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Sample records for black-capped chickadees poecile

  1. Sympatric song variant in mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli does not reduce aggression from black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus

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    Snell Cara L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When habitats overlap and species compete for resources, negative interactions frequently occur. Character displacement in the form of behavioural, social or morphological divergences between closely related species can act to reduce negative interactions and often arise in regions of geographic overlap. Mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli have an altered song structure in regions of geographic overlap with the behaviourally dominant black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus. Similar to European and Asian tits, altered song in mountain chickadees may decrease aggression from black-capped chickadees. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a playback study in Prince George, BC, Canada, to examine how black-capped chickadees responded to the songs of mountain chickadees recorded in regions where the two species were either sympatric or allopatric. We used principal component analysis (PCA to collapse behavioural response variables into a single ‘approach’ variable and a single ‘vocalisation’ variable. We then used mixed-model analysis to determine whether there was a difference in approach or vocalisation response to the two types of mountain chickadee songs (allopatric songs and variant sympatric songs. Black-capped chickadees responded with equal intensity to both types of mountain chickadee songs, suggesting that the variant mountain chickadee songs from regions of sympatry with black-capped chickadees do not reduce heterospecific aggression. To our knowledge, this is the only instance of a character shift unassociated with reduced aggression in the family Paridae and raises interesting questions about the selective pressures leading to the evolution of this song divergence.

  2. Between-year survival and rank transitions in male Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) : A multistate modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Kristin A.; Mennill, Daniel J.; Ramsay, Scott M.; Otter, Ken A.; Ratcliffe, Laurene M.; Kraus, Cornelia

    In dominance-structured animal societies, variation in individual fitness is often related to social status. Like many passerine birds, Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a short average adult life-expectancy (similar to 2 years); however, the maximum recorded life span is >5x as

  3. Mechanisms of what-where-when memory in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus): do chickadees remember "when"?

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    Feeney, Miranda C; Roberts, William A; Sherry, David F

    2011-08-01

    Integrated what-where-when memory, sometimes called 'episodic-like' memory, has been shown to occur in a number of animals, including food-storing birds and rodents. It is not always clear in these studies, however, what aspect of "when" is remembered. We examined memory for what, where, and when in black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus in a procedure designed to dissociate memory for elapsed time (how long ago) from memory for a point in time, the sense of "when" implied in most discussions of episodic or episodic-like memory. Chickadees searched for food in multiple trials that each involved a two-phase procedure. In Phase 1, birds found preferred mealworms in half the sites on one side of an aviary and less preferred sunflower seeds in half the sites on the other side of the aviary. In Phase 2, following a retention interval, birds searched in the aviary with fresh sunflower seeds placed in the sites that held seeds in Phase 1 but either fresh or degraded mealworms in the sites that held mealworms in Phase 1. Whether a site held fresh or degraded worms depended on either when during the day Phase 1 had occurred (Group When), how long ago Phase 1 had occurred (Group HLA), or both (Group When + HLA). Chickadees in all three groups were able to discriminate where and when palatable worms were to be found, but there were temporal limitations on the use of HLA and When + HLA cues that were not found for the use of When cues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Failure to detect seasonal changes in the song system nuclei of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus).

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    Smulders, T V; Lisi, M D; Tricomi, E; Otter, K A; Chruszcz, B; Ratcliffe, L M; DeVoogd, T J

    2006-08-01

    Most temperate songbird species sing seasonally, and the brain areas involved in producing song (the song system) vary in size alongside the changes in behavior. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) also sing seasonally, and we find that there are changes in the stereotypy and the length of the fee-bee song from the nonbreeding to the breeding season. Yet despite these changes, we fail to find any evidence of seasonal changes in the song system. The song system of males is larger than that of females, as is typical in songbirds, but the ratio between the sexes is small compared to other species. We suggest three hypotheses to explain our failure to find seasonal variation in the chickadee song system.

  5. Body temperature responses to handling stress in wintering Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus L.).

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    Lewden, Agnès; Nord, Andreas; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2017-10-01

    Body temperature variation in response to acute stress is typically characterized by peripheral vasoconstriction and a concomitant increase in core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia). It is poorly understood how this response differs between species and within individuals of the same species, and how it is affected by the environment. We therefore investigated stress-induced body temperature changes in a non-model species, the Black-capped Chickadee, in two environmental conditions: outdoors in low ambient temperature (mean: -6.6°C), and indoors, in milder ambient temperature close to thermoneutrality (mean: 18.7°C). Our results show that the change in body temperature in response to the same handling stressor differs in these conditions. In cold environments, we noted a significant decrease in core body temperature (-2.9°C), whereas the response in mild indoor conditions was weak and non-significant (-0.6°C). Heat loss in outdoor birds was exacerbated when birds were handled for longer time. This may highlight the role of behavioral thermoregulation and heat substitution from activity to body temperature maintenance in harsh condition. Importantly, our work also indicates that changes in the physical properties of the bird during handling (conductive cooling from cold hands, decreased insulation from compression of plumage and prevention of ptiloerection) may have large consequences for thermoregulation. This might explain why females, the smaller sex, lost more heat than males in the experiment. Because physiological and physical changes during handling may carry over to affect predation risk and maintenance of energy balance during short winter days, we advice caution when designing experimental protocols entailing prolonged handling of small birds in cold conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acoustic mechanisms of a species-based discrimination of the chick-a-dee call in sympatric black-capped (Poecile atricapillus and mountain chickadees (P. gambeli

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    Lauren M Guillette

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous perceptual research with black-capped and mountain chickadees has demonstrated that these species treat each other’s namesake chick-a-dee calls as belonging to separate, open-ended categories. Further, the terminal dee portion of the call has been implicated as the most prominent species marker. However, statistical classification using acoustic summary features suggests that all note-types contained within the chick-a-dee call should be sufficient for species classification. The current study seeks to better understand the note-type based mechanisms underlying species-based classification of the chick-a-dee call by black-capped and mountain chickadees. In two, complimentary, operant discrimination experiments, both species were trained to discriminate the species of the signaller using either entire chick-a-dee calls, or individual note-types from chick-a-dee calls. In agreement with previous perceptual work we find that the D note had significant stimulus control over species based discrimination. However, in line with statistical classifications, we find that all note-types carry species information. We discuss reasons why the most easily discriminated note-types are likely candidates to carry species based cues.

  7. ZENK expression in the auditory pathway of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) as a function of D note number and duty cycle of chick-a-dee calls.

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    Scully, Erin N; Schuldhaus, Brenna C; Congdon, Jenna V; Hahn, Allison H; Campbell, Kimberley A; Wilson, David R; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2018-06-08

    Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use their namesake chick-a-dee call for multiple functions, altering the features of the call depending on context. For example, duty cycle (the proportion of time filled by vocalizations) and fine structure traits (e.g., number of D notes) can encode contextual factors, such as predator size and food quality. Wilson and Mennill [1] found that chickadees show stronger behavioral responses to playback of chick-a-dee calls with higher duty cycles, but not to the number of D notes. That is, independent of the number of D notes in a call, but dependent on the overall proportion of time filled with vocalization, birds responded more to higher duty cycle playback compared to lower duty cycle playback. Here we presented chickadees with chick-a-dee calls that contained either two D (referred to hereafter as 2 D) notes with a low duty cycle, 2 D notes with a high duty cycle, 10 D notes with a high duty cycle, or 2 D notes with a high duty cycle but played in reverse (a non-signaling control). We then measured ZENK expression in the auditory nuclei where perceptual discrimination is thought to occur. Based on the behavioral results of Wilson and Mennill [1], we predicted we would observe the highest ZENK expression in response to forward-playing calls with high duty cycles; we predicted we would observe no significant difference in ZENK expression between forward-playing high duty cycle playbacks (2 D or 10 D). We found no significant difference between forward-playing 2 D and 10 D high duty cycle playbacks. However, contrary to our predictions, we did not find any effects of altering the duty cycle or note number presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Avian keratin disorder of Alaska black-capped chickadees is associated with Poecivirus infection

