PTMG, and PTMG incorporating dimethyl groups (PTG-X and methyl side groups (PTG-L were employed as a polymer glycol. For the PC-glycol, the randomly copolymerized PC-glycols with hexamethylene (C6 and tetramethylene (C4 units between carbonate groups with various composition ratios (C4/C6 = 0/100, 50/50, 70/30 and 90/10 were employed. The degree of microphase separation and mechanical properties of both the PUEs were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic viscoelastic property measurements and tensile testing. Mechanical properties could be controlled by changing the molar ratio of two different monomer components.

  11. Electrothermally Driven Fluorescence Switching by Liquid Crystal Elastomers Based On Dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changxu; Jiang, Yin; Tao, Cheng-An; Yin, Xianpeng; Lan, Yue; Wang, Chen; Wang, Shiqiang; Liu, Xiangyang; Li, Guangtao

    2017-04-05

    In this article, the fabrication of an active organic-inorganic one-dimensional photonic crystal structure to offer electrothermal fluorescence switching is described. The film is obtained by spin-coating of liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) and TiO 2 nanoparticles alternatively. By utilizing the property of LCEs that can change their size and shape reversibly under external thermal stimulations, the λ max of the photonic band gap of these films is tuned by voltage through electrothermal conversion. The shifted photonic band gap further changes the matching degree between the photonic band gap of the film and the emission spectrum of organic dye mounting on the film. With rhodamine B as an example, the enhancement factor of its fluorescence emission is controlled by varying the matching degree. Thus, the fluorescence intensity is actively switched by voltage applied on the system, in a fast, adjustable, and reversible manner. The control chain of using the electrothermal stimulus to adjust fluorescence intensity via controlling the photonic band gap is proved by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis reflectance. This mechanism also corresponded to the results from the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The comprehensive usage of photonic crystals and liquid crystal elastomers opened a new possibility for active optical devices.

  12. Evaluation of the performance of three elastomers for non-lethal projectile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, N.; Epaarachchi, J.; Lau, K. T.

    2015-09-01

    Less lethal kinetic ammunitions with soft noses such as eXact iMpact 1006, National Sports Spartan and B&T have been commonly used by military and law enforcement officers in the situations where lethal force is not warranted. In order to explore new materials to be used as nose in such ammunitions, a scholastic study using finite element simulations has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two rubber like elastomers and a polyolefinic foam (low density, highly compressible, stiff and closed cell type of thermos plastic elastomer). State-of-the art thorax surrogate MTHOTA has been employed for the evaluation of blunt thoracic trauma. Force-rigid wall method was employed for the evaluation of head damage curves for each material. XM 1006 has been used as the benchmark projectile for the purpose of comparison. Both blunt thoracic trauma and head damage criterion point of view, both rubbers (R1 and R2) have yielded high values of VCmax and peak impact force. Polyolefinic foam (F1) considered in the study has yielded very promising VCmax values and very less peak impact force when compared with those of bench mark projectile XM 1006.

  13. Evaluation of area strain response of dielectric elastomer actuator using image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Raj K.; Sudarshan, Koyya; Patra, Karali; Bhaumik, Shovan

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is a kind of soft actuators that can produce significantly large electric-field induced actuation strain and may be a basic unit of artificial muscles and robotic elements. Understanding strain development on a pre-stretched sample at different regimes of electrical field is essential for potential applications. In this paper, we report about ongoing work on determination of area strain using digital camera and image processing technique. The setup, developed in house consists of low cost digital camera, data acquisition and image processing algorithm. Samples have been prepared by biaxially stretched acrylic tape and supported between two cardboard frames. Carbon-grease has been pasted on the both sides of the sample, which will be compliant with electric field induced large deformation. Images have been grabbed before and after the application of high voltage. From incremental image area, strain has been calculated as a function of applied voltage on a pre-stretched dielectric elastomer (DE) sample. Area strain has been plotted with the applied voltage for different pre-stretched samples. Our study shows that the area strain exhibits nonlinear relationship with applied voltage. For same voltage higher area strain has been generated on a sample having higher pre-stretched value. Also our characterization matches well with previously published results which have been done with costly video extensometer. The study may be helpful for the designers to fabricate the biaxial pre-stretched planar actuator from similar kind of materials.