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    Zylberberg, Maxine; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundAvian keratin disorder (AKD) is an epizootic of debilitating beak deformities, first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska during the late 1990s. Similar deformities have now been recorded in dozens of species of birds across multiple continents. Despite this, the etiology of AKD has remained elusive, making it difficult to assess the impacts of this disease on wild populations. We previously identified an association between infection with a novel picornavirus, Poecivirus, and AKD in a small cohort of black-capped chickadees.MethodsTo test if the association between Poecivirus and AKD holds in a larger study population, we used targeted PCR followed by Sanger sequencing to screen 124 symptomatic and asymptomatic black-capped chickadees for Poecivirus infection. We further compared the efficacy of multiple non-terminal field sampling methods (buccal swabs, cloacal swabs, fecal samples, and blood samples) for Poecivirus screening. Finally, we used both in situ hybridization and a strand-specific expression assay to localize Poecivirus to beak tissue of AKD-positive individuals and to determine if virus is actively replicating in beak tissue.ResultsPoecivirus was detected in 28/28 (100%) individuals with AKD, but only 9/96 (9.4%) asymptomatic individuals with apparently normal beaks (p capped chickadee. Poecivirus continues to warrant further investigation as a candidate agent of AKD.

  9. ZENK activation in the nidopallium of black-capped chickadees in response to both conspecific and heterospecific calls.

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    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available Neuronal populations in the songbird nidopallium increase in activity the most to conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific songbird vocalizations or artificial stimuli such as tones. Here, we tested whether the difference in neural activity between conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations is due to acoustic differences or to the degree of phylogenetic relatedness of the species producing the vocalizations. To compare differences in neural responses of black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, to playback conditions we used a known marker for neural activity, ZENK, in the caudal medial nidopallium and caudomedial mesopallium. We used the acoustically complex 'dee' notes from chick-a-dee calls, and vocalizations from other heterospecific species similar in duration and spectral features. We tested the vocalizations from three heterospecific species (chestnut-backed chickadees, tufted titmice, and zebra finches, the vocalizations from conspecific individuals (black-capped chickadees, and reversed versions of the latter. There were no significant differences in the amount of expression between any of the groups except in the control condition, which resulted in significantly less neuronal activation. Our results suggest that, in certain cases, neuronal activity is not higher in response to conspecific than in response to heterospecific vocalizations for songbirds, but rather is sensitive to the acoustic features of the signal. Both acoustic features of the calls and the phylogenetic relationship between of the signaler and the receiver interact in the response of the nidopallium.

  10. A natural experiment on the condition-dependence of achromatic plumage reflectance in black-capped chickadees.

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    D'Alba, Liliana; Van Hemert, Caroline; Handel, Colleen M; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.

  11. A natural experiment on the condition-dependence of achromatic plumage reflectance in black-capped chickadees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana D'Alba

    Full Text Available Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.

  12. Population genetic structure and its implications for adaptive variation in memory and the hippocampus on a continental scale in food-caching black-capped chickadees.

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    Pravosudov, V V; Roth, T C; Forister, M L; Ladage, L D; Burg, T M; Braun, M J; Davidson, B S

    2012-09-01

    Food-caching birds rely on stored food to survive the winter, and spatial memory has been shown to be critical in successful cache recovery. Both spatial memory and the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial memory, exhibit significant geographic variation linked to climate-based environmental harshness and the potential reliance on food caches for survival. Such geographic variation has been suggested to have a heritable basis associated with differential selection. Here, we ask whether population genetic differentiation and potential isolation among multiple populations of food-caching black-capped chickadees is associated with differences in memory and hippocampal morphology by exploring population genetic structure within and among groups of populations that are divergent to different degrees in hippocampal morphology. Using mitochondrial DNA and 583 AFLP loci, we found that population divergence in hippocampal morphology is not significantly associated with neutral genetic divergence or geographic distance, but instead is significantly associated with differences in winter climate. These results are consistent with variation in a history of natural selection on memory and hippocampal morphology that creates and maintains differences in these traits regardless of population genetic structure and likely associated gene flow. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Hybrid chickadees are deficient in learning and memory.

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    McQuillan, Michael A; Roth, Timothy C; Huynh, Alex V; Rice, Amber M

    2018-05-01

    Identifying the phenotypes underlying postzygotic reproductive isolation is crucial for fully understanding the evolution and maintenance of species. One potential postzygotic isolating barrier that has rarely been examined is learning and memory ability in hybrids. Learning and memory are important fitness-related traits, especially in scatter-hoarding species, where accurate retrieval of hoarded food is vital for winter survival. Here, we test the hypothesis that learning and memory ability can act as a postzygotic isolating barrier by comparing these traits among two scatter-hoarding songbird species, black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), and their naturally occurring hybrids. In an outdoor aviary setting, we find that hybrid chickadees perform significantly worse on an associative learning spatial task and are worse at solving a novel problem compared to both parental species. Deficiencies in learning and memory abilities could therefore contribute to postzygotic reproductive isolation between chickadee species. Given the importance of learning and memory for fitness, our results suggest that these traits may play an important, but as yet overlooked, role in postzygotic reproductive isolation. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

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    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  15. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.

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    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2007-08-01

    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  16. Behavioral Profile Predicts Dominance Status in Mountain Chickadees.

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    Fox, Rebecca A; Ladage, Lara D; Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2009-06-01

    Individual variation in stable behavioral traits may explain variation in ecologically-relevant behaviors such as foraging, dispersal, anti-predator behavior, and dominance. We investigated behavioral variation in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), a North American parid that lives in dominance-structured winter flocks, using two common measures of behavioral profile: exploration of a novel room and novel object exploration. We related those behavioral traits to dominance status in male chickadees following brief, pair-wise encounters. Low-exploring birds (birds that visited less than four locations in the novel room) were significantly more likely to become dominant in brief, pairwise encounters with high-exploring birds (i.e., birds that visited all perching locations within a novel room). On the other hand, there was no relationship between novel object exploration and dominance. Interestingly, novel room exploration was also not correlated with novel object exploration. These results suggest that behavioral profile may predict the social status of group-living individuals. Moreover, our results contradict the idea that novel object exploration and novel room exploration are always interchangeable measures of individuals' sensitivity to environmental novelty.

  17. An evaluation of memory accuracy in food hoarding marsh tits Poecile palustris--how accurate are they compared to humans?

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    Brodin, Anders; Urhan, A Utku

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory studies of scatter hoarding birds have become a model system for spatial memory studies. Considering that such birds are known to have a good spatial memory, recovery success in lab studies seems low. In parids (titmice and chickadees) typically ranging between 25 and 60% if five seeds are cached in 50-128 available caching sites. Since these birds store many thousands of food items in nature in one autumn one might expect that they should easily retrieve five seeds in a laboratory where they know the environment with its caching sites in detail. We designed a laboratory set up to be as similar as possible with previous studies and trained wild caught marsh tits Poecile palustris to store and retrieve in this set up. Our results agree closely with earlier studies, of the first ten looks around 40% were correct when the birds had stored five seeds in 100 available sites both 5 and 24h after storing. The cumulative success curve suggests high success during the first 15 looks where after it declines. Humans performed much better, in the first five looks most subjects were 100% correct. We discuss possible reasons for why the birds were not doing better. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diablotin Pterodroma hasitata: a biography of the endangered Black-capped Petrel

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    Simons, Theodore R.; Lee, David S.; Haney, J. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata was believed extinct throughout much of the 20th century. It is the only gadfly petrel currently known to breed in the Caribbean Basin. Now seriously endangered, the species is presumed extirpated from Martinique, Dominica, and Guadeloupe, and breeding populations currently occur only on Hispaniola and perhaps Cuba. A related form (now considered a full species) once bred, but is now apparently extinct, on Jamaica. The Black-capped Petrel breeding population may number as few as 500 breeding pairs. Remaining populations suffer from multiple threats to terrestrial and pelagic habitats, including harvest by humans and predation by introduced mammals. The exact sizes, locations, and detailed chronologies of all Black-capped Petrel breeding sites remain poorly studied, although major colonies are today apparently restricted to steep sea and inland cliffs along the La Selle Ridge in Hispaniola. The largest known breeding population occurs in Haiti, although there is continued discussion about a possible breeding site in Cuba in the Sierra Maestra mountain range. Accounts from Cuba are based on the unverified assumption that birds observed at sea just offshore of that island are breeding locally.