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites in absence and presence of acrylic elastomer (ACM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Rath, T; Mahaling, R N; Mukherjee, M; Khatua, B B; Das, C K

    2009-05-01

    Polyetherimide/Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) nanocomposites containing as-received and modified (COOH-MWNT) carbon nanotubes were prepared through melt process in extruder and then compression molded. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the MWNTs were well dispersed and formed an intimate contact with the polymer matrix without any agglomeration. However the incorporation of modified carbon nanotubes formed fascinating, highly crosslinked, and compact network structure throughout the polymer matrix. This showed the increased adhesion of PEI with modified MWNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed high degree of dispersion of modified MWNTs along with broken ends. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a marginal increase in storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (T(g)) with the addition of MWNTs. Increase in tensile strength and impact strength of composites confirmed the use the MWNTs as possible reinforcement agent. Both thermal and electrical conductivity of composites increased, but effect is more pronounced on modification due to formation of network of carbon nanotubes. Addition of acrylic elastomer to developed PEI/MWNTs (modified) nanocomposites resulted in the further increase in thermal and electrical properties due to the formation of additional bond between MWNTs and acrylic elastomers at the interface. All the results presented are well corroborated by SEM and FESEM studies.

  15. Modelling and characterization of inflated dielectric elastomer actuators with tubular configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chi; Chen, Hualing; Liu, Lei; Li, Dichen

    2015-01-01

    A dielectric elastomer undergoes large and fast deformation subject to external electric stimuli, making it a promising artificial muscle for various kinds of actuators, sensors and energy generators. This paper presents an actuator fabricated by (1) rolling a dielectric elastomer membrane, (2) pre-stretching the membrane along the radial direction and fixing the edges with rigid cylindrical plastic ends, and (3) applying a force to the end along the longitudinal direction and pumping air into the tube for inflation. Subject to a voltage, the structure works as an actuator with a large linear stroke. Governing equations of this actuator are established and simulation results are found to agree well with experimental results. We examine four modes of failure, namely loss of tension, electrical breakdown, snap-through instability and tensile rupture, with a variation in applied pressure. The actuating voltage is greatly reduced by applying pressure, providing the possibility of low-voltage driving. By regulating the applied pressure, large actuation strain and displacement are obtained simultaneously and the distributions of stretch, true stress and the true electric field become more homogeneous. (paper)

  16. A disposable and multifunctional capsule for easy operation of microfluidic elastomer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorslund, Sara; Läräng, Thomas; Kreuger, Johan; Nguyen, Hugo; Barkefors, Irmeli

    2011-01-01

    The global lab-on-chip and microfluidic markets for cell-based assays have been predicted to grow considerably, as novel microfluidic systems enable cell biologists to perform in vitro experiments at an unprecedented level of experimental control. Nevertheless, microfluidic assays must, in order to compete with conventional assays, be made available at easily affordable costs, and in addition be made simple to operate for users having no previous experience with microfluidics. We have to this end developed a multifunctional microfluidic capsule that can be mass-produced at low cost in thermoplastic material. The capsule enables straightforward operation of elastomer inserts of optional design, here exemplified with insert designs for molecular gradient formation in microfluidic cell culture systems. The integrated macro–micro interface of the capsule ensures reliable connection of the elastomer fluidic structures to an external perfusion system. A separate compartment in the capsule filled with superabsorbent material is used for internal waste absorption. The capsule assembly process is made easy by integrated snap-fits, and samples within the closed capsule can be analyzed using both inverted and upright microscopes. Taken together, the capsule concept presented here could help accelerate the use of microfluidic-based biological assays in the life science sector. (technical note)

  17. Dynamic- and Thermo- mechanical Analysis of Inorganic Nanotubes/elastomer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin FUITH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We present dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and thermomechanical analysis (TMA measurements of a new type of polyurea elastomer nanocomposites based on inorganic MoS2 nanotubes and Mo6S2I8 nanowires. The addition of a small amount of nanoparticles (<1 wt-% leads to an increase of the glass transition temperature Tg as compared to the pure elastomeric matrix. A second peak observed in tand in the pure and mixed elastomer is attributed to a second glass transition occurring in regions near the hard nanodomains of the microphase separated polyurea system. It is also found that the small amount of nanoparticles leads to an increase in the Young´s modulus of up to 15 % in the whole measured temperature range (from -130 °C to 20 °C. The thermal expansion of doped samples is considerably larger above Tg. Below Tg, this difference vanishes completely. A very similar behaviour was also found in measurements of polyisoprene/multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT composites.

  18. Dynamic characterization and modeling of magneto-rheological elastomers under compressive loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J H; Khan, F; Jang, D D; Jung, H J

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to characterize and model the compression properties of Magneto-Rheological Elastomers (MREs). MRE samples were fabricated by curing a two component elastomer resin with 30% content of 10 μm sized iron particles by volume. In order to vary the magnetic field during compressive testing, a test fixture was designed and fabricated in which two permanent magnets could be variably positioned on either side of the specimen. By changing the distance between the magnets, the fixture allowed for varying the magnetic field that passes uniformly through the sample. Using this test setup and a dynamic test frame, a series of compression tests of MRE samples was performed by varying the magnetic field and frequency of loading. The results show the MR effect (percent increase in the materials 'stiffness') increases as the magnetic field increases and loading frequency increases within the range of the magnetic field and input frequency considered in this study. Furthermore, a phenomenological model was developed to capture the dynamic behaviours of the MREs under compression loadings.

  19. High-cycle electromechanical aging of dielectric elastomer actuators with carbon-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint-Aubin, C. A.; Rosset, S.; Schlatter, S.; Shea, H.

    2018-07-01

    We present high-cycle aging tests of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) based on silicone elastomers, reporting on the time-evolution of actuation strain and of electrode resistance over millions of cycles. We compare several types of carbon-based electrodes, and for the first time show how the choice of electrode has a dramatic influence on DEA aging. An expanding circle DEA configuration is used, consisting of a commercial silicone membrane with the following electrodes: commercial carbon grease applied manually, solvent-diluted carbon grease applied by stamping (pad printing), loose carbon black powder applied manually, carbon black powder suspension applied by inkjet-printing, and conductive silicone-carbon composite applied by stamping. The silicone-based DEAs with manually applied carbon grease electrodes show the shortest lifetime of less than 105 cycles at 5% strain, while the inkjet-printed carbon powder and the stamped silicone-carbon composite make for the most reliable devices, with lifetimes greater than 107 cycles at 5% strain. These results are valid for the specific dielectric and electrode configurations that were tested: using other dielectrics or electrode formulations would lead to different lifetimes and failure modes. We find that aging (as seen in the change in resistance and in actuation strain versus cycle number) is independent of the actuation frequency from 10 Hz to 200 Hz, and depends on the total accumulated time the DEA spends in an actuated state.

  20. Temperature-dependent magnetic properties of a magnetoactive elastomer: Immobilization of the soft-magnetic filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, Andrii V.; Brunhuber, Alexander; Kalita, Viktor M.; Kulyk, Mykola M.; Snarskii, Andrei A.; Lozenko, Albert F.; Ryabchenko, Sergey M.; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic properties of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) filled with μm-sized soft-magnetic iron particles have been experimentally studied in the temperature range between 150 K and 310 K. By changing the temperature, the elastic modulus of the elastomer matrix was modified, and it was possible to obtain magnetization curves for an invariable arrangement of particles in the sample and in the case when the particles were able to change their position within the MAE under the influence of magnetic forces. At low (less than 220 K) temperatures, when the matrix becomes rigid, the magnetization of the MAE does not show a hysteresis behavior, and it is characterized by a negative value of the Rayleigh constant. At room temperature, when the polymer matrix is compliant, a magnetic hysteresis exists where the dependence of the differential magnetic susceptibility on the magnetic field exhibits local maxima. The appearance of these maxima is explained by the elastic resistance of the matrix to the displacement of particles under the action of magnetic forces.

  1. 3D flexible NiTi-braided elastomer composites for smart structure applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, L; Vokoun, D; Šittner, P; Finckh, H

    2012-01-01

    While outstanding functional properties of thin NiTi wires are nowadays well recognized and beneficially utilized in medical NiTi devices, development of 2D/3D wire structures made out of these NiTi wires remains challenging and mostly unexplored. The research is driven by the idea of creating novel 2D/3D smart structures which inherit the functional properties of NiTi wires and actively utilize geometrical deformations within the structure to create new/improved functional properties. Generally, textile technology provides attractive processing methods for manufacturing 2D/3D smart structures made out of NiTi wires. Such structures may be beneficially combined with soft elastomers to create smart deformable composites. Following this route, we carried out experimental work focused on development of 3D flexible NiTi-braided elastomer composites involving their design, laboratory manufacture and thermomechanical testing. We describe the manufacturing technology and structural properties of these composites; and perform thermomechanical tests on the composites, focusing particularly on quasistatic tensile properties, energy absorption, damping and actuation under tensile loading. Functional thermomechanical properties of the composites are discussed with regard to the mechanical properties of the components and architecture of the composites. It is found that the composites indeed inherit all important features of the thermomechanical behavior of NiTi wires but, due to their internal architecture, outperform single NiTi wires in some features such as the magnitude of recoverable strain, superelastic damping capacity and thermally induced actuation strain. (paper)

  2. Changes in mechanical properties and morphology of elastomer coatings after immersion in salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Arce, Fernando; Avci, Recep; Beech, Iwona; Cooksey, Keith; Wigglesworth-Cooksey, Barbara