  19. Differential hippocampal gene expression is associated with climate-related natural variation in memory and the hippocampus in food-caching chickadees.

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    Pravosudov, V V; Roth, T C; Forister, M L; Ladage, L D; Kramer, R; Schilkey, F; van der Linden, A M

    2013-01-01

    There is significant and often heritable variation in cognition and its underlying neural mechanisms, yet specific genetic contributions to such variation are not well characterized. Black-capped chickadees present a good model to investigate the genetic basis of cognition because they exhibit tremendous climate-related variation in memory, hippocampal morphology and neurogenesis rates throughout the North American continent, and these cognitive traits appear to have a heritable basis. We examined the hippocampal transcriptome profiles of laboratory-reared chickadees from the two most divergent populations to test whether differential gene expression in the hippocampus is associated with population differences in spatial memory, hippocampal morphology and adult hippocampal neurogenesis rates. Using high-resolution mRNA sequencing coupled to a de novo transcriptome assembly, we generated 23 295 consensus sequences, which predicted 16 206 protein sequences with 13 982 showing high similarity to known protein sequences or conserved hypothetical proteins in other species. Of these, we identified differential expression in nearly 380 genes, with 47 genes specifically linked to neurogenesis, apoptosis, synaptic function, and learning and memory processes. Many of the other differentially expressed genes, however, may be associated with other functions. Our study presents the first avian hippocampal transcriptome, and it is the first study identifying differential gene expression associated with natural variation in cognition and the hippocampus. Our results provide additional support to the hypothesis that population differences in memory, hippocampal morphology and neurogenesis in chickadees have likely resulted from natural selection that appears to act on memory and its underlying neural mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Potential Mechanisms Driving Population Variation in Spatial Memory and the Hippocampus in Food-caching Chickadees.

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    Croston, Rebecca; Branch, Carrie L; Kozlovsky, Dovid Y; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Freas, Cody A; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-09-01

    Harsh environments and severe winters have been hypothesized to favor improvement of the cognitive abilities necessary for successful foraging. Geographic variation in winter climate, then, is likely associated with differences in selection pressures on cognitive ability, which could lead to evolutionary changes in cognition and its neural mechanisms, assuming that variation in these traits is heritable. Here, we focus on two species of food-caching chickadees (genus Poecile), which rely on stored food for survival over winter and require the use of spatial memory to recover their stores. These species also exhibit extensive climate-related population level variation in spatial memory and the hippocampus, including volume, the total number and size of neurons, and adults' rates of neurogenesis. Such variation could be driven by several mechanisms within the context of natural selection, including independent, population-specific selection (local adaptation), environment experience-based plasticity, developmental differences, and/or epigenetic differences. Extensive data on cognition, brain morphology, and behavior in multiple populations of these two species of chickadees along longitudinal, latitudinal, and elevational gradients in winter climate are most consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection drives the evolution of local adaptations associated with spatial memory differences among populations. Conversely, there is little support for the hypotheses that environment-induced plasticity or developmental differences are the main causes of population differences across climatic gradients. Available data on epigenetic modifications of memory ability are also inconsistent with the observed patterns of population variation, with birds living in more stressful and harsher environments having better spatial memory associated with a larger hippocampus and a larger number of hippocampal neurons. Overall, the existing data are most consistent with the

  1. Rapid area change in pitch-up manoeuvres of small perching birds.

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    Polet, D T; Rival, D E

    2015-10-26

    Rapid pitch-up has been highlighted as a mechanism to generate large lift and drag during landing manoeuvres. However, pitching rates had not been measured previously in perching birds, and so the direct applicability of computations and experiments to observed behaviour was not known. We measure pitch rates in a small, wild bird (the black-capped chickadee; Poecile atricapillus), and show that these rates are within the parameter range used in experiments. Pitching rates were characterized by the shape change number, a metric comparing the rate of frontal area increase to acceleration. Black-capped chickadees increase the shape change number during perching in direct proportion to their total kinetic and potential energy at the start of the manoeuvre. The linear relationship between dissipated energy and shape change number is in accordance with a simple analytical model developed for two-dimensional pitching and decelerating airfoils. Black-capped chickadees use a wing pitch-up manoeuvre during perching to dissipate energy quickly while maintaining lift and drag through rapid area change. It is suggested that similar pitch-and-decelerate manoeuvres could be used to aid in the controlled, precise landings of small manoeuvrable air vehicles.

  2. Population and habitat viability assessments for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos: Usefulness to Partners in Flight Conservation Planning

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    Beardmore, C.J.; Hatfield, J.S.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos are Neotropical migratory birds that are federally listed as endangered. Recovery plans for both species advise the use of viability modeling as a tool for setting specific recovery and management targets. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment workshops were conducted to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for these species. Results of the workshops were based on modeling demographic and environmental factors, as well as discussions of management issues, management options, and public outreach strategies. The approach is intended to be iterative, and to be tracked by research and monitoring efforts. This paper discusses the consensus-building workshop process and how the approach could be useful to Partners in Flight. Population and Habitat Viability Assessments (PHVA) were used to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for Golden-cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) and Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapillus). This paper explains what PHVAs are, discusses how they are conducted, describes the general results that are produced, and suggests how Partners in Flight (PIF) might use a similar process for bird conservation planning. Detailed results of the assessments are not discussed here; however they can be found elsewhere (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996a, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996b). PHVAs were considered for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos because they are controversial, endangered species, and the species? recovery plans list PHVAs as tools to develop recovery recommendations. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) realized that the data needed to perform PHVAs for these species is limited, but that various conservation efforts, such as the Balcones Canyonlands Conservation Plan and other endeavors, were proceeding without benefit of the biological summarization and guidance that a PHVA could provide.

  3. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

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    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  4. Epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska: An emerging disease in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Terenzi, John; Talbot, Sandra L.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    The sudden appearance of a large cluster of animals with gross abnormalities may signal a significant change in an ecosystem. We describe an unusual concentration of beak deformities that appear to have arisen rapidly within Alaska and now extend southward along the Pacific Coast. In Alaska we have documented 2,160 Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and 435 individuals of 29 other species of birds, primarily during the past decade, with grossly overgrown and often crossed beaks. The annual prevalence of beak abnormalities among adult Black-capped Chickadees in south-central Alaska varied from 3.6% to 9.7% and averaged 6.5 ± 0.5% between 1999 and 2008. Only 0.05 ± 0.05% of nestlings and 0.3 ± 0.2% of juveniles abnormal beaks, which suggests that this is either a latent developmental or an acquired condition. We documented 80 cases in which a Black-capped Chickadee captured with an apparently normal beak was subsequently recaptured with a beak abnormality and 8 cases in which a beak deformity was no longer detectable upon recapture. Necropsy and histopathology of a sample of affected individuals provided no conclusive evidence of the etiology of this condition. Deformities appear to affect primarily the keratin layer of the beak and may result from abnormally rapid growth of the rhamphotheca. Some affected birds also exhibited lesions in other keratinized tissues of the skin, legs, feet, claws, and feathers, which may represent a systemic disorder or secondary conditions. Additional studies are currently underway to determine diagnostic signs and the underlying cause of this avian keratin disorder.

  5. Increasing Winter Maximal Metabolic Rate Improves Intrawinter Survival in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Vézina, François

    Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (M s ), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters. Results showed that survival probability was high and constant both within (0.92) and among (0.96) winters. They also showed that while M s , Hct, and BMR had no significant influence, survival was positively related to Msum-following a sigmoid relationship-within but not among winter. Birds expressing an Msum below 1.26 W (i.e., similar to summer levels) had a winter. Our data therefore suggest that black-capped chickadees that are either too slow or unable to adjust their phenotype from summer to winter have little chances of survival and thus that seasonal upregulation of metabolic performance is highly beneficial. This study is the first to document in an avian system the relationship between thermogenic capacity and winter survival, a proxy of fitness.