    2004-03-01

    RTV11 (^TM GE Silicones) and Intersleek (^TM International Paints) are two elastomers of considerable significance to the navy and maritime industry for their application as fouling release coatings. Both materials are composed of polymeric matrices with embedded filler particles, which provide increased strength and durability to the elastomer. Using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface and bulk analysis techniques, we have found surface regions with microelastic properties, which correlate with the locations of filler particles inside the coatings. These particles are able to undergo elastic displacements of hundreds of nm inside the polymeric matrix during compression by the AFM tip. While elastic properties of Intersleek remain largely unchanged after immersion in salt solutions, roughening, embrittlement and stiffening occurs in RTV11 coatings depending on the amount of curing agent and humidity used during preparation and curing, respectively. Interestingly, such transformations are absent after immersion in pure water. In particle free regions, elastic moduli of RTV11 take values of 2 - 3 MPa before immersion in salt solutions. After immersion, those values increase 5 - 10 times.

  3. A facile approach to spinning multifunctional conductive elastomer fibres with nanocarbon fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedin, Shayan; Razal, Joselito M; Innis, Peter C; Wallace, Gordon G

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive elastomeric fibres prepared using a wet-spinning process are promising materials for intelligent textiles, in particular as a strain sensing component of the fabric. However, these fibres, when reinforced with conducting fillers, typically result in a compromise between mechanical and electrical properties and, ultimately, in the strain sensing functionality. Here we investigate the wet-spinning of polyurethane (PU) fibres with a range of conducting fillers such as carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and chemically converted graphene. We show that the electrical and mechanical properties of the composite fibres were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio of the filler and the interaction between the filler and the elastomer. The high aspect ratio SWCNT filler resulted in fibres with the highest electrical properties and reinforcement, while the fibres produced from the low aspect ratio CB had the highest stretchability. Furthermore, PU/SWCNT fibres presented the largest sensing range (up to 60% applied strain) and the most consistent and stable cyclic sensing behaviour. This work provides an understanding of the important factors that influence the production of conductive elastomer fibres by wet-spinning, which can be woven or knitted into textiles for the development of wearable strain sensors. (paper)

  4. Elastomer Nanocomposites Based on Butadiene Rubber, Nanoclay and Epoxy-Polyester Hybrid: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Zoghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites based on butadiene rubber (BR, (0, 3, 5 and 7 phr organoclay (Cloisite 15A and (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 phr powder coating wastes, i.e., epoxypolyester hybrid (EPH were prepared using a laboratory-scale internal mixer in order to study the effect of organoclay and EPH content on the mechanical and morphological properties of the nanocomposite samples. Cure characteristics of the prepared compounds including optimum cure time (t90 and scorch time (t5 depicted a decrease in both mentioned factors with increasing nanoclay content and EPH loading.Intercalation of elastomer chains into the silicate layers was determined by d-spacing values calculated according to the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD results reveal the intercalation of elastomer chains into the clay galleries. This phenomenon was also confirmed according to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite samples which were observed to be improved with addition of nanoclay and EPH content.

  5. Micro-vibration response of a stochastically excited sandwich beam with a magnetorheological elastomer core and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Z G; Ni, Y Q

    2009-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) elastomers are used to construct a smart sandwich beam for micro-vibration control. The micro-vibration response of a clamped–free sandwich beam with an MR elastomer core and a supplemental mass under stochastic support micro-motion excitation is studied. The dynamic behavior of MR elastomer as a smart viscoelastic material is described by a complex modulus which is controllable by external magnetic field. The sixth-order partial differential equation of motion of the sandwich beam is derived from the dynamic equilibrium, constitutive and geometric relations. A frequency-domain solution method for the stochastic micro-vibration response of the sandwich beam is developed by using the frequency-response function, power spectral density function and spatial eigensolution. The root-mean-square velocity response in terms of the one-third octave frequency band is calculated, and then the response reduction capacity through optimizing the complex modulus of the core is analyzed. Numerical results illustrate the influences of the MR elastomer core parameters on the root-mean-square velocity response and the high response reduction capacity of the sandwich beam. The developed analysis method is applicable to sandwich beams with arbitrary cores described by complex shear moduli under arbitrary stochastic excitations described by power spectral density functions

  6. Molecular beam deposition of high-permittivity polydimethylsiloxane for nanometer-thin elastomer films in dielectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Weiss, Florian; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Töpper, Tino

    2016-01-01

    monitoring. Using atomic force microscopy, the film surface morphology and mechanics were characterized after growth termination and subsequent curing. The Young's modulus of the elastomer corresponded to (1.8 ± 0.2) MPa and is thus a factor of two lower than that of DMS-V05. Consequently, the properties...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart U of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Elastomer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber. EPI = Epichlorohydrin Rubber. EPR = Ethylene Propylene Rubber. HBR = Halobutyl Rubber. HYP = Hypalon TM. NEO = Neoprene. NBL = Nitrile Butadiene Latex. NBR = Nitrile Butadiene Rubber. PBR/SBRS... products] Organic HAP/chemical name (CAS No.) Elastomer product/subcategory BR EPI EPR HBR HYP NEO NBL NBR...

  8. Palm oil biodiesel synthesized with potassium loaded calcined hydrotalcite and effect of biodiesel blend on elastomer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakarnpruk, Wimonrat; Porntangjitlikit, Suriya [Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-07-15

    Biodiesel was prepared from palm oil by transesterification with methanol in the presence of 1.5%K loaded-calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Fatty acid methyl esters content of 96.9% and methyl ester yield of 86.6% were achieved using a 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at 100{sup o}C for 6 h and 7 wt% catalyst. The biodiesel was characterized and its impact on elastomer properties was evaluated. The compatibility of B10 diesel blend (10% biodiesel) with six types of elastomers commonly found in fuel systems (NBR, HNBR, NBR/PVC, acrylic rubber, co-polymer FKM, and terpolymer FKM) were investigated. The physical properties of elastomers after immersion in tested fuels (for 22, 670, and 1008 h at 100{sup o}C) were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). These include swelling (mass change and volume change), hardness, tensile and elongation, as well as the dynamic mechanical property. The results showed that properties of NBR, NBR/PVC and acrylic rubber were affected more than other elastomers. This is due to the absorption and dissolving of biodiesel by rubber in these samples. Co-polymer FKM and terpolymer FKM which are fluoroelastomers show little property change. (author)

  9. Effects of thermo-order-mechanical coupling on band structures in liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Ying

    2018-08-01

    Liquid crystal nematic elastomers are one kind of smart anisotropic and viscoelastic solids simultaneously combing the properties of rubber and liquid crystals, which is thermal sensitivity. In this paper, the wave dispersion in a liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystal subjected to an external thermal stimulus is theoretically investigated. Firstly, an energy function is proposed to determine thermo-induced deformation in NE periodic structures. Based on this function, thermo-induced band variation in liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystals is investigated in detail. The results show that when liquid crystal elastomer changes from nematic state to isotropic state due to the variation of the temperature, the absolute band gaps at different bands are opened or closed. There exists a threshold temperature above which the absolute band gaps are opened or closed. Larger porosity benefits the opening of the absolute band gaps. The deviation of director from the structural symmetry axis is advantageous for the absolute band gap opening in nematic state whist constrains the absolute band gap opening in isotropic state. The combination effect of temperature and director orientation provides an added degree of freedom in the intelligent tuning of the absolute band gaps in phononic crystals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of pre-set extension on the degree of hydrolytic degradation in multicomponent polyurethane elastomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Hodan, Jiří; Serkis-Rodzen, Magdalena; Kredatusová, Jana; Zhigunov, Alexander; Kotek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 142, August (2017), s. 69-78 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane * extension-imposed test * elastomer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2016

  11. The influence of static pre-stretching on the mechanical ageing of filled silicone rubbers for dielectric elastomer applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Yu, Liyun; Kofod, Guggi

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) pre-stretching is a key aspect of attaining better actuation performance, as ithelps prevent electromechanical instability (EMI) and usually lowers the Young’s modulus, thus leading toeasier deformation. The pre-stretched DE is not only susceptible to a high risk...

  12. Morphing Metal and Elastomer Bicontinuous Foams for Reversible Stiffness, Shape Memory, and Self-Healing Soft Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meerbeek, Ilse M; Mac Murray, Benjamin C; Kim, Jae Woo; Robinson, Sanlin S; Zou, Perry X; Silberstein, Meredith N; Shepherd, Robert F

    2016-04-13

    A metal-elastomer-foam composite that varies in stiffness, that can change shape and store shape memory, that self-heals, and that welds into monolithic structures from smaller components is presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Existence of a tribo-modified surface layer of BR/S-SBR elastomers reinforced with silica or carbon black

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokhtari, Milad; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a modified surface layer on top of a rubber disk, in contact with a rigid counter-surface, is still a point of discussion. In this study, we show that a modified surface layer with different mechanical properties exists. Modification of the reinforced elastomers is discussed and the

  14. Influence of load on the dry frictional performance of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond-like carbon films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, D. Martinez; Nohava, Jiri; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of applied load on the frictional behavior of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond- like carbon films is studied at dry conditions. The performance of two coatings with very different microstructure (patched vs. continuous film) is compared with the

  15. Plasma Polymerization of Acetylene onto silica: and Approach to control the distribution of silica in single elastomers and immiscible blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, M.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Ooij, W.J.; Dierkes, Wilma K.