  6. Beak deformities in Northwestern Crows: Evidence of a multispecies epizootic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Handel, Colleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Beak abnormalities are rare among adult birds and, typically, are not widespread in a given population, within a region, or across multiple species. A high concentration of beak deformities was recently documented in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and other resident avian species in Alaska. We describe a parallel condition in Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus) that signals the emergence of a multispecies epizootic. On the basis of 186 Northwestern Crows captured at six sites in Alaska during 2007 and 2008, we estimated the prevalence of beak deformities in adults to be 16.9 ± 5.3%, the highest rate of gross deformities ever recorded in a wild bird population. Prevalence varied among sites and was as high as 36% on the Kenai Peninsula, which suggests possible epizootic clusters. We also documented beak abnormalities in an additional 148 Northwestern Crows in south-central and southeastern Alaska and in 64 crows near Vancouver, British Columbia, and Puget Sound, Washington, a region where both Northwestern Crows and American Crows (C. brachyrhynchos) occur. The increase in frequency and distribution of crows observed with abnormal beaks throughout the Pacific Northwest since the late 1990s indicates a geographic expansion of this problem. Affected crows exhibited elongated and often crossed beaks that were morphologically similar to deformities documented in Black-capped Chickadees and other species in Alaska over approximately the same period. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology and potential adverse effects on bird populations affected by this disorder.

  7. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression...... and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  8. Winter Chickadees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvis, Gisele Winton

    2010-01-01

    Hiking between the farmer's field and the deciduous forest at Scanlon Creek Nature Centre near Bradford, Ontario, a grade 3 class and the author were studying different types of soils. As soil explorers they were hiking to different locations to see, touch and smell clay, silt and humus soils. The author always likes to bring a sense of discovery…

  9. Melanin-based color of plumage: role of condition and of feathers' microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Spencer, Karen A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Gill, Lisa; Evans, Neil P.; Monaghan, Pat; Handel, Colleen M.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Whether melanin-based colors honestly signal a bird's condition during the growth of feathers is controversial, and it is unclear if or how the physiological processes underlying melanogenesis or color-imparting structural feather microstructure may be adversely affected by condition. Here we report results from two experiments designed to measure the effect of condition on expression of eumelanic and pheomelanic coloration in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), respectively. In chickadees, we compared feathers of birds affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder, while in zebra finches we compared feathers of controls with feathers of those subjected to an unpredictable food supply during development. In both cases we found that control birds had brighter feathers (higher total reflectance) and more barbules, but similar densities of melanosomes. In addition, the microstructure of the feathers explained variation in color more strongly than did melanosome density. Together, these results suggest that melanin-based coloration may in part be condition-dependent, but that this may be driven by changes in keratin and feather development, rather than melanogenesis itself. Researchers should be cautious when assigning variation in melanin-based color to melanin alone and microstructure of the feather should be taken into account.

  10. Reaction Norms in Natural Conditions: How Does Metabolic Performance Respond to Weather Variations in a Small Endotherm Facing Cold Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2014-01-01

    Reaction norms reflect an organisms' capacity to adjust its phenotype to the environment and allows for identifying trait values associated with physiological limits. However, reaction norms of physiological parameters are mostly unknown for endotherms living in natural conditions. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) increase their metabolic performance during winter acclimatization and are thus good model to measure reaction norms in the wild. We repeatedly measured basal (BMR) and summit (Msum) metabolism in chickadees to characterize, for the first time in a free-living endotherm, reaction norms of these parameters across the natural range of weather variation. BMR varied between individuals and was weakly and negatively related to minimal temperature. Msum varied with minimal temperature following a Z-shape curve, increasing linearly between 24°C and −10°C, and changed with absolute humidity following a U-shape relationship. These results suggest that thermal exchanges with the environment have minimal effects on maintenance costs, which may be individual-dependent, while thermogenic capacity is responding to body heat loss. Our results suggest also that BMR and Msum respond to different and likely independent constraints. PMID:25426860

  11. The effects of site, supplemental food, and age on survivorship of Carolina Chickadees and implications for dispersal through- riparian corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.F.; Grubb, T.G.

    2000-01-01

    Few studies have examined survivorship of animals in forest fragments differing in size, and none has used appropriate mark-recapture analysis techniques taking into account probability of recapture. Using Program MARK, a flexible mark-recapture software package, we estimated annual survival rates of Carolina Chickadees over a 5-yr period in a fragmented landscape in Ohio. The probability of survival was related to site (riparian woodland or woodlot area) and increased with the presence of supplemental food. While there was little evidence for an age difference in apparent survival in woodlots, young birds appeared to survive less well in forested river corridors. This last result was quite likely due, at least in part, to age-specific dispersal, suggesting that river corridors function as important dispersal routes for young birds.

  12. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E; Liknes, Eric T; Cooper, Sheldon J

    2012-01-01

    The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR) and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum) (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber) in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum) and MMR only), and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum) only) and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum) in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum) or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum) and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum) were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum) were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential mechanistic

  13. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  14. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  15. Avian Incubation Patterns Reflect Temporal Changes in Developing Clutches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B Cooper

    Full Text Available Incubation conditions for eggs influence offspring quality and reproductive success. One way in which parents regulate brooding conditions is by balancing the thermal requirements of embryos with time spent away from the nest for self-maintenance. Age related changes in embryo thermal tolerance would thus be expected to shape parental incubation behavior. We use data from unmanipulated Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus nests to examine the temporal dynamics of incubation, testing the prediction that increased heat flux from eggs as embryos age influences female incubation behavior and/or physiology to minimize temperature fluctuations. We found that the rate of heat loss from eggs increased with embryo age. Females responded to increased egg cooling rates by altering incubation rhythms (more frequent, shorter on- and off- bouts, but not brood patch temperature. Consequently, as embryos aged, females were able to increase mean egg temperature and decrease variation in temperature. Our findings highlight the need to view full incubation as more than a static rhythm; rather, it is a temporally dynamic and finely adjustable parental behavior. Furthermore, from a methodological perspective, intra- and inter-specific comparisons of incubation rhythms and average egg temperatures should control for the stage of incubation.

  16. Intra-Seasonal Flexibility in Avian Metabolic Performance Highlights the Uncoupling of Basal Metabolic Rate and Thermogenic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Lewden, Agnès; Vézina, François

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic winter weather events are predicted to increase in occurrence and amplitude at northern latitudes and organisms are expected to cope through phenotypic flexibility. Small avian species wintering in these environments show acclimatization where basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximal thermogenic capacity (MSUM) are typically elevated. However, little is known on intra-seasonal variation in metabolic performance and on how population trends truly reflect individual flexibility. Here we report intra-seasonal variation in metabolic parameters measured at the population and individual levels in black-capped chickadees ( Poecile atricapillus ). Results confirmed that population patterns indeed reflect flexibility at the individual level. They showed the expected increase in BMR (6%) and MSUM (34%) in winter relative to summer but also, and most importantly, that these parameters changed differently through time. BMR began its seasonal increase in November, while MSUM had already achieved more than 20% of its inter-seasonal increase by October, and declined to its starting level by March, while MSUM remained high. Although both parameters co-vary on a yearly scale, this mismatch in the timing of variation in winter BMR and MSUM likely reflects different constraints acting on different physiological components and therefore suggests a lack of functional link between these parameters. PMID:23840843

  17. Different responses of congeneric consumers to an exotic food resource: Who gets the novel resource prize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Leigh F. Greenwood; Ragan M. Callaway; Dean E. Pearson

    2014-01-01

    Exotic species can provide abundant food resources for native consumers, but predicting which native species will respond positively remains a challenge. We studied the foraging behavior of blackcapped (Poecile atricapillus) andmountain (P. gambeli) chickadees in westernMontana to compare the degree to which these congeric and syntopic consumers exploited larvae of...