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification of silica by acetylene plasma polymerization is applied in order to improve the dispersion in and compatibility with single rubbers and their blends. Silica, used as a reinforcing filler for elastomers, is coated with a polyacetylene (PA) film under vacuum conditions. Water

  16. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g −1 dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  17. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xwang25@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Padgett, Jennifer M. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Powell, John S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Campus Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  18. Local Fractional Adomian Decomposition and Function Decomposition Methods for Laplace Equation within Local Fractional Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform a comparison between the local fractional Adomian decomposition and local fractional function decomposition methods applied to the Laplace equation. The operators are taken in the local sense. The results illustrate the significant features of the two methods which are both very effective and straightforward for solving the differential equations with local fractional derivative.

  19. Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate-dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wall, D.H.; Bradford, M.A.; John, M.G.St.; Trofymow, J.A.; Behan-Pelletier, V.; Bignell, D.E.; Dangerfield, J.M.; Parton, W.J.; Rusek, Josef; Voigt, W.; Wolters, V.; Gardel, H.Z.; Ayuke, F. O.; Bashford, R.; Beljakova, O.I.; Bohlen, P.J.; Brauman, A.; Flemming, S.; Henschel, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Jones, T.H.; Kovářová, Marcela; Kranabetter, J.M.; Kutny, L.; Lin, K.-Ch.; Maryati, M.; Masse, D.; Pokarzhevskii, A.; Rahman, H.; Sabará, M.G.; Salamon, J.-A.; Swift, M.J.; Varela, A.; Vasconcelos, H.L.; White, D.; Zou, X.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 11 (2008), s. 2661-2677 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : climate decomposition index * decomposition * litter Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.876, year: 2008

  20. Preparation of magnetorheological elastomers and their slip-free characterization by means of parallel-plate rotational rheometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bastian L.; Pelteret, Jean-Paul; Kaschta, Joachim; Schubert, Dirk W.; Steinmann, Paul

    2017-08-01

    A systematic study is presented to highlight a methodology of sample preparation and subsequent slip-free characterization of magnetorheological (MR) elastomers in parallel-plate rotational rheometry. Focusing on the magnetic field-dependent nonlinear viscoelastic behavior an array of oscillatory strain sweep measurements is conducted with samples cured within the rheometer. The examined nonlinear material response (i.e. the amplitude dependence of the storage and loss moduli) as a function of the applied magnetic field is found to be qualitatively similar to the amplitude dependence of particle reinforced elastomers (i.e. the Payne effect). Therefore, the experimental data (both moduli) is decomposed similar to that for reinforced elastomers and a phenomenological model is formulated for both the storage and loss modulus to account for the physical mechanisms governing the nonlinear material characteristics. Parameter identification suggests that the material response at low magnetic fields is dominated by the polymeric network whereas the strong magneto-reinforced microstructure governs the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior at high magnetic fields. The overall experimental outcome further suggests that the underlying concept of the phenomenological model for particle reinforced elastomers (i.e. destruction and reformation of the filler network) can be transfered to MR materials. Consequently, the proposed phenomenological model can be applied to quantify and further analyze the nonlinear response characteristics of MR elastomers (i.e. the amplitude dependence of the storage and loss modulus as a function of the applied magnetic field) that is closely linked to microstructural changes of the magnetizable particle network.

  1. Steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Alan Anwar; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition. A number of existing schemes such as binary, Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, Lucas, and Catalan-Fibonacci (CF) are evaluated in terms of payload capacity and stego quality. A new technique based on a specific representation is proposed to decompose pixel intensity values into 16 (virtual) bit-planes suitable for embedding purposes. The proposed decomposition has a desirable property whereby the sum of all bit-planes does not exceed the maximum pixel intensity value, i.e. 255. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers an effective compromise between payload capacity and stego quality of existing embedding techniques based on pixel intensity value decomposition. Its capacity is equal to that of binary and Lucas, while it offers a higher capacity than Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, and CF when the secret bits are embedded in 1st Least Significant Bit (LSB). When the secret bits are embedded in higher bit-planes, i.e., 2nd LSB to 8th Most Significant Bit (MSB), the proposed scheme has more capacity than Natural numbers based embedding. However, from the 6th bit-plane onwards, the proposed scheme offers better stego quality. In general, the proposed decomposition scheme has less effect in terms of quality on pixel value when compared to most existing pixel intensity value decomposition techniques when embedding messages in higher bit-planes.