  18. Gene Flow of a Forest-Dependent Bird across a Fragmented Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael V Adams

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and anthropogenic barriers within riparian systems have fragmented these forested habitats. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to assess the fine-scale genetic structure of a forest-dependent species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus, along 10 different river systems in Southern Alberta. Using a landscape genetic approach, landscape features (e.g., land cover were found to have a significant effect on patterns of genetic differentiation. Populations are genetically structured as a result of natural breaks in continuous habitat at small spatial scales, but the artificial barriers we tested do not appear to restrict gene flow. Dispersal between rivers is impeded by grasslands, evident from isolation of nearby populations (~ 50 km apart, but also within river systems by large treeless canyons (>100 km. Significant population genetic differentiation within some rivers corresponded with zones of different cottonwood (riparian poplar tree species and their hybrids. This study illustrates the importance of considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation at small spatial scales as well as other ecological processes to gain a better understanding of how organisms respond to their environmental connectivity. Here, even in a common and widespread songbird with high dispersal potential, small breaks in continuous habitats strongly influenced the spatial patterns of genetic

  19. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Priest River, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 105.41 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 26.95 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland habitat provides 23.78 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scmb-shrub vegetation provides 54.68 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer.

  20. Environmental Impact Statement Addressing Campus Development at Fort George Meade, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Dumetella carolinensis), mockingbird (Mimus polyglyottos), Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), house wren...regulations, the MBTA makes it unlawful to pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill ; attempt to take, capture or kill ; possess, offer to sell, barter...foreign country, any bird, part, nest, or egg that was captured, killed , taken, shipped, transported, or carried contrary to the laws from where it was

  1. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  2. Dependence of the endangered black-capped vireo on sustained cowbird management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation-reliant species depend on active management for sustained protection from persistent threats. For species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, being conservation-reliant means that they require continued management even ...

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; North Eaton Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-11-01

    On July 6, 2005, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the North Eaton Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The North Eaton Lake Project provides a total of 235.05 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 9.38 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Emergent wetland habitat provides 11.36 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Forested wetland provides 10.97 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 203.34 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the North Eaton Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  6. Neural Correlates of Threat Perception: Neural Equivalence of Conspecific and Heterospecific Mobbing Calls Is Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T.; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise [1]–[2]. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators [3]. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more “D” notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators [4]. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned. PMID:21909363

  7. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  8. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Gamblin Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 12, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Gamblin Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Gamblin Lake Project provides a total of 273.28 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 127.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 21.06 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow provides 78.05 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetland habitat provides 46.25 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the Gamblin Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  12. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  13. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Upper Trimble Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Upper Trimble property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in March 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Upper Trimble Project provides a total of 250.67 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Wet meadow provides 136.92 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Mixed forest habitat provides 111.88 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 1.87 HUs for yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Upper Trimble Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  18. Spirits in the Material World: Ecocentrism in Native American Culture and Louise Erdrich's "Chickadee"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    In the face of the worldwide ecological crisis, ecocriticism, "the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment" as "an earth-centered approach to literary studies" has become an important part of contemporary literary theory (Glotfelty in "The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary…

  19. No evidence for memory interference across sessions in food hoarding marsh tits Poecile palustris under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhan, A Utku; Brodin, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Scatter hoarding birds are known for their accurate spatial memory. In a previous experiment, we tested the retrieval accuracy in marsh tits in a typical laboratory set-up for this species. We also tested the performance of humans in this experimental set-up. Somewhat unexpectedly, humans performed much better than marsh tits. In the first five attempts, humans relocated almost 90 % of the caches they had hidden 5 h earlier. Marsh tits only relocated 25 % in the first five attempts and just above 40 % in the first ten attempts. Typically, in this type of experiment, the birds will be caching and retrieving many times in the same sites in the same experimental room. This is very different from the conditions in nature where hoarding parids only cache once in a caching site. Hence, it is possible that memories from previous sessions will disturb the formation of new memories. If there is such proactive interference, the prediction is that success should decay over sessions. Here, we have designed an experiment to investigate whether there is such memory interference in this type of experiment. We allowed marsh tits and humans to cache and retrieve in three repeated sessions without prior experience of the arena. The performance did not change over sessions, and on average, marsh tits correctly visited around 25 % of the caches in the first five attempts. The corresponding success in humans was constant across sessions, and it was around 90 % on average. We conclude that the somewhat poor performance of the marsh tits did not depend on proactive memory interference. We also discuss other possible reasons for why marsh tits in general do not perform better in laboratory experiments.

  20. Animal vocal sequences: not the Markov chains we thought they were.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Bowles, Ann E; Freeberg, Todd M; Jin, Dezhe Z; Lameira, Adriano R; Bohn, Kirsten

    2014-10-07

    Many animals produce vocal sequences that appear complex. Most researchers assume that these sequences are well characterized as Markov chains (i.e. that the probability of a particular vocal element can be calculated from the history of only a finite number of preceding elements). However, this assumption has never been explicitly tested. Furthermore, it is unclear how language could evolve in a single step from a Markovian origin, as is frequently assumed, as no intermediate forms have been found between animal communication and human language. Here, we assess whether animal taxa produce vocal sequences that are better described by Markov chains, or by non-Markovian dynamics such as the 'renewal process' (RP), characterized by a strong tendency to repeat elements. We examined vocal sequences of seven taxa: Bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica, Carolina chickadees Poecile carolinensis, free-tailed bats Tadarida brasiliensis, rock hyraxes Procavia capensis, pilot whales Globicephala macrorhynchus, killer whales Orcinus orca and orangutans Pongo spp. The vocal systems of most of these species are more consistent with a non-Markovian RP than with the Markovian models traditionally assumed. Our data suggest that non-Markovian vocal sequences may be more common than Markov sequences, which must be taken into account when evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of signalling complexity, and perhaps human language origins. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  3. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  4. Alaskan birds at risk: Widespread beak deformities in resident species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.

    2007-01-01

    The team creeps silently across a well-tended lawn, eyes drawn to a small wooden box perched several meters up a lone birch tree. The first biologist is armed with a broom in one hand and a bug net in the other. Her partner wields a lunchbox-sized plastic case and a tree-climbing ladder that looks like an oversized radio antenna. A neighbor peers out her window from across the street to watch the unusual spectacle.A small black-and-white bird zips toward the box’s tiny, round opening and both women raise binoculars to their eyes in synchrony. A specific combination of metal and colored plastic bands on the bird’s legs identify this Black-capped Chickadee, which was banded two years earlier as a nestling. “It’s the female,” Colleen Handel whispers, and Lisa Pajot nods as they duck behind the cover of a large spruce tree. The bird - named “Red-white-red”, in reference to her color bands - appeared healthy in the nest as well as the following winter, when she was caught in a mist net set up nearby. The next summer, however, “Red-white-red” appeared at a residential nest box with a severely deformed beak. The overgrowth worsened, and, now, the upper mandible curves down and back toward her breast, while the lower extends up, crossing the upper at a nearly 90-degree angle. The effect is sobering. Even from a distance, this teacup-sized bird carries a conspicuous appendage that more closely resembles a pair of mangled scissors than any recognizable seed-cracking beak.