  2. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  3. Thermal decomposition process of silver behenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianhao; Lu Shuxia; Zhang Jingchang; Cao Weiliang

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition processes of silver behenate have been studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TG-DTA and the higher temperature IR and XRD measurements indicated that complicated structural changes took place while heating silver behenate, but there were two distinct thermal transitions. During the first transition at 138 deg. C, the alkyl chains of silver behenate were transformed from an ordered into a disordered state. During the second transition at about 231 deg. C, a structural change took place for silver behenate, which was the decomposition of silver behenate. The major products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were metallic silver and behenic acid. Upon heating up to 500 deg. C, the final product of the thermal decomposition was metallic silver. The combined TG-MS analysis showed that the gas products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, acetylene and some small molecule alkenes. TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the process of the formation and growth of metallic silver nanoparticles

  4. Radiolytic decomposition of 4-bromodiphenyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Liang; Xu Gang; Wu Wenjing; Shi Wenyan; Liu Ning; Bai Yulei; Wu Minghong

    2010-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) spread widely in the environment are mainly removed by photochemical and anaerobic microbial degradation. In this paper, the decomposition of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE -3), the PBDEs homologues, is investigated by electron beam irradiation of its ethanol/water solution (reduction system) and acetonitrile/water solution (oxidation system). The radiolytic products were determined by GC coupled with electron capture detector, and the reaction rate constant of e sol - in the reduction system was measured at 2.7 x 10 10 L · mol -1 · s -1 by pulsed radiolysis. The results show that the BDE-3 concentration affects strongly the decomposition ratio in the alkali solution, and the reduction system has a higher BDE-3 decomposition rate than the oxidation system. This indicates that the BDE-3 was reduced by effectively capturing e sol - in radiolytic process. (authors)

  5. Parallel processing for pitch splitting decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Levi; Li, Yong; Wadkins, David; Biederman, Steve; Miloslavsky, Alex; Cork, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Decomposition of an input pattern in preparation for a double patterning process is an inherently global problem in which the influence of a local decomposition decision can be felt across an entire pattern. In spite of this, a large portion of the work can be massively distributed. Here, we discuss the advantages of geometric distribution for polygon operations with limited range of influence. Further, we have found that even the naturally global "coloring" step can, in large part, be handled in a geometrically local manner. In some practical cases, up to 70% of the work can be distributed geometrically. We also describe the methods for partitioning the problem into local pieces and present scaling data up to 100 CPUs. These techniques reduce DPT decomposition runtime by orders of magnitude.

  6. Thermal Plasma decomposition of fluoriated greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Seok; Watanabe, Takayuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Park, Dong Wha [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Fluorinated compounds mainly used in the semiconductor industry are potent greenhouse gases. Recently, thermal plasma gas scrubbers have been gradually replacing conventional burn-wet type gas scrubbers which are based on the combustion of fossil fuels because high conversion efficiency and control of byproduct generation are achievable in chemically reactive high temperature thermal plasma. Chemical equilibrium composition at high temperature and numerical analysis on a complex thermal flow in the thermal plasma decomposition system are used to predict the process of thermal decomposition of fluorinated gas. In order to increase economic feasibility of the thermal plasma decomposition process, increase of thermal efficiency of the plasma torch and enhancement of gas mixing between the thermal plasma jet and waste gas are discussed. In addition, noble thermal plasma systems to be applied in the thermal plasma gas treatment are introduced in the present paper.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    during the HP decomposition. The model assumes that the enzyme decay is controlled by an inactivation stoichiometry related to the HP decomposition. In order to make the model easily applicable, it is furthermore assumed that the COD is a proxy of the active biomass concentration of the water and thereby......Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...

  8. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrault, M.; Cances, E.; Hager, W.W.; Le Bris, C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure

  9. Fast approximate convex decomposition using relative concavity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Mukulika; Amato, Nancy M.; Lu, Yanyan; Lien, Jyh-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into approximately convex components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can also generate a more manageable number of components. It can be used as a basis of divide-and-conquer algorithms for applications such as collision detection, skeleton extraction and mesh generation. In this paper, we propose a new method called Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition (FACD) that improves the quality of the decomposition and reduces the cost of computing it for both 2D and 3D models. In particular, we propose a new strategy for evaluating potential cuts that aims to reduce the relative concavity, rather than absolute concavity. As shown in our results, this leads to more natural and smaller decompositions that include components for small but important features such as toes or fingers while not decomposing larger components, such as the torso, that may have concavities due to surface texture. Second, instead of decomposing a component into two pieces at each step, as in the original ACD, we propose a new strategy that uses a dynamic programming approach to select a set of n c non-crossing (independent) cuts that can be simultaneously applied to decompose the component into n c+1 components. This reduces the depth of recursion and, together with a more efficient method for computing the concavity measure, leads to significant gains in efficiency. We provide comparative results for 2D and 3D models illustrating the improvements obtained by FACD over ACD and we compare with the segmentation methods in the Princeton Shape Benchmark by Chen et al. (2009) [31]. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast approximate convex decomposition using relative concavity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Mukulika