  5. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  6. Use of created snags by cavity‐nesting birds across 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Amy M.; Hagar, Joan; Rivers, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Snags are important habitat features for many forest‐dwelling species, so reductions in the number of snags can lead to the loss of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Intentional snag creation is often used in managed forests to mitigate the long‐term declines of naturally created snags, yet information regarding the use of snags by wildlife across long timescales (>20 yr) is lacking and prevents a complete understanding of how the value of created snags change through time. We used a long‐term experiment to assess how harvest treatment (i.e., small‐patch group selection, 2‐story, and clearcut) and snag configuration (i.e., scattered and clustered) influenced nesting in and foraging on 25–27‐year‐old Douglas‐fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) snags by cavity‐nesting birds. In addition, we compared our contemporary measures of bird use to estimates obtained from historical surveys conducted on the same group of snags to quantify how bird use changed over time. Despite observing created snags for >750 hours across 2 consecutive breeding seasons, we found limited evidence of nesting activity. Only 11% of created snags were used for breeding, with nesting attempts by 4 bird species (n = 36 nests); however, we detected 12 cavity‐nesting species present on our study sites. Furthermore, nearly all nests (94%) belonged to the chestnut‐backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens), a weak cavity‐excavating species that requires well‐decayed wood for creating nest cavities. Our surveys also recorded few observations of birds using created snags as foraging substrates, with only 1 foraging event recorded for every 20 hours of observation. We detected 82% fewer nests and recorded 7% fewer foraging observations during contemporary field work despite spending >7.5 times more effort observing created snags relative to historical surveys. We conclude that 25–27‐year‐old created Douglas‐fir snags provided limited opportunities for nesting and foraging by

  7. Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. Zlonis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of

  8. Shillapoo Wildlife Area 2007 Follow-up HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-03-01

    In April and May 2007 the Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted a follow-up HEP analysis on the Egger (612 acres) and Herzog (210 acres) parcels located at the north end of the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Egger and Herzog parcels have been managed with Bonneville Power Administration funds since acquired in 1998 and 2001 respectively. Slightly more than 936 habitat units (936.47) or 1.14 HUs per acre was generated as an outcome of the 2007 follow-up HEP surveys. Results included 1.65 black-capped chickadee HUs, 280.57 great blue heron HUs, 581.45 Canada goose HUs, 40 mallard HUs, and 32.80 mink HUs. Introduction A follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980) analysis was conducted by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) during April and May 2007 to document changes in habitat quality and to determine the number of habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing operation and maintenance (O&M) funds since WDFW acquired the parcels. The 2007 follow-up HEP evaluation was limited to Shillapoo Wildlife Area (SWA) parcels purchased with Bonneville Power Administration funds. D. Budd (pers. comm.) reported WDFW purchased the 612 acre Egger Farms parcel on November 2, 1998 for $1,737,0001 and the 210 acre Herzog acquisition on June 21, 2001 for $500,000 with Memorandum of Agreement funds (BPA and WDFW 1996) as partial fulfillment of BPA's wildlife mitigation obligation for construction of Bonneville and John Day Dams (Rasmussen and Wright 1989). Anticipating the eventual acquisition of the Egger and Herzog properties, WDFW conducted HEP surveys on these lands in 1994 to determine the potential number of habitat units to be credited to BPA. As a result, HEP surveys and habitat unit calculations were completed as much as seven years prior to acquiring the sites. The term 'Shillapoo Wildlife Area' will be used to describe only the Herzog and Egger parcels in this

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  10. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  11. 78 FR 75369 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... into the wild in Oklahoma. Permit TE-833851 Applicant: City of Austin Watershed Protection Department... reddelli) Black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) Bone Cave harvestman (Texella reyesi) Braken Bat Cave...

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  13. The Escalation of Business as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    An academic plan is a business plan disguised in the regalia donned for significant public ceremonies--black cap and gown, colorful hood, and, of course, gold tassel. Several years ago, the University of Connecticut started to plan for the economic disaster that was at the time so obviously in the future of higher education institutions. A formal…

  14. 75 FR 67765 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... collect leaf tissue and seeds from the following endangered plants: South Texas ambrosia (Ambrosia... transportation, at the Miller Park Zoo. Permit TE-24625A Applicant: Wendy Leonard, San Antonio, Texas. Applicant...-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) and black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) within Texas. Permit TE...

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    Engineers and the Washington Department of fish and Wildlife subsequently purchased numerous properties to mitigate for the identified Snake River losses. These projects, however, were not sufficient to mitigate for all the HU's lost. The Northwest Power Planning Council amended the remaining 26,774 HU's into their 1994-1995 Fish and Wildlife Program as being unmitigated (NPPC 2000), which allowed the Nez Perce Tribe to contract with BPA to provide HU's through the Precious Lands Project. The Precious Lands project contains a different composition of cover types than those assessed during the lower Snake loss assessment. For example, no mallard or Canada goose habitat exists on Precious Lands but the area does contain conifer forest, which was not present on the area inundated by dam construction. These cover type differences have resulted in a slightly different suite of species for the current HEP assessment. Target species for Precious Lands are downy woodpecker, yellow warbler, song sparrow, California Quail, mule deer, sharp-tailed grouse (brood rearing), west em meadowlark, beaver, and black-capped chickadee. This list is a reflection of the available cover types and the management objectives of the Nez Perce Tribe. For example, chukar was not used in the present assessment because it is an introduced Eurasian game bird that does not provide an accurate representation of the ecological health of the native grasslands it was supposed to represent. Initial model runs using the chukar confirmed this suspicion so the brood-rearing section of the sharp-tailed grouse model was used instead. Additionally, the beaver model was used in place of the river otter model because the otter model used in the loss assessment was not a published model, was overly simplistic, and did not provide an accurate assessment of riparian condition. The beaver model, however, provides a detailed evaluation of overstory class structure that the NPT felt was a good compliment to the

  16. Environmental Assessment for Tower Construction at the Brandywine Communication Receiver Site, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Poecile atricapilla), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), and eastern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos). The Brandywine Site is in the...birds in poor weather conditions (e.g., low cloud ceiling, fog, rain, or poor visibility), and have caused massive bird kills when nocturnal...resources that the Service is authorized to protect. Take (i.e., killing ) of migratory birds by any person without authorization may constitute a

  17. Sources and Sinks: Elucidating Mechanisms, Documenting Patterns, and Forecasting Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    diversity, we performed a randomized block ANOVA on allelic richness and expected heterozygosity using study site as treatment and blocking by locus. We...100,000 burn-in period and 100,000 MCMC (Monte Carlo Markov Chain ) repetitions. The value of k with the lowest DIC value was chosen as the appropriate...Molecular Ecology 17: 3628-3639. Fazio III, V. W., Miles, D. B., & White, M. M. 2004. Genetic differentiation in the endangered Black-capped Vireo

  18. External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Millsap, Deborah S; Yeager, Ronnie L; Heise, Steve S; Sparks, Daniel W; Henshel, Diane S

    2006-02-01

    Necropsy-observable cardiac deformities were evaluated from 283 nestling passerines collected from one reference site and five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites around Bloomington and Bedford, Indiana, USA. Hearts were weighed and assessed on relative scales in three dimensions (height, length, and width) and for externally visible deformities. Heart weights normalized to body weight (heart somatic index) were decreased significantly at the more contaminated sites in both house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). Heart somatic indices significantly correlated with log PCB concentrations in Carolina chickadee (Parus carolinesis) and tree swallow and with log 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent values in tree swallow alone. Ventricular length was increased significantly in eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and decreased significantly in Carolina chickadee and tree swallow from contaminated sites versus the reference site. Heart length regressed significantly against the log PCB concentrations (Carolina chickadee and tree swallow) or the square of the PCB concentrations (red-winged blackbird [Agelaius phoeniceus]) in a sibling bird. The deformities that were observed most at the contaminated sites included abnormal tips (pointed, rounded, or flattened), center rolls, macro- and microsurface roughness, ventricular indentations on the ventral or dorsal surface, lateral ventricular notches, visibly thin ventricular walls, and changes in overall heart shape. A pooled heart deformity index regressed significantly against the logged contaminant concentrations for all species except red-winged blackbird. These results indicate that developmental changes in heart morphometrics and shape abnormalities are quantifiable and may be sensitive and useful indicators of PCB-related developmental impacts across many avian species.

  19. HIPPOCAMPAL ADULT NEUROGENESIS: ITS REGULATION AND POTENTIAL ROLE IN SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  20. Caracterização dos ovarios e do desenvolvimento ovocitario, e da recuperação ovariana pos-parto do platy (Xiphophorus maculatus) (Teleostei, Poeciliidae) em condições laboratoriais controladas e sob ação do hormonio de crescimento

    OpenAIRE

    Laercio dos Anjos Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Os poecilídeos são peixes ovovivíparos de ampla utilização na piscicultura ornamental. Apesar disso, pouco se conhece sobre aspectos reprodutivos dessas espécies. O estudo das características histológicas e ultra-estruturais dos ovócitos constitui etapa básica e primordial para se estabelecer a biologia reprodutiva das diferentes espécies de peixes, essencial para a compreensão da fertilização, desenvolvimento inicial do embrião e crescimento das larvas. Como o sucesso da criação de p...

  1. Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

  2. Gnezdilke Parka Škocjanske jame (Kras, JZ Slovenija/ The breeding birds of Škocjan Caves Park (Kras, SW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figelj Jernej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study done in 2011 and 2012 was to identify the number of breeding bird species, to provide population estimates as well as to evaluate the conservational importance of Škocjan Caves Park for birds. Common bird species were surveyed using the territory mapping method. Rare species and nocturnally active species were surveyed using species-specific methods: observation, the playback method and the line transect method. 81 species were registered, 49 of which bred within the boundaries of the Park. The most abundant breeding species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (260-320 breeding pairs, Robin Erithacus rubecula (250-310 breeding pairs, Blackbird Turdus merula (230-280 breeding pairs, Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (230-280 breeding pairs and Marsh Tit Poecile palustris (200-240 breeding pairs. Qualifying species for the Special Protected Area (SPA Kras (SI5000023 also bred within the Park: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus, Scops Owl Otus scops and Woodlark Lululla arborea. Eagle Owl Bubo bubo was also registered, but breeding attempts during the study period were unsuccessful due to the negative influence of several factors. One of the largest colonies of Alpine Swifts Apus melba, a rare and localized species in Slovenia, is also of conservation concern.

  3. Mobbing call experiment suggests the enhancement of forest bird movement by tree cover in urban landscapes across seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Shimazaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local scale movement behavior is an important basis to predict large-scale bird movements in heterogeneous landscapes. Here we conducted playback experiments using mobbing calls to estimate the probability that forest birds would cross a 50-m urban area during three seasons (breeding, dispersal, and wintering seasons with varying amounts of tree cover, building area, and electric wire density. We examined the responses of four forest resident species: Marsh Tit (Poecile palustris, Varied Tit (Sittiparus varius, Japanese Tit (P. minor, and Eurasian Nuthatch (Sitta europaea in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. We carried out and analyzed 250 playback experiments that attracted 618 individuals. Our results showed that tree cover increased the crossing probability of three species other than Varied Tit. Building area and electric wire density had no detectable effect on crossing probability for four species. Seasonal difference in the crossing probability was found only for Varied Tit, and the probability was the highest in the breeding season. These results suggest that the positive effect of tree cover on the crossing probability would be consistent across seasons. We therefore conclude that planting trees would be an effective way to promote forest bird movement within an urban landscape.

  4. Foraging intention affects whether willow tits call to attract members of mixed-species flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how individual behaviour influences the spatial and temporal distribution of other species is necessary to resolve the complex structure of species assemblages. Mixed-species bird flocks provide an ideal opportunity to investigate this issue, because members of the flocks are involved in a variety of behavioural interactions between species. Willow tits ( Poecile montanus ) often produce loud calls when visiting a new foraging patch to recruit other members of mixed-species flocks. The costs and benefits of flocking would differ with individual foraging behaviours (i.e. immediate consumption or caching); thus, willow tits may adjust the production of loud calls according to their foraging intention. In this study, we investigated the link between foraging decisions and calling behaviour in willow tits and tested its influence on the temporal cohesion with members of mixed-species flocks. Observations at experimental foraging patches showed that willow tits produced more calls when they consumed food items compared with when they cached them. Playback experiments revealed that these calls attracted flock members and helped to maintain their presence at foraging patches. Thus, willow tits adjusted calling behaviour according to their foraging intention, thereby coordinating the associations with members of mixed-species flocks. Our findings demonstrate the influence of individual decision-making on temporal cohesion with other species and highlight the importance of interspecific communication in mixed-species flocking dynamics.

  5. Habitat quality affects stress responses and survival in a bird wintering under extremely low ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cīrule, Dina; Krama, Tatjana; Krams, Ronalds; Elferts, Didzis; Kaasik, Ants; Rantala, Markus J.; Mierauskas, Pranas; Luoto, Severi; Krams, Indrikis A.

    2017-12-01

    Animals normally respond to stressful environmental stimuli by releasing glucocorticoid hormones. We investigated whether baseline corticosterone (CORT), handling-induced corticosterone concentration(s), and body condition indices of members of willow tit ( Poecile montanus) groups differed while wintering in old growth forests and managed young forests in mild weather conditions and during cold spells. Willow tits spend the winter season in non-kin groups in which dominant individuals typically claim their priority to access resources, while subordinate individuals may experience greater levels of stress and higher mortality, especially during cold spells. We captured birds to measure baseline CORT and levels of handling-induced CORT secretion after 20 min of capture. Willow tits in the young forests had higher baseline CORT and a smaller increase in CORT in response to capture than individuals in the old forests. Baseline CORT was higher in females and juvenile birds compared to adult males, whereas handling-induced CORT secretion did not differ between birds of different ages. During cold spells, baseline CORT of willow tits increased and handling-induced CORT secretion decreased, especially in birds in young forests. Willow tits' survival was higher in the old forests, with dominant individuals surviving better than subordinates. Our results show that changes in CORT secretion reflect responses to habitat quality and climate harshness, indicating young managed coniferous forests as a suboptimal habitat for the willow tit.

  6. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Menq

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba, Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla, Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum, Mottled Owl (Strix virgata and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius. The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area.

  7. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  8. Two mitochondrial genomes in Alcedinidae (Ceryle rudis/Halcyon pileata) and the phylogenetic placement of Coraciiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaomin; Zhao, Ruoping; Zhang, Ting; Gong, Jie; Jing, Meidong; Huang, Ling

    2017-10-01

    Coraciiformes comprises 209 species belonging to ten families with significant divergence on external morphologies and life styles. The phylogenetic placement of Coraciiformes was still in debate. Here, we determined the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Crested Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) and Black-capped Kingfisher (Halcyon pileata). The mitogenomes were 17,355 bp (C. rudis) and 17,612 bp (H. pileata) in length, and both of them contained 37 genes (two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 13 protein-coding genes) and one control region. The gene organizations and characters of two mitogenomes were similar with those of other mitogenomes in Coraciiformes, however the sizes and nucleotide composition of control regions in different mitogenomes were significantly different. Phylogenetic trees were constructed with both Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods based on mitogenome sequences from 11 families of six orders. The trees based on two different data sets supported the basal position of Psittacidae (Psittaciformes), the closest relationship between Cuculiformes (Cuculidae) and Trogoniformes (Trogonidae), and the close relationship between Coraciiformes and Piciformes. The phylogenetic placement of the clade including Cuculiformes and Trogoniformes has not been resolved in present study, which need further investigations with more molecular markers and species. The mitogenome sequences presented here provided valuable data for further taxonomic studies on Coraciiformes and other related groups.

  9. Adaptive temperature regulation in the little bird in winter: predictions from a stochastic dynamic programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Anders; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nord, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Several species of small birds are resident in boreal forests where environmental temperatures can be -20 to -30 °C, or even lower, in winter. As winter days are short, and food is scarce, winter survival is a challenge for small endothermic animals. A bird of this size will have to gain almost 10% of its lean body mass in fat every day to sustain overnight metabolism. Birds such as parids (titmice and chickadees) can use facultative hypothermia, a process in which body temperature is actively down-regulated to a specific level, to reduce heat loss and thus save energy. During cold winter nights, these birds may decrease body temperature from the normal from 42 ° down to 35 °C, or even lower in some species. However, birds are unable to move in this deep hypothermic state, making it a risky strategy if predators are around. Why, then, do small northern birds enter a potentially dangerous physiological state for a relatively small reduction in energy expenditure? We used stochastic dynamic programming to investigate this. Our model suggests that the use of nocturnal hypothermia at night is paramount in these biomes, as it would increase winter survival for a small northern bird by 58% over a winter of 100 days. Our model also explains the phenomenon known as winter fattening, and its relationship to thermoregulation, in northern birds.