    2013-02-01

    Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into approximately convex components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can also generate a more manageable number of components. It can be used as a basis of divide-and-conquer algorithms for applications such as collision detection, skeleton extraction and mesh generation. In this paper, we propose a new method called Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition (FACD) that improves the quality of the decomposition and reduces the cost of computing it for both 2D and 3D models. In particular, we propose a new strategy for evaluating potential cuts that aims to reduce the relative concavity, rather than absolute concavity. As shown in our results, this leads to more natural and smaller decompositions that include components for small but important features such as toes or fingers while not decomposing larger components, such as the torso, that may have concavities due to surface texture. Second, instead of decomposing a component into two pieces at each step, as in the original ACD, we propose a new strategy that uses a dynamic programming approach to select a set of n c non-crossing (independent) cuts that can be simultaneously applied to decompose the component into n c+1 components. This reduces the depth of recursion and, together with a more efficient method for computing the concavity measure, leads to significant gains in efficiency. We provide comparative results for 2D and 3D models illustrating the improvements obtained by FACD over ACD and we compare with the segmentation methods in the Princeton Shape Benchmark by Chen et al. (2009) [31]. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, B.; Rehman, A.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2017-04-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µm are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  12. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksoy, B; Alaca, B E; Rehman, A; Bayraktar, H

    2017-01-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µ m are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  13. Separable decompositions of bipartite mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    We present a practical scheme for the decomposition of a bipartite mixed state into a sum of direct products of local density matrices, using the technique developed in Li and Qiao (Sci. Rep. 8:1442, 2018). In the scheme, the correlation matrix which characterizes the bipartite entanglement is first decomposed into two matrices composed of the Bloch vectors of local states. Then, we show that the symmetries of Bloch vectors are consistent with that of the correlation matrix, and the magnitudes of the local Bloch vectors are lower bounded by the correlation matrix. Concrete examples for the separable decompositions of bipartite mixed states are presented for illustration.

  14. Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.

  15. Two Notes on Discrimination and Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1998-01-01

    1. It turns out that the Oaxaca-Blinder wage decomposition is inadequate when it comes to calculation of separate contributions for indicator variables. The contributions are not robust against a change of reference group. I extend the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to handle this problem. 2. The p....... The paper suggests how to use the logit model to decompose the gender difference in the probability of an occurrence. The technique is illustrated by an analysis of discrimination in child labor in rural Zambia....

  16. Gamma ray induced decomposition of lanthanide nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.G.; Garg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma ray induced decomposition of the lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO 3 ) 3 .xH 2 O where Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm and Yb has been studied at different absorbed doses up to 600 kGy. G(NO 2 - ) values depend on the absorbed dose and the nature of the outer cation. It has been observed that those lanthanides which exhibit variable valency (Ce and Eu) show lower G-values. An attempt has been made to correlate thermal and radiolytic decomposition processes. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  18. Multiresolution signal decomposition transforms, subbands, and wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Akansu, Ali N; Haddad, Paul R

    2001-01-01

    The uniqueness of this book is that it covers such important aspects of modern signal processing as block transforms from subband filter banks and wavelet transforms from a common unifying standpoint, thus demonstrating the commonality among these decomposition techniques. In addition, it covers such ""hot"" areas as signal compression and coding, including particular decomposition techniques and tables listing coefficients of subband and wavelet filters and other important properties.The field of this book (Electrical Engineering/Computer Science) is currently booming, which is, of course

  19. Basis of the biological decomposition of xenobiotica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R. von

    1993-01-01

    The ability of micro-organisms to decompose different molecules and to use them as a source of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur or energy is the basis for all biological processes for cleaning up contaminated soil. Therefore, the knowledge of these decomposition processes is an important precondition for judging which contamination can be treated biologically at all and which materials can be decomposed biologically. The decomposition schemes of the most important harmful material classes (aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons) are introduced and the consequences which arise for the practical application in biological cleaning up of contaminated soils are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Eigenvalue Decomposition-Based Modified Newton Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the Hessian matrix is not positive, the Newton direction may not be the descending direction. A new method named eigenvalue decomposition-based modified Newton algorithm is presented, which first takes the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hessian matrix, then replaces the negative eigenvalues with their absolute values, and finally reconstructs the Hessian matrix and modifies the searching direction. The new searching direction is always the descending direction. The convergence of the algorithm is proven and the conclusion on convergence rate is presented qualitatively. Finally, a numerical experiment is given for comparing the convergence domains of the modified algorithm and the classical algorithm.