  10. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli-Matti Pakanen

    Full Text Available Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony. Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence, in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major and the willow tit (Poecile montanus by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider

  12. Tail function during arboreal quadrupedalism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

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    Young, Jesse W; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D; Thatikunta, Meena A; Chadwell, Brad A

    2015-10-01

    The need to maintain stability on narrow branches is often presented as a major selective force shaping primate morphology, with adaptations to facilitate grasping receiving particular attention. The functional importance of a long and mobile tail for maintaining arboreal stability has been comparatively understudied. Tails can facilitate arboreal balance by acting as either static counterbalances or dynamic inertial appendages able to modulate whole-body angular momentum. We investigate associations between tail use and inferred grasping ability in two closely related cebid platyrrhines-cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Using high-speed videography of captive monkeys moving on 3.2 cm diameter poles, we specifically test the hypothesis that squirrel monkeys (characterized by grasping extremities with long digits) will be less dependent on the tail for balance than tamarins (characterized by claw-like nails, short digits, and a reduced hallux). Tamarins have relatively longer tails than squirrel monkeys, move their tails through greater angular amplitudes, at higher angular velocities, and with greater angular accelerations, suggesting dynamic use of tail to regulate whole-body angular momentum. By contrast, squirrel monkeys generally hold their tails in a comparatively stationary posture and at more depressed angles, suggesting a static counterbalancing mechanism. This study, the first empirical test of functional tradeoffs between grasping ability and tail use in arboreal primates, suggests a critical role for the tail in maintaining stability during arboreal quadrupedalism. Our findings have the potential to inform our functional understanding of tail loss during primate evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans Invade San Salvador, Bahamas: No Early Effects on Coral and Fish Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander, Amanda K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological invaders are a leading contributor to global losses of biodiversity. A recent invader to the waters surrounding San Salvador, Bahamas, the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, was first reported in 2006; by 2009 they were common in waters 2-40 m deep around the island. Our study collected data on coral communities and fish assemblages at three patch reef complexes (Rice Bay, Rocky Point, Lindsay Reef in 2007, during the initial phase of the invasion, and compared the results to a nearly identical study done in 2001 before P. volitans colonized San Salvador. Prey selection and quantity of consumption by P. volitans were also examined. Coral and fish species richness, diversity, percent cover (corals and abundance (fish were similar in 2001 and 2007. Of the 5,078 fish recorded during our study on shallow patch reefs, only two were P. volitans, but they were more prevalent in deeper water along San Salvador’s “wall.” Captured P. volitans ranged in size from 19-32 cm, all longer than maturity length. Pallid goby (Coryphopterus eidolon, black cap basslet (Gramma melacara and red night shrimp (Rynchocienetes rigens were the most commonly identified stomach contents. The effects of the successful invasion and increasing population of P. volitans on San Salvador’s reef ecosystem are uncertain at this time; future monitoring of potential changes in coral and fish communities on the patch reefs of San Salvador is recommended to determine if population control measures need to be considered. Initial post-invasion data (2007, along with pre-invasion data (2001, are valuable benchmarks for future studies.

  14. The ecology and evolution of avian alarm call signaling systems

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    Billings, Alexis Chandon

    Communication is often set up as a simple dyadic exchange between one sender and one receiver. However, in reality, signaling systems have evolved and are used with many forms and types of information bombarding multiple senders, who in turn send multiple signals of different modalities, through various environmental spaces, finally reaching multiple receivers. In order to understand both the ecology and evolution of a signaling system, we must examine all the facets of the signaling system. My dissertation focused on the alarm call signaling system in birds. Alarm calls are acoustic signals given in response to danger or predators. My first two chapters examine how information about predators alters alarm calls. In chapter one I found that chickadees make distinctions between predators of different hunting strategies and appear to encode information about predators differently if they are heard instead of seen. In my second chapter, I test these findings more robustly in a non-model bird, the Steller's jay. I again found that predator species matters, but that how Steller's jays respond if they saw or heard the predator depends on the predator species. In my third chapter, I tested how habitat has influenced the evolution of mobbing call acoustic structure. I found that habitat is not a major contributor to the variation in acoustic structure seen across species and that other selective pressures such as body size may be more important. In my fourth chapter I present a new framework to understand the evolution of multimodal communication across species. I identify a unique constraint, the need for overlapping sensory systems, thresholds and cognitive abilities between sender and receiver in order for different forms of interspecific communication to evolve. Taken together, these chapters attempt to understand a signaling system from both an ecological and evolutionary perspective by examining each piece of the communication scheme.

  15. Ras1 interacts with multiple new signaling and cytoskeletal loci in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis.

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    Schnorr, J D; Holdcraft, R; Chevalier, B; Berg, C A

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the genes that interact with Ras signaling pathways to regulate morphogenesis. The synthesis of dorsal eggshell structures in Drosophila melanogaster requires multiple rounds of Ras signaling followed by dramatic epithelial sheet movements. We took advantage of this process to identify genes that link patterning and morphogenesis; we screened lethal mutations on the second chromosome for those that could enhance a weak Ras1 eggshell phenotype. Of 1618 lethal P-element mutations tested, 13 showed significant enhancement, resulting in forked and fused dorsal appendages. Our genetic and molecular analyses together with information from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project reveal that 11 of these lines carry mutations in previously characterized genes. Three mutations disrupt the known Ras1 cell signaling components Star, Egfr, and Blistered, while one mutation disrupts Sec61beta, implicated in ligand secretion. Seven lines represent cell signaling and cytoskeletal components that are new to the Ras1 pathway; these are Chickadee (Profilin), Tec29, Dreadlocks, POSH, Peanut, Smt3, and MESK2, a suppressor of dominant-negative Ksr. A twelfth insertion disrupts two genes, Nrk, a "neurospecific" receptor tyrosine kinase, and Tpp, which encodes a neuropeptidase. These results suggest that Ras1 signaling during oogenesis involves novel components that may be intimately associated with additional signaling processes and with the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. To determine whether these Ras1 Enhancers function upstream or downstream of the Egf receptor, four mutations were tested for their ability to suppress an activated Egfr construct (lambdatop) expressed in oogenesis exclusively in the follicle cells. Mutations in Star and l(2)43Bb had no significant effect upon the lambdatop eggshell defect whereas smt3 and dock alleles significantly suppressed the lambdatop phenotype.

  16. The death of mourning: from Victorian crepe to the little black dress.

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    Bedikian, Sonia A

    2008-01-01

    Mourning is a natural response to loss. In the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century, in England and France, the bereaved was expected to follow a complex set of rules, particularly among the upper classes, with women more bound to adhere to these customs than men. Such customs involved wearing heavy, concealing, black costume and the use of black crepe veils. Special black caps and bonnets were worn with these ensembles. Widows were expected to wear these clothes up to four years after their loss to show their grief. Jewelry often made of dark black jet or the hair of the deceased was used. To remove the costume earlier was thought disrespectful to the deceased. Formal mourning culminated during the reign of Queen Victoria. Her prolonged grief over the death of her husband, Prince Albert, had much to do with the practice. During the succeeding Edwardian rule, the fashions began to be more functional and less restrictive, but the dress protocol for men and women, including that for the period of mourning, was still rigidly adhered to. When World War I began, many women joined the workforce. Most widows attempted to maintain the traditional conventions of mourning, but with an increase in the number of casualties, it became impractical for them to interrupt their work in order to observe the seclusion called for by formal mourning etiquette. Never had the code of mourning been less strictly applied than during this period. The mourning outfits of the time were modest and made of practical materials. Little jewelry and few other accessories were used. Certain aspects of traditional mourning were still followed, such as the use of jet beading, crepe trim, and widows' caps. However, the hemlines fell above the ankle, the veil was used to frame the face instead of cover it, and the v-neckline left the chest and neck bare. During the following decades, gradually the rules were relaxed further and it became acceptable for both sexes to dress in